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Sample records for amnesia

  1. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  2. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

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    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  3. The Many Faces of Amnesia

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    Gold, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    Results from studies of retrograde amnesia provide much of the evidence for theories of memory consolidation. Retrograde amnesia gradients are often interpreted as revealing the time needed for the formation of long-term memories. The rapid forgetting observed after many amnestic treatments, including protein synthesis inhibitors, and the parallel…

  4. A Cognitive Approach to Experimental Amnesia

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    Lewis, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    A review of selected experiments indicates that not all examples of experimental amnesia are due to the failure of a memory to fixate. In sum, the empirical retrograde amnesia gradient does not necessarily support traditional consolidation theory. (Editor)

  5. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Beadle, J N; Tranel, D; Cohen, N J; Duff, M C

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  6. Empathy in Hippocampal Amnesia

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    Beadle, J. N.; Tranel, D.; Cohen, N. J.; Duff, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy. PMID:23526601

  7. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle N Beadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  8. Amnesia in an Elderly Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明亮

    1989-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was refered because of an episode of amnesia.Three days previous1y,she had driven to her niece's house,bringing severalgifts for different members of her fami1y.She appeared norma1 on arriva1.After about an hour,though,her fami1y noted that she seemed confuse.Sherecognized her relatives,knew who and where she was,but had noreco11ection of how she had arrived there.She had no remembrance of heractivities ear1ier that day,but could reca11 events of days,weeks,months or

  9. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

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    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  10. Stranger than fiction: literary and clinical amnesia.

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    Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter broadly covers literary uses of amnesia and memory disorders. Amnesia in fiction offers authors an efficient and dramatic device to tackle themes such as identity, personal liberty, or guilt. We argue against the common complaint that fictional amnesia is scientifically inaccurate, pointing out that the goals of literature are different from those of science, that amnesia is still poorly understood, and that real-life cases can sometimes be stranger than fiction. The chapter provides examples from the neuropsychological literature, media reports, mythology, historical cases, detective stories, war stories, theatrical plays, and other genres. Special attention is given to retrograde and dissociative amnesia, as these are the most frequent types of amnesia portrayed in fiction, while other types of memory disorders are more shortly treated. We argue that the predominance of disorders affecting autobiographical memory in fiction is in itself a revealing fact about the mechanisms of human memory, illustrating how fictional treatments of pathology can inform back neurological and psychological research. PMID:23485898

  11. Stranger than fiction: literary and clinical amnesia.

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    Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter broadly covers literary uses of amnesia and memory disorders. Amnesia in fiction offers authors an efficient and dramatic device to tackle themes such as identity, personal liberty, or guilt. We argue against the common complaint that fictional amnesia is scientifically inaccurate, pointing out that the goals of literature are different from those of science, that amnesia is still poorly understood, and that real-life cases can sometimes be stranger than fiction. The chapter provides examples from the neuropsychological literature, media reports, mythology, historical cases, detective stories, war stories, theatrical plays, and other genres. Special attention is given to retrograde and dissociative amnesia, as these are the most frequent types of amnesia portrayed in fiction, while other types of memory disorders are more shortly treated. We argue that the predominance of disorders affecting autobiographical memory in fiction is in itself a revealing fact about the mechanisms of human memory, illustrating how fictional treatments of pathology can inform back neurological and psychological research.

  12. Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighivand, Saman

    2015-01-01

    In the beginning of my study at KIT, After a period of struggling, the subject of refugee/immigrant's traumas got the most interesting subject for me to work on. A proper medium which is harmonized with this subject is puppetry. I saw the majority of refugee/immigrants as puppets who are under control of their powerful governments. By experiencing and getting more into puppets, I finally decided to work on a puppet/human film which was really different from my film background before studying ...

  13. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde amnesia within semantic memory. No evidence for a gradient within this amnesia was found, although one was present on an autobiographic test of retrograde amnesia that had a wider time scale. Several...

  14. Autobiographical Memory for Emotional Events in Amnesia

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    Irene Daum

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated autobiographical memory for emotionally flavoured experiences in amnesia. Ten amnesic patients and 10 matched control subjects completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview and three semi-structured interviews which assessed memory for personal events associated with pain, happiness and fear. Despite retrograde amnesia for autobiographical facts and incidents, amnesics remembered a similar number of emotionally significant personal experiences as control subjects. Their recollections generally lacked elaboration and detail, but pain-related memories appeared to be more mildly impaired than memories associated with happiness and fear. The findings are discussed in relation to recent views on the relationship between affect and memory.

  15. Infantile Amnesia: Forgotten but Not Gone

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    Li, Stella; Callaghan, Bridget L.; Richardson, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Unlike adult memories that can be remembered for many years, memories that are formed early in life are more fragile and susceptible to being forgotten (a phenomenon known as "infantile" or "childhood" amnesia). Nonetheless, decades of research in both humans and nonhuman animals demonstrate the importance of early life…

  16. Benjamin Franklin and Shock-Induced Amnesia

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    Finger, Stanley; Zaromb, Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Shock-induced amnesia received considerable attention after Cerletti popularized electroconvulsive shock therapy in the late 1930s. Yet, often overlooked is the fact that Benjamin Franklin recognized that passing electricity through the head could affect memory for the traumatic event. Franklin described his findings on himself and others in…

  17. Recovery from retrograde amnesia: a learning process.

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    Schneider, A M; Tyler, J; Jinich, D

    1974-04-01

    Retrograde amnesia was produced in rats by electroconvulsive shock. Memory recovered if the animals were given repeated test trials. Memory did not recover if steps were taken to reduce the conditioning properties of the test trials; the manipulations included eliminating the response, altering the apparatus cues, or extinguishing conditioned "fear" by confining animals to the apparatus during the first test trial.

  18. Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia

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    Mullally, S. L.; Maguire, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    We often engage in counterfactual (CF) thinking, which involves reflecting on “what might have been.” Creating alternative versions of reality seems to have parallels with recollecting the past and imagining the future in requiring the simulation of internally generated models of complex events. Given that episodic memory and imagining the future are impaired in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia, we wondered whether successful CF thinking also depends upon the integrity of the hipp...

  19. Persistent Autobiographical Amnesia: A Case Report

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    C. Repetto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 47-year-old man who referred to the Emergency Department for sudden global amnesia and left mild motor impairment in the setting of increased arterial blood pressure. The acute episode resolved within 24 hours. Despite general recovery and the apparent transitory nature of the event, a persistent selective impairment in recollecting events from some specific topics of his personal life became apparent. Complete neuropsychological tests one week after the acute onset and 2 months later demonstrated a clear retrograde memory deficit contrasting with the preservation of anterograde memory and learning abilities. One year later, the autobiographic memory deficit was unmodified, except for what had been re-learnt. Brain MRI was normal while H20 brain PET scans demonstrated hypometabolism in the right globus pallidus and putamen after 2 weeks from onset, which was no longer present one year later. The absence of a clear pathomechanism underlying focal amnesia lead us to consider this case as an example of functional retrograde amnesia.

  20. Disrupting circadian rhythms in rats induces retrograde amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Mátyás; Ree, J.M. van; Niesink, Raymond J.M.; Wied, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Disrupting circadian organization in rats by phase-shifting the illumination cycle or by exposure to a reversed day/night cycle or to continuous light, resulted in retrograde amnesia for passive avoidance behavior. This retrograde amnesia induced by phase-shifting lasted at least 2 days, and gradual

  1. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

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    Cima, M.; Oorsouw, K. van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  2. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

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    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation. PMID:18221797

  3. Sleep Modifications in Acute Transient Global Amnesia

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    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events (“minor stroke” or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically “similar” to the TGA. Methods: TGA group: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. Results: In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Conclusions: Microstructural modification associated with TGA could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress. Citation: Della Marca G; Mazza M; Losurdo A; Testani E; Broccolini A; Frisullo G; Marano G; Morosetti R; Pilato F; Profice P; Vollono C; Di Lazzaro V. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):921-927. PMID:23997704

  4. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

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    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  5. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia following Bitemporal Infarction

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    A. Schnider

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient suffered very severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia following infarction of both medial temporal lobes (hippocampus and adjacent cortex and the left inferior temporo-occipital area. The temporal stem and the amygdala were intact; these structures do not appear to be critical for new learning in humans. Extension of the left-sided infarct into the inferior temporo-occipital lobe, an area critically involved in visual processing, appears to be responsible for our patient's loss of remote memories.

  6. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  7. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

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    Yang, Jong Chul; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Lee, Moo Suk; Kang, Heoung Keun; Eun, Sung Jong; Lee, Yo Han [Chonnam National Univeristy Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Ku [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus.

  8. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus

  9. Developmental amnesia: Effect of age at injury

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    Vargha-Khadem, F.; Salmond, C. H.; Watkins, K. E.; Friston, K. J.; Gadian, D. G.; Mishkin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic events sustained within the first year of life can result in developmental amnesia, a disorder characterized by markedly impaired episodic memory and relatively preserved semantic memory, in association with medial temporal pathology that appears to be restricted to the hippocampus. Here we compared children who had hypoxic–ischemic events before 1 year of age (early group, n = 6) with others who showed memory problems after suffering hypoxic–ischemic events between the ages of 6 and 14 years (late group, n = 5). Morphometric analyses of the whole brain revealed that, compared with age-matched controls, both groups had bilateral abnormalities in the hippocampus, putamen, and posterior thalamus, as well as in the right retrosplenial cortex. The two groups also showed similar reductions (≈40%) in hippocampal volumes. Neuropsychologically, the only significant differences between the two were on a few tests of immediate memory, where the early group surpassed the late group. The latter measures provided the only clear indication that very early injury can lead to greater functional sparing than injury acquired later in childhood, due perhaps to the greater plasticity of the infant brain. On measures of long-term memory, by contrast, the two groups had highly similar profiles, both showing roughly equivalent preservation of semantic memory combined with marked impairment in episodic memory. It thus appears that, if this selective memory disorder is a special syndrome related to the early occurrence of hypoxia-induced damage, then the effective age at injury for this syndrome extends from birth to puberty. PMID:12904585

  10. Novelty preference in patients with developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Chadwick, M; Perez-Hernandez, E; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2011-12-01

    To re-examine whether or not selective hippocampal damage reduces novelty preference in visual paired comparison (VPC), we presented two different versions of the task to a group of patients with developmental amnesia (DA), each of whom sustained this form of pathology early in life. Compared with normal control participants, the DA group showed a delay-dependent reduction in novelty preference on one version of the task and an overall reduction on both versions combined. Because VPC is widely considered to be a measure of incidental recognition, the results appear to support the view that the hippocampus contributes to recognition memory. A difficulty for this conclusion, however, is that according to one current view the hippocampal contribution to recognition is limited to task conditions that encourage recollection of an item in some associated context, and according to another current view, to recognition of an item with the high confidence judgment that reflects a strong memory. By contrast, VPC, throughout which the participant remains entirely uninstructed other than to view the stimuli, would seem to lack such task conditions and so would likely lead to recognition based on familiarity rather than recollection or, alternatively, weak memories rather than strong. However, before concluding that the VPC impairment therefore contradicts both current views regarding the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory, two possibilities that would resolve this issue need to be investigated. One is that some variable in VPC, such as the extended period of stimulus encoding during familiarization, overrides its incidental nature, and, because this condition promotes either recollection- or strength-based recognition, renders the task hippocampal-dependent. The other possibility is that VPC, rather than providing a measure of incidental recognition, actually assesses an implicit, information-gathering process modulated by habituation, for which the hippocampus is

  11. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde am

  12. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  13. Reactivation-Dependent Amnesia in Pavlovian Approach and Instrumental Transfer

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    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of memory reconsolidation relates to the hypothesized restabilisation process that occurs following the reactivation of a memory through retrieval. Thus, the demonstration of reactivation-dependent amnesia for a previously acquired memory is a prerequisite for showing that such a memory undergoes reconsolidation. Here, we show that the…

  14. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

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    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  15. FLAIR images of mild head trauma with transient amnesia

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    Wakamoto, Hirooki; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Inaba, Makoto; Ishiyama, Naomi [Hiratsuka City Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kawase, Takeshi

    1998-11-01

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no signal intensity area. We examined 45 cases of mild head trauma with posttraumatic amnesia by FLAIR images and could detect some findings which could not be detected by CT scan and conventional MR images. These findings could be detected in many patients with long posttraumatic amnesia (over 2 hours), but they could not be detected in patients with short posttraumatic amnesia (within 30 mins). These findings existed surrounding lateral ventricles and we classified them into 3 types: type 1 is anterior horn of lateral ventricle, type 2 is the base of frontal lobe, and type 3 is cerebral deep white matter. Some of them were examined again by FLAIR images a month later, and these findings had disappeared. We suspect that these lesions were brain edema or mild contusion without hemorrhage. (author)

  16. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  17. [A method for reproducing amnesia in mice by the complex extremal exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, V V; Provornova, N A

    2003-01-01

    It is suggested to reproduce a retrograde amnesia in mice by means of a complex extremal action: emaciating swim in cold water with simultaneous wheel rotation. It was found that nootropes such as pyracetam, mexidol, semax, nooglutil, acephen, and noopept fully or completely prevent from the amnesia development. PMID:12924240

  18. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  20. The effects of ACTH- and vasopressin-analogues on CO2-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, H.; Riezen, H. van; Wied, D. de

    1974-01-01

    Amnesia for a one-trial step-through passive avoidance response was induced in rats by application of CO2 until respiratory arrest occurred. The ACTH-analogue ACTH4–10 alleviated the amnesia when administered 1 hr prior to the retrieval test but not when given 1 hr prior to the acquisition trial. Th

  1. Transient Global Amnesia After Cerebral Angiography With Iomeprol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Cristina; Terecoasă, Elena Oana; Grecu, Nicolae; Dorobăţ, Bogdan; Marinescu, Andreea Nicoleta; Băjenaru, Ovidiu Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transient global amnesia is now considered a very rare complication of cerebral angiography. Various etiological mechanisms have been suggested to account for this complication, but no consensus has been reached yet. This case report documents one of the few reported cases of cerebral angiography-related transient global amnesia associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of unilateral hippocampal ischemia, most probably as a consequence of a transient reduction in regional hippocampal blood flow. However, the possibility of a direct neurotoxic effect of the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol on the Cornu ammonis – field 1 neurons cannot be firmly ruled out. We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman admitted to our department for left upper limb weakness with acute onset 8 days before. The brain computed tomography (CT) scan performed at admission revealed subacute ischemic lesions in the right watershed superficial territories and a right thalamic lacunar infarct. Diagnostic digital subtraction cerebral angiography was performed 4 days after admission with the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol. A few minutes after completion of the procedure, the patient developed symptoms suggestive for transient global amnesia. The brain MRI performed 22 hours after the onset of symptoms demonstrated increased signal within the lateral part of the right hippocampus on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences, associated with a corresponding reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased signal on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, consistent with acute hippocampal ischemia and several T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the right watershed superficial territories and in the right thalamus, corresponding to the lesions already identified on the CT scan performed at admission. A follow-up MRI, performed 2 months later, demonstrated the disappearance of the increased signal within the right hippocampus on the DWI

  2. Transient epileptic amnesia: clinical report of a cohort of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Quaranta, Davide; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia is a seizure disorder, usually with onset in the middle-elderly and good response to low dosages of antiepileptic drugs. We describe the clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and neuroimaging features of 11 patients with a temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by amnesic seizures as the sole or the main symptom. We outline the relevance of a detailed clinical history to recognize amnesic seizures and to avoid the more frequent misdiagnoses. Moreover, the response to monotherapy was usually good, although the epileptic disorder was symptomatic of acquired lesions in the majority of patients.

  3. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  4. Contribution of Embodiment to Solving the Riddle of Infantile Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Hayes, Justin

    2016-01-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, researchers have sought an explanation for infantile amnesia (IA)-the lack of autobiographical memories dating from early childhood-and childhood amnesia (CA), faster forgetting of events up until the age of about seven. Evidence suggests that IA occurs across altricial species, and a number of studies using animal models have converged on the hypothesis that maturation of the hippocampus is an important factor. But why does the hippocampus mature at one time and not another, and how does that maturation relate to memory? Our hypothesis is rooted in theories of embodied cognition, and it provides an explanation both for hippocampal development and the end of IA. Specifically, the onset of locomotion prompts the alignment of hippocampal place cells and grid cells to the environment, which in turn facilitates the ontogeny of long-term episodic memory and the end of IA. That is, because the animal can now reliably discriminate locations, location becomes a stable cue for memories. Furthermore, as the mode of human locomotion shifts from crawling to walking, there is an additional shift in the alignment of the hippocampus that marks the beginning of adult-like episodic memory and the end of CA. Finally, given a reduction in self-locomotion and exploration with aging, the hypothesis suggests a partial explanation for cognitive decline with aging. PMID:26834683

  5. Contribution of Embodiment to Solving the Riddle of Infantile Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At least since the late nineteenth century, researchers have sought an explanation for infantile amnesia (IA—the lack of autobiographical memories dating from early childhood—and childhood amnesia (CA, faster forgetting of events up until the age of about seven. Evidence suggests that IA occurs across altricial species, and a number of studies using animal models have converged on the hypothesis that maturation of the hippocampus is an important factor. But why does the hippocampus mature at one time and not another, and how does that maturation relate to memory? Our hypothesis is rooted in theories of embodied cognition, and it provides an explanation both for hippocampal development and the end of IA. Specifically, the onset of locomotion prompts the alignment of hippocampal place cells and grid cells to the environment, which in turn facilitates the ontogeny of long-term episodic memory and the end of IA. That is, because the animal can now reliably discriminate locations, location becomes a stable cue for memories. Furthermore, as the mode of human locomotion shifts from crawling to walking, there is an additional shift in the alignment of the hippocampus that marks the beginning of adult-like episodic memory and the end of CA. Finally, given a reduction in self-locomotion and exploration with aging, the hypothesis suggests a partial explanation for cognitive decline with aging.

  6. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  7. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Kirti S.; Kasture, S.B.; Mengi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Metho...

  8. On remembering and forgetting our autobiographical pasts: retrograde amnesia and Andrew Mayes's contribution to neuropsychological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, M D; Bright, P

    2012-11-01

    Andrew Mayes's contribution to the neuropsychology of memory has consisted in steadily teasing out the nature of the memory deficit in the amnesic syndrome. This has been done with careful attention to matters of method at all stages. This particularly applies to his investigations of forgetting rates in amnesia and to his studies of retrograde amnesia. Following a brief outline of his work, the main current theories of retrograde amnesia are considered: consolidation theory, episodic-to-semantic shift theory, and multiple trace theory. Findings across the main studies in Alzheimer dementia are reviewed to illustrate what appears to be consistently found, and what is much more inconsistent. A number of problems and issues in current theories are then highlighted--including the nature of the temporal gradient, correlations with the extent of temporal lobe damage, what we would expect 'normal' remote memory curves to look like, how they would appear in focal retrograde amnesia, and whether we can pinpoint retrograde amnesia to hippocampal/medial temporal damage on the basis of existing studies. A recent study of retrograde amnesia is re-analysed to demonstrate temporal gradients on recollected episodic memories in hippocampal/medial temporal patients. It is concluded that there are two requirements for better understanding of the nature of retrograde amnesia: (i) a tighter, Mayesian attention to method in terms of both the neuropsychology and neuroimaging in investigations of retrograde amnesia; and (ii) acknowledging that there may be multiple factors underlying a temporal gradient, and that episodic and semantic memory show important interdependencies at both encoding and retrieval. Such factors may be critical to understanding what is remembered and what is forgotten from our autobiographical pasts.

  9. On remembering and forgetting our autobiographical pasts: retrograde amnesia and Andrew Mayes's contribution to neuropsychological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, M D; Bright, P

    2012-11-01

    Andrew Mayes's contribution to the neuropsychology of memory has consisted in steadily teasing out the nature of the memory deficit in the amnesic syndrome. This has been done with careful attention to matters of method at all stages. This particularly applies to his investigations of forgetting rates in amnesia and to his studies of retrograde amnesia. Following a brief outline of his work, the main current theories of retrograde amnesia are considered: consolidation theory, episodic-to-semantic shift theory, and multiple trace theory. Findings across the main studies in Alzheimer dementia are reviewed to illustrate what appears to be consistently found, and what is much more inconsistent. A number of problems and issues in current theories are then highlighted--including the nature of the temporal gradient, correlations with the extent of temporal lobe damage, what we would expect 'normal' remote memory curves to look like, how they would appear in focal retrograde amnesia, and whether we can pinpoint retrograde amnesia to hippocampal/medial temporal damage on the basis of existing studies. A recent study of retrograde amnesia is re-analysed to demonstrate temporal gradients on recollected episodic memories in hippocampal/medial temporal patients. It is concluded that there are two requirements for better understanding of the nature of retrograde amnesia: (i) a tighter, Mayesian attention to method in terms of both the neuropsychology and neuroimaging in investigations of retrograde amnesia; and (ii) acknowledging that there may be multiple factors underlying a temporal gradient, and that episodic and semantic memory show important interdependencies at both encoding and retrieval. Such factors may be critical to understanding what is remembered and what is forgotten from our autobiographical pasts. PMID:22884958

  10. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery], e-mail: cleciojunior@yahoo.com.br; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto [Fleury Diagnostic Center, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  11. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  12. Cognitive findings after transient global amnesia: role of prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Francesco; Giuffrida, Salvatore; Maci, Tiziana; Reggio, Ester; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify, after recovery, the presence of specific patterns of cognitive dysfunctions in Transient Global Amnesia (TGA). Fourteen patients with the diagnosis of TGA were submitted to a battery of neuropsychological tests and compared to a matched control group. We found significant qualitative and quantitative differences between TGA patients and controls in the California Verbal Learning Test (CLVT) and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Our data support the presence of selective cognitive dysfunctions after the clinical recovery. Moreover, for Verbal Fluency, Digit Span Backward, and Number of Clusters in the CVLT short-term memory test, the relation resulted as positively related with the temporal interval from the TGA episode. Reduction of categorical learning, attention, and qualitative alterations of spatial strategy seem to postulate a planning defect due to a prefrontal impairment. PMID:16422663

  13. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva; Regina Marcia Cardoso de Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sa...

  14. "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": tradução e validação "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": traducción y validación "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir e validar o Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para uso em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Esse teste foi traduzido para o português e retro-traduzido para o inglês por diferentes especialistas na língua e por fim, feita a avaliação da equivalência entre o instrumento original e a versão retro-traduzida. Sua aplicação em 73 vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico contuso e a indicação da gravidade dessa lesão, estabelecida pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitiram verificar as propriedades de medida do instrumento. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade verificada pelo Alfa de Cronbach resultou em 0,76. Houve indicação de validade convergente e discriminante do instrumento quando os resultados de aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test foram analisados perante a gravidade do trauma crânio-encefálico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados observados dão suporte para a aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test em nosso meio como indicador do término da amnésia pós-traumática.OBJETIVO: Traducir y validar el Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para su uso en nuestro medio. MÉTODOS: El test fue traducido al portugués retrotraducido al inglés por diferentes especialistas en la lengua y por fin, realizada la evaluación de la equivalencia entre el instrumento original y la versión retrotraducida. Su aplicación en 73 víctimas de traumatismo encéfalo craneano con constusión y la indicación de la gravedad de esa lesión, establecida por la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitieron verificar las propiedades de medida del instrumento. RESULTADOS: La confiabilidad verificada por el Alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,76. Hubo indicación de validez convergente y discriminante del instrumento cuando los resultados de aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test fueron analizados frente a la gravedad del traumatismo encéfalo craneano. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados observados dan soporte para la aplicación del

  15. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that…

  16. Dissociations in cognitive memory: the syndrome of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, F; Gadian, D G; Mishkin, M

    2001-01-01

    The dearth of studies on amnesia in children has led to the assumption that when damage to the medial temporal lobe system occurs early in life, the compensatory capacity of the immature brain rescues memory functions. An alternative view is that such damage so interferes with the development of learning and memory that it results not in selective cognitive impairments but in general mental retardation. Data will be presented to counter both of these arguments. Results obtained from a series of 11 amnesic patients with a history of hypoxic ischaemic damage sustained perinatally or during childhood indicate that regardless of age at onset of hippocampal pathology, there is a pronounced dissociation between episodic memory, which is severely impaired, and semantic memory, which is relatively preserved. A second dissociation is characterized by markedly impaired recall and relatively spared recognition leading to a distinction between recollection-based versus familiarity-based judgements. These findings are discussed in terms of the locus and extent of neuropathology associated with hypoxic ischaemic damage, the neural basis of 'remembering' versus 'knowing', and a hierarchical model of cognitive memory. PMID:11571034

  17. Social Cognition in a Case of Amnesia with Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Markowitsch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM is considered to emerge gradually in concert with the development of other cognitive abilities. Developmental studies have emphasized socio-cultural-linguistic mechanisms that may be unique to the development of EAM. Furthermore it was hypothesized that one of the main functions of EAM is the social one. In the research field, the link between EAM and social cognition remains however debated. Herein we aim to bring new insights into the relation between EAM and social information processing (including social cognition by describing a young adult patient with amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms due to perinatal complications accompanied by hypoxia. The patient was investigated medically, psychiatrically and with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Structural high resolution MRI revealed significant bilateral hippocampal atrophy as well as indices for degeneration in the amygdalae, basal ganglia and thalamus, when a less conservative threshold was applied. In addition to extensive memory investigations and testing other (non-social cognitive functions, we employed a broad range of tests that assessed social information processing (social perception, social cognition, social regulation. Our results point to both preserved (empathy, core theory of mind functions, visual affect selection and discrimination, affective prosody discrimination and impaired domains of social information processing (incongruent affective prosody processing, complex social judgments. They support proposals for a role of the hippocampal formation in processing more complex social information that likely requires multimodal relational handling.

  18. The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, contributes to three distinct varieties of amnesia in the human brain - A detailed case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Adam; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Milton, Fraser; Dewar, Michaela; Carr, Melanie; Streatfield, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom long-term, therapeutic infusion of the selective gamma-amino-butyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist, baclofen, into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gave rise to three distinct varieties of memory impairment: i) repeated, short periods of severe global amnesia, ii) accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), evident over intervals of days and iii) a loss of established autobiographical memories. This pattern of impairment has been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), in particular the subtype of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). The amnesic episodes and accelerated forgetting remitted on withdrawal of baclofen, while the autobiographical amnesia (AbA) persisted. This exceptional case highlights the occurrence of 'non-standard' forms of human amnesia, reflecting the biological complexity of memory processes. It suggests a role for GABAB signalling in the modulation of human memory over multiple time-scales and hints at its involvement in 'epileptic amnesia'. PMID:26599496

  19. Autobiogutobiographical amnesia and cognltive disorder resulgting from bilateral severe thalamic infarction Two cases reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ytt Kai; Yu Feng Qi; Lei Zheng Lin; Zhang Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of patients with bilateral severe thalamic infarction.which showed autobiographical amnesia and cognitive disorders and to shed light on the mechanisms underlying thc retrograde amenesia. Method The two cases were studied clinically, CT and MRI were performed also, Language and neuropsychological tests were evaluated. Results Two patients with a chronic amnesia and cogntive disorders resulting from bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction showed a pattern of retrograde amnesia personally relevent autobiographical memory were prefoundly impaired .Whereas about the famous people and public events were relatively impaired. The patients almost had no thalamic aphasia.The events the one described showed spontaneously confabulated. Conclusion We think a probable explanation that the disorders at the thematic retrieval fiomwork ievel of memory and the information reconstruction due to a disconnetion of frontal and medial temperal memory systems.

  20. Retrograde amnesia in patients with rupture and surgical repair of anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Margaret G; Lafleche, Ginette M C

    2004-03-01

    The retrograde amnesia of patients with memory loss related to rupture and surgical repair of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms is compared with the retrograde amnesia of temporal amnesic patients and nonamnesic control participants. Two tests which focus on popular culture but which differ according to extent of news exposure and the cognitive processes necessary for task performance were used to measure retrograde memory. ACoA patients demonstrated more significant retrograde memory problems than did nonamnesic controls; however, the severity and pattern of their memory loss was less severe than that seen in association with temporal amnesia. Different factors influenced the remote memory loss of respective groups: ACoA patients' problems were related to impaired lexical retrieval whereas temporal amnesic patients had problems secondary to both retrieval and storage deficits. PMID:15012842

  1. Hippocampal lesions produce both nongraded and temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the same rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Sekeres, Melanie J; Binns, Malcolm A; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-05-01

    Rats were administered contextual fear conditioning and trained on a water-maze, spatial memory task 28 days or 24 h before undergoing hippocampal lesion or control surgery. When tested postoperatively on both tasks, rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited retrograde amnesia for spatial memory at both delays but temporally graded retrograde amnesia for the contextual fear response. In demonstrating both types of retrograde amnesia in the same animals, the results parallel similar observations in human amnesics with hippocampal damage and provide compelling evidence that the nature of the task and the type of information being accessed are crucial factors in determining the pattern of retrograde memory loss associated with hippocampal damage. The results are interpreted as consistent with our transformation hypothesis (Winocur et al. (2010a) Neuropsychologia 48:2339-2356; Winocur and Moscovitch (2011) J Int Neuropsychol Soc 17:766-780) and at variance with standard consolidation theory and other theoretical models of memory. PMID:23401223

  2. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  3. Towards Solving the Riddle of Forgetting in Functional Amnesia: Recent Advances and Current Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eStaniloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remembering the past is a core feature of human beings, enabling them to maintain a sense of wholeness and identity and preparing them for the demands of the future. Forgetting operates in a dynamic neural connection with remembering, allowing the elimination of unnecessary or irrelevant information overload and decreasing interference. Stress and traumatic experiences could affect this connection, resulting in memory disturbances, such as functional amnesia. An overview of clinical, epidemiological, neuropsychological and neurobiological aspects of functional amnesia is presented, by preponderantly resorting to own data from patients with functional amnesia. Patients were investigated medically, neuropsychologically and neuroradiologically. A detailed report of a new case is included to illustrate the challenges posed by making an accurate differential diagnosis of functional amnesia, a condition that may encroach on the boundaries between psychiatry and neurology. Several mechanisms may play a role in forgetting in functional amnesia, such as retrieval impairments, consolidating defects, motivated forgetting, deficits in binding and reassembling details of the past, deficits in establishing a first person autonoetic connection with personal events and loss of information. In a substantial number of patients, we observed a synchronization abnormality between a frontal lobe system, important for autonoetic consciousness, and a temporo-amygdalar system, important for evaluation and emotions, which provides empirical support for an underlying mechanism of dissociation (a failure of integration between cognition and emotion. This observation suggests a mnestic blockade in functional amnesia that is triggered by psychological or environmental stress and is underpinned by a stress hormone mediated synchronization abnormality during retrieval between processing of affect-laden events and fact-processing.

  4. Effectiveness of lorazepam-assisted interviews in an adolescent with dissociative amnesia A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuna Seo; Mi-Hee Shin; Sung-Gon Kim; Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate gathering information during a psychiatric interview, some psychiatrists advocate augmenting the interview using drugs. Rather than barbiturates, benzodiazepines have been used for drug-assisted interviews. Dissociative amnesia is one of the indications for these interviews. Herein, we present the case of a 15-year-old female who was diagnosed as having dissociative amnesia because of conflicts with her friends. She was administered a lorazepam-assisted interview to aid recovery of her memories. In this case, a small dose of lorazepam was sufficient to recover her memories without any adverse effects.

  5. Developing an Animal Model of Human Amnesia: The Role of the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes a series of experiments aimed at answering the question whether the hippocampus in rats can serve as an animal model of amnesia. It is recognized that a comparison of the functions of the rat hippocampus with human hippocampus is difficult, because of differences in methodology, differences in complexity of life experiences,…

  6. The Review of Retrograde Amnesia%逆行性遗忘研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓雪

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia has great important influence on internal memory of the human, especially in cognitive neuro-science. Through literature analysis, the temporal graded retrograde amnesia is the most extensive type. The characteristics of retro-grade amnesia is different and graded, and it is also featured with the full implicit memory. It mainly stems from the brain injury such as medial temporal lobe, diencephalon, and frontal lobe. In addition, drinking, lacking of vitamin B1 and trauma can also cause the symptoms. Now the main methods of memory rehabilitation are operation therapy, implicit memory rehabilitation and error-less learning. In the future, the memory rehabilitation about retrograde amnesia will more effectively promote the progress of the treatment.%遗忘症主要分为逆行性遗忘和顺行性遗忘。逆行性遗忘指病人失去提取脑损伤前事件记忆的能力,即能学习新东西和编码新事件,但是不能回忆发生在脑损伤前的经历和事件。它具有逆行期的梯度性、差异性,语义记忆、内隐记忆正常等特点;受伤脑区多与颞叶内侧、额叶、间脑损伤相关联。

  7. Route learning in Korsakoff's syndrome: Residual acquisition of spatial memory despite profound amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja; Wijnia, J.W.; Seekles, M.L.; Postma, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by explicit amnesia, but relatively spared implicit memory. The aim of this study was to assess to what extent KS patients can acquire spatial information while performing a spatial navigation task. Furthermore, we examined whether residual spatial acquisit

  8. A Patient with Difficulty of Object Recognition: Semantic Amnesia for Manipulable Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamadori

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a patient who had recognition difficulty for manipulable objects. MRI showed a lesion in the left occipito-parietotemporal area. Differential diagnosis of agnosia, aphasia and apraxia is discussed. We believe this “object meaning amnesia” constitutes a distinct subtype of semantic amnesia.

  9. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  10. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  11. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  12. The effect of hypnotic drug type on anesthetic depth and amnesia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Bispectral index (BIS index shows the depth of anesthesia. The effects of drugs on BIS and amnesia are different. This study was performed to evaluate the association between two different sedative regimens on BIS and amnesia."n"nMethods: In this clinical trial, 60 patients who needed elective orthopedic surgery under regional anesthesia with intravenous sedation were elected. Patients divided in two equal groups based on sedation protocol by block randomization method: midazolam plus fentanyl group (MF group or propofol group (P group. Dose of sedative drugs were adjusted according to clinical findings of sedation. Depth of sedation in all patients, preserved in four based on modified Ramsey Sedation Score. Patients questioned about spontaneous recall after full awakening in recovery room. Recall of any event during operation considered as failed amnesia. Correlation of BIS index with recall was measured in two different groups separately."n"nResults: The frequency of recall was 2 (6.7% in P group and 10 (33.3% in MF group (p=0.01. The mean± SD of BIS in P group was 76±5 (68-91 and in MF group was 93.4±5 (77-98 (p<0.001. The difference of BIS in patients without amnesia (p=0.019 and with amnesia (p<0

  13. Hypothermia-induced anterograde amnesia: is memory loss attributable to impaired acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, A C; Kasenow, P M; Riccio, D C; Richardson, R

    1987-07-01

    The present investigation examined whether the poor test performance observed in studies of anterograde amnesia reflects a memory deficit or is a by-product of weaker initial learning resulting from impaired sensory, motivational, or associative processes. Two experiments were performed which utilized latent extinction (Experiment 1) and delay of punishment (Experiment 2) manipulations in order to assess the nature of original learning in rats trained under either hypothermic (29 degrees C) or normothermic conditions. Results from both experiments provided evidence that hypothermia treatment administered prior to training had relatively little influence on the animal's ability to acquire a passive avoidance response. Therefore, the rapid forgetting observed in hypothermia-induced anterograde amnesia is most likely due to memory deficits rather than an artifact of poorer acquisition. PMID:3632548

  14. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively. PMID:19090415

  15. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Karen R.; Gardiner, John M.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively.

  16. Additive effects of forgetting and fornix transfection in the temporal gradient of retrograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffan, D

    1993-10-01

    Nine Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned to discriminate among 320 complex naturalistic scenes (Set A) for food reward. Six months later they learned to discriminate among a further 192 scenes (Set B). Immediately after learning Set B the animals were given a preoperative retention test of both sets, consisting of a single trial with every scene they had learned. Three monkeys were then operated upon to transect the fornix, the other six forming an unoperated control group. Two weeks after operation the scenes were presented once each in a postoperative retention test. The animals with fornix transection showed significantly poorer memory than the control animals at the postoperative retention test. Furthermore, within the fornix-transected animals' performance, postoperative amnesia for Set B was more marked than amnesia for Set A, by comparison with the animals' own preoperative retention of the two sets. However, a similar pattern of performance was also seen within the control animals' results, in that they forgot more of Set B than of Set A in the interval between the preoperative and postoperative retention tests. There was no significant difference between the groups in the gradient of forgetting, defined as the difference between forgetting of Set B and forgetting of Set A in the interval between the preoperative and postoperative retention tests. These results give no support to the idea that the severity of retrograde amnesia is graded as a function of the remoteness of the memory at the onset of amnesia, and they give some indication of possible reasons why the impression of such a gradient is frequently reported clinically. PMID:8290022

  17. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kamal; Singh, Manjeet

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the effect of bacosides (alcoholic extract of brahmi) on scopolamine (3 mg kg(-1), ip), sodium nitrite (75 mg kg(-1), ip) and BN52021 (15 mg kg(-1), ip) induced experimental amnesia in mice, using Morris water maze test, all the agents were administered 30 min before the acquisition trials on each day and repeated for 4 consecutive days, and on 5th day during the retrieval trials. Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. Bacosides also significantly decreased the ELT and increased the TS in mice treated anterogradely with scopolamine and sodium nitrite. Bacosides did not exhibit any significant effect on TS of mice treated retrogradely with sodium nitrite. On the other hand, bacosides significantly increased the TS of mice treated retrogradely with BN52021. On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Beside this bacosides also reversed BN52021 induced retrograde amnesia, probably due to increase in platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis by enhancing cerebral glutamate level.

  18. Long-term neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, and life outcome in hippocampal amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Magnotta, Vincent; Capizzano, Aristides A; Cassell, Martin D.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Focal bilateral hippocampal damage typically causes severe and selective amnesia for new declarative information (facts and events), a cognitive deficit that greatly impacts the ability to live a normal, fully-independent life. We describe the case of 1846, a 48-year-old woman with profound hippocampal amnesia following status epilepticus and an associated anoxic episode at age 30. 1846 has undergone extensive neuropsychological testing on many occasions over the 18 years since her injury, and we present data indicating that her memory impairment has remained severe and stable during that time. New, high-resolution structural MRI studies of 1846's brain reveal substantial bilateral hippocampal atrophy resembling that of other well-known amnesic patients. In spite of severe amnesia, 1846 lives a full and mostly independent adult life, facilitated by an extensive social support network of family and friends. Her case provides an example of a rare and unlikely positive outcome in the face of severe memory problems. PMID:22401298

  19. Post-traumatic amnesia and confusional state: hazards of retrospective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Daniel; Swash, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) must take into account factors other than traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may impact on memory both at the time of injury and subsequent to the injury. These include analgesics, anaesthesia required for surgery, and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. This is relevant in clinical and medicolegal settings. Repeated assessments of the post-injury state, involving tests for continuing amnesia, risk promoting recall of events suggested by the examiner, or generating confabulations. The PTA syndrome affects the categorical autobiographical memory, and is accompanied by confusion as an essential component; this should be suspected from the initial or early Glasgow Coma Scale score (13-14/15) if not directly recorded by clinical staff. PTA by itself is only one of several indices of severity of TBI. The nature of the head injury, including observers' accounts, clinical and neuroimaging data, the possible role of other external injuries, blood loss, acute stress disorder and the potential for hypoxic brain injury, must be taken into account as well as concomitant alcohol or substance abuse, and systemic shock. A plausible mechanism for a TBI must be demonstrable, and other causes of amnesia excluded. PMID:26888959

  20. Reversible hippocampal lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of transient selective amnesia for simple machine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yumiko; Bandoh, Mitsuaki; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-08-01

    We report two extremely rare cases involving the development of transient selective retrograde amnesia for simple machine operation lasting for several hours. A 61-year-old male taxi driver suddenly became unable to operate a taximeter, and a 66-year-old female janitor suddenly became unable to use a fax machine. They could precisely recount their episodes to others both during and after the attacks, and their memories during their attacks corresponded to the memory of the witness and the medical records of the doctor, respectively. Therefore, it appears that these individuals remained alert and did not develop anterograde amnesia during their attacks. On day 4, they underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion-weighted MRI with 2-mm section thickness revealed small high-intensity signal lesions in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) region. However, these lesions disappeared during the chronic phase. This is the first report describing lesions detected by MRI in patients with transient selective amnesia without anterograde amnesia. Reversible damage to the hippocampal CA1 region may cause transient selective amnesia by impairing the retrieval of relevant memories. PMID:27367337

  1. When the past is lost: focal retrograde amnesia. Focus on the "functional" form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciari, Andrea; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We report the clinical findings and neuropsychological profiles of a sample of patients exhibiting a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) seen consecutively during the period 1992-2007. The cohort comprised 13 patients, five males, with a mean age of 30 years (range 16-49). They were given a neurologic examination, psychiatric interview and formal neuropsychological examination (all but one) during the amnesic phase, underwent neuroimaging, and were followed up for six months to ten years. All presented with an acute amnesia characterized by an impaired recollection of memories predating the acute event, with spared or minimally and transiently affected anterograde memory, thus consistent with FRA. The events triggering FRA varied widely: mild to severe head injury, road accident without head injury, seizure, dissociative fugue, BDZ overdose, posttraumatic headache, syncope, migraine attack, acute distress. The neuropsychological hallmark of FRA was a selective or prominent impairment of autobiographical memory. The defect was often so severe as to cover most or all of the patients' lives and, in some cases, to erase the knowledge of their own identity. Conventional neuroimaging (brain CT and MRI) was unimpressive. Cerebral SPECT/PET disclosed unilateral frontal hypoperfusion in three (two left). All but one patient fully recovered, time of recovery ranging from three days to six months. FRA is a condition reflecting a block of memory function triggered by heterogeneous events, including both physical and psychic insults. Analogies shared with the more frequently encountered and better known condition of transient global amnesia suggests common pathogenetic mechanisms. A tentative nosographic classification of FRA is finally offered. PMID:19641249

  2. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  3. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Kirti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer′s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods : The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory parameters were evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM, passive avoidance and motor activity paradigms. Brain ChE activity and serum biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, total triglycerides and glucose were evaluated. Results : It was observed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. Conclusion : Because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, PA may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.

  4. Alcoholic Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Protects Against Amnesia by Regulation of Arc Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Akash; Kaul, Sunil C; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier report on scopolamine-induced amnesia and its improvement by pre-treatment with i-Extract (alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaf) suggested that the i-Extract mediated nootropic effect may involve neuronal immediate early gene, Arc. With a hypothesis that the i-Extract induced expression of Arc protein may cause augmentation in Arc function, we examined the effect of i-extract on a major function of Arc protein, i.e. F-actin expansion, using Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Stereotaxic infusion of Arc antisense ODN in the CA1 region of hippocampus decreased the level of Arc protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. However, this decrease was attenuated when treated with i-Extract prior to infusion of Arc antisense ODN. We noted a significant decrease in the polymerization of F-actin during scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as Arc antisense ODN infusion that was restored rather enhanced when pre-treated with i-Extract in both the cases. We also compared the corresponding changes between CA1 (the infusion site) and CA3 (neighbouring site of infusion) regions of hippocampus, and found more pronounced effects in CA1 than in the CA3 region. The extent of F-actin polymerization, as revealed by changes in the dendritic spine architecture through Golgi staining, showed that both scopolamine as well as Arc antisense ODN disrupted the spine density and mushroom-shaped morphology that was again regained if pre-treated with i-Extract. In conclusion, the findings reveal that the Arc helps in polymerization of F-actin and subsequent changes in the morphology of dendritic spines after pre-treatment with i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, suggesting an important role of Arc in scopolamine-induced amnesia and its recovery by i-Extract. PMID:25744565

  5. The Still Enigmatic Syndrome of Transient Global Amnesia: Interactions Between Neurological and Psychopathological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Audrey; Quinette, Peggy; Hainselin, Mathieu; Dayan, Jacques; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2015-06-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological syndrome that usually occurs in middle-aged or older people. It is characterized by the abrupt onset of profound anterograde amnesia, associated with more variable retrograde amnesia and repetitive questioning. The whole episode lasts no more than 24 h. Almost 60 years after its first descriptions, the etiology of TGA remains unknown. Until now, TGA has been described exclusively as a memory disorder, but there is a growing body of evidence to show that emotional and psychological factors (as anxious and depressive symptoms) are present at different times of TGA. Their role therefore needs to be clarified. First, these factors seem to play a part in triggering TGA, at least for a subgroup of patients, suggesting the existence of an emotional TGA subtype. Second, recent research shows that almost all the TGA patients displayed modifications of their emotional state during the episode, possibly linked to sudden memory loss. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms could even reach a pathological threshold in patients with the so-called "emotional TGA subtype". Third, the persistence of these depressive and anxious symptoms after the end of the episode could account for lasting memory disorders in some patients. Finally, the analysis of these emotional syndrome and emotional factors and the recent data in neuroimaging could allow us to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind TGA. The aim of this review was thus to discuss whether the anxious and depressive symptoms are causative, resultant or coincidental of TGA. PMID:25868986

  6. Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Baddeley, Alan D; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-09-01

    We report the acquisition and recall of novel facts by Jon, a young adult with early onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired due to selective bilateral hippocampal damage. Jon succeeded in learning some novel facts but compared with a control group his intertrial retention was impaired during acquisition and, except for the most frequently repeated facts, he was also less accurate in correctly sourcing these facts to the experiment. The results further support the hypothesis that despite a severely compromised episodic memory and hippocampal system, there is nevertheless the capacity to accrue semantic knowledge available to recall. PMID:18589461

  7. Transient Global Amnesia After Cerebral Angiography With Iomeprol: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Cristina; Terecoasă, Elena Oana; Grecu, Nicolae; Dorobăţ, Bogdan; Marinescu, Andreea Nicoleta; Băjenaru, Ovidiu Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Transient global amnesia is now considered a very rare complication of cerebral angiography. Various etiological mechanisms have been suggested to account for this complication, but no consensus has been reached yet. This case report documents one of the few reported cases of cerebral angiography-related transient global amnesia associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of unilateral hippocampal ischemia, most probably as a consequence of a transient reduction in regional hippocampal blood flow. However, the possibility of a direct neurotoxic effect of the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol on the Cornu ammonis - field 1 neurons cannot be firmly ruled out.We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman admitted to our department for left upper limb weakness with acute onset 8 days before. The brain computed tomography (CT) scan performed at admission revealed subacute ischemic lesions in the right watershed superficial territories and a right thalamic lacunar infarct. Diagnostic digital subtraction cerebral angiography was performed 4 days after admission with the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol. A few minutes after completion of the procedure, the patient developed symptoms suggestive for transient global amnesia. The brain MRI performed 22 hours after the onset of symptoms demonstrated increased signal within the lateral part of the right hippocampus on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences, associated with a corresponding reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased signal on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, consistent with acute hippocampal ischemia and several T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the right watershed superficial territories and in the right thalamus, corresponding to the lesions already identified on the CT scan performed at admission. A follow-up MRI, performed 2 months later, demonstrated the disappearance of the increased signal within the right hippocampus on the DWI, T2/FLAIR

  8. Amnesia of inhibitory avoidance by scopolamine is overcome by previous open-field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colettis, Natalia C.; Snitcofsky, Marina; Kornisiuk, Edgar E.; Gonzalez, Emilio N.; Quillfeldt, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MAChR) blockade with scopolamine either extended or restricted to the hippocampus, before or after training in inhibitory avoidance (IA) caused anterograde or retrograde amnesia, respectively, in the rat, because there was no long-term memory (LTM) expression. Adult Wistar rats previously exposed to one or two open-field (OF) sessions of 3 min each (habituated), behaved as control animals after a weak though over-threshold training in IA. However, after OF exposure, IA LTM was formed and expressed in spite of an extensive or restricted to the hippocampus MAChR blockade. It was reported that during and after OF exposure and reexposure there was an increase in both hippocampal and cortical ACh release that would contribute to “prime the substrate,” e.g., by lowering the synaptic threshold for plasticity, leading to LTM consolidation. In the frame of the “synaptic tagging and capture” hypothesis, plasticity-related proteins synthesized during/after the previous OF could facilitate synaptic plasticity for IA in the same structure. However, IA anterograde amnesia by hippocampal protein synthesis inhibition with anisomycin was also prevented by two OF exposures, strongly suggesting that there would be alternative interpretations for the role of protein synthesis in memory formation and that another structure could also be involved in this “OF effect.” PMID:25322799

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

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    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea); Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-06-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  10. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

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    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  11. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  12. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  13. Can postictal suppression of the perforant path - fascia dentata responses account for the ECS-induced anterograde amnesia in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz-Saad, H; Valousková, V; Bures, J

    1984-07-15

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) decreases fascia dentata responses to entorhinal stimulation by 50% in unanesthetized rats. Synaptic potentials and population spikes return to pre-ECS level during 1 h and 3 h, respectively. This recovery rate is compared with the dynamics of ECS-induced anterograde amnesia.

  14. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the ventral hippocampus improved stress-induced amnesia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadmirzaei, Negin; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    The ventral hippocampus (VH) has a high distribution of cannabinoid CB1 receptors which are important in modulating stress responses. Stress exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) which can impact hippocampal formation to change hippocampus-based memories. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of the VH cannabinoid CB1 receptors in stress-induced amnesia using a step-through passive avoidance procedure in male Wistar rats. In order to induce acute stress, the animals were placed on an elevated platform for different time periods (10, 20 and 30min). Our results indicated that post-training 20 and 30min exposure to stress, but not 10min, induced amnesia. Post-training microinjection of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 2.5-7.5ng/rat) into the VH (intra-VH) induced amnesia. Interestingly, post-training intra-VH microinjection of the same doses of ACPA improved stress-induced amnesia. On the other hand, post-training intra-VH microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251 (20-50ng/rat) with exposure to an ineffective stress (10min) potentiated the effect of stress on memory consolidation and induced amnesia. It should be noted that post-training intra-VH microinjection of the same doses of AM-251 alone had no effect on memory consolidation. Our results revealed that post-training intra-VH microinjection of AM-251, prior to ACPA microinjection, inhibited the reversal effect of ACPA on acute elevated platform stress. Taken together, it can be concluded that exposure to post-training inescapable stress impaired memory consolidation. The impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval may be mediated by the VH cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

  15. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  16. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr ∼ 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1∼9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI

  17. Aprendizaje de nombres en una paciente con amnesia anterógrada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la aplicación de algunas técnicas empleadas para la rehabilitación de la memoria en personas con daño cerebral, con el fin de facilitar el aprendizaje de nombres de personas cercanas y conocidas en una paciente de 55 años, universitaria, diestra y quien como secuela de una encefalitis herpética presentó lesión isquémica en territorio frontotemporal izquierdo y severas alteraciones cognoscitivas y funcionales. Aunque la aplicación combinada de técnicas favorece los procesos de aprendizaje, éstos suelen ser lentos y desgastantes en personas con amnesia severa. No obstante, los resultados apoyan la propuesta de la conservación de la memoria implícita en esta población y favorecen el planteamiento de perspectivas de intervención.

  18. Unexpected anterograde amnesia associated with Buscopan used as a predmedication for endocscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been known that peripheral adverse event is caused by peripheral antimuscarinic action, from hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany)used as a premedication for endoscopy. However,symptoms or signs associated with the central nervous system are rarely reported in the field of anesthesiology and peripartum labor. This central anticholinergic syndrome is likely caused by blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. There is no report on Buscopan-induced central anticholinergic syndrome in endoscopy room so far. Three middle-aged females unexpectedly suffered from anterograde amnesia after intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide as an antispasmodic premedication for endoscopy at our endoscopy unit in the Health Promotion Center.

  19. Anterograde amnesia as a possible postoperative complication of Midazolam as an agent for intravenous conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Nikchevich, D; Block, J

    1988-01-01

    Anterograde amnesia is often considered to be a beneficial effect of intravenous conscious sedation. The recently introduced benzodiazepine, midazolam, has associated with its administration a significant anterograde amnesic period. In the case presented here, a healthy young female presented for third molar extraction under midazolam conscious sedation and local anesthesia. After uncomplicated removal of the teeth and clinically adequate recovery from sedation, it was noted that the patient had swallowed the postsurgical gauze packs. Efforts at recovery of the gauze packs were futile. Follow-up discussion with the patient revealed a complete lack of recall of all events occurring for up to an hour or more after the administration of intravenous midazolam. The need for written and oral postoperative instructions to both the patient and his/her escort is emphasized.

  20. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:±5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8±2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA

  1. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  2. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:{+-}5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8{+-}2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA.

  3. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  4. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65 was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.Restricciones en la aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test y los cuestionamientos sobre la relación entre conciencia y amnesia post-traumática motivaron este estudio que visa identificar, a través de la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, el periodo más adecuado para la aplicación de la prueba de amnesia, y observar la relación entre los resultados de esos dos indicadores. El estudio prospectivo y longitudinal fue realizado en un centro de referencia para traumas en São Paulo - Brasil. El número fue de 73 victimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, internadas en esta institución en el periodo de 03/01 a 03/05/2001. Con relación a la aplicabilidad, la prueba puede ser aplicada en los pacientes con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow > 12, pero el término de la amnesia post-traumática fue observado en los pacientes con puntuación > 14 en la escala. Correlación significativa (rs = 0,65 fue observada entre esas

  5. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. PMID:24657480

  6. Suggesting a possible role of CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Mashaghi, Elham; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-11-27

    A number of tremorogenic β-carboline alkaloids such as harmane are naturally present in the human food chain. They are derived from medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. In the present study, effects of the histaminergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmane-induced amnesia were examined. One-trial step-down was used to assess memory retention in adult male mice. The results showed that pre-training intra-CA1 administration of histamine (5μg/mouse), ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist; at the doses of 0.25 and 0.5μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (H1 receptor antagonist; at the dose of 5μg/mouse) decreased memory formation. Pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12mg/kg) also decreased memory formation. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of histamine (2.5μg/mouse) could reverse harmane (12mg/kg, i.p.)-induced impairment of memory. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold doses of ranitidine (0.0625μg/mouse) and pyrilamine (2.5μg/mouse) increased harmane-induced impairment of memory. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the involvement of the CA1 histaminergic system in harmane-induced impairment of memory formation.

  7. Is there a positive bias in false recognition? Evidence from confabulating amnesia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Nura H; Morris, Robin G; Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Although there is some evidence for a positive emotional bias in the content of confabulations in brain damaged patients, findings have been inconsistent. The present study used the semantic-associates procedure to induce false recall and false recognition in order to examine whether a positive bias would be found in confabulating amnesic patients, relative to non-confabulating amnesic patients and healthy controls. Lists of positive, negative and neutral words were presented in order to induce false recall or false recognition of non-presented (but semantically associated) words. The latter were termed 'critical intrusions'. Thirteen confabulating amnesic patients, 13 non-confabulating amnesic patients and 13 healthy controls were investigated. Confabulating patients falsely recognised a higher proportion of positive (but unrelated) words, compared with non-confabulating patients and healthy controls. No differences were found for recall memory. Signal detection analysis, however, indicated that the positive bias for false recognition memory might reflect weaker memory in the confabulating amnesic group. This suggested that amnesia patients with weaker memory are more likely to confabulate and the content of these confabulations are more likely to be positive.

  8. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  9. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages.

  10. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

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    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  11. Decision-making in amnesia: do advantageous decisions require conscious knowledge of previous behavioural choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, Klemens; Krouzel, Claudine; Hofer, Helene; Müri, René; Perrig, Walter; Ptak, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has reported that in the Iowa gambling task (IGT) advantageous decisions may be taken before the advantageous strategy is known [Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275, 1293-1295]. In order to test whether explicit memory is essential for the acquisition of a behavioural preference for advantageous choices, we measured behavioural performance and skin conductance responses (SCRs) in five patients with dense amnesia following damage to the basal forebrain and orbitofrontal cortex, six amnesic patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe or the diencephalon, and eight control subjects performing the IGT. Across 100 trials healthy participants acquired a preference for advantageous choices and generated large SCRs to high levels of punishment. In addition, their anticipatory SCRs to disadvantageous choices were larger than to advantageous choices. However, this dissociation occurred much later than the behavioural preference for advantageous alternatives. In contrast, though exhibiting discriminatory autonomic SCRs to different levels of punishment, 9 of 11 amnesic patients performed at chance and did not show differential anticipatory SCRs to advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Further, the magnitude of anticipatory SCRs did not correlate with behavioural performance. These results suggest that the acquisition of a behavioural preference--be it for advantageous or disadvantageous choices--depends on the memory of previous reinforcements encountered in the task, a capacity requiring intact explicit memory.

  12. Historical amnesia and its consequences: the need to build histories of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioban Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en dos cuestiones fundamentales: el papel de la historia como un testigo clave de los acontecimientos, los momentos o los cambios en la historia; y el papel de la historia en el actual desarrollo de la identidad - la identidad de los individuos, grupos, naciones y generaciones. Concluyo con algunas observaciones sobre la forma en que el estudio y la enseñanza de la historia puede ser abordada. Mi argumento tiene varias vertientes: en primer lugar, la historia es útil en las especificidades - a veces hay historias que no debemos olvidar. Tenemos esa deuda con los testigos. Cada cultura posee esos momentos de recuerdo. Algunos, como el de Hiroshima o el Holocausto, pertenecen a toda la humanidad. En segundo lugar, existen historias que es sabio no olvidar - nosotros deberíamos aprender con los errores de los que vinieron antes de nosotros y nos mostraron algo de su sabiduría. Por último, demuestro que la amnesia histórica es peligrosa. La memoria es necesaria - necesitamos saber quiénes somos si queremos tener alguna esperanza de saber hacia dónde vamos.

  13. ANTIAMNESIC POTENTIAL OF SOLASODINE AGAINST β-AMYLOID PROTEIN INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Alpesh B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly population, is characterized by an insidious onset with memory impairment and an inexorable progression of cognitive decline. Nootropic agents are a heterogeneous groups of drugs developed for use in dementia and other cerebral disorders. Nootropics agents are being primarily used to improve memory, mood and behavior. However, the resulting adverse effects associated with these agents have limited their use. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the utility of traditional medicines for the treatment of various cognitive disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of solasodine on β-amyloid induced amnesia in mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM was employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. Solasodine (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o. was screened for claimed potential in mice. Solasodine improved both short term memory and long term memory when assessed on Elevated pluz maze and Morris Water maze respectively. Hence, solasodine might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in the Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. Advances in transient global amnesia%短暂性完全遗忘研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 邢成名

    2009-01-01

    短暂性完全遗忘(transient global amnesia,TGA)是一种具有戏剧性特色的疾病,常有生理性和心理性诱发因素,表现为突发的顺行性遗忘,伴反复询问,持续数分钟至数小时后好转.TGA的研究主要集中存病因和病理学机制方面,目前主要有以下几种假说:短暂性脑缺血发作学说、癫癎学说、偏头痛学说、脑静脉缺血或静脉栓塞学说、人格障碍或情绪刺激学说以及其他学说.TGA的预后较好,复发率低,无需特殊治疗措施.文章对TGA的研究进展做了综述.%Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disease with dramatic manifestations. It is often induced by the physical or psychogenic factors, and is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia accompanied by repeated asking of questions, lasting for minutes or hours. The study of TGA mainly focused on the aspects of etiological and pathological mecha-nisms. Currently, there are several following hypotheses: Transient ischemic attack, epilepsy,migraine, cerebral venous ischemia or venous embolism, personality disorder or emotional stimulation. The prognosis of TGA is better with low recurrence rate. No specific treatment is needed. This article reviews the advances in research on TGA.

  15. Using Post-Traumatic Amnesia To Predict Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie L; Spitz, Gershon; McKenzie, Dean

    2016-06-01

    Duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) has emerged as a strong measure of injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite the growing international adoption of this measure, there remains a lack of consistency in the way in which PTA duration is used to classify severity of injury. This study aimed to establish the classification of PTA that would best predict functional or productivity outcomes. We conducted a cohort study of 1041 persons recruited from inpatient admissions to a TBI rehabilitation center between 1985 and 2013. Participants had a primary diagnosis of TBI, emerged from PTA before discharge from inpatient hospital, and engaged in productive activities before injury. Eight models that classify duration of PTA were evaluated-six that were based on the literature and two that were statistically driven. Models were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as well as model-based Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) statistics. All categorization models showed longer PTA to be associated with a greater likelihood of being nonproductive at 1 year after TBI. Classification systems with a greater number of categories performed better than two-category systems. The dimensional (continuous) form of PTA resulted in the greatest AUC, and lowest AIC as well as BIC, of the classification systems examined. This finding indicates that the greatest accuracy in prognosis is likely to be achieved using PTA as a continuous variable. This enables the probability of productive outcomes to be estimated with far greater precision than that possible using a classification system. Categorizing PTA to classify severity of injury may be reducing the precision with which clinicians can plan the treatment of patients after TBI. PMID:26234939

  16. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography (99mTc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, 99mTc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  17. Is a cancer diagnosis associated with subsequent risk of transient global amnesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhu

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been associated with transient global amnesia (TGA. Whether a cancer diagnosis, a severely stressful life event, is associated with subsequent risk of TGA has not been studied.Based on the Swedish Cancer Register and Patient Register, we conducted a prospective cohort study including 5,365,608 Swedes at age 30 and above during 2001-2009 to examine the relative risk of TGA among cancer patients, as compared to cancer-free individuals. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs derived from Poisson regression were used as estimates of the association between cancer diagnosis and the risk of TGA.During the study 322,558 individuals (6.01% received a first diagnosis of cancer. We identified 210 cases of TGA among the cancer patients (incidence rate, 0.22 per 1000 person-years and 4,887 TGA cases among the cancer-free individuals (incidence rate, 0.12 per 1000 person-years. Overall, after adjustment for age, sex, calendar year, socioeconomic status, education and civil status, cancer patients had no increased risk of TGA than the cancer-free individuals (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86-1.13. The IRRs did not differ over time since cancer diagnosis or across individual cancer types. The null association was neither modified by sex, calendar period or age.Our study did not provide support for the hypothesis that patients with a new diagnosis of cancer display a higher risk of TGA than cancer-free individuals.

  18. False Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease—Disinhibition or Amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Emma C.; Wong, Stephanie; Dutt, Aparna; Tu, Sicong; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Rao, Sulakshana; Hodges, John R.; Ghosh, Amitabha; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory recall processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be similarly impaired, whereas recognition performance is more variable. A potential reason for this variability could be false-positive errors made on recognition trials and whether these errors are due to amnesia per se or a general over-endorsement of recognition items regardless of memory. The current study addressed this issue by analysing recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 39 bvFTD, 77 AD and 61 control participants from two centers (India, Australia), as well as disinhibition assessed using the Hayling test. Whereas both AD and bvFTD patients were comparably impaired on delayed recall, bvFTD patients showed intact recognition performance in terms of the number of correct hits. However, both patient groups endorsed significantly more false-positives than controls, and bvFTD and AD patients scored equally poorly on a sensitivity index (correct hits—false-positives). Furthermore, measures of disinhibition were significantly associated with false positives in both groups, with a stronger relationship with false-positives in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed similar neural correlates of false positive endorsement across bvFTD and AD, with both patient groups showing involvement of prefrontal and Papez circuitry regions, such as medial temporal and thalamic regions, and a DTI analysis detected an emerging but non-significant trend between false positives and decreased fornix integrity in bvFTD only. These findings suggest that false-positive errors on recognition tests relate to similar mechanisms in bvFTD and AD, reflecting deficits in episodic memory processes and disinhibition. These findings highlight that current memory tests are not sufficient to accurately distinguish between bvFTD and AD patients. PMID:27489543

  19. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kohjidai 5-7-1, 651-2273, Nishi-ku, Kobe-City, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Katsunori [Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  20. Transient Global Amnesia Deteriorates the Network Efficiency of the Theta Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, SangHak; Lim, Jae-Sung; Jang, Jae-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Acute perturbation of the hippocampus, one of the connector hubs in the brain, is a key step in the pathophysiological cascade of transient global amnesia (TGA). We tested the hypothesis that network efficiency, meaning the efficiency of information exchange over a network, is impaired during the acute stage of TGA. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state EEG data collected from 21 patients with TGA. The EEG data were obtained twice, once during the acute stage ( 2 months after symptom onset) of TGA. Characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients of functional networks constructed using phase-locking values were computed and normalized as a function of the degree in the delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma frequency bands of the EEG. We investigated whether the normalized characteristic path length (nCPL) and normalized clustering coefficients (nCC) differed significantly between the acute and resolved stages of TGA at each frequency band using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For networks where the nCPL or nCC differed significantly between the two stages, we also evaluated changes in the connections of the brain networks. During the acute stage of TGA, the nCPL of the theta band networks with mean degrees of 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 significantly increased (P < 0.05). During the acute stage, the lost edges for these networks were mostly found between the anterior (frontal and anterior temporal) and posterior (parieto-occipital and posterior temporal) brain regions, whereas newly developed edges were primarily found between the left and right frontotemporal regions. The nCC of the theta band with a mean degree of 5.5 significantly decreased during the acute stage (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that TGA deteriorates the network efficiency of the theta frequency band. This effect might be related to the desynchronization between the anterior and posterior brain areas. PMID:27741293

  1. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGriebe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027. The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008; p = 0.010 respectively, as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022; p= 0.024 respectively. The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021 and anxiety (p = 0.007, but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  2. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  3. Advanced on the Clinical Research of Transient Global Amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘的临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 王文敏

    2007-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘(Transient global amnesia,TGA)是临床神经病学中最典型的综合症之一.本文从TGA的发病机制及影像诊断技术两个角度综述了最新的临床研究进展.

  4. Effects of level of processing but not of task enactment on recognition memory in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-09-01

    We report the performance in four recognition memory experiments of Jon, a young adult with early-onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired in tests of recall, but seems relatively preserved in tests of recognition, and who has developed normal levels of performance in tests of intelligence and general knowledge. Jon's recognition performance was enhanced by deeper levels of processing in comparing a more meaningful study task with a less meaningful one, but not by task enactment in comparing performance of an action with reading an action phrase. Both of these variables normally enhance episodic remembering, which Jon claimed to experience. But Jon was unable to support that claim by recollecting what it was that he remembered. Taken altogether, the findings strongly imply that Jon's recognition performance entailed little genuine episodic remembering and that the levels-of-processing effects in Jon reflected semantic, not episodic, memory. PMID:21049360

  5. Study on EEG analysis of 20 cases of transient global amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘症20例脑电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任歆; 杨芳; 刘长春; 周卫东

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨短暂性全面遗忘症的脑电图表现.方法 比较短暂性全面遗忘症患者与正常人的脑电图表现,对其病理机制及治疗进行探讨.结果 短暂性全面遗忘症患者的脑电图异常率明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异显著(P<0.05),不同年龄短暂性全面遗忘症患者脑电图异常差异无显著性.结论 短暂性全面遗忘症患者的脑电图有明显异常,可根据其异常对患者进行个体化治疗,脑电图表现对探索其病因及病理机制有一定的指导意义.%Objective To explore the findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia. Methods The findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia were compared with those of normal persons, and try to explore the mechanism and treatment of this disease. Results The findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia were significantly abnormal in comparison with those of normal persons, their difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in EEG with age. Conclusion Findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia are obviously abnormal, and the treatment should be individualized according to the abnormality of EEG in patients. There is certain significance in study of findings of EEG in exploration of etiology and pathogenesis of this disease.

  6. Visual P2-N2 complex and arousal at the time of encoding predict the time domain characteristics of amnesia for multiple intravenous anesthetic drugs in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Li, Yuelin; Wixted, John T.; Veselis, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intravenous anesthetics have marked effects on memory function, even at subclinical concentrations. Fundamental questions remain in characterizing anesthetic amnesia and identifying affected systems-level processes. We applied a mathematical model to evaluate time-domain components of anesthetic amnesia in human subjects. Methods 61 volunteers were randomized to receive propofol (n = 12), thiopental (13), midazolam (12), dexmedetomidine (12), or placebo (12). With drug present, subjects encoded pictures into memory using a 375-item continuous recognition task, with subsequent recognition later probed with drug absent. Memory function was sampled at up to 163 time points, and modeled over the time domain using a two-parameter, first-order negative power function. The parietal event-related P2-N2 complex was derived from electroencephalography, and arousal repeatedly sampled. Each drug was evaluated at two concentrations. Results The negative power function consistently described the course of amnesia (mean R2 = 0.854), but there were marked differences between drugs in the modulation of individual components (P < 0.0001). Initial memory strength was a function of arousal (P = 0.005), while subsequent decay was related to reaction time (P < 0.0001) and the P2-N2 complex (P = 0.007/0.002 for discrete components). Conclusions In humans, the amnesia caused by multiple intravenous anesthetic drugs is characterized by arousal-related effects on initial trace strength, and a subsequent decay predicted by attenuation of the P2-N2 complex at encoding. We propose that failure of normal memory consolidation follows drug-induced disruption of interregional synchrony critical for neuronal plasticity, and discuss our findings in the framework of memory systems theory. PMID:20613477

  7. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. PMID:26548495

  8. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeonah; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hoon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Evidence of intracranial venous reflux flow due to jugular venous reflux (JVR) on time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) is thought to be highly associated with transient global amnesia (TGA) - evidence that supports the venous congestion theory of TGA pathophysiology. However, recent studies indicate that intracranial JVR on TOF MRA is occasionally observed in normal elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA in patients with TGA and two control groups. Three age- and sex-matched groups of subjects that received MRI and MRA were enrolled. The groups comprised 167 patients with TGA, 167 visitors to the emergency room (ER) and 167 visitors to a health promotion centre (HPC). Intracranial JVR was defined as abnormal venous signals in the inferior petrosal, sigmoid and/or transverse sinuses on TOF MRA. The prevalence of intracranial JVR was assessed across the three groups. Intracranial JVR was seen in seven (4.2 %) TGA patients, eight (4.8 %) ER visitors and three (1.8 %) HPC visitors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups. TGA patients showed a low prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA, and no statistical differences were found in comparison with control groups. (orig.)

  9. Johann August Philipp Gesner (1738-1801). A review of his essay "The language amnesia" in the bicentennial anniversary of his death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatti, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    On the 200th anniversary of Johann August Philipp Gesner's death, this paper summarizes and discusses a paper on language amnesia published in 1770. The author had clear knowledge of selective mental impairments resulting from brain diseases, and of separate mental representations for words and their underlying concepts. However, to explain the language impairment, Gesner suggested that it would not be caused by focal damage to a specific anatomic and functional unit of the mind, but is the consequence of a general sluggishness of the mental processes. PMID:12012573

  10. Amnesiacs might get the gist: reduced false recognition in amnesia may be the result of impaired item-specific memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Jack; Abrahams, Sharon; Sala, Sergio Della

    2013-01-01

    It is a common finding in tests of false recognition that amnesic patients recognize fewer related lures than healthy controls, and this has led to assumptions that gist memory is damaged in these patients (Schacter, Verfaellie, & Anes, 1997, Neuropsychology, 11; Schacter, Verfaellie, Anes, & Racine, 1998, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10; Schacter, Verfaellie, & Pradere, 1996, Journal of Memory and Language, 35). However, clinical observations find that amnesic patients typically hold meaningful conversations and make relevant remarks, and there is some experimental evidence highlighting preserved immediate recall of prose (Baddeley & Wilson, 2002, Neuropsychologia, 40; Gooding, Isaac, & Mayes, 2005, Neuropsychologia, 43; Rosenbaum, Gilboa, Levine, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2009, Neuropsychologia, 47), which suggests that amnesiacs can get the gist. The present experiment used false recognition paradigms to assess whether the reduced rate of false recognition found in amnesic patients may be a consequence of their impaired item-specific memory. It examined the effect of increasing the item-specific memory of amnesic patient DA by bringing her to criterion on relevant study-lists and compared her performance on a false recognition paradigm with a group of 32 healthy young adults. Results indicated that when DA's item-specific memory was increased she was more able to gist and her performance was no different to the healthy young adults. Previous assumptions that gist memory is necessarily damaged in amnesia might therefore be revisited, since the reduced rate of false recognition could be caused by impaired item-specific memory. The experiment also highlights a positive relationship between item-specific and gist memory which has not previously been accounted for in false-recognition experiments.

  11. Experience-near but not experience-far autobiographical facts depend on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval: Evidence from amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-29

    This paper addresses the idea that there may be two types of autobiographical facts with distinct cognitive and neural mechanisms: "Experience-near" autobiographical facts, which contain spatiotemporal content derived from personal experience and thus depend on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) for retrieval, and "experience-far" autobiographical facts, which are abstract memories and thus rely on neocortical brain regions involved in retrieval of general semantic memory. To investigate this conceptual model of autobiographical fact knowledge, we analyzed the nature of autobiographical facts that were generated by 8 individuals with MTL amnesia and 12 control participants in a recent study of identity and memory [Grilli, M.D., & Verfaellie, M. (2015). Supporting the self-concept with memory: insight from amnesia. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1684-1692]. Results revealed that MTL amnesic participants generated fewer experience-near autobiographical facts than controls. Experience-far autobiographical fact generation was not impaired in amnesic participants with damage restricted to the MTL, but there was preliminary evidence to suggest that it may be impaired in amnesic participants with damage to the MTL and anterior lateral temporal lobe. These results support a cognitive and neural distinction between experience-near and experience-far autobiographical facts and have implications for understanding the contribution of autobiographical fact knowledge to self-related cognition.

  12. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations. PMID:26300388

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and {sup 1}H-MRS

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    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru [Dokkyo Univ., Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Toshihiko

    1997-06-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using {sup 1}H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of {sup 1}H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  14. El tratamiento de la impotencia primaria mediante la sugestión posthipnótica, la amnesia posthipnótica y el entrenamiento sensorial

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    Kenneth Bullmer

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year old male in whom a diagnosis of primary impotence was made, was forced into therapy by his wife. Five sessions of hypi10therapy were gíven, with emphasis on posthypnotic suggestion, and posthypnotic amnesia. Following these hypnotherapy sessions,the patient began sensory exercise as had been posthypnotically suggested. The first time that an attempt at vaginal penetration was permitted was during the fifth exercíse, and this was achieved without problem. After two more excercises with repeated .coital connections, the treatment was terminated. Follow·up sessions with the patient thirty days lata failed lo disclose knowledge of the suggestions made while the patient was in hypnotic trance.

  15. Systemic or intra-amygdala infusion of an endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 blocked propofol-induced anterograde amnesia.

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    Ren, Y; Wang, J; Xu, P B; Xu, Y J; Miao, C H

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is well-known for its anterograde amnesic actions. However, a recent experiment showed that propofol can also produce retrograde memory enhancement effects via an interaction with the endocannabinoid CB1 system. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that the regulating effect of propofol on the endocannabinoid CB1 system might also decrease the anterograde amnesic effect of propofol under some conditions, which might be a risk factor for intraoperative awareness. Since, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been confirmed to mediate propofol-induced anterograde amnesia and the BLA contains a high concentration of CB1 receptors, the authors investigated whether and how the endocannabinoid system, particularly the CB1 receptor within BLA, influences propofol-induced anterograde amnesia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats trained with inhibitory avoidance (IA) were systematically pre-trained using a memory-impairing dose of propofol (25 mg/kg). Before propofol administration, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of a CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) or a bilateral intra-BLA injection of AM251 (0.6 ng or 6 ng per 0.5 μl). Twenty-four hours after IA training, the IA retention latency was tested. It was found that systemic or intra-BLA injection of a non-regulating dose of AM251 (2 mg/kg or 6 ng per 0.5 μl, respectively) blocked the memory-impairing effect of propofol. These results indicate that the anterograde amnesic effect of propofol is mediated, in part, by activation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the BLA.

  16. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

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    Vandana S Nade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods : The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT and passive avoidance test (PAT were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. Results : The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL. EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GSH. Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

  17. Clinical Observation on Nao-xin-kang Granule Treating Amnesia of Qi-blood Deficiency%脑心康颗粒剂治疗气血亏虚型健忘症临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑岚

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the effect of nao-xin-kang granule treating amnesia of qi-blood deficiency. [Methods] In clinical practice, 160 patients with amnesia of qi-blood deficiency were randomly divided into two groups,including treatment group of 120 patients and control group 40 patients, the two groups were assigned to receive either nao-xin-kang granule or an-shen-bu-nao mixture for 4 weeks. Symptoms of TCM,amnesia and so on were observated before and after treatment. [Result]The clinical result showed that nao-xin-kang granule could decrease the score with amnesia of qi-blood deficiency,improve the clinical symptoms such as insomnia, dizziness, palpitation, short breath, a close mouse, pale complexion, and improve self-care and computering ability. The overall response rate was 92.5 %, P<0. 01. There was statistical significance between the two groups. [Conclusion] Nao- xin-kang granule was an effective TCM preparation on treating amnesia of qi-blood deficiency.%[目的]探讨脑心康颗粒剂治疗气血亏虚型健忘症的疗效.[方法]选择气血亏虚型健忘症患者160例,随机分为治疗组120例,服用脑心康颗粒剂;对照组40例,服用安神补脑液,疗程为4周.观察治疗前后患者的中医症状、遗忘等各项指标.[结果]临床观察表明脑心康颗粒剂能降低气血亏虚型健忘患者的健忘积分,改善患者失眠、头晕心悸、气短懒言、面色少华等中医症候积分,提高患者生活自理能力和计算能力,总有效率为92.5%,P<0.01,有显著性差异.[结论]脑心康颗粒剂是治疗气血亏虚型健忘症的有效中药制剂.

  18. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

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    Juan Xiao

    Full Text Available Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9 cfu/kg body weight (BW, LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC, or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC. Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE, myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  19. Fatores associados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração Fatores asociados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración Factors associated with long-term post-traumatic amnesia

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    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores relacionados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, longitudinal, com 187 vítimas de trauma cranioencefálico contuso, idade >14 anos, atendidos em hospital de referência para trauma. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, sexo, gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, local e tipo de lesão, número de lesões encefálicas e uso de medicação com atividade em sistema nervoso central ou corticoides. RESULTADO: O modelo de regressão logística múltipla ajustado pela variável área de lesão (intra/extra axial evidenciou: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 e uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 ou ambas as drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do Midazolan e da Fenitoína, além da gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, destacaram-se como fatores relacionados à amnésia de longa duração.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores relacionados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, realizado con 187 víctimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, edad >14 años, atendidos en un hospital de referencia para trauma. Las variables independientes fueron: edad, sexo, gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, local y tipo de lesión, número de lesiones encefálicas y uso de medicación con actividad en el sistema nervioso central o corticoides. RESULTADO: El modelo de regresión logística múltiple ajustado por la variable área de lesión (intra/extra axial evidenció: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 y uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 o ambas drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSIÓN: El uso del Midazolan y de Fenitoína, además de la gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, se destacaron como factores relacionados a la amnesia de larga duración.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to post-traumatic amnesia of long duration. METHOD: A prospective, longitudinal study, with 187 victims of blunt head trauma

  20. 短暂性全面遗忘症的随访分析%Follow-up analysis in patients with transient global amnesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宪光; 陈亮; 范晓芳

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,GA)和脑卒中的发病关系.方法:选择1994-10/2004-10安阳市人民医院和安阳市第二人民医院神经内科住院及门诊有详细记录且已得到随访的TGA患者16例为观察组.选择同期在两所医院就诊的高血压、糖尿病、冠心病患者16例作为对照组.嘱两组患者2~6个月复诊一次作为随访,比较两组患者随访期间脑卒中发生率.结果:观察组患者患TGA后1~10年的患者出现脑卒中的发生率[44%(7/16)]明显高于对照组[12%(2/16)],两组比较,差异有显著性意义(x2=3.865,<0.05).结论:TGA和脑缺血有关,应将TGA患者作为脑卒中二级预防的对象.

  1. Experimental study on the relationship between benzodiazepine receptor and the isoflurane-induced amnesia in mice%苯二氮(艹卓)受体与异氟烷遗忘作用关系的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艺聪; 刘强; 符香; 刘绪华; 李雨虹; 许历阳; 张珏; 孟晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of flumazenil on the isoflurane - induced amnesia and to reveal the relationship between benxodiazepine receptor and the mechanism oi isoflurane - induced amnesia.Methods 48 mice were randomized into six groups.The effects of intraperitoneal injection of different doses of flumazenil ( 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) on the step - through latency and error times were observed in mice treated with isoflurane (0.2 ml/kg).Results Compared with the normal saline group , the step - through latency and error times had no statistical differences in the flumazenil groups ( P < 0.05 ); the isoflurance group and the isoflurance - flumazenil combination groups showed reduced step - through latency ( P< 0.05) and elevated error times ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ).Compared with the isoflurance group, no statistical differences in step - through lateney and error times were observed between the isoflurance group and the isoflurance -flumazenil combination groups ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion Flumazenil has no significant influence on the isoflurance - induced amnesia, suggesting that the isoflurance - induced amnesia is not related to henzodiazepine receptor.%目的 通过观察氟马西尼对异氟烷遗忘作用的影响,揭示异氟烷遗忘机制与苯二氮艹卓受体的关系.方法 将48只小鼠随机分成6组,采用避暗实验观察腹腔注射不同剂量氟马西尼(0.5、1.0 mg/kg)对异氟烷处理小鼠步入潜伏期和错误次数的影响.结果 与生理盐水组相比,氟马西尼单用组小鼠的步入潜伏期和错误次数均无明显差异(P>0.05);异氟烷单用或合用组步入潜伏期明显缩短(P0.05).结论 氟马西尼对异氟烷遗忘作用无明显影响,提示异氟烷遗忘作用与苯二氮艹卓受体关系不大.

  2. Midazolam assisted intraspinal anesthesia for the amnesia forgotten role of administration%咪唑安定用于硬膜外麻醉辅助用药遗忘作用的研究

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    黄安宁; 陈娜; 胡彬; 丁莉莉; 刘丽萍

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the effects of midazolam on sedation and amnesia in intraspinal anesthesia. [Methods] Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A received midazolm, group B received Diazepam and group C received droperidol. MAP, HR, sPO2 monitorelg before and after administration. Record the time of reaching se-dation and hypnosis and scored the effect of amnesia. [Results] The value of MAP, HR, sPO2 had no difference a-mongst group A, B and C after administration (P > 0.05) . It took shorter time in group A than group B and C that OAA/S reach the scale of 3 (P 0.05).A组(咪唑安定组)使患者达到OAA/S评分标准3级的时间明显短于B组和C组(P<0.05).A组产生遗忘效果优于B组和C组(P<0.05).[结论]咪唑安定作为椎管麻醉前用药具有相对快速的起效时间和完善的遗忘效果.

  3. The investigation of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the sedation and anterograde amnesia%不同剂量右美托咪定镇静程度及顺行性遗忘作用研究

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    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on the sedation and anterograde amnesia in patients undergoing operation on bythus.Methods Two hundred patients,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,aged 20-60,101 males and 99 females were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with Dex,undergoing operation on bythus without caesarean section.After Dex 1 μg/kg was infused intravenously 10 min (group De0 was infused intravenously the same volume of physiological saline),according to different maintenance doses of Dex,they were divided into four groups by random number table method:group De0 (group physiological saline),group De1 (0.2 μg·kg1·h-1),group De2 (0.4 μg·kg-1·h-1),group De3 (0.6 μg·kg-1·h-1).By observer's assessment of alertness/sedation(OAA/S) method,the sedation degree of the Dex was evaluated at 5 min(T1),10 min(T2),15 min (T3),20 min(T4),25 min(T5),30 min(T6),40 min(T7),50 min(T8).After 24 h of operation,the anterograde amnesia degree of Dex was assessed.Results When the OAMS scores of group De0 of sedation were all(5.00±0) at T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,and T8 point,with the time of Dex infused intravenously longer and the dose of Dex increased,the OAA/S scores of group De1,group De2 and group De3[The OAMS scores of group De1 of sedation was(3.15±0.37) at T2 point,(3.26±0.44) at T3 point,(2.70±0.66) at T4 point,(2.55±0.60) at T5 point,(2.40±0.60) at T2 point,(2.05±0.76) at T7 point,(2.02±0.73) at T8 point,The OAA/S scores of group De2 of sedation was (3.10±0.64) at T2 point,(2.95±0.51) at T3 point,(2.35±0.67) at T4 point,(2.25±0.55) at T5 point,(2.10±0.45) at T6 point,(1.60±0.50) at T7 point,(1.65±0.49) at T8 point;The OAMS scores of group De3 of sedation was (3.10±0.31) at T2 point,(2.65±0.49) at T3 point,(1.95±0.39) at T4 point,(1.90±0.45) at T5 point,(1.75±0.44) at T6 point,(1.20±0.62) at T7 point,(1.25± 0.64) at T8 point] became smaller in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05).When there were 50 cases of the no

  4. 右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty ASAⅠ~Ⅱpatients, age from 18 years to 84 years, 73 cases of male and 47 cases of female , who were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with dexmedetomidine and performed operation on hypogastrium ( except for caesarean section ) .All patients were randomly divided into four groups:group A, group B, group C and group D.Dexmedetomidine(1μg/kg) was infused intravenously for 10 min and the maintenance dose was 0.2 μg・ kg-1・ h-1 .The anterograde amnesia degree of dexmedetomidine was as-sessed 24 h after the operation .Results There was no significant difference in the anterograde amnesia of dexmedeto -midine between group A and group B ( P>0.05 ) , while there were significant differences in group C and group D compared with both group A and group B ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Anterograde amnesia occurs after using dexme-detomidine in elderly patients and with aging , the anterograde amnesia becomes more severe .%目的:观察右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响。方法选择美国麻醉医师学会( ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级、年龄18~84岁,在腰硬联合麻醉下复合右美托咪定行下腹部(剖宫产术除外)手术患者120例,其中男73例,女47例。根据患者年龄的不同分为四组:A组(23±4)岁, B组(36±3)岁, C组(65±3)岁,D组(75±5)岁。所有患者均给予右美托咪定负荷量1μg/kg,泵入10 min之后以0.2μg・ kg-1・ h-1剂量维持。术后24 h回访患者并评定右美托咪定的顺行性遗忘作用。结果 A组和B组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用无明显不同(P>0.05),而C组与D组较前两组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用比较明显(P<0.05),并随年龄的增大明显增加( P<0.05)。结论右美托咪定具有一定的顺行性遗忘作用,且对老年患者更为明显。

  5. 术前口服咪唑安定的遗忘作用与内隐记忆的关系%Relationship of implicit memory and amnesia effect of oral midazolam premedication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彤; 岳云; 贾宝森

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of implicit memory and amnesia effect of oral midazolarn premedication and to observe its anterograde amnesia, the effect on short-term memory and the onset time and out come of retrograde amnesia. Methods 60 patients with ASA I - Ⅱ status undergoing abdomen and limb operations were divided into 3 groups with 20 cases each. Group A:oral midazolam 7.5mg;Group B:oral 15mg;Group C:placebo. The patients received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia after oral midazolam. The parameterns of EEG, SEF 95 %, BISwere collected at the same time and the degree and remark of sedation were dome according to OAA/S. The amnesia and implicit memory were investigated with pictures and muddy identified hearing rate 6 hours after operation. Results (1)Twenty min following drug ad dministration the remarks of sedation of group A and B were significantly loWver than that before and that of group C, Which was not significently different between group A and B. ( 2)The amnesia rates tested six hrs after surgery were significantly higher at 30min in group A, 20min in group B than those before treatment and were kept at 70%-80% levels, which in group C was remained zero. (3)The muddy identified hearing rate was not different significantly, among the three groups. (4) The short-term memory was all 100%during the period of drug action. (5)BIS and SEF 95% Were lower 30min after the treatment and all kept at 80 Hz and 20 Hz, which were not different remarkably between group A and B. Conclnsion Oral midazolam 7. 5mg has a good effect on anterograde amnesia 30min after treatment, which may not be improved with increament in dosage. It does not lead to retrograde amnesia. The long-term memory, but not short-term memory, was impaired by midazolam. It only affects the explicit memory. Oral premnedication with midazolam can not prevent the awareness during operation totally.%目的观察咪唑安定的遗忘作用与内隐记忆的关系,同时调查术前口服

  6. 氟马西尼对抗丙泊酚减弱小鼠学习记忆功能的影响%Effect of flumazenil on propofol-induced amnesia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉清; 宋征; 周成华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepines receptor antagonist, on propofol-induced amnesia in mice. Methods: Totally 40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, propofol group, flumazenil group and flumazenil plus propofol group. Mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of flumazenil or saline 20 min before training, and with intraperitoneal injection of intralipid or propofol 10 min before training. The latency of step through and step down as well as the numbers of errors were recorded to evaluate the effect of flumazenil on amnesia induced by propofol. Results: Flumazenil markedly improved propofol-induced increased error times and prolonged the step down latency and step through latency in mice. Conclusion; Benzodiazepines receptor may be an important target for propofol-induced amnesia.%目的:考察苯二氮(桌)受体拮抗剂氟马西尼对丙泊酚所致学习记忆功能减弱的影响.方法:昆明种小鼠40只,随机分为对照组、丙泊酚组、氟马西尼组和氟马西尼+丙泊酚组.训练前20 min皮下注射氟马西尼或生理盐水,训练前10 min腹腔注射脂肪乳或丙泊酚.在跳台实验和避暗实验中观察氟马西尼对丙泊酚导致健忘小鼠错误次数、跳台潜伏期和步入潜伏期的影响.结果:氟马西尼可减少丙泊酚所致健忘小鼠的错误次数,延长跳台潜伏期和步入潜伏期.结论:苯二氮(桌)类受体可能是丙泊酚致小鼠学习记忆功能减弱的重要靶位之一.

  7. 5-羟色胺受体对小鼠异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘作用的影响%Effects of 5-HT receptor on isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced amnesia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽丽; 许鹏程; 戴体俊

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytry ptamine,5-RT)受体与吸入麻醉药异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘作用的关系.方法 建立小鼠腹腔注射异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘模型,在跳台、避暗实验中观察和记录不同剂量5-HT受体拮抗剂(WAY100635)侧脑室注射对跳台潜伏期、步入潜伏期、错误次数的影响.结果 侧脑室注射5-HT受体拮抗剂可延长异氟烷、七氟烷所致记忆障碍小鼠的跳台潜伏期(P<0.05)、步入潜伏期(P<0.05),减少错误次数(P<0.05).结论 5-HT受体介导了异氟烷、七氟烷的遗忘作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between 5-hydroxytry ptamine(5-HT) receptor and the amnesia induced by isoflurane and sevoflurane in mice. Methods Animal models were established by intraperitoneal injection of isoflurane (0.3 ml/ kg) and sevoflurane (3 ml/kg). After intracerebroventricular injection (icv) of different doses of WAY100635, 5-HT receptor antagonist, step down latency (SDL), error times in step down test and step through latency (STL), error times in step through test were observed and recorded. Results Intracerebroventricular injection of WAY 100635 might extend SDL and STL, and reduced error times of isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in mice. Conclusion 5-HT receptor involves in isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced amnesia.

  8. Advantages of slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia for anterior cervical surgery%健忘镇痛慢诱导用于颈椎前路手术的优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国玲; 高丽霞; 单学栋; 韩凤梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and advantages of slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia for anterior cervical surgery. Methods A total of 52 patients receiving surgery of anterior cervical spine were averagely divided into groups A and B before operation. Patients of Group A developed slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesi-a through endotracheal intubation, and those of group B underwent quick induction of anesthesia through tracheal intubation. The cough response during tracheal intubation and the tolerance of incubating conditions were recorded respectively. At the same time, the postoperative impression of tracheal intubation was followed up. Results Both group A and B had successful operation procedures. The patients in group A were intubated without changing the head positions; their own muscle tension effectively protected the cervical spine; and the patients were well tolerant to intubation after surgery. Whereas, the patients of group B had to have their cervical spine well-protected by others, and were not tolerant to intubation removal. In this group, 19 cases had restlessness during intubation taking-off and drug had to be applied for intubation tolerance. Conclusion Slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia is a simple, convenient and practical approach for anterior cervical surgery, which can effectively protect the cervical spine and patients well tolerate intubation.%目的 探讨健忘镇痛慢诱导用于颈椎前路手术的可行性和优势.方法 将52例颈椎前路手术患者平均分为2组:A组行健忘镇痛慢诱导气管插管全麻,B组行快诱导气管插管全麻.分别记录患者气管插管过程中的呛咳反应、带气管插管患者耐管情况,随访患者术后对气管插管的印象.结果 A组和B组都顺利完成手术,A组患者插管不改变头位,在自身肌张力保护下插管,有效保护颈椎病变部位,且术后能很好耐受带管.B组插管时令专人保护颈椎,

  9. 双侧海马病变引起的短暂性全面性遗忘一例及文献综述%Transient Global Amnesia Caused by Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions:Case Report and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 王国瑾; 王丽萍; 庄儒鸿; 袁振华; 黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis, pathological location and the pathophysiology of transient glob-al amnesia(TGA). Methods: The history, clinical presentations, neuropsychological examinations and neuroimaging data of the TGA patient were collected. Results: The patient had no risk factors of cerebrovascular disease and had no the other neurological diseases, had a transient anterograde amnesia, had the disorder in word recognition and the increased signals of the CA1 field of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) in the DWI and T2FLAIR of brain MRI. Conclusioin: The hippocampal CA1 neurons is the lesion location of TGA. Stress can play a key role in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an acute cytotoxic edema of hippocampal CA1 neurons during TGA.%目的:探讨短暂性全面性遗忘(TGA)的诊断、发病部位、病因及发病机制。方法:收集一例 TGA 患者的病史、临床表现、神经心理学检查和神经影像学资料。结果:该患者无脑血管病的危险因素及神经科疾病的病史,临床表现为一过性顺行性情景记忆障碍,神经心理学检查提示词语再认障碍,头颅 MRI 的液体衰减反转恢复序列、MR 扩散加权成像序列在海马 CA1区显示高信号。结论:TGA 的发病部位在海马 CA1区,其发病机制可能为应激诱发海马 CA1区一系列病理生理的级联反应,导致海马神经元的急性细胞性水肿。

  10. Contrast study on cognitive function with MRI and positron emission tomography imaging in transient global amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘症的认知功能和MRI及PET的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾建军; 王鲁宁; 尹岭; 汤洪川

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study cognitive function and cerebral metabolic changes in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). Methods Three patients with TGA were given mini-mental state examination (MMSE), revised Wechsler memory scale (WMS-R) examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans after they had been diagnosed as TGA. Using 18 F labelled deoxyglucose as tracer, patients were given a positron emission tomography (PET) examination at different periods during recovery. Results No obvious abnormality was found in MMSE and MRI scans in the three patients. However, WMS-R examination and cerebral PET imaging displayed cognitive dysfunction of varying degrees and low metabolism in local areas related to memory in 2 of 3 patients. Conclusions In TGA patients, cognitive function and cerebral metabolic levels are closely correlated with duration of symptoms. It is necessary to stop the TGA attack as quickly as possible early time.%目的研究短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)患者认知功能及脑代谢状况.方法对3例临床诊断为TGA的患者分别行简易心理测试(MMSE)、修订的韦氏记忆量表(WMS-R)测定和脑核磁共振成像(MRI)检查,在恢复后不同时间以18氟标记的脱氧葡萄糖(18 F-FDG)为示踪剂行脑正电子发射型计算机断层扫描(positron emission tomography,PET)成像,并对其图像、量表测试结果与病史作对照研究.结果 3例患者MMSE测试及MRI扫描均未见明显异常,而WMS-R测试及PET成像显示:1例正常,另外2例有不同程度认知功能损害,与记忆相关结构有不同程度的低代谢.结论 TGA患者认知功能及局部脑代谢与其症状持续时间密切相关,尽早终止其发作是必要的.

  11. Prospective memory disorder in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害患者的前瞻性记忆障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程怀东; 汪凯; 龚亮; 尹长林; 孟玉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the event-based prospective memory(EBPM)and time-based prospective memory(TBPM) in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment(aMCI).Methods Thirty patients with aMCI and 30 healthy adults with age and education-matched were administered with a neuropsychological battery of tests including EBPM and TBPM tasks.Results Compared with healthy elders (EBPM:2.33±0.66,TBPM:4.90±1.03)patients with aMCI had impaired EBPM(0.90±1.09,t=-6.143,P<0.01)as well as TBPM(4.23±1.14,t=-2.383,P<0.05),and EBPM was impaired more significantly than TBPM.Conclusions The results suggest that aMCI impairs both RM and PM,and EBPM is impaired more significantly than TBPM and RM.The EBPM impairment may be a sensitive early indicator of aMCI.Assessment of EBPM may help early diagnosis of aMCI.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnesia mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)患者前瞻性记忆(prospective memory,PM)改变的特征,初步了解基于事件的PM(event-based prospective memory,EBPM)和基于时间的PM(time-based prospective memory,TBPM)在aMCI患者中的损害情况.方法 建立PM的神经心理学测验方法,对30例aMCI患者以及年龄、受教育程度相匹配的30名健康老年人进行测试.结果 与健康对照组[EBPM:(2.33±0.66)分、TBPM:(4.90±1.03)分]相比,aMCI组的EBPM成绩[(0.90±1.09)分]和TBPM成绩[(4.23 ±1.14)分]差异均有统计学意义(t=-6.143,P<0.01;t=-2.383,P<0.05).结论 aMCI患者的记忆障碍不仅表现为回顾性记忆(retrospective memory,RM)损害,PM损害可能更为突出,且EBPM的损害程度大于TBPM和RM,提示EBPM的测查可能有利于aMCI的早期识别.

  12. 加巴喷丁对异氟烷镇痛和遗忘作用的影响%Influence of gabapentin on the analgesia and amnesia of isoflurane in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 张一肖; 宋致静; 田艳艳; 严涛; 邵翠杰; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察加巴喷丁(gabapentin,GBP)对异氟烷(isoflurane,Iso)镇痛和遗忘作用的影响.方法 160只小鼠按分层随机区组设计分为镇痛组(热板法和甩尾法)和学习记忆组(避暗实验和跳台实验)2组,每种实验方法组又分为4个亚组:生理盐水组(NS组,生理盐水灌胃,2 h后腹腔注射生理盐水)、GBP组(G组,GBP 25 mg·kg-1灌胃,2 h后腹腔注射生理盐水)、ISO组(I组,生理盐水灌胃,2 h后腹腔注射异氟烷)、GBP+ISO组(GI组,GBP 25 mg·kg-1灌胃,2 h后腹腔注射异氟烷)组,每组10只.热板法和甩尾法观察各组小鼠痛阈值差异,避暗实验和跳台实验观察各组小鼠潜伏期和错误次数差异.结果 在热板实验和甩尾实验中,与I组相比,GI组热板痛阈(pain threshold in hot-plate test,HPPT)或甩尾潜伏期(tail-flick latency,TFL)延长(P<0.05或P<0.01);在避暗实验和跳台实验中,GBP+ISO组较NS组潜伏期缩短、错误次数增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),但较I组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 加巴喷丁可增强异氟烷的镇痛作用,但25 mg·kg-1加巴喷丁灌胃对异氟烷遗忘作用无明显影响.%Objective To observe the influence of gabapentin ( GBP) on the analgesia and amnesia effects of isoflurane (ISO) on mice. Methods 160 mice were divided by a stratified randomized block design into analgesic experimen - tal group ( hot - plate test and hot water tail - flick test) and learning and memory experimental group ( step - through test and step -down test) and each test group was further divided into 4 subgroups (re = 10 each) : NS group, GBP (G) group, ISO (I) group, GBP + ISO (GI) group. Pain threshold in hot plate (HPPT), tail - flick latency (TFL) in tail flick test, step - through latency , step - down latency and error times in learning and memory experiments were observed . Results In hot - plate test and tail - flick test, compared with I group, the HPPT or TFL of GI group improved (P 0. 05 ). Conclusion GBP can

  13. Clinical observation of the sedation and amnesia effect of dexmedetomidine on pelvic floor reconstruction%右美托咪定用于盆底重建术中镇静遗忘作用的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 刘文领

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察右美托咪定在腰硬联合麻醉下行盆底重建术患者中的镇静及遗忘作用.方法 选择50例45~65岁、ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级拟在腰硬联合麻醉下行盆底重建术的女性患者,随机分为右美托咪定组(D组)和空白对照组(C组),每组25例.记录麻醉前(T)、麻醉后(T0)、用药后10 min(T1)、30 min(T2)、45 min(T3)、60 min(T4)及术毕时(T5)的平均动脉压(MAP)、基础心率(HR)、呼吸频率(RR)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)、Ramsay评分,术后24h随访并记录患者用药后至手术结束对有关操作的遗忘程度.结果 T1 ~ T5时D组Ramsay评分显著高于C组(P<0.05).T1~T5时D组MAP、HR低于C组(P<0.05).RR、低氧血症发生率两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).术后24h随访,D组患者对手术操作的遗忘程度明显高于C组(P<0.01).结论 右美托咪定辅助应用于腰硬联合麻醉下盆底重建术中的镇静效果优越,呼吸抑制作用小,且有一定的顺行性遗忘,是一种安全有效的镇静药物.%Objective To observe the sedation and amnesia effect of dexmedetomidine on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in patients with pelvic floor reconstruction.Methods Fifty female patients with 45 to 65 years old,ASA I-Ⅱ scheduled for pelvic reconstructive surgery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia,were randomly divided into two groups (n =25):dexmedetomidine group (D group),blank control group (group C).MAP,HR,RR and SpO2,Ramsay score was recorded before anesthesia (T),after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (T0),10 min (T1),30 min (T2),45 min (T3),60 min (T4) after the treatment and at the end of operation (T5),and the forgetting degree of related procedure from medication to the ending of the operation during the 24 h follow-up was recorded.Results Ramsay score was significantly higher at T1-5 in group D than that in group C (P < 0.05).MAP,HR levels were lower at T1-5 in group D than those in group C (P < 0.05).There were no significant

  14. The dual-acting AChE inhibitor and H3 receptor antagonist UW-MD-72 reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine in passive avoidance paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Khan, Nadia; Darras, Fouad H; Pockes, Steffen; Decker, Michael

    2016-10-15

    Both the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) are involved in the metabolism and modulation of acetylcholine release and numerous other centrally acting neurotransmitters. Hence, dual-active AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) and H3R antagonists hold potential to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting AChEI and H3R antagonist 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9(1H)-one (UW-MD-72) shows excellent selectivity profiles over the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as well as high and balanced in-vitro affinities at both AChE and hH3R with IC50 of 5.4μM on hAChE and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 2.54μM, respectively. In the current study, the effects of UW-MD-72 (1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg, i.p.) on memory deficits induced by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) and the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were investigated in a step-through type passive avoidance paradigm in adult male rats applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. The results observed show that SCO (2mg/kg, i.p.) and DIZ (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired learning and memory in rats. However, acute systemic administration of UW-MD-72 significantly ameliorated the SCO- and DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the ameliorating activity of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was partly reversed when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, 10mg/kg, i.p.), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR, 10mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, ameliorative effect of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was strongly reversed when rats were pretreated with a combination of ZOL (10mg/kg, i.p.) and SCO (1.0mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that these memory enhancing effects were, in addition to other neural circuits, observed through histaminergic H2R as well as

  15. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍和轻度阿尔茨海默病的认知损害特征研究%Cognitive Profile of Amnesia-mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布茂振; 张聚斓

    2011-01-01

    目的 明确遗忘型轻度认知障碍(amnesia-mild cognitive impairment,a-MCI)患者和轻度阿尔茨海默病(alzheimer's disease,AD)患者的认知损害特征.方法 对13例a-MCI患者、22例轻度AD患者和37例正常对照进行全面的认知测查,除简易精神状态检查(mini-mental state examination,MMSE)外,测验可覆盖4个认知域:记忆力、信息处理速度、执行功能、视空间结构能力,进行组间比较.结果 3组患者在年龄、受教育程度及性别组成上匹配.轻度AD组的所有认知测验成绩都差于正常对照组,而且多数测验较a-MCI组也有减退.a-MCI组的MMSE、记忆相关测验以及多个执行功能相关测验结果都差于正常对照组,信息处理速度和视空间结构能力相关测验与对照组间无统计学差异.结论 轻度AD患者表现为全面的认知功能减退.a-MCI患者除存在显著的记忆障碍外,还存在执行功能的异常,信息处理速度和视空间结构能力尚正常.

  16. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R. Zoladz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics” model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a “configural/cognitive map” mode to a “flashbulb memory” mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  17. 咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的研究%Effects of combination of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继元; 戴体俊; 李茂琴; 张舟; 卢飞; 李琳; 李家琼; 莫逊; 许艳军; 刘君

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的影响.方法 选择重症加强治疗病房(ICU)行机械通气2~4 d的患者60例,随机分为丙泊酚组、咪唑安定组和咪唑安定加丙泊酚联用组,每组20例.分别于用药后1、2和3 d唤醒患者并出示不同颜色、图形、数字的卡片,于患者停用机械通气完全清醒后评估药物对其镇静-遗忘作用的影响.结果 ①丙泊酚、咪唑安定和联用组分别有70%、95%和90%的患者产生遗忘,停药30 min后患者均恢复记忆.②咪唑安定组静脉推注负荷量药物起效的时间((5.1±2.8)min]和停药清醒后拔除气管插管的时间[(2.7±0.3)h]均较丙泊酚组[(2.7±1.1)min、(0.7±0.2)h]、联用组[(3.1±1.3)min、(1.2±0.6)h]明显延长(P均<0.01);丙泊酚组和联用组药物起效时间和停药清醒后拔除气管插管时间相近,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).③镇静费用咪唑安定组[(1 200±112)元]和联用组[(1 300±132)元]接近,丙泊酚组[(2 100±125)元]高于咪唑安定组约75%(P<0.01).结论 丙泊酚与咪唑安定联合用药既可确保患者产生镇静-遗忘效应,减少各自的用量,降低药物不良反应,又有利于降低患者的住院费用,可能是ICU危重患者较好的镇静-遗忘治疗方案.%Objective To observe the effects of sedation with midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients.Methods Sixty selected patients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit (ICU)were randomly divided into three subgroups(propofol,midazolam,and midazolam and propofol combination group),with 20 cases in each group.Patients who were awakened from sedation were showed with a card depicted with different colors,figures and numbers.When patients were totally conscious after weaning from mechanicaI ventilation,the influence of the different methods of sedation on anterograde amnesia in propofol,midazolam and the combination group

  18. Influence of Gabapentin on analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia effects of sevoflurane in mice.%加巴喷丁对七氟烷小鼠镇痛、催眠、遗忘作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一肖; 董盟; 何珂; 戴体俊; 田艳艳; 宋致静; 严涛; 丁晓维; 王波; 刘晴晴; 郭根花; 朱虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of Gabapentin (GBP) on analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia effects of sevoflurane (SEV) in mice. Methods The hot-plate test and hot water tail-flick test were used to observe the influence of GBP on the analgesia effect of SEV in mice, and righting reflex test was used to observe the changes of sleep latency, sleep time and sleep ratio. Step-through test and step-down test were used to observe the latency and error times. For the righting reflex test the animals were divided into GBP(G), SEV(S),and GBP+ SEV(GS) groups, with 10 mice in each group. In the rest tests, animals were divided into normal saline (NS), G, S, and GS groups, with 10 mice in each group. Results The results of hot plate test showed that the HPPT value in GS group was significantly higher than those in G and S groups at 15 and 25 min (P<0.05); hot water tail-flick test showed that the HPPT value in GS group was significantly higher than those in G and S groups at 5, 10, and 15 min (all P<0.01). Righting reflex test showed that the sleep latency in GS group was significantly shorter (all P<0.05), the sleep time was significantly longer (P<0.05 or 0.01), and the sleep ratio was significantly higher than those in group G and S (P<0.01). The step-through test showed that the GS group had a significantly longer latency (all P<0.05) and significantly more error times (P< 0.01 ). Step-down test showed that the latency in GS group was significantly shorter than that in S group (P<0.05) and the error times were significantly increased than those in S group (P<0.05). Conclusion GBP can enhance the analgesia, hypnosis,and amnesia effects of SEV.%目的:观察加巴喷丁(GBP)对吸入七氟烷(SEV)的小鼠的镇痛、催眠和遗忘作用的影响.方法:采用热板法和甩尾法观察GBP对SEV小鼠痛阈(HPPT)的影响,翻正反射实验观察各实验组小鼠睡眠潜伏期、睡眠维持时间和人睡率,避暗和跳台实验观察潜伏期和错

  19. Evaluateing the learning efficiency of intubation through amnesia and analgesia induction by using shikani opftcal stylet.%Shikani喉镜健忘镇痛慢诱导气管插管的学习效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 谷丽军

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过回顾性分析,对视可尼喉镜健忘镇痛慢诱导气管插管的学习效率进行评价.方法 60例择期手术患者,年龄22~69岁,ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,Mallampti Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,按学习的先后顺序分为三组,每组20例,记录插管试插例次,气管插管时间,同时记录患者麻醉诱导前、插管前即刻、插管后即刻、插管后1 min的血压、心率、脉搏氧饱和度等生命体征的变化.术后随访气管插管的相关并发症.结果 三组年龄、身高、体重、体重指数等一般情况无显著差异.三组平均插管时间分别为(66.84±18.4)s、(55.1±14.0)s、(48.64±11.2)s,第3组与第1组相比差异有统计学意义.一次插管成功率和两次总插管成功率第2、3组与第1组相比有了明显的提高.插管后即刻心率第3组与第1、2组相比有显著降低.第3组插管后l min血压和RPP与基础值相比有所降低,第2组插管后即刻心率与基础值相比有所增加,结果有差异性.所有患者术后均未发现气管插管相关并发症.结论 随着学习经验的不断积累,视可尼喉镜健忘镇痛慢诱导气管插管插管时间显著缩短,一次插管成功率增高,并可减轻视可尼喉镜气管插管时对咽喉部的刺激反应.%Objective To evaluate the learning efficiency of amnesia and analgesia induction method to intubate by using shikani optical stylet. Methods 30 patients, aged from 22-69 years, ASA Ⅰ - Ⅱ, MallamptiⅠ - Ⅱ, were going to have elective surgeries were sequenced into three equal groups. The attempt times, intubating time were gained from the monitoring machines. And the vital signs, such as blood pressure, heart rate, and SpO2 changes, were recorded at four time point: before induction, instant time before intubation, instant time after intubation and lmin after intubation. Results It was comparable in terms of age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI). The average time of intubation in three group were 66.8±18.4 s

  20. Amnesia and sedative effect with different doses of dexmedetomidine for elderly patients under epidural anesthesia%不同剂量右美托咪定对硬膜外麻醉的老年患者镇静遗忘效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翠霞; 石海霞; 陈冬梅; 范玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the amnesia and sedation effect with different doses of dexmedetomidine for elderly patients under epidural anesthesia.Methods Sixty patients aged from 71 to 83 years old,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ grade,receiving lower limb orthopedic surgery were selected and divided into three group(20 in each group).After intravenous infusion of epidural dexmedetomidine with a loading dose of 0.5 μg/kg,then infused at a rate of 0.2、0.3、0.4 μg/(kg · h)in three guoups respectively until suture incision.MAP,HR,SpO2 and OAA/S sedation score were observed and recorded at different time points:before anesthesia(T1),15 minutes after infusion (T2),30 minutes after infusion (T3),60 minutes after infusion (T4),and the end of the operation (T5).The degree of amnesia about the operation after 24 hours was followed up aslo.Results After administration of dexmedetomidine,MAP,HR was lower than that before anesthesia (P<0.05),and HR was decreased more obiviously in group Ⅲ.The effect of sedative and amnesia in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ was better than that in group Ⅰ,while deep sedation-induced SpO2 decline was found in a quarter of patients in group Ⅲ.Conclusions It will receive safe and comfortable sedation and amnesia effect in aged patients to administrate dexmedetomidine at loading dose of 0.5 μg/h,and then at a rate of 0.3 μg/(kg · h) infusion.%目的 观察不同剂量右美托咪定对硬膜外麻醉的老年患者镇静遗忘效应. 方法 选择60例71~83岁,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)评级为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,拟在连续硬膜外麻醉下行下肢手术的骨科患者,随机分为3组(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组),每组20例.硬膜外麻醉后静脉输注右美托咪定负荷剂量0.5 μg/kg,之后3组分别以0.2、0.3、0.4μg/(kg·h)泵注至手术开始缝合刀口时停药,观察用药后3组平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)和OAA/S镇静评分,术后24 h随访患者用药后至手术结束前对有关操作的遗忘程度. 结果 3组用

  1. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients; Evolution des debits sanguins cerebraux entre la phase aigue et un mois apres un ictus amnesique: etude chez 18 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, 69 - Lyon (France); Croisile, B. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Lab. de Neuropsychologie, Fonctions Cognitives, Langage et Memoire, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-03-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using {sup 133}Xe et {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the {sup 133}Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 {+-} 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the{sup 133}Xe calibration. (authors)

  2. 遗忘型轻度认知损害患者记忆错误的神经心理学分析%Neuropsychological study of false memory in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹丹; 程怀东; 尹长林; 吕心怡; 汪凯

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the profile of false memory in aMCI ( amnesia mild cognitive impairment) and to elucidate the neuropsychological mechanism of false memory. Methods False memory provoked by pictures and feeling-of-knowing (FOK) test in episodic memory (EM) were conducted in 25 aMCI patients at our hospital from October 2009 to May 2010. And 25 age and education level-matched healthy patients were recruited into the healthy control (HC) group. Results As compared with HC group,the rate of false memory was higher in the aMCI group. The rate of false memory in recall stage was 26% ±7% and that of questionnaire stage 28% ± 12%. And the difference between two group was significant (t = 14. 437, 7. 597, P <0. 05). The FOK-EM of correct judgment and false recognition in the aMCI group (41% ± 10% ) was higher than the HC group. And the difference was significant (t =4. 207, P <0. 05).The rates of false memory in recall and questionnaire stages were positively correlated with FOK-EM in aMCI group(r = 0. 563, 0. 705, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion The aMCI patients tend to have more false memory provoked by pictures. The deficit of memory monitoring in aMCI may be the foundation of false memory.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(aMCI)患者记忆错误的认知神经心理学特征,了解aMCI患者记忆错误的神经心理学机制.方法 采用图片诱发情景记忆的记忆错误和知道感判断(feeling-of-knowing,FOK)的神经心理学测试方法,分别对25例来自2009年10月至2010年5月期间在安徽医科大学第一附属医院就诊的aMCI患者以及年龄、教育程度相匹配25名健康老年人进行测试.结果 与健康对照组相比,aMCI组故事编码和回忆阶段的记忆错误率(26%±7%)、问卷阶段的记忆错误发生率(28%±12%)和FOK-EM的正确判断/错误再认成绩(即高估)(41%±10%)均较高,差异有统计学意义(分别为t=14.437、7.597、4.207,P<0.05),且故事编码和回忆阶段的记忆错误率

  3. 咪达唑仑不同剂量和时机给药的遗忘程度%Extent of Amnesia with Midazolam Different Doses and Timing Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁力勇; 戴体俊; 王霞民; 孙志强; 傅红

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨咪达唑仑遗忘作用的合适给药时机和剂量.方法 以240例ASAⅠ级病人对椎管内麻醉穿刺操作的遗忘程度为评价指标,分为椎管内麻醉穿刺操作前(A)组和后(B)组,每组120例;每大组又随机分为4小组,分别给予不同剂量的咪达唑仑,分为0.01mg/kg(M1组)、0.03mg/kg(M2组)、0.1mg/kg(M3组)和生理盐水(NS)组,每组30例.记录用药后的警觉-镇静(OAA/S)评分和手术后1h的遗忘评分(amnesia score,AS).结果 OAA/S评分:A组和B组中,不同剂量M组与NS组之间,不同OAA/S评分所占人数比例有明显差异;B组中M2与A组中M2相比,OAA/S评分秩次有显著差异,B组中M3组与A组中M3组相比,秩次有显著差异;AS评分:A组中,各剂量M组均有不同程度的遗忘;M2、M3组与M1组间相比,遗忘程度增加,P<0.05;而M2、M 3组之间P>0.05;B组中,M1、M2组与NS组遗忘程度相似(P>0.05),而M 3组与其余三组相比,遗忘程度明显增加,但其与A组中M3组相比,遗忘程度明显不如后者.结论 咪达唑仑的镇静作用同其剂量成正相关;咪达唑仑具有明确的顺行性遗忘作用,并同镇静程度相关,但有封顶效应(ceiling effect);在较大剂量情况下,亦能产生逆行性遗忘作用,但是效力不及同等剂量下预先给药;这提示咪达唑仑应以适当剂量、在有创操作前给药,可以产生满意的遗忘作用,剂量过大并不能够产生更强的遗忘作用.

  4. Clinical Observation of Midazolam's Sedative Effect and Anterograde Amnesia Effect on Gynecologic Surgery Patients Undergoing Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia%咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者镇静和术后遗忘效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锐捷; 刘少芬; 张松林; 房瑞林; 陈铭君; 莫坚

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the sedative effects and anterograde amnesia effect of midazolam intravenous injection used before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on calming down the patients and their forgetting degree of procedure.Method:200 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients scheduled for gynecologic surgery under spinal-epidural anesthesia were included in the study.Patients were randomly assigned into two groups with 100 cases each.Group A used midazolam while Group B used 0.9% sodium as control.Group A used midazolam (0.lmg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia while group B used 2ml 0.9% sodium as control.Record and compare the patients' sedative effect before operation began and the forgetting degree 24 hours after operation finished.Result:According to the Ramsay standard,the patients in group A have significant better sedative effect than group B since operation started (P<0.05).In group A the transient global amnesia rate of was 97% while the transient partial amnesia rate was 3%.Meanwhile,the transient global amnesia rate,the transient partial amnesia rate and the unforgotten rate were 68,25% and 7% in Group B separately.There was a significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).Conclusions:Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia can reduce the patients' worries and horrors.It not only helps to keep patients sedative but also cooperate with anesthesia and controlling body position.It has good calm and amnesia effects on anesthesia and procedure.%目的:本文旨在观察咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者术后镇痛遗忘效果.方法:将200例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级腰硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术患者随机分为两组:咪唑安定组(A组)和对照组(B组).两组患者分别于麻醉前30分钟静脉注射咪唑安定0.1 mg/kg和0.9%生理盐水2mL.观察用药前后病人镇静情况,镇静分级,对麻醉和手术操作的遗忘程度和病人的心理状态.结果:根

  5. Citation Amnesia. Not Good for Our Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Raloff; 黄春(选注)

    2009-01-01

    您可能比较熟悉“选择性遗忘症”这样的病症术语,而对于“引用遗忘症”一说,恐怕知之甚少。这个十多年前才被杜撰出来的病理术语指向的是特定的患者人群——科研人员,其症状是患者在描述自己的科研成果时总会忽略前人所做的相关贡献,而其后果当然与其它遗忘症一样,是不利于人们的健康的。

  6. Tracelink: A model of consolidation and amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeter; J.M.J. Murre

    2005-01-01

    A connectionist model is presented, the TraceLink model, that implements an autonomous "off-line" consolidation process. The model consists of three subsystems: (1) a trace system(neocortex), (2) a link system (hippocampus and adjacent regions), and (3) a modulatory system (basal forebrain and other

  7. Terminus Amnesia: Cherokee Freedmen, Citizenship, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Nicholas; Solyom, Jessica Ann; Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma amended its constitution to limit membership to only those who can trace lineal descent to an individual listed as "Cherokee by Blood" on the final Dawes Rolls. This exercise of sovereignty paradoxically ties the Dawes Rolls, the colonial instruments used to divide the lands and peoples of the…

  8. Experimental study on amnesia caused by piracetam and diazepam%吡拉西坦拮抗地西泮致健忘作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建春; 张士善

    2004-01-01

    experiment was done in the pharmacology teaching section of Wenzhou Medical College. The necessary materials include 415rats of Kunming species, diazepam, piracetam, glutamicacid(Glu)and γ-aminiobutyricacid (GABA).METHODS: In dark aviodance test and the spontaneous activities, rats were divided into normal saline group, diazepam group, piracetam group, and piracetam + diazepam group. In the Y-maze test, there were normal saline group, Glu group, GABA group, GABA + Glu group, diazepam + Glu group,piracetam + GABA group, diazepam group and diazepam + piracetam group. The times og mistakes of mistates and latent period recorded during lesrning and testing. And then observed their spontaneous activities and learning ability of distinguishing space.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of mistakes made by rats during learning and tests. Spontaneous activity and learning ability of distinguishing space.RESULTS: Diazepam obviously impairs the abilities of memory acquiring and learning how to distinguish open space of rats. But the use of piracetam improve clesrly these damages while the central inhibitive effects of diazepam were not affected by piracetam.CONCLUSION: Piracetam can redress the amnesia caused by diazepam without its central inhibitive effects affected.

  9. α-硫辛酸合锌对痴呆模型小鼠学习记忆能力的影响%Effects of Zinc α-lipoate Complex on the Learning and Memory Abilities of Scopolamine-induced Amnesia Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 李燕; 罗瑛; 田卫群; 周青山

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of zincα-lipoate complex on the learning and memory abilities as well as the oxidative stress in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Methods A total of 32 mice were randomly divided into the model control group, the group with α-lipoic acid, the group with zinc sulfate, the group with zincα-lipoate complex. rats in each group were administered corresponding drugs and trained with Y-maze five hours later. After 8 days,Rats in each group received the celiac injection of the scopolamine at a dose of 5mg/kg. After half an hour, the memory ability was tested, and then the mice were decapitated. The content of GSH and protein, the activity of SOD in the cerebral tissue were determined. Results Compared with the model control group and other groups, the zincα-li-poate complex can decrease the false times and the activity of SOD (P < 0. 01) in the cerebral tissue, while increase the content of GSH (P < 0. 01) and protein (P < 0. 05). Conclusion The zinc α-lipoate complex can improve the learning and memory abilities and de-crease the level of oxidative stress in the cerebral tissue of amnesia mice.%目的 观察α-硫辛酸合锌对东莨菪碱致痴呆模型小鼠学习记忆能力及氧化应激的影响. 方法 将32只昆明小鼠随机均分成模型对照组、硫辛酸组、硫酸锌组、α-硫辛酸合锌组. 每组每天分别给予生理盐水、硫辛酸、硫酸锌和α-硫辛酸合锌,每次给药5h后进行Y迷宫训练,连续8天后各组均给予5mg/kg东莨菪碱,半小时后进行记忆能力测试. 测定小鼠匀浆后脑组织内还原型谷胱甘肽和蛋白含量及超氧化物歧化酶的活力. 结果 与模型对照组及其他各组相比,α-硫辛酸合锌组小鼠错误次数明显减少,脑组织内还原型谷胱甘肽和蛋白质含量明显升高(P<0. 05),超氧化物歧化酶活力明显降低(P<0. 01). 结论α-硫辛酸合锌可以显著提高痴呆小鼠的学习记忆能力,降低脑组织内氧化应激水平.

  10. 不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on anterograde amnesia of propofol in patients undergoing gynecological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 茅晓玉; 张卫

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响.方法 择期行腹腔镜下全子宫切除术患者60例,年龄20~50岁,体重指数18 ~ 25 kg/m2,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=20):异丙酚组(C组)、低剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D1组)和高剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D2组).D1组和D2组分别经15 min静脉输注右美托咪定0.2、0.4 μg/kg.随后3组靶控输注异丙酚,初始血浆靶浓度(Cp)为0.5 μg/ml,依次递增至0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml,每一浓度维持3 min.分别于入室后(基础水平)、右美托咪定输注完毕、异丙酚Cp达0.5、0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml维持3 min时进行遗忘测试和警觉/镇静评分(OAA/S评分),计算遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和BIS值,并记录该期间低血压、心动过缓、呼吸抑制和上呼吸道梗阻的发生情况.结果 与C组比较,D1组和D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和呼吸抑制发生率降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),其他不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与D1组比较,D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),D1组和D2组不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 右美托咪定增强妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的适宜剂量为0.4 μg/kg.%Objective To evaluate the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia of propofol in the patients undergoing gynecological surgery.Methods Sixty patients,aged 20-50 yr,with body mass index of 18-25 kg/m2,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,scheduled for elective laparoscopic total hysterectomy,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:propofol group (group C),low-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D1) and high-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D2).Dexmedetomidine 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg were

  11. 咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的比较分析%Comparative analysis of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠同; 黄梅英; 陈新妹; 温清娴; 李金波; 吴开华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient.Methods One hundred and twenty patients underwent the epidural anesthesia for the abdomen or legs operation were randomly divided into observation group and control group,every group for 60 cases.Patient in control group were given target-controlled infusion of propofol,patient in observation group were given target-controlled infusion of midazolam.Calmness depth were assessed by OAA/S mark criterion.The changes of SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the different time were recorded.Results The SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the observation group were not changed,HR in the control group was increased after intravenous injection for 1-5 min(P < 0.05),return to onrmal after ten to twenty minutes; and the SBP,DBP,RR were not changed in the other time.The SpO2 was 95%-100%.The OAA/S mark was reduced from 4 to 2,calmness depth was gradually deepen,and the forgetting rate was gradually rising.Patients in 2-3 mark was 93.3% and 65.0%,the complete forgetting rate was 91.7% and 25.0%,the observation group was better than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions Both of midazolam and propofol have anterograde amnesia effect,and the propofol presented the effects in deeper sedation,midazolam has rerograde amnesia effect in shallow calm.%目的 比较咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的差异.方法 选择120例硬膜外麻醉下择期行腹部及下肢手术的患者,并随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例,观察组靶控输注咪达唑仑,对照组靶控输注丙泊酚.用OAA/S评分标准评定镇静深度,并记录.记录用药后不同时间点的收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、呼吸(HR)、心率(RR)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)的变化.结果 观察组SBP、DBP、HR 、RR 、Sp02平稳,对照组静脉注射后l~5 min HR明显加快(P<0.05),10~20 min恢复;其余观察时

  12. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  13. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.)

  14. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  15. Apparent Amnesia : interidentity memory functioning in dissociative identity disdorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual s behavior. Between 95 and 100 % of DID patients report experiences of blank spells for periods of time when other identities

  16. Using Chemistry Simulations: Attention Capture, Selective Amnesia and Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-one convenience sample student volunteers aged between 14-15 years worked in pairs (and one group of three) with two randomly allocated high quality conceptual (molecular level) and operational (mimicking wet labs) simulations. The volunteers were told they had five minutes to play, repeat, review, restart or stop the simulation, which in…

  17. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  18. Using semantic memory to boost 'episodic' recall in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-17

    We report two experiments that investigated factors that might boost 'episodic' recall for Jon, a developmental amnesic whose episodic memory is gravely impaired but whose semantic memory seems relatively normal. Experiment 1 showed that Jon's recall improved following a semantic study task compared with a non-semantic study task, as well as following four repeated study trials compared with only one. Experiment 2 additionally revealed that Jon's recall improved after acting compared with reading action phrases at study, but only if the phrases were well integrated semantically. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that Jon's 'episodic' recall depends on the extent to which he is able to retrieve events using semantic memory. PMID:16791103

  19. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.'s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Hadley, Chris

    2013-03-27

    Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans) some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC), H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun "her" to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b) encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c) H.M.'s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d) H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information.

  20. Security Through Amnesia: A Software-Based Solution to the Cold Boot Attack on Disk Encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Disk encryption has become an important security measure for a multitude of clients, including governments, corporations, activists, security-conscious professionals, and privacy-conscious individuals. Unfortunately, recent research has discovered an effective side channel attack against any disk mounted by a running machine\\cite{princetonattack}. This attack, known as the cold boot attack, is effective against any mounted volume using state-of-the-art disk encryption, is relatively simple to perform for an attacker with even rudimentary technical knowledge and training, and is applicable to exactly the scenario against which disk encryption is primarily supposed to defend: an adversary with physical access. To our knowledge, no effective software-based countermeasure to this attack supporting multiple encryption keys has yet been articulated in the literature. Moreover, since no proposed solution has been implemented in publicly available software, all general-purpose machines using disk encryption remain vu...

  1. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  2. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and subseq

  3. Hippocampal contributions to language: evidence of referential processing deficits in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczek, Jake; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of work suggests the hippocampus contributes to a variety of cognitive domains beyond its traditional role in memory. We propose that the hippocampus, in its capacity for relational binding, representational flexibility, and online maintenance and integration of multimodal relational representations, is a key contributor to language processing. Here we test the hypothesis that the online interpretation of pronouns is hippocampus-dependent. We combined eye tracking with neuropsychological methods, where participants (4 patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment, 4 patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC] damage, and healthy comparison participants) viewed a scene while listening to short dialogues introducing 2 characters; for example, Melissa is playing violin for Debbie/Danny as the sun is shining overhead. She is wearing a blue/purple dress. Consistent with previous work, analysis of eye gaze showed that younger and older healthy comparison participants and the vmPFC patients rapidly identified the intended referent of the pronoun when gender uniquely identified the referent, and when it did not, they showed a preference to interpret the pronoun as referring to the first-mentioned character. By contrast, hippocampal patients, while exhibiting a similar gender effect, exhibited significant disruptions in their ability to use information about which character had been mentioned first to interpret the pronoun. This finding suggests that the hippocampus plays a role in maintaining and integrating information even over a very short discourse history. These observed disruptions in referential processing demonstrate how promiscuously the hallmark processing features of the hippocampus are used in service of a variety of cognitive domains including language. PMID:23937178

  4. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  5. Exploraciones de la amnesia colectiva en torno a la violencia de Estado en 2666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Blejer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Bolaño utiliza el desarrollo literario de la novela policial para conformar los principios de su poética. En la reelaboración del género se aproxima a sus normas, pero también las desacata porque si bien está interesado en la capacidad del género de mostrar el reflejo de la sociedad, su pregunta fundamental es literaria. El presente texto discute el doble movimiento en 2666 como mecanismo para problematizar la diseminación de la violencia sistémica pero también para replantear los debates del siglo XX en torno al arte.

  6. Patterns of preserved and impaired spatial memory in a case of developmental amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shayna eRosenbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is believed to have evolved to support allocentric spatial representations of environments as well as the details of personal episodes that occur within them, whereas other brain structures are believed to support complementary egocentric spatial representations. Studies of patients with adult-onset lesions lend support to these distinctions for newly encountered places but suggest that with time and/or experience, schematic aspects of environments can exist independent of the hippocampus. Less clear is the quality of spatial memories acquired in individuals with impaired episodic memory in the context of a hippocampal system that did not develop normally. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the integrity of spatial representations of environments navigated repeatedly over many years in the rare case of H.C., a person with congenital absence of the mammillary bodies and abnormal hippocampal and fornix development. H.C. and controls who had extensive experience navigating the residential and downtown areas known to H.C. were tested on mental navigation tasks that assess the identity, location, and spatial relations among landmarks, and the ability to represent routes. H.C. was able to represent distances and directions between familiar landmarks and provide accurate, though inefficient, route descriptions. However, difficulties producing detailed spatial features on maps and accurately ordering more than two landmarks that are in close proximity to one another along a route suggest a spatial representation that includes only coarse, schematic information that lacks coherence and that cannot be used flexibly. This pattern of performance is considered in the context of other areas of preservation and impairment exhibited by H.C. and suggests that the allocentric-egocentric dichotomy with respect to hippocampal and extended hippocampal system function may need to be reconsidered.

  7. Unusual amnesia in a patient with VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounis, Luke D; de Silva, Rajith

    2011-04-01

    We describe the case of a patient with confirmed voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated encephalitis (VGKC-Ab). MRI studies revealed bilateral hyper-intensity in the hippocampi, with their volumes preserved. At presentation, the patient's anterograde and retrograde memory skills were found to be impaired and he showed fluctuation in his ability to recall familiar information. Following treatment with immunotherapy, his condition improved considerably and, in a series of follow up assessments, he performed satisfactorily (i.e., within the average range or above) on formal tests of memory, as well as on a range of other cognitive tests, including tests of executive function. By contrast, in the context of contemporaneous unstructured interviews, he showed a strong tendency to confabulate. We argue that the reported case broadens the phenomenology of VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis and raises important theoretical questions about the aetiology of this patient's most unusual memory disorder.

  8. Memory or amnesia: the dilemma of stem cell therapy in muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies are monogenetic diseases that are often characterized by the degeneration of both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Gene therapy to correct the mutated gene has shown promise in both animal models and clinical trials; however, current gene delivery strategies are limited to the introduction of the corrected gene into only one tissue. Strategies to target multiple striated muscle types would provide a much-needed improvement for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In this issue of the JCI, Quattrocelli and colleagues demonstrate that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a myogenic propensity are able to engraft into both cardiac and skeletal muscles. The authors also identified a novel pool of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs). Moreover, the authors show that these MiPs are amenable to gene correction and can restore function in murine dystrophic models. Together, the results of this study provide an important advance in improving gene delivery to treat patients with muscular dystrophy. PMID:26571391

  9. Transient Global Amnesia Syndrome%短暂性完全遗忘综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓钢

    2001-01-01

    短暂性完全遗忘综合征是一种突然发生的、以短暂性近事遗忘为主要特点的临床综合征.多在24小时内完全恢复.本文就其临床特点、病因和发病机制、辅助检查、治疗和预后作了简要介绍.

  10. Formidable Mass amnesia%可怕的群体失忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涵流

    2003-01-01

    SARS逝去了。社会的、道德的、习惯的、体制和机制的陋习又卷土重来。壮烈的已经壮烈.与亲历者毫不相干。虽然我们吞吃和喷撒了许多苦涩呛人中西药物,但好像什么也没发生过,依然我行我素。仿佛鲁迅先生笔下的小栓.尽管把沾过人血的馒头当成药引子趁热吞下,却还是咳、并且咳个不止。

  11. Transient partial amnesia complicating cardiac and peripheral arteriography with nonionic contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A.; Yencilek, E.; Apaydin, F.D.; Duce, M.N.; Oezer, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey); Atalay, A. [Dept. of Cardiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case of disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the coronary and lower extremity angiographies with radiological and clinical findings. This condition was secondary to intraarterial use of a nonionic, monomeric contrast medium. A total of 450 cc contrast media was used. Computed tomography examination showed contrast enhancement of the right occipital and frontoparietal cortical regions, which returned to normal one day after. The patient also fully recovered from the neurological symptoms within 24 h. We discussed the possible mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption in this case. (orig.)

  12. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  13. The Effect of Ginkgo on Baclofen Induced Amnesia using Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elaheh Nooshinfar; Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani; Akram Safaei; Yara Tambrchi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: Ginkgo biloba is an herbal medicine that has a positive effect on improving memory. It prevents oxidative damage in mitochondria and cell death in a variety of Neuropathies. Besides, baclofen is prescribed for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects but has negative impact on memory. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction of ginkgo with GABA b receptor agonist (baclofen) by passive avoidance behavior in mice. Materials & Methods: Passive ...

  14. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and subseq

  15. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy, hypertensive surge, blood-brain barrier breach, and amnesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    . These changes may impair neuronal functioning and contribute to the mechanisms underlying ECT-induced cognitive deficits. Some but not all clinical data on the subject suggest that blood pressure changes during ECT correlate with indices of cognitive impairment. In animal models, pharmacological manipulations...... of patients who experience pronounced hypertensive changes during ECT, and clinically relevant outcome measures, such as autobiographical memory impairment, should be examined....

  17. On Borges' Amnesia and Talmudic Understanding: Reviving Ancient Traditions in Re-search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Neuman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic bases, which sustain traditional western psychological interpretative efforts, need not be just a footnote to Plato. In this paper we introduce the Talmudic interpretative perspective, which we use to point at some weaknesses we identify in contemporary research imaginings. While the empiricist approach may be traced to Plato and the interpretative and the critical approaches may be traced to Heraclitus, we argue that the Talmudic approach is a differentiated and unique perspective that, because of its non-epistemic nature, its dialogical character, and its recognition of two intermingled levels of interpretation, can make an important contribution to new ways of thinking about understanding and meaning in research.

  18. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia I: H.M.’s Spared Retrieval Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. James

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three studies examined amnesic H.M.’s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC. In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs and one syntactic category (noun phrases with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and with reliably greater-than-normal frequency. In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names. Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level “compensation hypothesis” for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1. Present results suggested that (a frontal mechanisms for retrieving word-, phrase-, and propositional-categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia, (b using his intact retrieval mechanisms, H.M. has developed a never-previously-observed proposition-level free association strategy to compensate for the hippocampal region damage that has impaired his mechanisms for encoding novel linguistic structures, and (c H.M.’s overuse of proper names warrants further research.

  19. Cross-task repetition amnesia : Impaired recall of RSVP targets held in memory for a secondary task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Johnson, Addie; Kanai, Ryota; Martens, Sander

    2007-01-01

    People often fail to select and encode the second of two targets presented within less than 500 ms in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), an effect known as the attentional blink. We investigated how report of the two targets is affected when one of them is maintained in working memory for a se

  20. Amnesia International - varajane arvutikunst ja liikumine Tendencies / Darko Fritz ; tõlk. Rael Artel ja Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fritz, Darko

    2001-01-01

    1960. ja 1970. aastate arvutikunstist Tendenciese liikumise põhjal. Zagrebi Kaasaegse Kunsti Galerii näitused "The Tendencies" aastatel 1961-1973. Darko Fritzi ja netikunstnik Vuk Cosici kirjavahetusest 2000. aastal

  1. AC-3933, a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, improves memory performance in MK-801-induced amnesia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Iwamura, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, is a drug candidate for cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that AC-3933 enhances acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and age-related cognitive decline in both rats and mice. In this study, we further evaluated the procognitive effect of AC-3933 on memory impairment induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in mice. Unlike the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist FG-7142, oral administration of AC-3933 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test and in the object location test. Interestingly, the procognitive effects of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment were not affected by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, although this was not the case for the beneficial effects of AC-3933 on scopolamine-induced memory deficit. Moreover, the onset of AC-3933 ameliorating effect on scopolamine- or MK-801-induced memory impairment was different in the Y-maze test. Taken together, these results indicate that AC-3933 improves memory deficits caused by both cholinergic and glutamatergic hypofunction and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment is mediated by a mechanism other than inverse activation of the benzodiazepine receptor.

  2. Effect of Jyotiṣmatī seed oil on spatial and fear memory using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Sanket B.; Parekar, Reshma R.; Kshitij S Jadhav; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Nirmala N Rege

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of memory impairment associated with dementia such as Alzheimer′s disease is still inadequate and requires development of new drugs. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the memory enhancing effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil. Materials and Methods: C. paniculatus seed oil was mixed with equal amount of pure ghee and administered orally to mice in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as a standard nootropic. Elevated plus maze and passive avoid...

  3. Malignant lymphoma in central nervous system (CNS). Report of a case with characteristic CT finding and amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiyoshi, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Nishimura, Toshio

    1984-07-01

    A 71-year-old male was admitted to Kohka Public Hospital on January 4, 1980, because of frequent vomiting and recent memory loss. Two weeks before admission upper G-I series showed no abnormalities. Physical and neurological examinations revealed no abnormalities except for slightly apathetic appearance and recent memory loss. Mild pleocytosis and marked increase of protein in CSF were observed. CT scan on January 17 showed high density areas in both medial sides of temporal lobes with remarkable contrast enhancement. His memory and, consciousness disturbances gradually aggravated, accompanied by abnormal density spreading around the ventricle walls like ventriculitis. He was transfered to Kyoto University Hospital on March 17, and malignant lymphoma was diagnosed on the basis of CSF cytology. Radiation and chemotherapy alleviated the CNS involvement and he regained normal mental function. On June 16, he developed pneumonia followed by status epilepticus. Autopsy findings revealed no lymphoid cell infiltration, but fibrous tissues in both hippocampal gyri and lymphomatous cells in the liver, which could not be suspected on clinical examinations. Apparent malignant lymphoma cells were not found in lymph nodes. This case indicated peculiar evolution of malignant lymphoma from liver to CNS or vice versa. We could not decide which organ was primary. CT findings of this case was very interesting; they resembled ventriculitis, which simulate tumors such as medulloblastoma or ependymoma spreading under ependymal lining.

  4. Transient Global Amnesia as the First Clinical Symptom for Malignant B-Cell Lymphoma with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Zafar

    2015-01-01

    be diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement a few weeks later. This is the first ever case reported in literature with lymphoma presenting as TGA. Literature review and pertinent points regarding high-yield imaging protocol for presumed TGA patients are discussed.

  5. A single dose of propofol can produce excellent sedation and comparable amnesia with midazolam in cystoscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sajedi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study we compared the sedative and amnesic effects of propofol with midazolam in cystoscopy examination. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was done on 44 adults, with American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I, II, III, who were candidate for cystoscopic examination. Patients were recruited according to convenience sampling method and randomized into two equal groups. In study group, propofol plus fentanyl and in control group midazolam plus fentanyl were given intravenously. Vital signs and SaO2, the number of patients movements, presence of eyelid movements and verbal contact all at the first and 10th minutes after beginning the procedure were recorded. Also, frequency distributions of patients recalls, VAS (visual analog scale for pain and VAS for satisfaction scores were evaluated in recovery room. RESULTS: Frequency distribution of patients movements, frequency distribution of verbal contact and eyelid movements at the first and 10th minutes were higher in midazolam group (P<0.05. There were a lower VAS pain score and higher VAS satisfaction score in propofol group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.041 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol was more effective than midazolam in inducing deep sedation and immobility in patients undergoing cystoscopy examination, without interfacing patients with additional danger. KEYWORDS: Propofol, midazolam, cystoscopy.

  6. Cognitive enhancing, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant properties of Tagetes patula on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory associated with shrinkage of brain tissue and loss of neurons with a diminished level of the central cholinergic neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Objective: The present study was performed to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of Tagetes patula (EETP on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, in mice. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with EETP and donepezil for 15 successive days followed by treatment with scopolamine (1 mg/kg for 3 days. The changes in behavioral, biochemical, and neurotransmitters were assessed in rats. Cognitive functions were assessed using step-through latency on a passive avoidance apparatus and Morris water maze test. Antioxidants parametes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and nitrates were assessed. Neurotransmitters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE, dopamine (DA, and serotonin were also assessed, and neuronal damage was also analyzed. Results: Scopolamine-treated rats showed impaired learning and memory, increased activity of AChE, LPO and decreased levels of SOD, reduced glutathione, nitrates, serotonin, and DA. The EETP significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice was measured by the passive avoidance test. In addition, EETP decreased escape latency in the Morris water maze. In probe trail session, EETP increased the latency time in the target quadrant. Ex vivo EETP inhibited AChE activity in the mice brain. EETP treated mice significantly increased the SOD, GR, nitrates, DA, and serotonin levels, and decreased the level of LPO when compared with scopolamine-treated mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that EETP may exert anti-amnesic effect through both by anti-AChE and antioxidant mechanisms.

  7. Evaluation of effect of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in alprazolam induced amnesia in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi C. H.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Tinospora cordifolia, Indian medicinal plant useful for treatment of various ailments can also be a useful alternative for treating dementia and associated diseases like alzheimer's disease. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2159-2163

  8. Effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its components on experimental amnesia in mice: elucidation using the passive avoidance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A F; Matsumoto, K; Tabata, K; Takayama, H; Kitajima, M; Watanabe, H

    2000-12-01

    The effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its oxindole alkaloid components, uncarine E, uncarine C, mitraphylline, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline, on the impairment of retention performance caused by amnesic drugs were investigated using a step-down-type passive avoidance test in mice. In this test, the retention performance of animals treated with the amnesic and test drugs before training was assessed 24 h after training. Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid (10-20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the alkaloid components (10-40 mg kg(-1), i.p.), as well as the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.01 mg kg(-1), i.p.), significantly attenuated the deficit in retention performance induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The effective doses of uncarine C and mitraphylline were larger than those of other alkaloid components. Uncarine E (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) also blocked the impairment of passive avoidance performance caused by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (15 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP; 7.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.), but it failed to affect the deficit caused by the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepam (2 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Rhynchophylline significantly reduced the mecamylamine-induced deficit in passive avoidance behaviour, but it failed to attenuate the effects of CPP and diazepam. These results suggest that Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloids exert a beneficial effect on memory impairment induced by the dysfunction of cholinergic systems in the brain and that the effect of the total alkaloids is partly attributed to the oxindole alkaloids tested. Moreover, these findings raised the possibility that the glutamatergic systems are implicated in the anti-amnesic effect of uncarine E.

  9. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hadley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC, H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun “her” to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c H.M.’s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information.

  10. Rule knowledge aids performance on spatial and object alternation tasks by alcoholic patients with and without Korsakoff’s amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Bardenhagen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiona J Bardenhagen1,2, Marlene Oscar-Berman3, Stephen C Bowden2,41School of Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Clinical Neurosciences, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; 3Division of Psychiatry and Departments of Neurology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine; and Psychology Research Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain Campus, MA, USA; 4School of Behavioural Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Delayed alternation (DA and object alternation (OA tasks traditionally have been used to measure defective response inhibition associated with dysfunction of frontal brain systems. However, these tasks are also sensitive to nonfrontal lesions, and cognitive processes such as the induction of rule-learning strategies also are needed in order to perform well on these tasks. Performance on DA and OA tasks was explored in 10 patients with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome, 11 abstinent long-term alcoholics, and 13 healthy non-alcoholic controls under each of two rule provision conditions: Alternation Rule and Correction Rule. Results confirmed that rule knowledge is a crucial cognitive component for solving problems such as DA and OA, and therefore, that errors on these tasks are not due to defective response inhibition alone. Further, rule-induction strategies were helpful to Korsakoff patients, despite their poorer performance on the tasks. These results stress the role of multiple cognitive abilities in successful performance on rule induction tasks. Evidence that these cognitive abilities are served by diffusely distributed neural networks should be considered when interpreting behavioral impairments on these tasks.Keywords: alcoholism, Korsakoff’s syndrome, comparative neuropsychology, perseveration, rule induction, working memory

  11. Archives and the Cure for Institutional Amnesia: College and University Saga as Part of the Campus Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2009-01-01

    College and university archivists face changes in their responsibilities that place at risk their ability to document the history of their institutions. Educational institutions that preserve, make known, and promote their history create a strong and lively institutional identity. This identity can be shaped and boosted through documenting…

  12. The end of amnesia: A new method for measuring the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using manganese lines in supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes Montoliu, Carles; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Hughes, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remna...

  13. Emotion-Induced Amnesia in Rats: Working Memory-Specific Impairment, Corticosterone-Memory Correlation, and Fear Versus Arousal Effects on Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, James C.; Macintosh, Deric; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that psychological stress (predator exposure) impairs spatial memory in rats. We have extended that finding here to show that predator stress selectively impaired recently acquired (hippocampal-dependent) spatial working memory without affecting long-term (hippocampal-independent) spatial reference memory. We also investigated why predator exposure impairs memory. Was spatial memory impaired because of the fear-provoking aspects of predator exposure or only because th...

  14. Implicit task sequence learning in patients with Parkinson's disease, frontal lesions and amnesia: The critical role of fronto-striatal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Weiermann, Brigitte; Gutbrod, Klemens; Stephan, Marianne A; Cock, Josephine; Müri, René M; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2013-10-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the fronto-striatal system for implicit task sequence learning. We tested performance of patients with compromised functioning of the fronto-striatal loops, that is, patients with Parkinson's disease and patients with lesions in the ventromedial or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We also tested amnesic patients with lesions either to the basal forebrain/orbitofrontal cortex or to thalamic/medio-temporal regions. We used a task sequence learning paradigm involving the presentation of a sequence of categorical binary-choice decision tasks. After several blocks of training, the sequence, hidden in the order of tasks, was replaced by a pseudo-random sequence. Learning (i.e., sensitivity to the ordering) was assessed by measuring whether this change disrupted performance. Although all the patients were able to perform the decision tasks quite easily, those with lesions to the fronto-striatal loops (i.e., patients with Parkinson's disease, with lesions in the ventromedial or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and those amnesic patients with lesions to the basal forebrain/orbitofrontal cortex) did not show any evidence of implicit task sequence learning. In contrast, those amnesic patients with lesions to thalamic/medio-temporal regions showed intact sequence learning. Together, these results indicate that the integrity of the fronto-striatal system is a prerequisite for implicit task sequence learning.

  15. Implicit task sequence learning in patients with Parkinson's disease, frontal lesions and amnesia: the critical role of fronto–striatal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Weiermann, Brigitte; Gutbrod, Klemens; Stephan, Marianne A; Cock, Josephine; Mür, René M; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the fronto–striatal system for implicit task sequence learning. We tested performance of patients with compromised functioning of the fronto–striatal loops, that is, patients with Parkinson's disease and patients with lesions in the ventromedial or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We also tested amnesic patients with lesions either to the basal forebrain/orbitofrontal cortex or to thalamic/medio-temporal regions. We used a task sequence learning paradigm involving the presentation of a sequence of categorical binary-choice decision tasks. After several blocks of training, the sequence, hidden in the order of tasks, was replaced by a pseudo-random sequence. Learning (i.e., sensitivity to the ordering) was assessed by measuring whether this change disrupted performance. Although all the patients were able to perform the decision tasks quite easily, those with lesions to the fronto–striatal loops (i.e., patients with Parkinson's disease, with lesions in the ventromedial or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and those amnesic patients with lesions to the basal forebrain/orbitofrontal cortex) did not show any evidence of implicit task sequence learning. In contrast, those amnesic patients with lesions to thalamic/medio-temporal regions showed intact sequence learning. Together, these results indicate that the integrity of the fronto–striatal system is a prerequisite for implicit task sequence learning.

  16. 企业健忘症:"无疾而终"的杀手%Enterprise's amnesia is the killer of "ending up in vein"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春洋

    2005-01-01

    @@ 企业可以死于战略,可以死于竞争,也可以死于政策,但有7成以上的企业却在经历辉煌以后"无疾而终",曾经的成功许没有带来继续的成功,这其中最大的原因是他们患上了企业健忘症.一个企业治疗"健忘症"的过程,就是企业效率大量提升的过程.

  17. 脑外伤后遗忘症%Posttraumatic amnesia(PTA) YIN Wen-gang.Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹文刚

    2001-01-01

    介绍脑外伤后遗症 (PTA)的遗忘的发生、表现的类型以及持续时间等方面的基本特征 , 从精神心理的角度较为深入地研讨这种记忆障碍的内在机制 , 并从脑外伤康复的临床实践出发 , 着重介绍国内外几种常用的记忆量表 , 探讨如何对 PTA进行测定和评估的问题 .

  18. A case of elective retrograde amnesia caused by estazolam%艾司唑仑片致选择性逆行性遗忘症一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪标; 刘宁

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 病例报告 患者,女,24岁.因失眠目服艾司哗仑片20 mg.服药后2h患者表现为全身乏力、站立不稳、倦怠不堪,自述有自杀倾向.患者主诉未服过其他药物,平素身体健康,无药物、食物等过敏史,无遗传性家族病史.

  19. 短暂性全面遗忘综合征2例报道%Transient Global Amnesia:2 Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿木提·托乎提; 范丽; 阚美云

    2008-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘(transient global amnesia,TGA)是易发生于中老年人的一种急性遗忘综合征,表现为患者短期内突然不能接受新的信息而保留远期记忆,症状常在24h内缓解。1956年Bender首次报道,称为伴有遗忘的精神错乱;1958年由Fisher和Adam正式命名为TGA。其后国外有很多这样的病例报道。

  20. 老年健忘脾胃始动病机论%Discuss on Beginning Pathogenesis of Senile Amnesia from Weakness of the Spleen and the Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珀; 赵俊芳

    2005-01-01

    老年健忘是一种由增龄所引起的记忆减退,“增龄相关性记忆减退”(AAMI)可进一步发展为轻度认知损害(mild cogitive impairment,MCI)甚至发生阿尔海默氏病(AD)。有研究表明,MCI患者发生AD的危险性明显增高。随着社会人口老龄化程度日益加重,探讨老年健忘症对于预防阿尔海默氏病(AD)具有重要的战略意义。本文试就老年健忘的病机探讨如下。

  1. 金元医家论治健忘特色撷菁%Selection on Characteristic Treatment for Amnesia by Medical Practitioners in Jin and Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白钰; 陈永灿

    2009-01-01

    @@ 健忘是指记忆力减退,遇事易忘的一种病症.经过历代医家的不断实践和探索,祖国医学在健忘的证治方面积累有独特而丰富的经验,值得深入挖掘和研究.

  2. Premarin improves memory, prevents scopolamine-induced amnesia and increases number of basal forebrain choline acetyltransferase positive cells in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Jazmin I.; Mayer, Loretta; Talboom, Joshua S.; Zay, Cynthia; Scheldrup, Melissa; Castillo, Jonathan; Demers, Laurence M.; Enders, Craig K.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) is the most commonly prescribed estrogen therapy, and is the estrogen used in the Women's Health Initiative study. While in-vitro studies suggest that CEE is neuroprotective, no study has evaluated CEE's effects on a cognitive battery and brain immunohistochemistry in an animal model. The current experiment tested whether CEE impacted: I) spatial learning, reference memory, working memory and long-term retention, as well as ability to handle mnemonic delay and...

  3. [Biographical anamnesis and social amnesia. A review of medical history taking, exploration, clinical interview, biographical analysis and diagnostic-clinical consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobbé, U

    1988-06-01

    The article describes the historical roots of the development of anamnesis including life-event-research and offers an overview of objective, subjective and situative information levels during diagnostic interviews. The author proposes as method the narrative interview completed by the so-called regressive-progressive method from Sartre. He calls special attention to the interpersonal aspect and to the therapeutic function of anamnesis as well as autobiographical writing.

  4. Recovering from "amnesia" brought about by radiation. Verification of the "Over the air" (OTA) application software update mechanism On-Board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Antonio; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo

    Computer memories are not supposed to forget, but they do. Because of the proximity of the Sun, from the Solar Orbiter boot software perspective, it is mandatory to look out for permanent memory errors resulting from (SEL) latch-up failures in application binaries stored in EEPROM and its SDRAM deployment areas. In this situation, the last line in defense established by FDIR mechanisms is the capability of the boot software to provide an accurate report of the memories’ damages and to perform an application software update, that avoid the harmed locations by flashing EEPROM with a new binary. This paper describes the OTA EEPROM firmware update procedure verification of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. Since the maximum number of rewrites on real EEPROM is limited and permanent memory faults cannot be friendly emulated in real hardware, the verification has been accomplished by the use of a LEON2 Virtual Platform (Leon2ViP) with fault injection capabilities and real SpaceWire interfaces developed by the Space Research Group (SRG) of the University of Alcalá. This way it is possible to run the exact same target binary software as if was run on the real ICU platform. Furthermore, the use of this virtual hardware-in-the-loop (VHIL) approach makes it possible to communicate with Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) through real SpaceWire interfaces in an agile, controlled and deterministic environment.

  5. Lugares de memoria y lugares de amnesia. La familia como colectivo amnésico en Os libros arden mal de Manuel Rivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lammers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression “historical memory” is dominating the political, social and cultural discourse in Europe for the last few years. This term is essentially used in Spain where it is linked to the events of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 and the Dictatorship of Franco (1939-1975. Memories of these historical events never lose their need to be remembered. The work of the Galician author Manuel Rivas contributes to the rediscovery of these historical memories. His novel Os libros arden mal (2006 can be seen as a complex and versatile panorama of those traumatic events. This article focuses with references to the concepts of social and cultural studies about collective memory on representations of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco dictatorship in the above-mentioned novel of Manuel Rivas. Identifying the lieux de memoire of one of its protagonist families, it examines the role of the family as a space of transmission and remembrance

  6. [Biographical anamnesis and social amnesia. A review of medical history taking, exploration, clinical interview, biographical analysis and diagnostic-clinical consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobbé, U

    1988-06-01

    The article describes the historical roots of the development of anamnesis including life-event-research and offers an overview of objective, subjective and situative information levels during diagnostic interviews. The author proposes as method the narrative interview completed by the so-called regressive-progressive method from Sartre. He calls special attention to the interpersonal aspect and to the therapeutic function of anamnesis as well as autobiographical writing. PMID:3062652

  7. Chunking and Consolidation: A Theoretical Synthesis of Semantic Networks, Configuring in Conditioning, S--R Versus Cognitive Learning, Normal Forgetting, the Amnesic Syndrome, and the Hippocampal Arousal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickelgren, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between current information processing and prior associative theories of human and animal learning, memory, and amnesia are discussed. The paper focuses on the two components of the amnesic syndrome, retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. A neural theory of chunking and consolidation is proposed. (Author/RD)

  8. Amnesia's Fertility,Infection and the Interactive Causality between Amnesia and Reality:Taking Shituo's Orchard Garden as an Example%遗忘的生殖力、传染性和现实互因关系——以师陀《果园城记》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣欣; 张昭兵

    2009-01-01

    在"果园城"表面的寂静下,涌动着遗忘的暗流.遗忘以集体潜意识的方式在每个人心中繁衍生长,然后在人与人之间传染蔓延,由此形成的遗忘之网把现实生活牢牢地网在时空静止的死寂之中,而死寂的现实生活又反过来强化着遗忘的再度繁殖和传染.通过的文本分析,挖掘出遗忘的社会、历史、哲学动因和自返性,从而拓展出遗忘的心理范畴之外的思维向度.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  10. 色情狂还是失忆症?——格雷《可怜的东西》中的疾病隐喻%Erotomania vs.Amnesia: The Metaphor of Disease in Alasdair Gray's Poor Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫新

    2013-01-01

    色情狂和失忆症是阿拉斯代尔·格雷《可怜的东西》(1992)中的两大疾病隐喻,代表着两种截然不同的维多利亚时代女性观.贝拉因为追求自由而被前夫的私人医生诊断为色情狂,她因为无法接受“治疗”而走上自杀的道路.戈德温医生通过移植贝拉腹中孩子的大脑将她复活,并将贝拉的再婚选择诊断为失忆症的结果.色情狂是维多利亚时代强加给自由女性的疾病隐喻,而失忆症则是摆脱社会束缚的一剂良方.贝拉的全名有“美丽的苏格兰”之意,而英国历史叙述中的苏格兰又常常被女性化,所以,贝拉的命运在一定程度上也是苏格兰在联合王国中命运的象征.

  11. Clinical observation of small dosage of Midazolam amnesia in epidural anesthesia epidural blocks%硬膜外阻滞时小剂量咪唑安定术中遗忘作用的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付井泉; 付冬梅; 李海东

    2005-01-01

    目的观察硬膜外麻醉时应用小剂量咪唑安定后的术中遗忘作用.方法选择60例腹部手术病人,硬膜外麻醉成功后经静脉滴入咪唑安定0.08~0.1mg·kg-1,术后随访观察病人术中遗忘情况.结果该组病人均有不同程度的顺行性遗忘.结论硬膜外麻醉时辅助应用小剂量咪唑安定可取得良好的顺行性遗忘作用.

  12. 海德格尔对现代科学"遗忘症"的生存论剖析%On Heidegger's Existential Analyses to the Amnesia in Modern Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷德鹏; 黄时进

    2005-01-01

    海德格尔认为,现代科学仅与存在者打交道而遗忘了存在本身,被现代科学所遗忘的存在即是"无";现代科学的这种"遗忘症"是由决定现代科学的本质的形而上学基础、数学因素和技术本质等多种因素所造成的.

  13. La legitimidad franquista de la Monarquía de Juan Carlos I: un ejercicio de amnesia periodística durante la transición española

    OpenAIRE

    Zugasti, R. (Ricardo)

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza la cobertura periodística otorgada por los diarios españoles a la legitimidad franquista de la Monarquía de Juan Carlos I durante la transición a la democracia. El tratamiento concedido a dicha legitimidad puede considerarse un ejemplo útil para ilustrar las especiales relaciones de complicidad que se produjeron entre la prensa y la Corona en aquel período histórico, con la vista puesta en la democratización del sistema político.

  14. Evaluation of nootropic activity of Curcuma longa leaves in diazepam and scopolamine-induced amnesic mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Reddy; Chandrashekar M. Sultanpur; Saritha, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to assess the nootropic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa leaves (HAECL) in diazepam-induced amnesia in mice using Morris water maze method and scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats by using elevated plus maze behavioral paradigm and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were carried out. Methods: Amnesia was induced by administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i....

  15. Comparative study between dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine and midazolam/nalbuphine in monitored anesthesia care during ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that the combination of dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine is a better alternative to midazolam/nalbuphine in MAC since it provides analgesia, amnesia and sedation with better intraoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction with better surgical field exposure.

  16. Varenicline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased intoxicating effects of alcohol, sometimes associated with aggressive behavior and/or amnesia. In addition, rare accounts of ... stop taking varenicline if they develop agitation, hostility, aggressive behavior, depressed mood, or changes in behavior or thinking ...

  17. PartⅡ Example Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangWei; ShangXiukui; HuMinghai; XuLi

    2000-01-01

    Male, age of 27 years. History of the present disease: In the recent three weeks, the patient has the symptoms including tiredness, difficult falling in sleep even sleeplessness duringwhole night, accompanied with restlessness,palpitation, poor appetite, amnesia.

  18. Part II Example Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 尚秀葵; 胡明海; 徐莉

    2000-01-01

    Male, age of 27 years. History of the present disease: In the recent three weeks, the patient has the symptoms including tiredness, difficult falling in sleep even sleeplessness during whole night, accompanied with restlessness,palpitation, poor appetite, amnesia.

  19. Two Routes to Losing One’s Past Life: A Brain Trauma, an Emotional Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ouellet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and psychogenic retrograde amnesia have long been considered as distinct entities and as such, studied separately. However, patterns of neuropsychological impairments in organic and psychogenic amnesia can bear interesting resemblances despite different aetiologies. In this paper, two cases with profound, selective and permanent retrograde amnesia are presented, one of an apparent organic origin and the other with an apparent psychogenic cause. The first case, DD, lost his memory after focal brain injury from a nail gun to the right temporal lobe. The second case, AC, lost her memory in the context of intense psychological suffering. In both cases, pre-morbid autobiographical memory for people, places and events was lost, and no feeling of familiarity was experienced during relearning. In addition, they both lost some semantic knowledge acquired prior to the onset of the amnesia. This contrasts with the preservation of complex motor skills without any awareness of having learned them. Both DD and AC showed mild deficits on memory tests but neither presented any anterograde amnesia. The paradox of these cases–opposite causes yet similar clinical profile–exemplifies the hypothesis that organic and psychogenic amnesia may be two expressions of the same faulty mechanism in the neural circuitry.

  20. Rapidly measuring the speed of unconscious learning: amnesics learn quickly and happy people slowly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Dienes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We introduce a method for quickly determining the rate of implicit learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The task involves making a binary prediction for a probabilistic sequence over 10 minutes; from this it is possible to determine the influence of events of a different number of trials in the past on the current decision. This profile directly reflects the learning rate parameter of a large class of learning algorithms including the delta and Rescorla-Wagner rules. To illustrate the use of the method, we compare a person with amnesia with normal controls and we compare people with induced happy and sad moods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Learning on the task is likely both associative and implicit. We argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that both amnesia and also transient negative moods can be associated with an especially large learning rate: People with amnesia can learn quickly and happy people slowly.

  1. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors. PMID:24555225

  2. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-old children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people’s age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications.

  3. The Recovery of Memory after Traumatic Brain Injury%脑外伤病人记忆功能的康复特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯炯; 尹岭; 张亚旭; 周晓林

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the time course of memory recovery during post-traumatic amnesia after brain injury.Methods: A patient (WGS, aged 34) with lesions in the left temporal lobe was compared with four matched control subjects on various cognitive tests. These tests included Galveston Orientation and Amnesia test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Test, Semantic Memory, and Remote Memory Test. WGS was tested at 20th days and 33rd days after the brain injury. Results: During the period of post-traumatic amnesia, marked recovery was observed for orientation, semantic memory and remote memory (especially the recent and the earlier items). While the recovery of learning for new knowledge was slow, learning curve of association of unrelated items was flat.Conclusion: The differential time courses for recovery of cognitive functions should be well considered in rehabilitative training after traumatic brain injury.

  4. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  5. AG-4:A NICOTINIC AGONIST ENDOWED WITH ANTIAMNESIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Di Cesare Mannelli, L.; S. Dei; F. GUALTIERI; Bartolini, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the nicotinic agonist AG-4 on memory processes was evaluated in the mouse passive avoidance test. AG-4 (100 mg per mouse icv) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 ip), mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1 ip), and dihydro-b-erythroidine (10 mg per mouse icv). In the same experimental conditions, AG-4 (100 mg per mouse icv) also prevented baclofen (2 mg kg–1 ip), clonidine (0.125 mg kg–1 ip), and diphenhydramine (20 mg kg–1 ip) amnesia in mice. AG-4 exerted an an...

  6. ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF THE NICOTINIC AGONIST DBO-83 IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Giuliani, F.; D. Barlocco; Bartolini, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of administration of DBO-83 on memory processes was evaluated in the mouse passive avoidance test. DBO-83 (1–5 mgkg–1 ip) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mgkg–1 ip), mecamylamine (20 mgkg–1 ip) and dihydro-b-erythroidine (10 mg per mouse i.c.v.). In the same experimental conditions, DBO-83 (10 mgkg–1 ip) also prevented baclofen (2 mgkg–1 ip), clonidine (0.125 mgkg–1 ip) and diphenhydramine (20 mgkg–1 ip) amnesia in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DBO-83 wa...

  7. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  8. Platonic & Freirean Interpretations of W. E. B. Du Bois's, "Of the Coming of John"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    In the current Neoliberal climate of educational reform, the enlightenment project in education is more susceptible than ever to the machinations of historical amnesia. The notion that education can be transformative in a positive sense represents a moral ideal that teachers in the foundations of education find increasingly difficult to integrate…

  9. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction...

  10. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  11. RAISED GLUCOSE-LEVELS ENHANCE SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED ACETYLCHOLINE OVERFLOW FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DURKIN, TP; MESSIER, C; DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Behavioural studies in both humans and animals have shown that an acute rise in circulating glucose levels at or around the time of training enhances subsequent retention performance and can also afford protection from the amnesia produced by posttraining injections of scopolamine. In an attempt to

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of cutamesine in rats using NONMEM, 11C-SA4503, and microPET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, N.K.; Pilla Reddy, V.; Proost, J.H.; Nyakas, C.J.; Kwizera, C.; Sijbesma, J.W.A.; Elsinga, P.H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Van Waarde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cutamesine (SA4503) is a selective sigma-1 receptor agonist, currently in Phase II clinical trials for depression and post stroke neurological disturbances. Cutamesine has been found to be effective in several rodent models of amnesia and depression. We used data obtained with carbon-11-labeled cuta

  13. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Soeter; M. Kindt

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid

  14. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2013-01-01

    -traumatic amnesia in the patients. Conclusion: Of the relatives who reported scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales at patient's admission, approximately 40% experienced CSC in anxiety and depression during the patient's rehabilitation. Relatives of patients experiencing improvement during...

  15. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  16. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data...

  17. Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laurent

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating recovery of learning is discussed.

  18. The extent and application of patient diaries in Danish ICUs in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Schwartz-Nielsen, Kathrine Hvid; Hansen, Glennie Marie;

    2007-01-01

    -ICU amnesia. There was no systematic follow-up after the ICU stay. The study showed a number of legal and ethical issues that still need to be resolved. Patient diaries are ambiguous documents that are neither the property of the hospital nor the patient. The diaries have been implemented at Danish ICUs...

  19. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeter; D.J.C. Ochtman; S.M.J. Janssen; J.M.J. Murre

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  20. Who Dat Say (We) "Too Depraved to Be Saved"?: Re-Membering Katrina/Haiti (and beyond): Critical Studyin' for Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joyce E.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Joyce King attempts to interrupt the calculus of human (un)worthiness and to repair the collective cultural amnesia that are legacies of slavery and that make it easy--hegemonically and dysconsciously--for the public to accept myths and media reports, such as those about the depravity of survivors of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans…

  1. Bolus dose with continuous infusion of midazolam as sedation for outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyk, N H; Zacharias, M; Wanwimolaruk, S

    1992-06-01

    This double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial in 41 patients for 3rd molar surgery compared the safety, amnesic properties and psychomotor recovery between a bolus injection of midazolam and a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion of midazolam. The latter showed good safety and better amnesia to events during the procedure, but prolonged the recovery time. PMID:1640130

  2. Independence of First- and Second-Order Memories in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Joly, Virginie; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The mammary pheromone promotes the acquisition of novel odorants (CS1) in newborn rabbits. Here, experiments pinpoint that CS1 becomes able to support neonatal learning of other odorants (CS2). We therefore evaluated whether these first- and second-order memories remained dependent after reactivation. Amnesia induced after CS2 recall selectively…

  3. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  4. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment : cases and questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, AH; ten Duis, HJ; Minderhoud, JM; Sipma, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective-To objectify neuropsychological impairments in survivors of lightning stroke with lasting complaints about poor concentration and inability to divide their attention. Design-A series of six cases of lightning stroke were studied. All patients had lost consciousness and reported amnesia of

  6. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. PMID:26238378

  7. Ophelia syndrome with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antibodies in CSF

    OpenAIRE

    Mat, Arimin; Adler, Hugh; Merwick, Aine; Chadwick, Geoff; Gullo, Giuseppe; Dalmau, Josep O.; Tubridy, Niall

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old man developed progressive memory problems and personality changes over the course of 6 months. This amnesia culminated in overt functional impairment as he began getting lost in familiar places and paid his rent multiple times in one day. He then displayed increased aggression and was admitted to hospital after assaulting a family member.

  8. Memory as social glue: Close interpersonal relationships in amnesic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S.R. Davidson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia. All three patients were less involved than demographically-matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A. cases’ close relationships were with family members, and they had made few new close friends in the decades since the onset of their amnesia. On the other hand, the patient with developmental amnesia (H.C. had forged a couple of close relationships, including one with her fiancé. Social networks appear to be winnowed, but not obliterated, by amnesia. The obvious explanation for the patients’ reduced social functioning stems from their memory impairment, but we discuss other potentially important factors for future study.

  9. Learning during the Newborn's First Meal: Special Resistance to Retroactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheslock, Sarah J. Ferdinand; Sanders, Sarah K.; Spear, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    At their first postnatal meal, 3-hour-old rats learned an association between an odor and a sweet or bitter taste. Retention after a long interval or after associative interference was compared to that of 1-day-old rats. Despite equivalent and negligible effect of the long retention interval, contrary to infantile amnesia, newborns differed…

  10. 76 FR 77895 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... 21, 2011 (76 FR 65424), which proposed placement of ezogabine into Schedule V of the CSA. The... euphoria, somnolence, visual disturbance, amnesia, hypo-aesthesia, paranoia, fear, confusion and hallucination. Although the 900 mg dose is three times greater than the recommended therapeutic...

  11. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  12. Treatment of Anomia Using Errorless Versus Errorful Learning: Are Frontal Executive Skills and Feedback Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Joanne; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew Lambon

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies from the amnesia literature suggest that errorless learning can produce superior results to errorful learning. However, it was found in a previous investigation by the present authors that errorless and errorful therapy produced equivalent results for patients with aphasic word-finding difficulties. A study in the academic…

  13. STRATEGIES OF PERMISSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Holdevici, Irina

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper the main principles of the ericksonian hypnotherapy are disscused: the comunication in client s system of references, symptoms conceptualization and utilization, indirect sugestions and therapeutic mataphores. The authors considers that some hypnotic phenomena specific to psychopathological symptoms: age regression, anesthesia, amnesia, hipermnesia dissociation, time disfortion and hallucinations, can be used as therapeutic strategics for symptoms reduction.

  14. 基于时间方向划分的三类遗忘症特征分析%Analysis on Characteristics of Three Types Memory Disorders of Time-Dimension-Divided

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓雪; 张锦坤

    2015-01-01

    记忆障碍多为脑创伤导致,其影响范围越来越广。根据遗忘的时间方向将遗忘症分为顺行性遗忘、逆行性遗忘和进行性遗忘。海马和颞叶内侧损伤导致的遗忘综合征主要表现为顺行性遗忘,而某些苯二氮卓类药物亦可诱发。间脑损伤导致的科萨科夫综合征主要表现为逆行性遗忘,另外,颞叶癫痫、ECT治疗等也会伴随该症状。随病程日益加重的进行性遗忘,主要形式为阿尔茨海默病。目前,记忆障碍只能以记忆康复为主,主要包括通过联想法、图像法等记忆技巧达到的内部代偿,以及利用外显方式、编制程序等方法达到的外部代偿。以脑神经科学为核心的记忆康复,是未来临床神经心理学发展的方向和领域。%Mostly memory disorders were caused by brain trauma , its influence was more and more widely .Com-mon forms of memory disorders had anterograde amnesia , retrograde amnesia and progressive amnesia .The main symptom of amnesia syndrome was anterograde with the hippocampus and temporal lobe damaged .Because of dien-cephalon damaged , Korsakoff syndrome appeared retrograde amnesia and so on .Progressive amnesia was a style with the duration extension .Its main form was Alzheimer disease .Currently , memory disorders only gave priority to memory rehabilitation , including internal compensation ( using the association method and the image way ) and ex-ternal compensation ( using explicit ways and programming methods ) .In the future , memory rehabilitation , which focused on brain science , was the direction and the field of clinical neuropsychology booming .

  15. Heroin inhalation-induced unilateral complete hippocampal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Collongues, Nicolas; de Seze, Jérôme; Blanc, Fréderic

    2013-08-01

    A 33-year-old man presented to our clinic with amnesia 48 hours after his first heroin inhalation. Examination showed lateral tongue biting and anterograde amnesia demonstrated by impaired performance on verbal and visual Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised tests carried out 10 days after onset, suggesting hippocampal involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed 48 hours after heroin snorting and evoked cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) of the left hippocampus without vascular abnormality. This is the first description of complete hippocampal CLN as a complication subsequent to acute intranasal heroine abuse. While the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain, our case provides a very specific MRI lesion pattern and highlights the risk of intranasal heroin uptake-induced neurological complication.

  16. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  17. [Is frontotemporal dementia a disease of identity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, Florence

    2009-06-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have major behavioral troubles and a loss of insight. These factors contribute to reduce self-awareness and recognition of identify of others and by others. Autobiographical amnesia, loss of insight and executive dysfunctions are the major reasons of vulnerable "self" in FTD. Mind representation deficits, decrease of perception of emotions and semantic amnesia contribute to reduced recognition of the relative's identity. Alterations of body expressions, social disinhibition, changes in social and religious values decrease the recognition of patient's identity by the relatives. Different psychological components of identity are modified by the FTD such as feeling of unity, of consistency, of temporality and of affiliation. The fact that brain lesions of FTD are focalized can contribute to understand the biological knowledge of "identity". To know the neurological substrate of alterations of identity, this can help to improve the empathy of the suffering caregivers for the patient. PMID:19473950

  18. [Hippocampal stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, J D; Traitel, B; Dietrich, B; Lenz, O

    2015-02-01

    Unilateral cerebral ischemia of the hippocampus is very rare. This paper reviews the literature and presents the case of a 59-year-old woman with an amnestic syndrome due to a left hippocampal stroke. The patient suffered from retrograde amnesia which was most severe over the 2 days prior to presenting and a slight anterograde amnesia. In addition, a verbal memory disorder was confirmed 1 week after admission by neurological tests. As risk factors, arterial hypertension and a relative hyper-beta lipoproteinemia were found. This case shows that unilateral amnestic stroke, e.g. in the hippocampus region, may be the cause of an amnestic syndrome and should be included in the differential diagnostics.

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  20. John Seamon's Memory & Movies: What Films Can Teach Us about Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alan A

    2016-01-01

    From trauma to amnesia to senior moments, memory has been a major plot line in films since the 1942 classic, Random Harvest. John Seamon, an author and professor of psychology whose research includes how a camera aids memory and the impact of storytelling on memory, has shifted his lens to focus on how memory has been portrayed in one of the world's most beloved art forms. PMID:27408672

  1. Changes in cognition and continence as predictors of rehabilitation outcomes in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Kushner, MD; Doug Johnson-Greene, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to examine postacute changes in bowel and bladder continence and cognition after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in persons with long-term functional recovery to full independence. This case series included nine patients initially admitted to inpatient rehabilitation (IR) with severe TBI who had returned to prior responsibilities and functional independence by 8 to 15 mo. Patients had initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 to 6, posttraumatic amnesia durations of 1...

  2. Lorazepam: A Weapon of Offence

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir; Aggarwal, Akashdeep

    2015-01-01

    The use of knock out drugs for perpetuation of crime has significantly increased in recent years. These drug facilitated crimes mainly involve robbery and sexual offences. Most of the drugs employed for these purposes affect the nervous system and bring a state of incapacitation and amnesia. The miscreants exploit these properties of drugs to commit such crimes. The unsuspecting travellers on public transport vehicles and women in disco parties are most vulnerable to such crimes. The unrestri...

  3. The Endocrine Dyscrasia that Accompanies Menopause and Andropause Induces Aberrant Cell Cycle Signaling that Triggers Cell Cycle Reentry of Post-mitotic Neurons, Neurodysfunction, Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Craig S.; Bowen, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones are the physiological factors that regulate neurogenesis during embryogenesis and continuing through adulthood. These hormones support the formation of brain structures such as dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture of information (memories). Intriguingly, a recent animal study has demonstrated that induction of neurogenesis results in the loss of previously encoded memories in animals (e.g. infantile amnesia). In this connection, much evidence now indicate...

  4. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, D.; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-01-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a hi...

  5. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

    OpenAIRE

    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco; LIMA, Cristiane da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aes...

  6. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  7. Effects of Ketamine on Neuronal Spontaneous Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents and Miniature Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents in the Somatosensory Cortex of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chengdong Yuan; Yajun Zhang; Yu Zhang; Song Cao; Yuan Wang; Bao Fu; Tian Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ketamine is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic which produces dissociation anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia. The mechanism of ketamine-induced synaptic inhibition in high-level cortical areas is still unknown. We aimed to elucidate the effects of different concentrations of ketamine on the glutamatergic synaptic transmission of the neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex by using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (11–19 postnatal days, n=...

  8. Emotion strengthens high priority memory traces but weakens low priority memory traces

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Fryer, Kellie; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    When encountering emotional events, memory for those events is typically enhanced. But it has been unclear how emotionally arousing events influence memory for preceding information. Does emotional arousal induce retrograde amnesia or retrograde enhancement? The current study revealed that this depends on the top-down goal relevance of the preceding information. Across three studies, we found that emotional arousal induced by one image facilitated memory for the preceding neutral item when pe...

  9. [Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Iu G; Morozov, I S; Glozman, O M; Nerobkova, L N; Zhmurenko, L A

    1983-04-01

    The central neurotropic effects of 4-phenylpyracetam, a new phenyl analog of pyracetam, were studied and compared with the effects of pyracetam, morpholene and 4-phenylpyrrolidone. 4-Phenylpyracetam was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Unlike pyracetam, 4-phenylpyracetam exhibits a specific anticonvulsant action. When given in high doses, the compound under study produces psychodepressant effects. PMID:6403074

  10. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of...

  11. QIU Chang-lin's Experience in the Differential Treatment of Senile Dementia Based on Phlegm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zu-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Senile dementia refers to the various dementia syndromes occurring in the geratic period, including Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VD),and mixed type dementia. It is mainly manifested by disturbance of intelligence and cognition, which falls into the TCM category of 'dementia', 'idiocy','amnesia', and 'melancholia'. At present, this disease is considered by TCM differentiation to be excess in superficiality and deficiency in origin, and should be treated for cleating away pathogens and strengthening the body resistance at the same time.

  12. An unusual presentation of visual hallucinations with zolpidem: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sai Krishna; Shareef S. Mabu

    2015-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug with rapid -onset and short duration of action. It is popularly used for the induction and maintenance of sleep in adults suffering from insomnia. It supersedes benzodiazepines with better tolerability and has fewer side effects such as less residual sedation and the potential for rebound insomnia and dependence is also less. Adverse neuropsychiatric reactions such as visual hallucinations, amnesia, sleepwalking and nocturnal eating are known to occur with zolpidem...

  13. Cerebral haemorrhage as the presenting feature of myeloproliferative disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondlapudi, Jyothi; O’Connor, Rory J; Mawer, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders predispose individuals to bleeding and thrombosis, often with devastating consequences. We report a 41-year-old man who presented with headache, amnesia and dysphagia due to cerebral haemorrhage. Extensive investigation revealed the cause of the neurological syndrome as an underlying essential thrombocytosis. The patient made a full recovery following extensive inpatient and community rehabilitation, returning to work after 6 months. We discuss the diagnosis and m...

  14. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  15. [Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenibut and piracetam under experimental cerebral ischemia conditions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetov, M N; Epishina, V V; Borodkina, L E; Voronkov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective properties of phenibut and piracetam were studied in rats with cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenibut and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced a neuralgic deficiency, amnesia, and the degree of cerebral circulation drop, and improved the spontaneous movement and research activity deteriorated by brain ischemia. PMID:16878492

  16. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters. PMID:20396730

  17. 遗忘型轻度认知损害患者的前瞻性记忆障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    为了探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnesia mild cognitive impairment, aMCI)患者前瞻性记忆(prospective memory,PM)改变的特征,初步了解基于事件的PM(event-based prospective memory, EBPM)和基于时间的PM(time-based prospective memory,TBPM)在aMGI患者中的损害情况,

  18. 16例短暂性全面遗忘症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肇杰; 党春伟; 张金霞

    2009-01-01

    @@ 短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia, TGA)是一种以一过性记忆丧失为主要特征的临床综合征.现就本院2005年1月~2009年1月收治的16例患者进行分析,探究其病因及临床特点,并报告如下.

  19. 自传记忆%Autobiographical Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 何谓自传记忆 所谓自传记忆(autobiographical memory)是一种关于自我(self)信息的记忆([1]).成人很少能回忆起两三岁前所经历的事情,却可以回忆起此后经历的事情.这一现象在心理学领域被称为婴儿遗忘症(infantile amnesia).

  20. Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, O.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Varlet, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Anatomopathology, Paris (France); Page, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

  1. Ligustrazine Phosphate Ethosomes for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease, In Vitro and in Animal Model Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jun; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated transdermal administration of ligustrazine phosphate (LP), as an antioxidant, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The LP transdermal ethosomal system was designed and characterized. Franz-type diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the in vitro permeation studies. Furthermore, the effect of LP transdermal ethosomal system on AD was evaluated in the scopolamine-induced amnesia rats by evaluating the behavioral ...

  2. Análisis de métricas de similitud en razonamiento basado en casos para administrar proyectos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Guillermo Horacio; Berdun, Luis S.; Soria, Alvaro; Amandi, Analía; Campo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    La administración de proyectos de software es crucial para el desarrollo controlado de los productos de software. Sin embargo, cuando un administrador de proyectos experimentado abandona el proyecto y es reemplazado por alguien con menor experiencia y sin conocimiento del entorno del proyecto, aparece la Amnesia Organizacional. En efecto, administrar un proyecto de software se convierte en una tarea costosa, con incertidumbre y escasa garantía de éxito. En este contexto, Razonamiento Basado e...

  3. 〈Articles〉Considering Eating Behaviors at Night: Sleep Related Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jahyeon; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2011-01-01

    [abstract] Eating and sleep are two basic instincts of human being, essential to maintaining energetic lives. Abnormal circadian patterns of eating are observed in clinical field. Two disorders are known sleep related eating disorder and nocturnal eating syndrome. Eating behavior in sleep related eating disorder (SRED) is manifested by recurrent episodes of eating after arousals with or without subsequent amnesia. High calorie foods with carbohydrates and fats are frequently consumed such as ...

  4. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov A.V.; Opryshko V.I.

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats we...

  5. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumanthachar Joshi; Milind Parle

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg k...

  6. The Rich Get Richer: Brain Injury Elicits Hyperconnectivity in Core Subnetworks

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary, Frank G.; Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roman, Cristina A.; Medaglia, John D.; Slocomb-Dluzen, Julia E.; Calhoun, Vincent D.; Good, David C.; Wylie, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    There remains much unknown about how large-scale neural networks accommodate neurological disruption, such as moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A primary goal in this study was to examine the alterations in network topology occurring during the first year of recovery following TBI. To do so we examined 21 individuals with moderate and severe TBI at 3 and 6 months after resolution of posttraumatic amnesia and 15 age- and education-matched healthy adults using functional MRI and...

  7. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. ...

  8. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Torun Gangaune Finnanger; Alexander Olsen; Toril Skandsen; Stian Lydersen; Anne Vik; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Cathy Catroppa; Håberg, Asta K.; Stein Andersson; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), sy...

  9. Dried bonito broth improves cognitive function via the histaminergic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Yoshizu; Mimura, Masako; Yamada, Keiko; Sugita, Mayu; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Koyama, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Bonito extract, i.e., dried bonito broth (DBB), has been reported to counteract mental fatigue and to increase performance in a simple calculation task, but the mechanism by which DBB increases task performance is not known. The brain neurotransmitter histamine is biosynthesized only from histidine in the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine neurons are projected to almost all areas of the cerebral cortex, and histamine has various behavioral and neurobiological functions, particularly in recognition memory. Here we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of the oral ingestion of DBB, which contains abundant histidine, as well as the ingestion of histidine on cognitive function. In a retention trial of novel object recognition test, the administration of 1.6 g/kg of DBB and 500 mg/kg of histidine significantly increased the animals' exploratory behavior toward a novel object, and that these agents significantly increased the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio in a Y-maze under conditions of scopolamine-induced amnesia, which induced learning and memory impairment. These results suggested the improvement of spatial short-term working memory in a scopolamine amnesia model, as well as the strengthening of visual cognitive function by a single ingestion of DBB and histidine. Interestingly, the administration of αFMH, which is an inhibitor of histamine biosynthesis, eliminated the increase in the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio by DBB ingestion in the scopolamine-induced amnesia model, suggesting that DBB may improve working memory impairment via activation of the histaminergic neuron system. PMID:25355438

  10. Dried bonito broth improves cognitive function via the histaminergic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Yoshizu; Mimura, Masako; Yamada, Keiko; Sugita, Mayu; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Koyama, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Bonito extract, i.e., dried bonito broth (DBB), has been reported to counteract mental fatigue and to increase performance in a simple calculation task, but the mechanism by which DBB increases task performance is not known. The brain neurotransmitter histamine is biosynthesized only from histidine in the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine neurons are projected to almost all areas of the cerebral cortex, and histamine has various behavioral and neurobiological functions, particularly in recognition memory. Here we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of the oral ingestion of DBB, which contains abundant histidine, as well as the ingestion of histidine on cognitive function. In a retention trial of novel object recognition test, the administration of 1.6 g/kg of DBB and 500 mg/kg of histidine significantly increased the animals' exploratory behavior toward a novel object, and that these agents significantly increased the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio in a Y-maze under conditions of scopolamine-induced amnesia, which induced learning and memory impairment. These results suggested the improvement of spatial short-term working memory in a scopolamine amnesia model, as well as the strengthening of visual cognitive function by a single ingestion of DBB and histidine. Interestingly, the administration of αFMH, which is an inhibitor of histamine biosynthesis, eliminated the increase in the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio by DBB ingestion in the scopolamine-induced amnesia model, suggesting that DBB may improve working memory impairment via activation of the histaminergic neuron system.

  11. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  12. Hierarchical organization of cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, M; Suzuki, W A; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the organization of memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. Evidence obtained in patients with late-onset amnesia resulting from medial temporal pathology has given rise to two opposing interpretations of the effects of such damage on long-term cognitive memory. One view is that cognitive memory, including memory for both facts and events, is served in a unitary manner by the hippocampus and its surrounding cortices; the other is that the basic function affected in amnesia is event memory, the memory for factual material often showing substantial preservation. Recent findings in patients with amnesia resulting from relatively selective hippocampal damage sustained early in life suggest a possible reconciliation of the two views. The new findings suggest that the hippocampus may be especially important for event as opposed to fact memory, with the surrounding cortical areas contributing to both. Evidence from neuroanatomical and neurobehavioural studies in monkeys is presented in support of this proposal. PMID:9368934

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. To test behavioral deficits, an object recognition test was conducted in mouse. In this test, ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) impaired object recognition memory, but SM (200 mg/kg) prevented this impairment. To evaluate synaptic deficits, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampal slices were tested, as they are known to be vulnerable to ethanol and are associated with ethanol-induced amnesia. SM (10 and 100 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced long-term potentiation and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP deficits in the hippocampal slices. Therefore, these results suggest that SM prevents ethanol-induced amnesia by protecting the hippocampus from NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:27257009

  14. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2000-11-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  15. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o. was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.

  16. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components. PMID:27516676

  17. Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild closed head injury in war veterans: Endocrinological and psychological profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirić Željko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the degree of psychological and endocrinological changes in war veterans with the diagnosis of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD regarding presence/absence of comorbid mild closed head injury (mCHI caused by explosive devices. Methods. Two groups of PTSD inpatients, with (n = 37, and without (n = 86 sustained blast trauma followed by mCHI were formed during the psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed by experienced clinicians who used the PTSD Interview (PTSD-I. In addition, patients completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Serum levels of ten hormones were assessed: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and insulin, by radioimmunoassays and hydrocortisone, growth hormone and testosterone by fluoroimmunoassays. Results. Veterans with comorbid mCHI and PTSD showed significantly higher level of amnesia for traumatic event as well as of somatization on the SCL-90-R. Significant differences of hormone levels were not found. Conclusion. The results didn't support the hypothesis on specific PTSD subgroup characterized by history of mCHI and consecutive postconcussion syndrome. The absence of differences in levels of hormones indicated the dominant role of psychogenic trauma in the etiology of hormone disbalance in chronic PTSD. Amnesia for traumatic event in war veterans with comorbid PTSD and mCHI was easily explained by neurogenic peritraumatic amnesia due to the blast trauma, but it did not affect either quality of intensity or posttraumatic symptoms as well as endocrinological parameters.

  18. [Memory: clinico-pathologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyckaerts, C; Suarez, S; Hauw, J J

    1998-01-01

    Synaptic modifications are probably the basis of the memory processes that take place in the central nervous system. They have been studied in Aplysia or in hippocampal slices. How these minute alterations of the synaptic strength are integrated in larger neural systems is still poorly understood. In man, hippocampal lesions, when bilateral, cause a deficit in anterograde episodic memory. The loss of previously acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is limited. Procedural memory is spared. Young patients with hippocampal lesions remain able to learn how to read or to write (abilities that belong to semantic memories). Recordings obtained with intracerebral electrodes have shown that some neurons of the hippocampus act as "place cells". They fire when the animal is in a specific place of the experimental maze, an observation that suggests that the hippocampus acts as a map that may also be viewed as a context indicator (a "cognitive map"). Computer models have been devised to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus recorded the map of the activated synapses at a particular moment in time. This pattern of activity could secondarily be transferred to the isocortex during a process known as consolidation. The frontal lobe plays a role in attention, which greatly influences the memory process. It also plays a role in the various strategies that are used to recall a memory and in the analysis of the quality of the recall (metamemory). An asymmetry has been shown by the PET-scan: the left frontal lobe is activated during acquisition, and the right one during recall. The ability to integrate one's own memories in one's own history and consciousness (self-awareness or "autonoesis") also depends on the activity of the prefrontal region. The loss of acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is most often observed in cases of large lesions of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Partial amnesias are difficult to separate from possibly localized deficits of a cognitive

  19. Effect of propofol anesthesia on short-term memory%丙泊酚麻醉对患者短期记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘馨烛; 陈斌; 朱莎莎

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察丙泊酚麻醉对患者短期记忆的影响.方法 选择无痛胃镜或肠镜检查的非住院患者67例,静注芬太尼和丙泊酚,待患者睫毛反射消失、OAA/S评分达0分开始进行胃镜或肠镜检查.检查结束后待患者OAA/S评分达5分后进行问卷调查.问卷调查内容包括给药前10min内患者的亲历事件、开始苏醒至OAA达5分之间的亲历事件以及患者检查前睡眠、精神状况等.结果 49.25%的患者发生了遗忘,其中发生顺行性遗忘、逆行性遗忘、顺行性十逆行性遗忘的患者分别有21.2%、69.7%和9.1%.发生记忆障碍与无记忆障碍患者的性别、年龄、职业类型、丙泊酚用约总量、术前情绪、检查时间、恢复时间、是否发生梦境的差异无统计学意义,无记忆障碍者的平均文化水平构成更低,用药量更大(P<0.05).结论 丙泊酚镇静麻醉可导致一定程度的短期记忆障碍发生,其中逆行性遗忘较顺行性遗忘发生更多.%Objective To investigate the effect of propofol anesthesia on short-term memory.Methods Sixty-seven outpatients undergoing gastroscopy or colonoscopy received the combination of propofol and fentanyl for anesthesia.At loss of eye lash reflex and Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scores equal to 0, the procedure started.Interviews were conducted postoperatively when patients recovery from anaethesia reaching an OAA/S score of 5.The questionnaire designed for the patients comprised the events of experience during 10 minutes prior to administration and during eyes open and OAA/S score of 5, and state of insomnia and emotion before the examination.Results 49.25% of patients manifested amnesia of which anterograde amnesia,retrograde amnesia, and antero + retrograde amnesia account for 21.2%, 69.7% and 9.1%,respectively.There was no significant difference in age, gender, occupation, totoal propofol consumption, emotion before the study, examination time

  20. Síndrome de ingesta nocturna como efecto colateral del zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Valiensi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El zolpidem es una droga hipnótica utilizada para el tratamiento del insomnio. Disminuye la latencia del sueño, el número total de despertares y aumenta el tiempo total del sueño respetando en general su arquitectura. Se cree que aumenta la fase 3 del sueño lento profundo. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar 8 casos de síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño y conductas automáticas complejas asociadas a sonambulismo como efecto colateral del zolpidem. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 8 pacientes tratados con zolpidem que referían ingesta nocturna de alimentos con amnesia total o parcial del episodio. Se presentan 6 mujeres y 2 hombres, entre 32 y 72 años (media: 58 años, 7 tratados con zolpidem 10 mg/noche y 1 con zolpidem 12.5 mg/noche de liberación prolongada. El tiempo de exposición previo al desarrollo de eventos fue de 1 a 180 días (media de 39.8. El número de episodios relatados era de 1 a 8/noche (media 2.5 asociado con amnesia. Los episodios desaparecieron por completo en el 100% de los casos al suspender la medicación. El síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño es una parasomnia de sueño lento profundo que consiste en episodios de ingesta de alimento o bebida durante la noche, con amnesia parcial o completa del episodio. El zolpidem podría inducir el síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño en aproximadamente el 1% de pacientes, aunque creemos que es un efecto adverso que está subdiagnosticado. Se resuelve simplemente suspendiendo la medicación.

  1. Pharmacological evalution of Marsilea qudrifolia plant extracts against Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini .G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease which is age related. The whole plant of Marsilea quadrifolia isused to enhance the memorypower. The present work was undertaken to justify the traditional claim of the plant Marsilea quadrifolia as anti alzheimeric agent in mice. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant was selected for the study. The exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze, Morris water maze and Ymaze were used to evaluate the learning and memory, where as scopolamine is the natural ageing inducing amnesia served as interoceptive models. Two doses of (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg ethanolic extract of Marsilea qudrifolia were orally administered for seven successive days in separate groups of animals and the doses were selected according to the animal weight. The both doses of ethanolic extract of plant marsilea significantly improved the learning and memory in mice. Furthermore the both doses were significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4mg/kg I.P. The anti oxidant property and presence of steroids of Marsilea quadrifolia may be contributing favorably to memory enhancement effect. Since scopolamine induced amnesia was reversed by Marsilea, it is possible that the beneficial effect on learning and memory was due to facilitation of cholinergic transmission in mouse brain. However further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation Marsilea quadrifolia has shown promise a memory enhancing agent in all the laboratory models employed.

  2. Impaired Basal Forebrain Induces Spontaneous Confabulation%基底前脑受损导致自发性虚构案例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁征; 高建步; 尹文刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whether the impaired basal forebrain can induce spontaneous confabulation or not is a controversial issue', the study was carried out to explore it. Methods: Three patients who underwent rupture and repair of anterior communicating artery aneurysm were selected and assessed in the following 5 to 28 days after their onsets. The assessments included spontaneous confabulation, provoked confabulation, temporal context confusion, memory, executive functions, and so on. Results: The patient with no impairment in the CT scans is normal, the patient with impairment of basal forebrain has amnesia and moderate spontaneous confabulation, the patient with impairment of both basal forebrain and frontal lobe exhibits amnesia, spontaneous confabulation and personality change. Conclusion: Impairment of basal forebrain alone is sufficient for amnesia and spontaneous confabulation.%目的:探讨基底前脑受损是否导致自发性虚构.方法:收集三例前交通动脉瘤破裂的病人,在病人发病后5到28天期间,进行测量,测量项目包括自发性虚构、诱发性虚构、时间背景混淆性、智力、记忆力、执行功能等.结果:在CT资料上没有可见损伤的病人,一切表现正常;仅仅基底前脑损伤的病人,出现了顺行性遗忘和中等程度的自发性虚构;而基底前脑和额叶同时受损的病人,出现了顺行性遗忘、明显的自发性虚构和人格改变.结论:仅仅基底前脑损伤就可以导致自发性虚构.

  3. Effects of Tahitian Noni Juice on Ketamine Anaesthesia in Some Local Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Bayo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tahitian Noni Juices (TNJ from Morinda citrifolia is known with some therapeutic properties that include; anxiety and stress relief, production of calm and relax state, improvement of mood and sense of well being, and sleep restoration. This study attempt to evaluate TNJ effects in some ketamine sedated local rabbits. Six adult rabbits (1.5-1.7 kg were given intramuscular injection of 5% ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, following which the quality of sedation w as evaluated using: muscle relaxation/rigidity, presence or loss of pain sensation, quality of amnesia as well as heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature as control values. TNJ was administered orally at 2 mL/kg twice daily for 28 days during which period ketamine injection was repeated at 7 days interval. Presence of muscle relaxation or rigidity, presence or absence of pain sensation, quality of amnesia as well as heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were evaluated. Duration of sleep before and after noni administration was 40.7±9.6 and 46.8±13.7 min, respectively. There was improved quality of amnesia and behavioral responses. Rough induction and recovery gave way to smooth induction and recovery, and spontaneous movement during anesthesia was minimized. Salivation w as abolished in all except one rabbit. Mean basal heart rate before and after administration of noni were 204.8±48.4 and 264.4±35.6 beats per min, respectively. Basal respiratory rate also increased from 192±46.3 to 317.6±66.4 breaths per min. TNJ produced appreciable level of calmness, muscle relaxation, and loss of anxiety, and could be useful for premedication prior to aneasthesia.

  4. ANTIAMNESIC EFFECT OF THE TWO NOVEL K-OPIOID AGONISTS, VA-100 AND VA-101, IN THE MOUSE PASSIVE AVOIDANCE TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Di Cesare Mannelli, L.; A. Cappelli; M.ANZINI; Bartolini, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the two novel k-opioid agonists (VA-100, VA-101) on memory processes were evaluated with the mouse passive avoidance test. The administration of VA-100 (50–100 mg kg–1 p.o.) and VA-101 (100 mg kg–1 p.o.) administered 20 min before the training session prevented nor-binaltorphimine (4.9 mg per mouse i.c.v.), scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 i.p.), mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1 i.p.), diphenhydramine (20 mg kg–1 i.p.), and baclofen (2 mg kg–1 i.p.) amnesia. A...

  5. Pick 'n' mix: neuropatholgical detection of peri-tumour taupathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin

    2013-11-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat recurrent oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 tumours. Potential morbitities include steroid-responsive radiation necrosis and radiation leucoencephalopathy, characterised pathologically by reactive astrogliosis, focal necrosis, demyelination, axonal loss, and clinically by progressive subcortical deficits (ataxia, amnesia, incontinence, cognitive decline), with relative sparing of cortical function. Although subcortical features may overlap with neurodegenerative conditions (eg frontotemporal dementia), focal cortical atrophy of FTD causes loss of language function in addition to memory, and specific histopathological features characterise FTD subtypes (eg Pick disease). Association between mitotic disease and tauopathy has not been reported widely, but co-existence is possible. Diagnostic accuracy may guide management.

  6. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aesthetic experience arguing that music can be a privileged memory device still nowadays. To test our hypothesis, we rehearsed the analysis of the song Triste Bahia, by Caetano Veloso.

  7. Lorazepam: a weapon of offence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir; Aggarwal, Akashdeep

    2015-03-01

    The use of knock out drugs for perpetuation of crime has significantly increased in recent years. These drug facilitated crimes mainly involve robbery and sexual offences. Most of the drugs employed for these purposes affect the nervous system and bring a state of incapacitation and amnesia. The miscreants exploit these properties of drugs to commit such crimes. The unsuspecting travellers on public transport vehicles and women in disco parties are most vulnerable to such crimes. The unrestricted and unregulated sale of prescription drugs and general ignorance of such incidents is a challenge that needs to be addressed promptly.

  8. Extravíos, rememoración e identidad en " Del corazón todavía " (2008), de Silda Cordoliani

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Velázquez, Mariana Libertad

    2012-01-01

    El cuento "Del corazón todavía" (2008), de Silda Cordoliani propone la construcción de un sujeto femenino interpelado por su historia personal. La protagonista de este relato busca, por medio de alteraciones de la memoria como la amnesia, la alomnesia, la hipermnesia o la paramnesia, construir parcelas de pasado que justifiquen la contemporaneidad deseada, imaginada o vivida por ella. De ahí que, a partir de las nociones en torno a la identidad esbozadas por Judith Butler en "Dar cuenta de sí...

  9. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyomasu, Teruo; Nakashima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomie; Shida, Kenshiro (Ohmuta Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1982-10-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis.

  10. Homo Citans and Carbon Allotropes: For an Ethics of Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Roald; Kabanov, Artyom A; Golov, Andrey A; Proserpio, Davide M

    2016-09-01

    Cite we must, cite we do. We cite because we are links in a chain, using properties and methods validated by others. We also cite to negotiate the anxiety of influence. And to be fair. After outlining the reasons for citation, we use two case studies of citation amnesia in the field of hypothetical carbon allotropes to present a computer-age search tool (SACADA) in that subsubfield. Finally, we advise on good search practice, including what to do if you miss a citation. PMID:27438532

  11. El punzante pasado : sobre arte, historia y memoria en el estado español

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Aliaga, Juan

    2012-01-01

    En el texto se plantea la pregunta, y se trata de ofrecer algunas respuestas, sobre la ausencia durante muchos años de trabajos artísticos surgidos en el estado español sobre el pasado histórico, y concretamente sobre el periodo de la II República, la guerra civil y la dictadura franquista. Asimismo se propone una reflexión sobre la amnesia generada en la etapa de la transición a la democracia tras la muerte de Franco. Se estudian distintas propuestas artísticas que han abordado desde finales...

  12. Pain and anxiety management for pediatric dental procedures using various combinations of sedative drugs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazal, Giath; Fareed, Wamiq Musheer; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2016-07-01

    For fearful and uncooperative children behavioral management techniques are used. In order to control the pain and anxiety in pedodontic patients, pharmacologic sedation, anesthesia and analgesia are commonly used. Midazolam is commonly used as an oral sedation agent in children; it has several features such as safety of use, quick onset and certain degree of amnesia that makes it a desirable sedation agent in children. This review paper discusses various aspects of oral midazolam, ketamine and their combinations in conscious sedation including, advantages of oral route of sedation, pharmacokinetics, range of oral doses, and antagonists for clinical dental treatment procedures. PMID:27330369

  13. 短暂性全面性遗忘症3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维星; 曾庆鑫; 王东

    2006-01-01

    短暂性全面性遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)是指患者短期内突然不能接受新的信息而保留远期记忆,常在24小时内缓解的一种综合征。TGA是短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)中椎-基底动脉系统TIA的一种特殊类型,临床上少见,现报告我院收治的3例患者如下。

  14. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  15. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  16. Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Keun; Na, Hyoung Il; Yu, Hyeon; Byun, Jun Soo; Youn, Young Chul; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Gi Hyeon [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases.

  17. 老年人短暂性完全遗忘综合症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾三鹏; 杨华; 任礼静; 高红梅

    2002-01-01

    @@ 短暂性完全遗忘综合症(transient global amnesia syndrome, 简称TGAS), 首例于1956年由Bender描述, 1958年Fisher和Adams正式命名为TGAS. 近年来被认为是一种独立的疾病, 其特点为突然不能接受新的信息, 近记忆丧失, 保留远期记忆, 常在24小时内恢复. 现将我们诊治的3例报告如下.

  18. 短暂性全面性遗忘症2例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈怀红

    2005-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)是一种以一过性记忆丧失为主要特征的临床综合征,迄今其确切病因及发病机制尚未明确,国内报告较少.为进一步提高临床对本病的认识,现将我科近年收治的2个TGA病例报告如下.

  19. The novel nootropic compound DM232 (UNIFIRAM) ameliorates memory impairment in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ghelardini; Nicoletta Galeotti; Fulvio Gualtieri; Dina Manetti; Corrado Bucherelli; Elisabetta Baldi; Alessandro Bartolini

    2002-01-01

    The favorable pharmacological profile exhibited by piracetam stimulated the synthesis of related compounds potentially endowed with a higher nootropic potency. The antiamnesic and procognitive activity of DM232 (unifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, was investigated. Mouse passive avoidance and rat Morris water maze and Social learning tests were employed. DM232 (0.001–1 mg/kg i.p. – 0.01–0.1 1mg/kg p.o.) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), mecamy...

  20. DM235 (sunifiram): a novel nootropic with potential as a cognitive enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini C; Galeotti N.; Gualtieri F.; Romanelli M; Bucherelli C.; Baldi E.; Bartolini A.

    2002-01-01

    DM235 (sunifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, prevented the amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 i.p.), after intraperitoneal (0.001–0.1 mg kg–1) or oral (0.01–0.1 mg kg–1) administration, as shown by a passive avoidance test in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DM235 was comparable to that of well-known nootropic drugs such as piracetam (30–100 mg kg–1 i.p.), aniracetam (100 mg kg–1 p.o.) or rolipram (30 mg kg–1 p.o.). DM235 also prevented mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1...

  1. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ladde Shivakumar; Gouda Shivaraj T; N. Venkat Rao; Shalam; Verma Richa

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation t...

  2. [The traveler without luggage. A case of lost identity in an adolescent (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, D; Duché, D J

    1979-01-01

    Loss of personal identity is a difficult problem which is relatively rarely encountered in psychiatric practice. A case is reported of an adolescent of 15 years of age with total amnesia over a period of two months. His true identity was discovered only after his photograph and story had been published in a widely-read daily newspaper. Following a discussion on the possible etiological mechanisms involved, two problems remained unresolved: the difficulty of establishing a psychopathological basis for a loss of identity, and the prognostic uncertainty inherent in restoring the adolescent's identity.

  3. How the brain goes out of its mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Dreaming is characterized by formal visual imagery (akin to hallucination), by inconstancy of time, place and person (akin to disorientation), by a scenario-like knitting together of disparate elements (akin to confabulation) and by an inability to recall (akin to amnesia). Taken together, these four dream features are similar to the delirium of organic brain disease. By studying the brain during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep--the phase of sleep in which most dreaming occurs--we can begin to understand its basis in the altered neurophysiology of REM.

  4. A cognitive chameleon: lessons from a novel MAPT mutation case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuying; Gordon, Elizabeth; Rohrer, Jonathan; Downey, Laura; de Silva, Rohan; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Nicholas, Jennifer; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Mahoney, Colin; Warren, Jason; Rossor, Martin; Fox, Nick; Caine, Diana

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of frontotemporal dementia caused by a novel MAPT mutation (Q351R) with a remarkably long amnestic presentation mimicking familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological and imaging data provide convergent evidence for predominantly bilateral anterior medial temporal lobe involvement consistent with previously established neuroanatomical signatures of MAPT mutations. This case supports the notion that the neural network affected in MAPT mutations is determined to a large extent by the underlying molecular pathology. We discuss the diagnostic significance of anomia in the context of atypical amnesia and the impact of impaired episodic and semantic memory systems on autobiographical memory.

  5. [Overview and assessment of cognitive function in interpreting postoperative cognitive dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Rina; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    The most important point for evaluation of the post-operative cognitive dysfunction is that we understand "cognitive function". First we described the definition of the "cognitive function" and second, outlined each function (dysfunction) and introduced the main assessment methods from the view point of neuropsychology. Cognitive function (dysfunction) described in this paper includes consciousness (confusional state, disturbance of consciousness), generalized attention (disorder of generalized attention), memory (amnesia), orientation (disorientation), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome), social cognition (social cognitive impairment), language (aphasia), cognition (agnosia), behavior (apraxia), directed attention (unilateral spatial neglect), and construction (constructional disorder).

  6. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  7. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  8. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems.

  9. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  10. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  11. Differential compromise of prospective and retrospective metamemory monitoring and their dissociable structural brain correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Kwon, Dongjin; Serventi, Matthew R; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2016-08-01

    Metamemory refers to personal knowledge about one's own memory ability that invokes cognitive processes relevant to monitoring and controlling memory. An impaired monitoring system can potentially result in unawareness of symptoms as can occur in addiction denial. Monitoring processes can be assessed with prospective measures such as Feeling-Of-Knowing (FOK) judgments on prediction of future recognition performance, or retrospective confidence judgments (RCJ) made on previous memory performance. Alcoholic patients with amnesia showed poor FOK but intact RCJ. The neuropsychological continuum from mild to moderate deficits in nonamnesic to amnesic alcoholism raised the possibility that alcoholics uncomplicated by clinically-detectable amnesia may suffer anosognosia for their mild memory deficits. Herein 24 abstinent alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls completed an episodic memory paradigm including prospective FOK and retrospective RCJ monitoring measures and underwent 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Alcoholics were less accurate than controls in recognition and in assessing their future recognition performance, which was marked by overestimation, but were as accurate as controls on confidence ratings of actual recognition performance. Examination of brain structure-function relations revealed a double dissociation where FOK accuracy was selectively related to insular volume, and retrospective confidence accuracy was selectively related to frontolimbic structural volumes. Impaired FOK with intact RCJ was consistent with mild anosognosia and suggested evidence for neuropsychological and neural mechanisms of unawareness in addiction. PMID:27244277

  12. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems.

  13. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems. PMID:26588602

  14. Artery of Percheron Infarction as an Unusual Cause of Korsakoff's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongxing; Fox, Derrick; Anand, Abhishek; Elhaj, Amal; Kapoor, Arushi; Najibi, Faranak; Kim, Han; Weir, Roger; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2015-01-01

    The Korsakoff syndrome is defined as "an abnormal mental state in which memory and learning are affected out of all proportion to other cognitive functions in an otherwise alert and responsive patient." Confabulation refers to false or erroneous memories arising, not deliberately, in the context of a neurological amnesia and is often thought of as pathognomonic of the Korsakoff syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, various studies have identified brain lesions in the thalami, mammillary bodies, and frontal cortex. We report a case of a 68-year-old male presenting with acute altered mental status on July 16, 2015. The neuropsychological dysfunctions included prominent Korsakoff's syndrome, which became apparent when the altered mental status resolved. Amnesia was accompanied by prominent confabulation, disorientation, and lack of insight into his own disability. Neuroradiological data indicated that the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei in bilateral thalami were infarcted by occlusion of the artery of Percheron. We believe that ours is one of few reported cases of Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with infarction involving the territory of the artery of Percheron. We conclude that bilateral thalamic lesions could cause Korsakoff's syndrome and the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei might be important structures in the pathogenesis of confabulation. PMID:26688763

  15. Artery of Percheron Infarction as an Unusual Cause of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korsakoff syndrome is defined as “an abnormal mental state in which memory and learning are affected out of all proportion to other cognitive functions in an otherwise alert and responsive patient.” Confabulation refers to false or erroneous memories arising, not deliberately, in the context of a neurological amnesia and is often thought of as pathognomonic of the Korsakoff syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, various studies have identified brain lesions in the thalami, mammillary bodies, and frontal cortex. We report a case of a 68-year-old male presenting with acute altered mental status on July 16, 2015. The neuropsychological dysfunctions included prominent Korsakoff’s syndrome, which became apparent when the altered mental status resolved. Amnesia was accompanied by prominent confabulation, disorientation, and lack of insight into his own disability. Neuroradiological data indicated that the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei in bilateral thalami were infarcted by occlusion of the artery of Percheron. We believe that ours is one of few reported cases of Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with infarction involving the territory of the artery of Percheron. We conclude that bilateral thalamic lesions could cause Korsakoff’s syndrome and the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei might be important structures in the pathogenesis of confabulation.

  16. Cognitive rehabilitation of episodic memory disorders: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Ptak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioural management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioural disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behaviour management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids.

  17. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed.

  18. Anxiety in Children Undergoing VCUG: Sedation or No Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Herd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Voiding cystourethrograms are distressing for children and parents. Nonpharmacological methods reduce distress. Pharmacological interventions for VCUG focus on sedation as well as analgesia, anxiolysis, and amnesia. Sedation has cost, time, and safety issues. Which agents and route should we use? Are we sure that sedation does not influence the ability to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux? Methods. Literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Review of comparative studies found. Results. Seven comparative studies including two randomised controlled trials were reviewed. Midazolam given orally (0.5-0.6 mg/kg or intranasally (0.2 mg/kg is effective with no apparent effect on voiding dynamics. Insufficient evidence to recommend other sedating agents was found. Deeper sedating agents may interfere with voiding dynamics. Conclusion. Midazolam reduces the VCUG distress, causes amnesia, and does not appear to interfere with voiding dynamics. Midazolam combined with simple analgesia is an effective method to reduce distress to children undergoing VCUG.

  19. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

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    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  20. Antiamnesic Effects of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Andrew T. Mugwagwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crinum macowanii has been found to contain alkaloids that have activity against acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo ability of hydroethanolic crude extract of Crinum macowanii to ameliorate memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Thirty-six male Balb/c mice weighing around 25–35 g were employed in the present investigation. Y-maze and novel object recognition apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioural models, and scopolamine-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioural model. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o. was administered in single doses to the mice. Donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o. was used as a positive control agent. C. macowanii extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in spontaneous alternation performance in the Y-maze task. C. macowanii 40 mg/kg showed significant activity (p<0.05 versus negative control, comparable to that of the positive control. C. macowanii also showed memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the long-term memory novel object recognition performance as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in the discrimination index. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii may be a useful memory restorative mediator in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Abraham Joshua Heschel and Nostra Aetate: Shaping the Catholic Reconsideration of Judaism during Vatican II

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    Joshua Furnal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Nostra Aetate is only comprised of five short paragraphs, this document represents a turning point, not just for Catholic-Jewish relations, but also sketches the fundamental aims of embodying the Christian faith in a pluralistic age. There is a complex but important narrative that needs to be revisited so that we do not forget the ways in which Catholic learning has developed, and how this development has often been prompted by non-Catholics. In this article, I will re-examine some crucial details in the back-story of the formulation of Nostra Aetate and offer some observations about the potential consequences of omitting these details. My argument is that some recent events and scholarship suffer from a form of amnesia about the role that Jewish people have played in the development of Catholic learning—a form of amnesia that manifests in explicit proselytizing tendencies. In particular, I want to highlight the role that Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel played during the Second Vatican Council as an instructive example for Catholic-Jewish dialogue today.

  2. Emotion-based learning: Insights from the Iowa Gambling Task

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    Oliver Hugh Turnbull

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the cognitive and/or emotional basis of complex decision-making, and the related phenomenon of emotion-based learning, has been heavily influenced by the Iowa Gambling Task. A number of psychological variables have been investigated as potentially important in understanding emotion-based learning. This paper reviews the extent to which humans are explicitly aware of how we make such decisions; the biasing influence of pre-existing emotional labels; and the extent to which emotion-based systems are anatomically and functionally independent of episodic memory. Systematic review suggests that (i an aspect of conscious awareness does appear to be readily achieved during the IGT, but as a relatively unfocused emotion-based ‘gut-feeling’, akin to intuition; (ii Several studies have manipulated the affective pre-loading of IGT tasks, and make it clear that such labelling has a substantial influence on performance, an experimental manipulation similar to the phenomenon of prejudice. (iii Finally, it appears that complex emotion-based learning can remain intact despite profound amnesia, at least in some neurological patients, a finding with a range of potentially important clinical implications: in the management of dementia; in explaining infantile amnesia; and in understanding of the possible mechanisms of psychotherapy.

  3. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

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    Ladde Shivakumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation tested on Actophotometer. In case of passive avoidance paradigm all dose of polyherbal formulation have shown an increased step-down latency (SDL, decreased time spent in shock zone and no of errors. SR-105 also reverse sodium nitrite induced amnesia and decreases lithium induced head twitches. In the present study. Polyherbal formulation SR-105, showed elevation of acetylcholine level by significant reduction of cholinesterase activity in rat’s brain and ultimately improved memory. In the light of above, it may be worthwhile to explore the potential of this formulation in the management of Alzheimer patients.

  4. Memory-enhancing activity of Rose alba in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikwade Nilofar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of AD. Memantine is the first novel class of AD medications acting on the glutaminergic system and produces symptomatic improvement in learning. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam, and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are being used to improve memory, mood, and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Rose alba (RA on learning and memory in mice. Male Swiss albino mice (3 months old weighing around 25 g were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. RA (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. was administered for eight successive days to the mice. Piracetam (200 mg/kg i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. RA improved learning and memory of mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. RA significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of calyces of RA might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  5. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-31

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  6. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  7. 纪念空间与社会记忆%Memory, History and Space (Symposium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕴茜

    2012-01-01

    Wang Xiaokui observes that evolving from an interpretive framework of the cultural construction of modern nation states, memory studies has been expanded to encompass the entire realm of modern social culture and provides a possible approach to current cultural issues. Given the corporeality and subjectivity of memory, a multi-disciplinary perspective is necessary to counter a flat and stereotypical tendency in the studies. As far as collective memory is concerned to Hu Heng, amnesia is not the residue of memory; on the contrary, memory results from amnesia. Categorizing collective memories into three forms, he explores the possibility of constructing an amnesia theatre in an effort to establish the connections between past and present, and to make history an integral part in our lives. Chen Yunqian considers social memory an important source of a country and society's legitimacy. As concrete sites of social memory, memorial space has gained mounting attention in the recent decades. The dialectics between memorial space and social memory lays the foundation for the former's existence and agency. Modern China is found to be a case in point, which has witnessed a quickened sense of modernity and locality in the conversion of memorial space and the construction of social memory.%近代民族国家出现后,共同的社会记忆是国家与社会运作的重要合法性来源,因此,作为人们对过去事件、人物表达崇敬、景仰和怀念行为的纪念空间日益受到重视,因为纪念空间具有调动情感、引发思考、唤起并塑造记忆的功能,与社会记忆之间的关系极为密切。但是,纪念空间与社会记忆之间不是不证自明的关系,两者之间的辩证关系是纪念空间得以存在并发挥塑造社会记忆功能的基础,而且在近代中国,纪念空间的转换与社会记忆的塑造更具有现代性与本土性,这是研究中国记忆不可忽略的关键。

  8. 不同剂量咪达唑仑加舒芬太尼用于腰硬联合麻醉效果观察%Effect observation of different doses of midazolam and sufentanil on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦振波; 李秀民; 王海玲; 肖仁俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the mioimum effective dose of midazolam and sufentanil on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods A toral of 100 female patients with hypogastrium operation were divided into groups 1 , II , HI and IV . The four groups received midazolam 0. 02, 0. 04, 0. 06 and 0. 08 mg/kg combined with sufentanil 0. 1 μg/kg for spinal-epidural anesthesia respectively. The degree of sedation and amnesia, vital signs and complications in the four groups were compared. Results The degree of sedation and amnesia was as follows: groups IV > III > II > I , but the incidence of glossocoma in group IV was the highest . Conclusion Midazolam 0.04-0. 06 mg/kg combined with sufentanil 0.1 fμg/kg has satisfying effect of sedation and amnesia and it can effectively prevent the visceral guyed reaction.%目的 探讨咪达唑仑加舒芬太尼用于联合麻醉时的最小有效剂量.方法 随机选择100例择期下腹部手术的女性患者,分为Ⅰ 、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ4组,分别采用0.02、0.04、0.06和0.08 mg/kg咪达唑仑辅助舒芬太尼0.1μg/kg进行腰硬联合麻醉,比较4组患者镇静和遗忘程度、生命体征及并发症.结果 镇静、遗忘程度依次为Ⅳ 组>Ⅲ组>Ⅱ组>Ⅰ组,但Ⅳ组舌后坠发生率最高.结论 0.04 ~0.06 mg/kg的咪达唑仑辅助0.1 μg/kg舒芬太尼有良好的镇静遗忘作用,并可有效预防内脏牵拉反应.

  9. Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and recovery of function: Relevance to cognitive thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Harland, Bruce; Loukavenko, Elena A; Perry, Brook; Mercer, Stephanie; Collings, David A; Ulrich, Katharina; Abraham, Wickliffe C; McNaughton, Neil; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and their neural connections is the most consistent neuropathology associated with diencephalic amnesia. ATN lesions in rats produce memory impairments that support a key role for this region within an extended hippocampal system of complex overlapping neural connections. Environmental enrichment is a therapeutic tool that produces substantial, although incomplete, recovery of memory function after ATN lesions, even after the lesion-induced deficit has become established. Similarly, the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin, also counters the negative effects of ATN lesions. ATN lesions substantially reduce c-Fos expression and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, and reduce spine density on CA1 neurons; only the latter is reversed by enrichment. We discuss the implications of this evidence for the cognitive thalamus, with a proposal that there are genuine interactions among different but allied thalamo-cortical systems that go beyond a simple summation of their separate effects. PMID:25637779

  10. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K; Woldbye, D P D; Wiborg, O

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy remains the most effective treatment for depression including a fast onset of action. However, this therapeutic approach suffers from some potential drawbacks. In the acute phase this includes amnesia. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) has previously been shown...... to reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...... treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress...

  11. REVERSAL EFFECT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD (LILIACEAE ROOT EXTRACT ON MEMORY DEFICITS OF MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwlayan Vrish Dhwaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus racemosus wild (Liliaceae was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p. were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p. were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic root extract (150 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (p<0.05 improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

  12. [Acute head injuries in primary health care--internet survey conducted with general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury. PMID:23786110

  13. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes.

  14. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  16. Strategies to avoid a missed diagnosis of co-occurring concussion in post-acute patients having a spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David S. Kushner

    2015-01-01

    Research scientists and clinicians should be aware that missed diagnoses of mild-moderate trau-matic brain injuries in post-acute patients having spinal cord injuries may approach 60–74%with certain risk factors, potentially causing clinical consequences for patients, and confounding the results of clinical research studies. Factors leading to a missed diagnosis may include acute trau-ma-related life-threatening issues, sedation/intubation, subtle neuropathology on neuroimaging, failure to collect Glasgow Coma Scale scores or duration of posttraumatic amnesia, or lack of va-lidity of this information, and overlap in neuro-cognitive symptoms with emotional responses to spinal cord injuries. Strategies for avoiding a missed diagnosis of mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries in patients having a spinal cord injuries are highlighted in this perspective.

  17. Kognitive forstyrrelser ved svaer traumatisk hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Christina Malling; Siert, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) very often has extensive effects of cognitive character such as changes in recognition, thought, memory, language and perception. The purpose of this paper is to give a short status of cognitive impairment after severe traumatic brain injury and to illustrate that cog...... that cognitive impairment varies according to levels of consciousness. The article shortly describes typical observed behaviour in the patient when waking up after severe TBI, including post-traumatic amnesia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-15......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) very often has extensive effects of cognitive character such as changes in recognition, thought, memory, language and perception. The purpose of this paper is to give a short status of cognitive impairment after severe traumatic brain injury and to illustrate...

  18. 短暂性遗忘综合征3例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴永洙; 倪志国

    2008-01-01

    短暂性遗忘综合征(transient gebae amnesia symgromeTGAs),首例由1956年由Bender报道,于1958年由Fisuer和Adams正式命名为TGAS。多年来被认为是一种独立的疾病,其特点为突然不能接受新的信息,短期内记忆丧失,保留远期记忆,并且常在24h内恢复,与临床上常见的老年人间隔性记忆丧失存在区别。现将我院诊治的3例报告如下:

  19. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (pplant.

  20. [Atypical early posttraumatic syndromes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, G E

    1974-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 1,925 head injuries, 283 patients (14.7%), could not be classified, neither in the group of simple head injuries without cerebral symptoms, nor in the group of typical concussions characterized by immediate amnesia or observed coma. We have prefered the rather neutral term of atypical early posttraumatic syndromes. In this group, apart from neurovegetative manifestations, partial disturbances of consciousness and perception, we have also classified delayed disturbances of consciousness. Special attention has been given to migraineous phenomena and to a syndrome, characteristic for children, described by Mealey. This is an intermediate group important from a medico-legal point of view because certain transient cerebral manifestations risk to be mistaken for psychological reactions. On the other hand symptoms probably of psychic origin were discussed. PMID:4469864

  1. Population-based, inception cohort study of the incidence, course, and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury after motor vehicle collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Boyle, Eleanor; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    -up. RESULTS: Of 7170 adults injured in a motor vehicle collision over the 2-year inception period, 1716 (24%) met our cohort definition of MTBI. There were more women affected (53%), and MTBI was most common in the 18- to 23-year-old group. Most were not hospitalized (73%), but 28% reported loss...... days (95% CI, 97-103), and about 23% reported not having recovered by 1 year. Factors associated with delayed recovery included being older than 50 years, having less than a high school education, having poor expectations for recovery, having depressive symptoms, having arm numbness, having hearing...... problems, having headaches, having low back pain, and having thoracic back pain. Loss of consciousness and posttraumatic amnesia were not associated with recovery. CONCLUSIONS: MTBI affects almost a quarter of persons reporting an injury after a traffic collision. The median time to recovery is 100 days...

  2. Frustration and fulfillment of needs in dissociative and conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Reiji; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-08-01

    We reviewed all patients with dissociative disorders (nine patients with dissociative amnesia or dissociative fugue) and conversion disorders (10 patients) who were admitted and treated during the past 15 years. Needs frustrated at the appearance of the symptoms and those fulfilled at discharge were studied in both groups using Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The patients of both groups who encountered troubles in their life events were found to have frustrated needs. These symptoms tended to be accompanied more often by frustrations regarding a 'need for love' in the dissociative disorders group and by frustration in the need for 'self-esteem and self-actualization' in the conversion disorders group. In addition, needs of lower orders were already threatened at onset in many patients. The symptoms disappeared in patients in whom the situation completely improved (needs were fulfilled), but the symptoms were alleviated or unchanged in those in whom the problems remained unresolved.

  3. Homer's moly identified as Galanthus nivalis L.: physiologic antidote to stramonium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaitakis, A; Duvoisin, R C

    1983-03-01

    The antidotal properties of certain naturally occurring medicinal plants against central nervous system intoxication appear to have been empirically established in ancient times. Homer, in his epic poem, the Odyssey, described a plant, "moly," used by Odysseus as an antidote against Circe's poisonous drugs. Centrally acting anticholinergic agents are thought to have been used by Circe to induce amnesia and a delusional state in Odysseus' crew. We present evidence to support the hypothesis that "moly" might have been the snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, which contains galanthamine, a centrally acting anticholinesterase. Thus the description of "moly" as an antidote in Homer's Odyssey may represent the oldest recorded use of an anticholinesterase to reverse central anticholinergic intoxication.

  4. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty. PMID:23230686

  5. Rehabilitering af svaer traumatisk hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbo, Annette M; Jakobsen, Johannes K

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2000 the Brain Injury Unit at Hvidovre Hospital was established, offering subacute intensive rehabilitation to patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Uptake area: Eastern part of Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Outcome 6 months after discharge is presented...... for patients from the first 2 years, focusing on disability and social factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were selected on the basis of the Glasgow Coma Scale after end of sedation to ensure that the most severely-injured were included in the study. Rehabilitation was initiated immediately regardless...... of the level of consciousness. Patients were assessed using established rating-scales. Local social authorities were involved at discharge. RESULTS: Of 77 consecutive patients, 5 died before follow-up and 6 patients were not seen at follow up. 79% of the remaining group had post-traumatic amnesia lasting more...

  6. Long-Term Perseveration in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD is progressive memory loss. Presented here is a case of AD who, despite ultimate profound dementia with severe amnesia, showed retention of a perseverative response she developed during 26 encounters, over 4.5 years, with the Brown–Peterson distractor test. From Test 9 onwards, she responded from the first distractor-filled trial with one consonant trigram, appearing in none of the seven test forms given her. At Test 26, she could not repeat heard trigrams yet faithfully responded with her perseverative trigram. The trigram, ostensibly declarative information, apparently became part and parcel of the task's procedure. Although perseveration is a form of impairment probably resulting from Alzheimer pathology involving frontal and parietal cortex, it may also reflect a form of preserved memory, albeit distorted, supported by posterior cortical regions spared in AD.

  7. Le cas K. Königsberg, Kant, Kaliningrad… K, ou la métamorphose!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Deguy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available «What’s in a name? », asked themselves Romeo and Juliet (II, ii: 45, forced by the patronymic logic of discrepancy, more powerful than that of a shared love. Within the heart of Europe after WWII, even The Name Berlin, written by Maurice Blanchot in an article for the “Gulliver”, a magazine owned by Italo Calvino and Elio Vittorini, is a place of disunion and metamorphosis – of amnesia – of those that, speaking the same language, transitioned from one world to another, from one story to another, from East to West. Today such metamorphosis is testified by Köningsberg, the city of Kant, the Moses of Europe according to Hölderlin, renamed Kaliningrad, by Kalinin, the bloody follower of Stalin. How is it possible to repeat and bring back to memory our cosmopolitan toponymy of our Modern world when facing such a complex picture of envisioning and oblivion of our present time?

  8. The amnestic syndrome: applying the Rorschach Inkblot method for differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth; Kedem, Sagit; Hadar, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative processes were investigated in a man diagnosed with focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) following a traumatic head injury without any anterograde memory deficit. Findings were derived from the Rorschach Inkblot method, which was administered together with other performance-based tests and a self-report inventory for evaluating dissociative proneness in personality functioning. A substantial set of behavioral and test response variables indicated dissociation proneness and the activation of dissociative mechanisms. This conception was supported a few months following the evaluation when the patient reported a total spontaneous recovery of the memory deficit. The interplay between neurological and functional factors in FRA is discussed with a view for creating an integrated model. PMID:23985019

  9. Fragmented People in the Fragmented Country in Midnight’s Children:Viewed from the Perspective of“Fragmentation”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiu-fang

    2016-01-01

    In Midnight’s Children, frequently seen are the words like“hole”,“segment”,“crack”, and the damage and loss of bodily function such as amnesia, which is called a“phenomenon of fragmentation”in this paper. In terms of the phenomenon, the characters of three generations in Midnight’s Children are analyzed. It is found that colonial culture exerts a long-lasting im-pact on its colonized people, under whose influence generations of colonized people find it hard to negotiate their dual cultural identities. This happened to India. Postcolonial Indians had fragmented identities. Furthermore, the phenomenon also reflects that India was a fragmented nation, whose nationals desired peace, unity, and prosperity.

  10. Maintained in Very Good Condition or Virtually Rebuilt? Destruction of Cultural Property and Narration of Violent Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of cultural heritage in shaping public understandings of history, identity and justice; it focuses on misinterpretations and misrepresentations of damage to and destruction of archaeological sites and historic buildings in Cyprus. It examines: restoration and its impact on public understandings of history; scholarly conduct in the collection and presentation of data; denial of violence as a tactic to establish peace and recognition of violence as a strategy for building trust; and denial of violence as a strategy for fostering nationalist sentiment and inciting ethnic hatred. First, it addresses the role of monuments and their destruction in memory and amnesia. Then, it identifies inappropriate restoration, which has misdirected professional and public understanding of history. It also demonstrates either wilful ignorance of events or conscious exclusion of inconvenient facts from archaeological and official texts; either way, this is unprofessional practice, which has led to the implicit denial of real violence that was intended to cause ethnic cleansing.

  11. Clinical Observation on the Effects of Bo's Abdominal Acupuncture in 40 Cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; LIAO Xiao-ming; LI xiao-xi; SONG Yuan-bin

    2008-01-01

    objective;To observe the curative effect of Bo's abdominal acupuncture on chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS).Methods;Forty cases with CFS were treated by Bo's abdominal acupuncture at me points for conducting qi back to its origin and 4 points on the abdomen once a dav for 2 weeks.Scores for symptoms and scores for fatigue questionnaires were compared before and after treatment.Results;After treatment,the clinical symptoms of patients were differently alleviated,and scores for symptoms,mental condition and neural feeling in questionnaires on fatigue were obviously reduced(P<0.01-0.05).Conclusion;Bo's abdominal acupuncture has a good curative effect on general disease with complex symptoms,especially on lassitude,anorlexia,insomnia,amnesia,diarrhea,and general pain.

  12. 1-Sulfonyl-6-Piperazinyl-7-Azaindoles as potent and pseudo-selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, Charles-Henry; Pesonen, Ullamari; Messinger, Josef; Horvath, Raymond; Salo, Harri; Gałęzowski, Michał; Galek, Mariusz; Stefańska, Klaudia; Szeremeta-Spisak, Joanna; Olszak-Płachta, Marta; Buda, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Król, Marcin; Prusis, Peteris; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Mikulski, Maciej; Kuokkanen, Katja; Chapman, Hugh; Obuchowicz, Radosław; Korjamo, Timo; Jalava, Niina; Nowak, Mateusz

    2016-06-01

    A series of 1-Sulfonyl-6-Piperazinyl-7-Azaindoles, showing strong antagonistic activity to 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) was synthesized and characterized. The series was optimized to reduce activity on D2 receptor. Based on the selectivity against this off-target and the analysis of the ADME-tox profile, compound 1c was selected for in vivo efficacy assessment, which demonstrated procognitive effects as shown in reversal of scopolamine induced amnesia in an elevated plus maze test in mice. Compound 3, the demethylated version of compound 1c, was profiled against a panel of 106 receptors, channels and transporters, indicating only D3 receptor as a major off-target. Compound 3 has been selected for this study over compound 1c because of the higher 5-HT6R/D2R binding ratio. These results have defined a new direction for the design of our pseudo-selective 5-HT6R antagonists.

  13. Immunotherapy-responsive limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, Harry; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Akrivou, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Lyrakos, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2014-08-15

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been recently identified as a target of humoral autoimmunity in a small subgroup of patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE). We present a patient with NPLE and positive anti-GAD antibodies who showed significant improvement after long-term immunotherapy. A 48-year old female was admitted with a two-year history of anterograde amnesia and seizures. Brain MRI revealed bilateral lesions of medial temporal lobes. Screening for anti-neuronal antibodies showed high anti-GAD titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with strong evidence of intrathecal production. The patient received treatment with prednisolone and long-term plasma exchange. During a 12-month follow-up, she exhibited complete seizure remission and an improvement in memory and visuo-spatial skills. Anti-GAD antibodies may serve as a useful marker to identify a subset of NPLE patients that respond to immunoregulatory treatment.

  14. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. (author)

  15. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty.

  16. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment. PMID:15617601

  17. Misdiagnosing absent pedicle of cervical spine in the acute trauma setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad H. Abduljabbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms.

  18. 短暂性完全性遗忘症1例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青刚; 梅凤君

    2009-01-01

    短暂性完全遗忘综合征(Transient global amnesia syndrome,TGA)是一种突然发生的短暂性近事遗忘的临床综合征,持续1~24小时,发作时患者不能记忆新事物,伴有不同程度的远近记忆丧失,但自知力、说话、书写及计算力保持良好。国内对此病例报道不多,现报告1例如下:

  19. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  20. 一过性全面遗忘症(附5 例分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虹; 董银桃

    2001-01-01

    @@ 一过性全面遗忘症(Transient Global Amnesia,TGA)是指患者短期内突然不能接受新的信息而保留远期记忆,常在24 h内缓解的一种综合征[1].最初由Bender1956年描述为单纯孤立遗忘发作,其后国外相继有不少报道,1958年由Fisher和Abams正式命名为TGA[2].近年来国内陆续有几十例报告,其病因及发病机制等尚未肯定.现将笔者遇到的5 例报告如下,并结合文献进行讨论.

  1. Evaluation of diffuse axonal injury in traumatic brain injury - Valoración del daño axonal difuso en los traumatismos cráneo-encefálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Junqué

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse axonal injury (DAI in traumaticbrain injury (TBI is produced by primary and secondarymechanisms of axonal damage. DAI is the responsibleof neuropsychological impairments associatedto moderate and diffuse TBI such as deficits in attention,memory, speed of mental processing and executivefunctions. Clinical magnetic resonance imagingallows to identify traumatic microbleeds using T2*and to quantify indirect signs of DAI such as the ventricularvolumes of corpus callosum surface. Diffusiontensor imaging (DTI is the most suitable techniqueto identify and to quantify DAI in TBI patients. Thefractional anisotropy (FA values have been found sensitiveto DAI even in mild TBI and correlate withseverity parameters such as Glasgow coma scale andpost-traumatic amnesia. FA values changes over timebut it remains as a permanent TBI sequel even in children.The mean whole brain FA and corpus callosummeasures have shown significant correlations with theclassical neuropsychological deficits seen in TBIpatients with DAI.

  2. sup 123 I-IMP SPECT study on patients with amnestic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Abe, Shinei; Arai, Hisayuki; Takasaki, Masaru; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied using single photon emission CT (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-IMP to elucidate the pathophysiology of amnesia. Four patients with amnestic syndrome diagnosed by DSM-III-R criteria were investigated. SPECT images demonstrated definite hypoperfusion of the temporoparietal lobe and relative sparing of motorsensory and occipital cortices in two out of four patients. Since these abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow have been considered to be characteristic findings in dementia of the Alzheimer type, two patients with temporoparietal hypoperfusion are suggested to manifest the early stage of dementia of the Alzheimer type. Our observations suggest that {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT is an useful madality in the diagnosis of the early stage of dementia of the Alzheimer type, especially in patients with only memory impairment. (author).

  3. Use of Flumazenil to Provide Adequate Recovery Time Post-Midazolom Infusion in a General Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOJTABA MOJTAHEDZADEH

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedation permits patients to tolerate the various treatment modalities to which they are subjected. However it may sometimes cause prolonged sedation in critically ill patients. Flumazenil, a benzo¬diazepine antagonist, reverses midazolam-induced sedation and amnesia. We prospectively designed a double-blind randomized study to evaluate the effects of flumazenil on thirty (30 Iranian General Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. They were requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours and they were sedated by midazolam infusions. Sedation levels were measured hourly during the infusion, at the end of the infusion, and at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after cessation of the mida¬zolam infusion. Reversal of sedation was observed in all patients who received flumazenil, and re-sedation occurred in seven of these patients. Reversal was not seen in any of the patients who receiv-ed placebo.

  4. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome following Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoumitro Deb

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 64-year-old lady who developed clinical features of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome following a laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Following the operation she developed paralytic ileus and required total parenteral nutrition for one month. A suspected history of average 40 units of weekly alcohol consumption prior to the operation could not be confirmed and the patient did not show any sign of alcohol dependence. Within a few months of treatment with a daily oral dose of thiamine 200 mgs supplemented by multivitamins the patient showed subjective evidence of improvement in confusion, confabulation, and anterograde amnesia, although objective tests showed residual deficits in many areas of cognitive functioning, including immediate and delayed recall of verbal and non-verbal materials, planning and switching of attention.

  5. Effects of entorhinal cortex lesions on memory in different tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Gutierrez-Figueroa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the entorhinal cortex produce retrograde memory impairment in both animals and humans. Here we report the effects of bilateral entorhinal cortex lesions caused by the stereotaxic infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in rats at two different moments, before or after the training session, on memory of different tasks: two-way shuttle avoidance, inhibitory avoidance and habituation to an open field. Pre- or post-training entorhinal cortex lesions caused an impairment of performance in the shuttle avoidance task, which agrees with the previously described role of this area in the processing of memories acquired in successive sessions. In the inhibitory avoidance task, only the post-training lesions had an effect (amnesia. No effect was observed on the open field task. The findings suggest that the role of the entorhinal cortex in memory processing is task-dependent, perhaps related to the complexity of each task

  6. Valsalva样动作诱发的短暂性全面遗忘症二例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康; 朱雄超; 罗本燕

    2009-01-01

    @@ 短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)是一种以急性顺行性遗忘为特征的临床综合征,一般在24 h内完全恢复.其病因和发病机制仍不清楚,但近年来,颈静脉回流障碍的假说引人关注,并得到了部分学者的印证.以往国内多将TGA作为TIA的一种特殊类型报道,然而大部分TGA并不属于TIA,我们报道的2例TGA患者中并不存在常见的脑血管病危险因素,却均由Valsalva样动作诱发,以下结合文献进行讨论.

  7. 短暂性完全遗忘综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟彦

    2001-01-01

    @@ 短暂性完全遗忘(Transient Global Amnesia,TGA)是一种临床综合征.1956年由Bender首次报道一例以一过性单纯遗忘发作为特征的病例,称之为伴有遗忘的精神错乱[1],其后国外相继有所报道,1958年由Fisher和Adam正式命名为TGA,它以突然发生的一过性逆行性遗忘为主要特征,常在24小时内缓解.近年来国内外均认为TGA是一科独立的疾病,其发病率也随着年龄的增加而增加.现将作者诊治的9例患者报告如下:

  8. 完全遗忘性TIA型脑梗死3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美妮; 张淑芳; 范慧琴

    2000-01-01

    @@ 近年来,国内外有关短暂性完全遗忘症(transient globa l amnesia,TGA)报道较多,但目前为止表现为短暂性完全遗忘性TIA型脑梗死临床病例不多 ,现报告3例并加以讨论. 1 病历摘要 例1:男性,45岁.在会议发言中突然遗忘腹稿的后半部分内容,伴口角歪斜,语言含糊不清,右侧肢体无力,1 h后上述症状缓解.

  9. 056 一种扩展的Glasgow昏迷量表(GCS-E)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ [英]/Nell V…//Arch Phys Med Rehabil.-2000,81.-614~617 在世界卫生组织神经创伤预防与治疗咨部门的支持下,我们对扩展的GCS-E量表进行了修改,主要是界定了一系列行为标准,明确了创伤后记忆缺损(amnesia)的持续时间并规范了除GCS数据外的附加数据.这样,GCS可以在世界上通用,而评价记忆的数据被作为GCS量表中一个附加部分,从而无需对GCS再做任何修改,以避免脑外伤临床方面的抵触.

  10. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-11-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  11. 短暂性全面性遗忘症(附2例报道)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷晓林; 魏丽萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 短暂性全面性遗忘症(Transient global amnesia syndrome.TGA)临床较为少见,其特点为突然发生的短暂性近事遗忘的临床综合征,发作持续时间1~24小时不等.发作时患者不能记忆新事物,伴有不同程度的远近记忆丧失,但自知力、书写、谈话、计算能力保持良好[1].现将我科2例此类病人报告如下:

  12. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  13. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and n-butanol fraction (NBF were injected (intraperitoneally to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p

  14. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has......, the experiences of the relationship to infant and the parents’ experiences of their own self-esteem. Likewise, the support from nurses and from the parents’ own network positively impacted on the parents’ experiences of their parental self-esteem. The structural aspects referred to how the parents experienced...... of their self-esteem in the first 24 hours after the birth of a preterm infant are influenced by division (the fathers) and amnesia (the mothers). Later, when the parents build up their sense of parenthood they become very susceptible to the mutual relationship, the relationship to the infant and closest...

  15. Ketamine in adult cardiac surgery and the cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit: An evidence-based clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazzeffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients. In this manuscript, the authors provide an evidence-based clinical review of ketamine use in cardiac surgery patients for intensive care physicians, cardio-thoracic anesthesiologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons. All MEDLINE indexed clinical trials performed during the last 20 years in adult cardiac surgery patients were included in the review.

  16. What people believe about how memory works: a representative survey of the U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Simons

    Full Text Available Incorrect beliefs about the properties of memory have broad implications: the media conflate normal forgetting and inadvertent memory distortion with intentional deceit, juries issue verdicts based on flawed intuitions about the accuracy and confidence of testimony, and students misunderstand the role of memory in learning. We conducted a large representative telephone survey of the U.S. population to assess common beliefs about the properties of memory. Substantial numbers of respondents agreed with propositions that conflict with expert consensus: Amnesia results in the inability to remember one's own identity (83% of respondents agreed, unexpected objects generally grab attention (78%, memory works like a video camera (63%, memory can be enhanced through hypnosis (55%, memory is permanent (48%, and the testimony of a single confident eyewitness should be enough to convict a criminal defendant (37%. This discrepancy between popular belief and scientific consensus has implications from the classroom to the courtroom.

  17. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, J D

    1998-01-01

    Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is reviewed about the specific roles of hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, the amygdala, the basal ganglia, and various neocortical areas in declarative memory. Evidence is also reviewed about which brain regions mediate specific kinds of procedural memory, including sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive skill learning; perceptual and conceptual repetition priming; and several forms of conditioning. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional neural architecture of normal memory, age-related changes in memory performance, and neurological conditions that affect memory such as amnesia. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. PMID:9496622

  19. The Effects of Loranthus parasiticus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to evaluate cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect of Loranthus parasiticus. Cognitive enhancing effect of Loranthus parasiticus was investigated on scopolamine-induced amnesia model in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. We also examined the neuroprotective effect on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells by MTT assay. These results of Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test indicated that 10 and 50 mg/kg of Loranthus parasiticus reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Loranthus parasiticus also protected against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. As a result of in vitro test for elucidating possible mechanism, Loranthus parasiticus inhibited AChE activity, ROS production, and Ca2+ accumulation. Loranthus parasiticus showed memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect and these effects may be related to inhibition of AChE activity, ROS level, and Ca2+ influx.

  20. Suvorexant: The first orexin receptor antagonist to treat insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary insomnia is mainly treated with drugs acting on benzodiazepine receptors and a few other classes of drugs used for different co-morbidities. A novel approach to treat insomnia has been introduced recently, with the approval of suvorexant, the first in a new class of orexin receptor antagonists. Orexin receptors in the brain have been found to play an important role in the regulation of various aspects of arousal and motivation. The drugs commonly used for insomnia therapy to date, have often been associated with adverse effects, such as, day-time somnolence, amnesia, confusion, and gait disturbance, apart from the risk of dependence on chronic use. Suvorexant has not shown these adverse effects because of its unique mechanism of action. It also appears to be suitable as a chronic therapy for insomnia, because of minimal physical dependence. The availability of this new drug as an effective and safe alternative is an important and welcome development in insomnia management.

  1. Suvorexant: The first orexin receptor antagonist to treat insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashok K; Handu, Shailendra S; Mediratta, Pramod K

    2015-01-01

    Primary insomnia is mainly treated with drugs acting on benzodiazepine receptors and a few other classes of drugs used for different co-morbidities. A novel approach to treat insomnia has been introduced recently, with the approval of suvorexant, the first in a new class of orexin receptor antagonists. Orexin receptors in the brain have been found to play an important role in the regulation of various aspects of arousal and motivation. The drugs commonly used for insomnia therapy to date, have often been associated with adverse effects, such as, day-time somnolence, amnesia, confusion, and gait disturbance, apart from the risk of dependence on chronic use. Suvorexant has not shown these adverse effects because of its unique mechanism of action. It also appears to be suitable as a chronic therapy for insomnia, because of minimal physical dependence. The availability of this new drug as an effective and safe alternative is an important and welcome development in insomnia management. PMID:25969666

  2. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong eTu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (> 24 hrs on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual information after a 24 hour delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes.

  3. The Chick as a Model for the Study of the Cellular Mechanisms and Potential Therapies for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Mileusnic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While animal experiments have contributed much to our understanding of the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD, their value in predicting the effectiveness of treatment strategies in clinical trials has remained controversial. The disparity between the results obtained in animal models and clinical trials may in part be explained by limitations of the models and species-specific differences. We propose that one trial passive avoidance in the day-old chick is a useful system to study AD because of the close sequence homologies of chick and human amyloid precursor protein (APP. In the chick, APP is essential for memory consolidation, and disrupting its synthesis or structure results in amnesia. RER, a tripeptide sequence corresponding to part of the growth domain of APP, can restore memory loss and act as a cognitive enhancer. We suggest that RER and its homologues may form the basis for potential pharmacological protection against memory loss in AD.

  4. 单味中药促智作用机制的研究进展%The Research Progress of a Single Traditional Chinese Medicine's Mechanism About Nootropic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳君; 周德生

    2011-01-01

    痴呆是多由髓减脑消或痰瘀痹阻脑络,神机失用而引起的无意识障碍状态下,以呆傻愚笨、智力低下、善忘等为主要临床表现的一种脑功能减退性疾病.已研究发现很多中药对痴呆有很好的促智作用.%Dementia is a kind of disease of cerebral functional subsindence.Due to phlegm - stasis obstructing the network vessels of brain and decreased brain -marrow, the vital activity is apraxia, which cause the uncounscjousness disorder, the main manifestation of dementia include expressionless, fool, daffy, mental retardation, amnesia.Now we have found many herbs which are very useful to nootropic effect in different ways.

  5. Memory for recently accessed visual attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Shupe, Joshua M; Swallow, Khena M; Tan, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's identity is lost completely once it becomes task irrelevant. If so, then the identity of a target on one trial should not influence performance on the next trial. In 3 experiments, we replicated the finding that a target's identity is poorly recognized in a surprise memory test. However, we also observed location and identity repetition priming across consecutive trials. These data suggest that, although explicit recognition on a surprise memory test may be impaired, some information about a particular target's identity can be retained after it is no longer needed for a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Aristides Leão: a birth centennial homage with comments on his spreading depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The year of 2014 is the birth centenary of Aristides Azevedo Pacheco Leão (1914-1993, and also marks seventy years of the publication of his discovery of the novel electrophysiological phenomenon, named by him “spreading depression” (SD, soon designated “Leão’s wave” or “Leão’s spreading depression”. This was a remarkable scientific milestone, and the author must be celebrated for this achievement, as the studies he triggered proceeded worldwide, with new concepts, as spreading depolarization, until the present days. Robust experimental and clinical evidence emerged to suggest that these and related electrophysiological phenomena are involved in the mechanisms of migraine aura, acute cerebrovascular diseases, traumatic brain injury, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures, and their pathophysiological characteristics come to offer new therapeutic perspectives. He was a remarkable and complex personality, and the authors remit the readers to a paper where his personal life is contemplated.

  8. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  9. Effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on anxiety-like extinction behavior in an animal model of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Leslie A; Flint, Robert W; McNay, Ewan C

    2012-05-16

    The effect of cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, on memory reconsolidation and extinction was explored in rats using a model of post-traumatic stress. Forty-two animals were exposed to predator stress followed by 1, 2, or 4 extinction trials. Saline or CXM (1 mg/kg) was administered following the last extinction trial and anxiety was measured in the elevated-plus maze (EPM) seventy-two hours later. Saline control animals exhibited elevated anxiety levels in comparison to a no stress control group. Cycloheximide appeared to maintain stress-induced anxiety responses, which otherwise declined with repeated extinction trials in the saline control groups. These findings suggest that cycloheximide may have induced amnesia for extinction, leaving the target memory of the predatory stress intact resulting in elevated levels of anxiety. The relationships between de novo protein synthesis and reconsolidation of anxiety-related memories following extinction trials may be more complex than originally thought. PMID:22465354

  10. [Benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of insomnia shows an age-associated increase. Especially, persons with age over 60 years frequently suffer from arousal during sleep and early-morning awakening. The reason of this phenomenon can be explained by age-related change in sleepwake regulation, comorbid diseases and psycho-social status. Benzodiazepine derivatives and benzodiazepine agonists have been widely used for treatment of insomnia. These GABA-A receptor agonist hypnotics have sedative effect, possibly causing various adverse events, i.e. falls and hip fracture, anterograde amnesia, next morning hangover especially in the elderly. When making a choice of treatment drugs for the elderly, low dose benzodiazepine hypnotics with relatively high Ω1-selectivity, and newer hypnotics including melatonic receptor agonist or orexin receptor antagonist can become important candidates considering their comorbid diseases or drug interaction with other medications. PMID:26065134

  11. Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.S.; Engberg, Anders; Larsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the status of functional oral intake for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and time to return to unrestricted dieting; and to investigate whether severity of brain injury is a predictor for unrestricted dieting. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort...... study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients age 16 to 65 years (N=173) with severe TBI (posttraumatic amnesia from 7d to >6 mo) admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously...... planning rehabilitation, giving information to patients and relatives, and designing efficacy studies of facial oral tract therapy, which are highly recommended Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  12. An unusual presentation of visual hallucinations with zolpidem: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sai Krishna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug with rapid -onset and short duration of action. It is popularly used for the induction and maintenance of sleep in adults suffering from insomnia. It supersedes benzodiazepines with better tolerability and has fewer side effects such as less residual sedation and the potential for rebound insomnia and dependence is also less. Adverse neuropsychiatric reactions such as visual hallucinations, amnesia, sleepwalking and nocturnal eating are known to occur with zolpidem. Literature suggests higher incidence of visual hallucinations with zolpidem when used along with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Furthermore, visual hallucinations are one of the causes for drug withdrawal. We are reporting a case of zolpidem induced visual hallucinations when used alone and also which disappeared with proper assurance to the patient in subsequent use. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 376-378

  13. Chronic treatment with sulbutiamine improves memory in an object recognition task and reduces some amnesic effects of dizocilpine in a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Herpin, Alexandre; Pothion, Stéphanie; Pirot, Sylvain; Trovero, Fabrice; Ollat, Hélène

    2005-07-01

    The effect of a sulbutiamine chronic treatment on memory was studied in rats with a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMTS) task in a radial maze and a two trial object recognition task. After completion of training in the DNMTS task, animals were subjected for 9 weeks to daily injections of either saline or sulbutiamine (12.5 or 25 mg/kg). Sulbutiamine did not modify memory in the DNMTS task but improved it in the object recognition task. Dizocilpine, impaired both acquisition and retention of the DNMTS task in the saline-treated group, but not in the two sulbutiamine-treated groups, suggesting that sulbutiamine may counteract the amnesia induced by a blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Taken together, these results are in favor of a beneficial effect of sulbutiamine on working and episodic memory. PMID:15951087

  14. Influence of clitoria ternatea extracts on memory and central cholinergic activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranalli, A D; Cheeramkuzhy, T C

    2000-01-01

    Clitoria ternatea , commonly known as Shankpushpi, is widely used in the traditional Indian system of medicine as a brain tonic and is believed to promote memory and intelligence. We examined the effectiveness of alcoholic extracts of aerial and root parts of C. ternatea at 300 and 500 mg/kg doses orally in rats in attenuating electroshock-induced amnesia. Extracts at 300 mg/kg dose produced significant memory retention, and the root parts were found to be more effective. In order to delineate the possible mechanism through which C. ternatea elicits the anti-amnesic effects, we studied its influence on central cholinergic activity by estimating the acetylcholine content of the whole brain and acetylcholinesterase activity at different regions of the rat brain, viz., cerebral cortex, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebellum. Our results suggest that C. ternatea extracts increase rat brain acetylcholine content and acetyl cholinesterase a ctivity in a similar fashion to the standard cerebro protective drug Pyritinol. PMID:21214440

  15. Atypical early-onset Alzheimer's disease caused by the Iranian APP mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Nielsen, J.E.; Stokholm, J.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 1% of all cases of Alzheimer's disease are inherited autosomal dominantly, and to date, three causative genes have been found, the Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene, the Presenilin 2 (PSEN2) gene and the Amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. We describe atypical phenotypic...... features in a family with a pathogenic APP gene mutation and discuss possible explanations for these atypical features. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a family with a history of dementia compatible with autosomal dominant transmission. The disease course in the proband was not typical for Alzheimer......'s disease as the diagnosis was preceded by 8 years of an isolated amnesia. Further, the proband had epilepsy with complex partial seizures and central degenerative autonomic failure as determined by clinical physiology. Sequencing the three known causative Alzheimer genes revealed a pathogenic missense...

  16. Flashbulb memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G; Conway, M A; Maylor, E A

    1994-09-01

    In this study of age differences in flashbulb memory, groups of young and older adults gave detailed accounts of how they heard the news of the resignation of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. They were tested within 14 days after the event and again 11 months later. They also gave ratings for the encoding variables (surprise, emotion, importance, knowledge, and interest) and for frequency of rehearsal. Memories that met a strict criterion of consistency between the original and delayed responses were classified as flashbulb memories. Although 90% of young Ss had flashbulb memories, only 42% of the elderly met the criterion. The age groups also differed in the type of details remembered and in the relationship between the encoding and rehearsal variables and the occurrence of flashbulb memory. The age-related deficit in flashbulb memory is related to source amnesia and to a deficit in memory for context.

  17. PCA Infarction With Its Cognitive Findings: More Than Hemianopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Bozdoğan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cerebral artery infarctions constitute 5-10 % of all ischemic strokes.In this case report, a 62 year-old man presenting with right hemiparesia and dysarthria is going to be discussed. The patient had acute onset- demential symptoms and difficulty in reading, and acute infarction in the territory of left posterior cerebral artery was detected in cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The patient who had acute ischemic lesions in left parahippocampus, splenium of corpus callosum, left fusiform gyrus and left thalamus was evaluated with detailed neuropsychological tests. Cognitive deficits severe enough to affect daily living were detected. Pure alexia, anterograde amnesia and anomia, being often neglected manifestations of unilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction, are going to be reviewed with corresponding radiological findings.

  18. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment.

  19. The Role of CYP2E1 in Alcohol Metabolism and Sensitivity in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Claire; Dong, Hongbin; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Deitrich, Richard A.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol consumption has effects on the central nervous system (CNS), manifesting as motor incoordination, sleep induction (hypnosis), anxiety, amnesia, and the reinforcement or aversion of alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde (the direct metabolite of ethanol oxidation) contributes to many aspects of the behavioral effects of ethanol. Given acetaldehyde cannot pass through the blood brain barrier, its concentration in the CNS is primarily determined by local production from ethanol. Catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) represent the major enzymes in the CNS that catalyze ethanol oxidation. CYP2E1 is expressed abundantly within the microsomes of certain brain cells and is localized to particular brain regions. This chapter focuses on the discussion of CYP2E1 in ethanol metabolism in the CNS, covering topics including how it is regulated, where it is expressed and how it influences sensitivity to ethanol in the brain. PMID:23400924

  20. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  1. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  2. Diazepam-induced release of behavior in an extinction procedure: its reversal by Ro 15-1788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébot, M H; Childs, M; Soubrié, P; Simon, P

    1983-03-18

    The effects of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788, an imidazobenzodiazepine derivative, were studied with respect to three pharmacological activities exerted by diazepam in rats. Two of these, release of shock-induced suppression of drinking and attenuation of non-reward-induced cessation of responding for food, reflect the anxiolytic property of benzodiazepines. The amnesic-like effect of diazepam was also investigated. Ro 15-1788 (in doses ranging from 4 to 16 mg/kg p.o.) completely reversed diazepam (2 mg/kg)-induced release of behavior in both punishment and non-reward procedures. In contrast, Ro 15-1788 reduced but did not completely abolish diazepam-induced amnesia. These data suggest that the anticonflict and anti-frustration effects of benzodiazepines probably involve similar receptor types which nevertheless differ from those chiefly implicated in the amnesic-like activity of benzodiazepines. PMID:6406240

  3. Comparison of clinical features between primary and drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komada Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,2 Kentaro Matsui,3 Masaki Nakamura,3 Shingo Nishida,3 Meri Kanno,3,† Akira Usui,3 Yuichi Inoue1,3 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 3Japan Somnology Center, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan †Meri Kanno passed away on March 1, 2016 Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics of drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with primary SRED (without any comorbid sleep disorders and who were not taking any possible causative medications, and ten patients with drug-induced SRED (occurrence of SRED episodes after starting nightly medication of sedative drugs, which completely resolved after dose reduction or discontinuation of the sedatives. Results: All patients with drug-induced SRED took multiple types of sedatives, such as benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Clinical features of drug-induced SRED compared with primary SRED were as follows: higher mean age of onset (40 years old in drug-induced SRED vs 26 years old in primary SRED, significantly higher rate of patients who had total amnesia during most of their SRED episodes (75.0% vs 31.8%, significantly lower rate of comorbidity of night eating syndrome (0% vs 63.3%, and significantly lower rate of history of sleepwalking (10.0% vs 46.7%. Increased doses of benzodiazepine receptor agonists may be responsible for drug-induced SRED. Conclusion: The clinical features of drug-induced SRED were different from those of primary SRED, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying mechanisms between these two categories of SREDs. Keywords: nocturnal eating syndrome, night eating, eating disorder, hypnotics, amnesia, sleepwalking, benzodiazepine

  4. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. PMID:27017957

  5. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author)

  6. Eph receptor and ephrin signaling in developing and adult brain of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-02-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, significantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  7. Alteration of CNS dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in aged and scopolamine induced amnestic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of aging and scopolamine (Sco) induced amnesia on central dopamine transporter (DAT), D2 receptor in rats. Methods: The 3 month old amnestic rat models were made by peritoneal injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist Sco (5 mg/kg) for 10 d. Passive avoidance task was carried out to evaluate the recent learning and memory of rats. The biodistribution of 125I-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β(4-iodophenyl)-tropan (125I-β-CIT) and 125I-s-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrolidinyl) methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide (IBZM) in the brain was used to evaluate the DAT and D2 receptor. Results: During 10 d passive avoidance task testing, no difference was found for the first day among 3 month control, 26 month old and Sco group rats, on the 10th day the entry number of aged and Sco group rats was (1.33 +- 0.82)/10 min, (3.00 +- 0.63)/10 min, respectively, higher than that of the control rats (t was 5.682 and 6.372, respectively, P125I-β-CIT binding were found in the striatum (ST), hippocampus (HIP) and frontal cortex (FC) of the aged and Sco group rats (t was 4.151, 5.416, 4.871, 6.922, 7.331 and 3.990, respectively, P125I-IBZM binding in ST was found in both Sco and old rats (t was 6.021 and 3.227, respectively, P 2 receptor, was found in ST, HIP and cortex of the aged and Sco group suggesting a gradual degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in aged rats. The decreased levels of 125I-β-CIT and 125I-IBZM binding in cortex area might be responsible for the amnesia in he Sco group through the dopaminergic pathway of midbrain-frontal cortex

  8. Como recuerda la televisión. El pasado evocado en los informativos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescutti, Luis Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass media relationships with collective memory are the subject of ongoing debate; either they are blamed for immersing the audience into a fleeting amnesic present; or they are hailed as crucial mediators of remembering and forgetting in contemporary society. This article contributes to the discussion with a research about one of the ways television has to remember: anniversaries. The content analysis of Spanish news programs confirmed the regular broadcasting of anniversaries. These news narrate a version of history highly dependent upon the news program format, reshaping the borders of the subjects, countries and facts worthy of remembrance while legitimizing television as witness to history and as history narrator. Far from promoting social amnesia, this commemorative journalism allows television to get involved in the management of collective memory.Las relaciones de los medios de comunicación con la memoria colectiva son objeto de controversia: ora se les acusa de instalar a la audiencia en un presente fugaz y desmemoriado; ora se reconoce su papel de procesadores del recuerdo y el olvido. Para contribuir al debate se presenta un estudio sobre una de las maneras de recordar de la televisión: las conmemoraciones. El análisis de contenido de los informativos televisivos españoles muestra que estas noticias se han vuelto un contenido permanente de estos programas. Las efemérides construyen una versión de la historia altamente condicionada por el formato del noticiario, que reconfigura el perímetro de los asuntos dignos de evocación al tiempo que legitima al dispositivo televisivo como testigo y narrador de los hechos históricos. Se concluye que, lejos de fomentar la amnesia social, el periodismo conmemorativo le sirve al medio audiovisual para intervenir en la gestión de la memoria colectiva.

  9. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masaya [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author).

  10. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  11. Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells.

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    Arpita Konar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage--γH2AX and oxidative stress--ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses.

  12. 阿尔茨海默病DTI早期诊断的研究进展%The research progress of diffusion tensor imaging for early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 穆学涛; 王宏

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease of central nervous system, with high incidence, diagnosed late, poor prognosis, which resulting in heavy burden of the family and the society. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the only non-invasive method of displaying living brain white matter fiber currently. Studies have shown that DTI has a certain value for the diagnosis of Amnesia-mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD, finding that the FA values decreased in the corpus callosum, the fornix and other areas in the brain of AD, which may providing some help for the early diagnosis of AD and the detection of pathological developments.%阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer disease,AD)是一种慢性中枢神经系统退行性疾病,其发病率高,确诊较晚,预后差,给家庭及整个社会带来沉重负担。MR扩散张量成像(diffusion tensor iamging,DTI)是目前惟一无创性显示活体脑白质纤维的手段。研究显示DTI对遗忘型轻度认知障碍(amnesia-mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)及AD诊断有一定价值,发现aMCI及AD患者脑内胼胝体、穹窿等部位FA减低,或许对AD的早期诊断及病变发展的检测提供一定帮助。

  13. Orchestrated regulation of Nogo receptors, LOTUS, AMPA receptors and BDNF in an ECT model suggests opening and closure of a window of synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Nordgren

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is an efficient and relatively fast acting treatment for depression. However, one severe side effect of the treatment is retrograde amnesia, which in certain cases can be long-term. The mechanisms behind the antidepressant effect and the amnesia are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECT causes transient downregulation of key molecules needed to stabilize synaptic structure and to prevent Ca2+ influx, and a simultaneous increase in neurotrophic factors, thus providing a short time window of increased structural synaptic plasticity. Here we followed regulation of NgR1, NgR3, LOTUS, BDNF, and AMPA subunits GluR1 and GluR2 flip and flop mRNA levels in hippocampus at 2, 4, 12, 24, and 72 hours after a single episode of induced electroconvulsive seizures (ECS in rats. NgR1 and LOTUS mRNA levels were transiently downregulated in the dentate gyrus 2, 4, 12 and 4, 12, 24 h after ECS treatment, respectively. GluR2 flip, flop and GluR1 flop were downregulated at 4 h. GluR2 flip remained downregulated at 12 h. In contrast, BDNF, NgR3 and GluR1 flip mRNA levels were upregulated. Thus, ECS treatment induces a transient regulation of factors important for neuronal plasticity. Our data provide correlations between ECS treatment and molecular events compatible with the hypothesis that both effects and side effects of ECT may be caused by structural synaptic rearrangements.

  14. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

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    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.

  15. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

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    Harshad O Malve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer′s disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer′s disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100-150 g were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe, and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os.The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb-Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone.

  16. Trastornos de la memoria Disturbances of the memory

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    Francisco Lopera Restrepo

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace una revisión sobre las bases neuropsicológicas de los procesos de memorización y olvido: registro, consolidación, almacenamiento y evocación. Se analizan los diferentes niveles de procesamiento de la Información y los diferentes tipos de memoria. En especial se hace énfasis en las disociaciones clínicas que han permitido conocer casi todo lo que sabemos sobre memoria y su relación con el cerebro.

     

    Las pérdidas selectivas de la memoria tienen relación con alteraciones de ciertas estructuras cerebrales lo que ha enriquecido el estudio de la anatomía de la memoria. Por último se tratan los modelos de amnesia y sus etiologías.

    A review Is presented on the neuropsychologi. cal bases of memory and oblivion: registration, consolidation, storage and evocation and on amnesia models and their etiologies. The different levels of Information processing and of memory types are analyzed. Particular attention is given to clinical dissociations since they have revealed what is known about memory and its relation to the brain. Memory anatomy has been enriched by the study of selective losses of memory, because of their relationship to the alteration of specific brain structures.

  17. Síndrome de ingesta nocturna como efecto colateral del zolpidem Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Valiensi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El zolpidem es una droga hipnótica utilizada para el tratamiento del insomnio. Disminuye la latencia del sueño, el número total de despertares y aumenta el tiempo total del sueño respetando en general su arquitectura. Se cree que aumenta la fase 3 del sueño lento profundo. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar 8 casos de síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño y conductas automáticas complejas asociadas a sonambulismo como efecto colateral del zolpidem. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 8 pacientes tratados con zolpidem que referían ingesta nocturna de alimentos con amnesia total o parcial del episodio. Se presentan 6 mujeres y 2 hombres, entre 32 y 72 años (media: 58 años, 7 tratados con zolpidem 10 mg/noche y 1 con zolpidem 12.5 mg/noche de liberación prolongada. El tiempo de exposición previo al desarrollo de eventos fue de 1 a 180 días (media de 39.8. El número de episodios relatados era de 1 a 8/noche (media 2.5 asociado con amnesia. Los episodios desaparecieron por completo en el 100% de los casos al suspender la medicación. El síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño es una parasomnia de sueño lento profundo que consiste en episodios de ingesta de alimento o bebida durante la noche, con amnesia parcial o completa del episodio. El zolpidem podría inducir el síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño en aproximadamente el 1% de pacientes, aunque creemos que es un efecto adverso que está subdiagnosticado. Se resuelve simplemente suspendiendo la medicación.Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug

  18. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

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    anumanthachar Joshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate short term and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p. were employed to induce amnesia in mice. To delineate the mechanism by which C. phlomidis exerts nootropic action, its effect on brain acetyl cholinesterase levels were determined. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice. It reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural ageing. It also decreased the acetyl cholinesterase levels in the whole brain. The bark of C. phlomidis can be of enormous use in the management of treatment of cognitive disorders such as amnesia and Alzheimer's disease.Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae é conhecida como Agnimantha em sânscrito. A casca da planta é utilizada no tratamento de várias disfunções neurológicas. No presente estudo, C. phlomidis foi investigada pelo seu potencial como agente nootrópico em camundongos. O extrato aquoso de C. phlomidis (100 e 200 mg/kg, p.o. foi administrado por seis dias consecutivos tanto para camundongos jovens quanto para idosos. Modelos comportamentais exteroceptivos, tais como labirinto em cruz elevada e paradigma de esquiva passiva foram empregados para avaliar memória recente e tardia, respectivamente. Escopolamina (0,4 mg/kg i.p., diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. foram empregados para induzir amnésia em camundongos. A

  19. 小剂量咪唑安定、异丙酚和芬太尼合用于颈丛阻滞甲状腺手术的应用%Application of small-dose Midazolam combined with Propofol and Fentanyl in thyroidectomy under cervical plexus block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆忠辉; 谢景明; 周逸刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过观察小剂量的咪唑安定、异丙酚和芬太尼合用于颈丛阻滞甲状腺手术的镇静、遗忘、并发症及术中血液动力学变化等,探讨其临床应用。方法:选择美国麻醉协会(ASA)麻醉分级,也称为麻醉分级的I-Ⅱ级择期甲状腺手术患者60例,随机分成对照组(A组)和观察组(B 组),每组30例。 B 组患者于颈丛阻滞前5min 缓慢静注咪唑安定1.5~2.0mg,颈丛阻滞后微量泵输注异丙酚3mg/(kg·h)、芬太尼1.125μg/(kg·h)。 A 组患者在手术开始前缓慢静注异丙酚1 mg/ kg、芬太尼0.05mg,继以异丙酚4~6mg/(kg·h)输注维持。监测并记录入室时(T0)、颈丛阻滞后10min(T1)、20min(T2)、30min(T3)、手术开始后30min(T4)及术毕(T5)时的 BP、HR 和 SpO2,并计算 MAP。观察并记录两组患者的不良反应及术后遗忘程度。结果:与 T0比较,A 组患者在 T1、T2、T3时 MAP 显著升高、HR 显著加快(P0.05);B 组 MAP、HR 在 T1、T2、T3时明显低于 A 组(P0. 05). MAP and HR were lower in group B at T1, T2 and T3 than those in group A (P<0. 01). The incidences of apnea in group A (36. 7% ) was significantly higher than that in group B (0% ) (P<0. 01). The incidences of amnesia of cervical plexus block and operation in group B were higher than those in group A (P<0. 01). Conclusions: Small-dose of midazolam combined with propofol and fentanyl is suitable for sedation and amnesia for the patients with thyroidectomy under cervical plexus block, has satisfactory seda-tive effects and no adverse reactions, could effectively prevent the cardiovascular response of cervical plexus block, has less effects on the respiratory and circulatory function, has great effects on amnesia of cervical plexus block and operation, and can improve anesthesia quality.

  20. Rememoração, subjetividade e as bases neurais da memória autobiográfica Remembering, subjectivity and the neural basis of the autobiographic memory

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    Jean Frank

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão abordamos o sistema de memória autobiográfica como um processo de rememoração subjetiva graças à ativação de um substrato neural próprio para esta qualidade mnemônica. A rememoração autobiográfica recruta vias corticais extensas tendo como ponto de convergência a região frontal e suas interconexões, culminando com a área orbitofrontal. Trata-se de um processamento neural complexo capaz de integrar diferentes aspectos da evocação, tais como auto-identidade, controle, seletividade e emoção. Analisamos também a noção de amnésia orgânica e amnésia funcional com base em achados recentes sobre os efeitos do estresse no cérebro. Dentre estas evidências, destacam-se as alterações morfológicas e neuroquímicas no cérebro produzidas por estímulos estressantes assim como o alívio destes efeitos através da psicoterapia. Este conhecimento representa um avanço considerável nos conceitos de psicopatologia, abrindo caminhos para a compreensão das bases neurais da personalidade.This review addresses autobiographical memory as a subjective process supported by a neural system appropriate for a personal recall capacity. Autobiographical recall activates extensive cortical pathways that converge to the frontal region and its interconnections culminating in the orbitfrontal area. It is a complex neuronal system capable of integrating different aspects of recall such as: self-identity, control, selectivity and emotion. We also analyze the notion of organic amnesia and functional amnesia based on recent findings of changes in the brain related to stress and psychological trauma. Among these evidences, we highlight the morphological and neurochemical disturbances in the brain caused by stressful stimuli. These data and concepts represent a considerable advancement regarding concepts of psychopathology and opens avenues for the understanding of the neurological bases of personality.

  1. Basolateral amygdala CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofogh, Sattar Norouzi; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol and morphine are largely co-abused and affect memory formation. The present study intended to investigate the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. Adult male Wistar rats received bilateral cannulation of the BLA, and memory retrieval was measured in step-through type passive avoidance apparatus. Our results showed that post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine (6mg/kg) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) significantly improved morphine-induced memory impairment, suggesting that there is cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. It should be considered that pre-test administration of ethanol (0.1 and 0.5g/kg, i.p.) by itself had no effect on memory retrieval in the passive avoidance task. Interestingly, pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3μg/rat), a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, plus an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.1g/kg, i.p.) improved morphine-induced memory impairment. Intra-BLA microinjection of AM251 (0.4-0.6ng/rat), a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the improved effect of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) on morphine response. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of WIN55,212-2 or AM251 had no effect on memory retrieval or morphine-induced amnesia. Taken together, it can be concluded that morphine and ethanol can induce state-dependent memory retrieval. In addition, the BLA endocannabinoid system mediates via CB1 receptors the functional interaction of morphine and ethanol state-dependent memory retrieval which may depend on the rewarding effects of the drugs. PMID:27327764

  2. Behavioural research on human working memory: mixing qualitative and quantitative methods (Investigación conductual sobre memoria de trabajo: Integrando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos

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    María de los Angeles Bacigalupe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The long lasting opposition between qualitative and quantitative methods for studying behaviour has been overridden by interdisciplinary work in which methods can be combined to approach animal and human behaviour, thus contributing to drawing rigorous and useful conclusions. We show an example of this by combining a quasi-experimental design and descriptive methods to study working memory for the resolution of a spatial problem task (the Tower of Hanoi in a neuropsychiatric hospital inpatient with amnesia and executive deficits. Results from the quasi-experiment showed that the patient acquired strategies to solve the task with a high level of efficiency (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Qualitatively speaking, the patient developed more than one strategy to solve the problem, which indicates the presence of learning based on working memory. In the light of these findings, we discuss issues of mixed methods research and suggest the importance of developing mixed methods to study behaviour. RESUMEN: La oposición duradera entre métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos para estudiar el comportamiento ha sido anulada por el trabajo interdisciplinario en que los métodos pueden combinarse para enfocar el comportamiento humano y animal, contribuyendo así a obtener conclusiones útiles y rigurosas. Se presenta una muestra, combinando métodos descriptivos y un diseño cuasiexperimental para estudiar la memoria de trabajo en la resolución de una tarea de problema espacial (la Torre de Hanoi, en un paciente internado en un hospital neuropsiquiátrico con amnesia y déficit ejecutivo. Resultados del cuasiexperimento demostraron que el paciente adquirió estrategias para resolver la tarea con un alto nivel de eficiencia (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Cualitativamente el paciente desarrolló más de una estrategia para resolver el problema, lo cual indica la presencia de aprendizaje basado en memoria de trabajo. A la luz de estos resultados, se discuten m

  3. Antiamnesic potentiality of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f Boj. in mice

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    Habbu P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several ′rasayana′ herbs that are enlisted in Indian system of medicine have been in use for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer′s disease (AD. Roots of Argyreia speciosa are used in several Ayurvedic preparations as brain tonic and nervine tonic. The present work was undertaken to justify the traditional claim of the plant as nootropic and antiamnesic agent in mice. The ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions (EtAS of roots were selected for the study. Exteroceptive behavioural models such as elevated plus maze and Water maze were used to assess the short-term memory, whereas, scopolamine and natural ageing- induced amnesia served as interoceptive models. The whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity was measured to assess the effect of A. speciosa on the central cholinergic system. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p. increased the transfer latency significantly ( P< 0.01 in young mice on the first and second day as compared to control indicating the impairment of memory. Pretreatment with EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly ( P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia. Escape latency time was recorded in the water maze model as an index of acquisition, and trials were conducted for 4 days. The mean time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ during retrieval trial on fifth day was taken as the index of retrieval (memory. EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered before the training trial (from day 1 to day 4, significantly ( P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine and ageing-induced decrease in TSTQ during the retrieval test on the fifth day. EAAS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly produced reduction in whole brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE activity of both young and aged mice thus exhibiting anti-AChE activity in whole brain homogenate compared to Piracetam, scopolamine and control groups of mice. The results indicate that A. speciosa has significant nootropic and antiamnesic activity

  4. Effect of crude extract and its semi purified constituents from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart. lucke] on cognitive performance in Morris water maze in rats

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    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crude lyophilized extract (EBPC and the semi-purified constituents (EPA and EPB of Paullinia cupana (guaraná seeds long-term administered in rats by gavage at different doses was studied on cognitive behavior in rats. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg and EPA (2.0 mg/kg, but not EPB (2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg showed a smaller escape latency to find the emerged platform in Morris water maze test (MWMT, showing nootropic-like effect in normal rats, and in scopolamine induced amnesia rats compared to their controls (saline + 0.2% Tween 80 group. These extracts had no significant effect in open field test (OFT. Caffeine did alter escape latency in MWMT only in scopolamine induced amnesia rats and increased the crossings number in OFT, showing significant stimulant effect. Chronic treatment showed the same increase in body weight and average lifespan indicating a low toxicity for the extracts.O efeito do tratamento crônico (gavagem do extrato bruto liofilizado (EBPC das sementes da Paullinia cupana, guaraná, e seus constituintes semi-purificados EPA e EPB, sobre o comportamento cognitivo foi estudado em ratos submetidos ao teste do labirinto aquático de Morris. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg e EPA (2.0 mg/kg, mostraram menor latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa quando comparados ao grupo controle (salina+ tween 80 a 0.2%, em ratos normais ou tratados com escopolamina, o que sugere efeito benéfico sobre a cognição. Estes extratos não alteraram a atividade locomotora no teste do campo aberto. A cafeína, reduziu o tempo de latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa no teste do labirinto aquático de Morris em tratados com escopolamina. Além disso, aumentou o número de cruzamentos no teste do campo aberto, mostrando efeito estimulante. Ratos tratados com EPB não produziram alteração significativa nos testes utilizados. Os animais tratados cronicamente com EBPC, EPA ou EPB tiveram a mesma evolução ponderal e sobrevida o que sugere baixa toxicidade

  5. [Truth curves on soot blackened paper--apparatus-supported lie detection in Graz in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the 1920s, experiments with apparatus-supported lie detection and registration of expression were conducted at the Criminological Institute of the University of Graz in order to establish a sound methodological basis for testimony research. For this purpose, the criminologist Ernst Seelig used a method of lie detection developed by the psychologist Vittorio Benussi, which focuses on the analysis of breathing. Benussi had stated that the expiration after telling a lie was faster than after telling the truth, but Seelig could not verify this rule in forensic practice. Consequently, this method of lie detection was of no practical use for criminology. Seelig also carried out experiments with the method of registration of expression developed by the psychiatrist Otto Lowenstein. He registered the examinee's thoracic and abdominal breathing and the movements of the extremities with the help of a kymograph. By interpretation of the curves recorded on soot blackened paper, conclusions concerning the mental elements of an offence as well as the existence of certain dispositions and of amnesia should have been made possible. Seelig was convinced of the efficiency of this method. These experiments can be regarded as early attempts at finding not only simple facts but also answers to quasi-metaphysical questions concerning the "true nature" of man with the help of methods based on natural science and modern technology. Thus they are precursors of present-day neuroscience and neuro-imaging.

  6. Impaired spatial working memory after anterior thalamic lesions: recovery with cerebrolysin and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukavenko, Elena A; Wolff, Mathieu; Poirier, Guillaume L; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2016-05-01

    Lesions to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in rats produce robust spatial memory deficits that reflect their influence as part of an extended hippocampal system. Recovery of spatial working memory after ATN lesions was examined using a 30-day administration of the neurotrophin cerebrolysin and/or an enriched housing environment. As expected, ATN lesions in standard-housed rats given saline produced severely impaired reinforced spatial alternation when compared to standard-housed rats with sham lesions. Both cerebrolysin and enrichment substantially improved this working memory deficit, including accuracy on trials that required attention to distal cues for successful performance. The combination of cerebrolysin and enrichment was more effective than either treatment alone when the delay between successive runs in a trial was increased to 40 s. Compared to the intact rats, ATN lesions in standard-housed groups produced substantial reduction in c-Fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex, which remained low after cerebrolysin and enrichment treatments. Evidence that multiple treatment strategies restore some memory functions in the current lesion model reinforces the prospect for treatments in human diencephalic amnesia. PMID:25725627

  7. GSK-3beta is required for memory reconsolidation in adult brain.

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    Tetsuya Kimura

    Full Text Available Activation of GSK-3beta is presumed to be involved in various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, which is characterized by memory disturbances during early stages of the disease. The normal function of GSK-3beta in adult brain is not well understood. Here, we analyzed the ability of heterozygote GSK-3beta knockout (GSK+/- mice to form memories. In the Morris water maze (MWM, learning and memory performance of GSK+/- mice was no different from that of wild-type (WT mice for the first 3 days of training. With continued learning on subsequent days, however, retrograde amnesia was induced in GSK+/- mice, suggesting that GSK+/- mice might be impaired in their ability to form long-term memories. In contextual fear conditioning (CFC, context memory was normally consolidated in GSK+/- mice, but once the original memory was reactivated, they showed reduced freezing, suggesting that GSK+/- mice had impaired memory reconsolidation. Biochemical analysis showed that GSK-3beta was activated after memory reactivation in WT mice. Intraperitoneal injection of a GSK-3 inhibitor before memory reactivation impaired memory reconsolidation in WT mice. These results suggest that memory reconsolidation requires activation of GSK-3beta in the adult brain.

  8. Tempo e patrimônio Temporality and patrimony

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    François Hartog

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a redefinição da "memória" e do "patrimônio" dentro do novo "regime de historicidade" que o Ocidente vive após a Queda do Muro de Berlim (1989. Estas palavras-chave são tratadas como indícios, sintomas, de nossa relação com o tempo, como testemunhas da "crise" da ordem presente do tempo. O problema abordado: um novo regime de historicidade, centrado sobre o presente, estaria se formulando? Para o autor, ocorreu um crescimento rápido da categoria do presente e se impôs a evidência de um presente onipresente, que ele nomeia "presentismo", onde se vive entre a amnésia e a vontade de nada esquecer.This article discusses the redefinition of "memory" and "patrimony" within the new "regime of historicity" set in motion in the West after the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989. These keywords are treated as indicators or symptoms of our relation with time, as witnesses of the "crises" of the present order of time. The question that is approached is the following: is a new regime of historicity, one based on the present, taking shape? In the author's view, the category of present has grown rather fast and imposed an omnipotent present, which he names "presentism". This condition causes one to be torn between amnesia and the desire not to forget.

  9. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

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    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  10. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  11. Development of Multifunctional Pyrimidinylthiourea Derivatives as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokang; Wang, Huan; Lu, Zhengyu; Zheng, Xinyu; Ni, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Fu, Yan; Lian, Fulin; Zhang, Naixia; Li, Jian; Zhang, Haiyan; Mao, Fei

    2016-09-22

    Starting from a screening-hit compound, via structure modifications and optimizations, a series of nonfused and nonassembly pyrimidinylthiourea derivatives (2-5) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as novel multifunctional agents against Alzheimer's disease. Biological activity results demonstrated that compounds 5r and 5t exhibited potent inhibition and excellent selectivity toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE, 5r, IC50 = 0.204 μM, SI > 196; 5t, IC50 = 0.067 μM, SI > 597), specific metal-chelating ability, significant antioxidant effects, modulation of metal-induced Aβ aggregation, inhibition of ROS production by copper redox cycle, low cytotoxicity, and moderate neuroprotection to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, compound 5r displayed appropriate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability both in vitro and in vivo and could improve memory and cognitive function of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. The multifunctional profiles of 5r and its effectivity in AD mice highlight these structurally distinct pyrimidinylthiourea derivatives as prospective prototypes in the research of innovative multifunctional drugs for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27552582

  12. Reactivation, retrieval, replay and reconsolidation in and out of sleep: connecting the dots

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    Susan J Sara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of memory has taken on a new look over the past decade. Re-discovery of cue-dependent amnesia, wide availability of functional imaging tools and increased dialogue among clinicians, cognitive psychologists, behavioral neuroscientists and neurobiologists have provided impetus for the search for new paradigms for the study of memory. Memory is increasingly viewed as an open-ended process, with retrieval being recognized as an intricate part of the encoding process. New memories are always made on the background of past experience, so that every consolidation is, in fact reconsolidation. serving to update and strengthen memories after retrieval. Spontaneous reactivation of memory circuits occurs during sleep and there is converging evidence from rodent and human studies that this is an important part of the extended off-line memory processing. The noradrenergic neuromodulatory system is engaged at retrieval, facilitating recall. The noradrenergic system is activated during sleep after learning and noradrenergic neurons fire in concert with cortical oscillations that are associated with reactivation of memory circuits. We suggest that the noradrenergic system and perhaps other neuromodulatory systems,[...

  13. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recent data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, Y; Rollin, J; Leroux, D; Pouplard, C

    2014-03-01

    Despite less frequent, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) remains a severe complication of treatment with heparin, and is important to diagnose and manage appropriately. HIT results from an atypical immune response to heparin, with the synthesis of IgG antibodies specific to heparin-modified platelet factor 4 (PF4) which activate platelets, leukocytes and the endothelium. This activation explains that low platelet count is associated with thrombotic events in 50% of patients. The diagnosis of HIT is sometimes evoked because of atypical manifestations (i.e. cutaneous necrosis, amnesia, hypotension or dyspnea following intravenous injection of heparin). Biological assays are always necessary to confirm HIT in case of clinical suspicion, and specific rapid tests are now available for detecting anti-PF4 antibodies. However, their specificity is poor and functional assays such as serotonin release assay or platelet aggregation test are often necessary. Argatroban that is a direct antithrombin drug can be used in patients with severe renal failure and will be preferred to danaparoid sodium in this situation. Fondaparinux is not licensed for treating confirmed HIT and can only be used in case of suspicion. The early detection of HIT is based on the monitoring of platelet count recommended in surgical patients receiving a low molecular weight heparin and in all patients treated with unfractionated heparin. PMID:24074968

  14. Adenotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, J; Jakoubková, S; Vít, Z; Drahokoupilová, M

    1989-01-01

    Experience obtained from adenotomy (AT) under general anesthesia using Ketamin hydrochloride (Ketalar, Narkamon) in children are presented in this paper. The authors had used intramuscular premedication with Prothazin, Dolsin and Atropin at the first stage, then they shifted to oral administration of a combination of Diazepam, Theadryl and Atropin. Ketamin may be applied intravenously in the dosage of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight in most children. Where it is not possible, a triple dose into the muscle is used. A total of 2,266 AT were performed. About 70% of patients were calm during the operation, once a suspected aspiration was considered but it was not confirmed. The main contribution of the method is 100% amnesia of the surgery made. The procedure is a compromise between a requirement for minimal traumatization of the child's psyche by the intervention and the resources available, particularly the need of personnel at the majority of otorhinolaryngo-logical departments nowadays.

  15. All about ketamine premedication for children undergoing ophtalmic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Başak; Akça, Başak; Yilbaş, Aysun Ankay; Çelebi, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a non-barbiturate cyclohexamine derivative which produces a state of sedation, immobility, analgesia, amnesia, and dissociation from the environment. One of the most important advantages of ketamine premedication is production of balanced sedation with less respiratory depression and less changes in blood pressure or heart rate. As its effects on intracranial pressure, the possible effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure has been controversial overtime. In this study, we aimed to demostrate all the advantages and possible side effects of ketamine premedication in 100 children with retinablastoma undergoing ophthalmic surgery. All the children were premedicated with ketamine 5 mg kg-1 15 minutes before the examination orally and peroperative complications, reaction to intravenous catheter insertion, need for additive dose and intraocular pressures of children were recorded. We showed that ketamine administration orally is a safe and effective way of premedication for oncologic patients undergoing examination under general anaesthesia. The incidence of agitation, anxiety at parental separation and reaction to insertion of intravenous catheter was very low while adverse side effects were seen rarely. Intraocular pressure which is very important for most of the ophthalmic surgery patients remained in normal ranges. PMID:26885101

  16. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  17. Does phasic trauma treatment make patients with dissociative identity disorder treatment more dissociative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of the iatrogenic model of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have expressed concern that treatment focused on direct engagement and interaction with dissociated self-states harms DID patients. However, empirical data have shown that this type of DID treatment is beneficial. Analyzing data from the prospective Treatment of Patients With Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) Study, we test empirically whether DID treatment is associated with clinically adverse manifestations of dissociated self-states: acting so differently that one feels like different people, hearing voices, and dissociative amnesia. We show that, over the course of the study, there were significant decreases in feeling like different people and hearing voices. These results indicate that this form of DID treatment does not lead to symptomatic worsening in these dimensions, as predicted by the iatrogenic model. Indeed, treatment provided by TOP DD therapists reduced, rather than increased, the extent to which patients experienced manifestations of pathological dissociation. Because severe symptomatology and impairment are associated with DID, iatrogenic harm may come from depriving DID patients of treatment that targets DID symptomatology. PMID:24377972

  18. What contributes to predicting change in the treatment of dissociation: initial levels of dissociation, PTSD, or overall distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Stadnik, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative disorders (DDs) suffer from high levels of dissociation as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general distress. No research has investigated how changes in dissociation relate to changes in other symptoms over the course of treatment in patients with DD. Using a prospective, naturalistic design, we collected reports of symptoms from a sample of therapists and their patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in the Treatment Outcome of Patients with Dissociative Disorders study. The patients completed surveys at intake (Time 1) into the study and at 30-month follow-up (Time 4). We found that dissociative symptoms, including amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption, at the initial assessment of the study ("initial") were related to initial levels of PTSD and general distress and that changes in dissociative symptoms were related to changes in PTSD and general distress. Initial dissociation was a significant predictor of change in dissociation at 30 months when we controlled for length of time for follow-up, length of time practicing therapy, and length of time treating dissociative patients. Our results suggest that a reduction in dissociative symptoms in DD patients is associated with reductions in the overall severity of dissociative, posttraumatic stress, and distress symptoms. PMID:23627481

  19. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Sharon; Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2016-08-01

    One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task), between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory. PMID:27288821

  20. Antiphospholipid syndrome

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    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease with recurrent thromboses and pregnancy complications (90% are female patients that can be primary and secondary (with concomitant autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombotic but also act directly with brain tissue. One clinical and one laboratory criterion is necessary for the diagnosis of APS. Positive serological tests have to be confirmed after at least 12 weeks. Clinical picture consists of thromboses in many organs and spontaneous miscarriages, sometimes thrombocytopaenia and haemolytic anaemia, but neurological cases are the most frequent: headaches, stroke, encephalopathy, seizures, visual disturbances, Sneddon syndrome, dementia, vertigo, chorea, balism, transitory global amnesia, psychosis, transversal myelopathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome. About 50% of strokes below 50 years of age are caused by APS. The first line of therapy in stroke is anticoagulation: intravenous heparin or low-weight heparins. In chronic treatment, oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are used, warfarin and aspirin, mostly for life. In resistant cases, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are necessary. Prognosis is good in most patients but some are treatment-resistant with recurrent thrombotic events and eventually death.

  1. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  2. [Neuroprotector effect of human recombinant erythropoietin sorbed on polymer nanoparticles studied on model of intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (hemorrhagic stroke)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban'ian, V Iu; Solev, I N; Elizarova, O S; Garibova, T L; Litvinova, S A; Voronina, T A

    2011-01-01

    The neuroprotective activity of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEpo) sorbed on poly(butyl)cyanoacrilate nanoparticles (EPO-PBCA) and on polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (EPO-PLGA) has been studied on Wistar rats with intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (model of hemorrhagic stroke) (IPH-HS) in comparison to native r-HuEpo. It is established that EPO-PBCA produced a protective effect in rats after IPH-HS that was manifested by a decrease in the number of animals with neurological disorders such as circus movement, paresis, and paralysis of hind limbs; the drug also improved coordination (rotating rod test), reduced the number of lost animals, and decreased the loss weight among survived rats. In addition, EPO-PBCA optimized the research behavior of rats with IPH-HS in the open field test and prevented amnesia of passive avoidance reflex (PAR), which was caused by the IPH-HS. These effects were manifested during a two-week observation period. EPO-PLGA has a similar but much less pronounced effect on the major disorders caused by IPH-HS. The efficiency of native r-HuEpo as a neuropotective agent was insignificant and only manifested by decrease in the number of lost animals with IPH-HS.

  3. Bilateral limbic system destruction in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994

  4. Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

  5. Nutrition and immunity: laboratory and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, L; Cirimele, D; Pugliese, V; Covelli, V; Resta, F; Jirillo, E

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that inappropriate nutrient intake accounts for the maintenance of the immunological equilibrium, in humans and animals. Vitamins, elements, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids play an important role in the regulation of cellular and humoral immune responses since single or multiple deficits of these food components have been shown to cause immune abnormalities. For instance, in the course of protein-calorie malnutrition bacterial and/or viral infections represent the major cause of death. Ageing is characterized by a decline of many immune functions, and this process is called immunosenescence. Here, we report novel findings on the inability of superantigens to activate old CD8+, natural killer and B cells, as an expression of cell amnesia. In the elderly, this lack of activation could lead to lethal effects in the case of severe staphylococcal infections. Quite interestingly, recent findings outlined some similarities between human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and ageing in terms of immune changes. The model of HIV-infection may be useful for the interpretation of ageing mechanisms and possible therapeutical interventions. Finally, the role of nutrition in different pathological conditions and the use of medical foods for correcting of immune deficits will be described. PMID:12871176

  6. Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08 Upregulates the Expression of Neuronal and Glial Plasticity Markers in the Brain of Scopolamine Induced Amnesic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Konar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies on animal models have discerned the antiamnesic and memory-enhancing potential of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi crude extract and standardized extracts. These studies primarily focus on behavioral consequences. However, lack of information on molecular underpinnings has limited the clinical trials of the potent herb in human subjects. In recent years, researchers highlight plasticity markers as molecular correlates of amnesia and being crucial to design therapeutic targets. In the present report, we have investigated the effect of a special extract of B. monniera (CDRI-08 on the expression of key neuronal (BDNF and Arc and glial (GFAP plasticity markers in the cerebrum of scopolamine induced amnesic mice. Pre- and postadministration of CDRI-08 ameliorated amnesic effect of scopolamine by decreasing acetyl cholinesterase activity and drastically upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of BDNF, Arc, and GFAP in mouse cerebrum. Interestingly, the plant extract per se elevated BDNF and Arc expression as compared to control but GFAP was unaltered. In conclusion, our findings provide the first molecular evidence for antiamnesic potential of CDRI-08 via enhancement of both neuronal and glial plasticity markers. Further investigations on detailed molecular pathways would encourage therapeutic application of the extract in memory disorders.

  7. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  8. [Lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system with fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunomiya, Taro; Kageyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kanta; Kambe, Daisuke; Shinde, Akiyo; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) with a characteristic gadolinium-enhancement pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 48-year-old, right-handed man presented with a 3-month history of tremor and progressing dementia. Neurologic examination revealed cognitive decline with anterograde amnesia and postural tremor of the fingers. Except for the positive result of serum antinuclear antibody, intense investigations for infectious, rheumatic and neoplastic diseases were negative. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed mild pleocytosis (14 cells/μl). Brain MRI revealed diffuse hyperintense areas in the deep cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated fan-shaped multiple linear enhancements converging to the body of the lateral ventricles. Brain biopsy showed intense infiltration of small lymphocytes without atypia or granuloma mainly within the vessel walls and perivascular spaces. The diagnosis of lymphocytic PACNS was made. Administration of corticosteroid markedly improved the tremor and cognitive dysfunction. MRI after the treatment showed resolution of the abnormal fan-shaped linear enhancement. He returned to his previous occupation. PACNS should be included in the differential diagnosis for fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles on MRI in patients with unexplained progressing dementia.

  9. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author)

  10. Clinical manifestations of hysteria: an epistemological perspective or how historical dynamics illuminate current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros De Bustos, Elisabeth; Galli, Sylvio; Haffen, Emmanuel; Moulin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Hysteria has generated the most heated debates among physicians, from antiquity to the present day. It has been long confused with neuroses and neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy, principally associated with women and sexual disorders. The clinical manifestations must first be seen in their historical context, as interpretation varies according to the time period. Recently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by the American Psychiatric Association marked a break in the consensus that previously seemed to apply to the concept of hysteria and approach to the clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestations of hysteria are numerous and multifaceted, comprising 3 main classifications: paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations; long-lasting functional syndromes, and visceral events. Each main classification can be subdivided into several subgroups. The first main group of paroxysms, attacks, and acute manifestations includes major hysterical attacks, such as prodrome, trance and epileptic states, minor hysterical attacks such as syncope and tetany, twilight states, paroxysmal amnesia, and cataleptic attacks. The second group includes focal hysterical symptoms, paralyses, contractures and spasms, anesthesia, and sensory disorders. Visceral manifestations can be subdivided into spasms, pain, and general and trophic disorders. The diversity of the symptoms of hysteria and its changing clinical presentation calls into question the same hysterical attacks and the same symptoms, which have had only a few differences for over 2,000 years. A new definition of hysteria should be proposed, in that it is a phenomenon that is not pathological, but physiological and expressional. PMID:25273487

  11. The body keeps the score: memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, B A

    1994-01-01

    Ever since people's responses to overwhelming experiences have been systematically explored, researchers have noted that a trauma is stored in somatic memory and expressed as changes in the biological stress response. Intense emotions at the time of the trauma initiate the long-term conditional responses to reminders of the event, which are associated both with chronic alterations in the physiological stress response and with the amnesias and hypermnesias characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Continued physiological hyperarousal and altered stress hormone secretion affect the ongoing evaluation of sensory stimuli as well. Although memory is ordinarily an active and constructive process, in PTSD failure of declarative memory may lead to organization of the trauma on a somatosensory level (as visual images or physical sensations) that is relatively impervious to change. The inability of people with PTSD to integrate traumatic experiences and their tendency, instead, to continuously relieve the past are mirrored physiologically and hormonally in the misinterpretation of innocuous stimuli as potential threats. Animal research suggests that intense emotional memories are processed outside of the hippocampally mediated memory system and are difficult to extinguish. Cortical activity can inhibit the expression of these subcortically based emotional memories. The effectiveness of this inhibition depends, in part, on physiological arousal and neurohormonal activity. These formulations have implications for both the psychotherapy and the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. PMID:9384857

  12. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos. PMID:25721103

  13. Effects of prior exposure on music liking and recognition in patients with temporal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Prior exposure to music typically increases liking. This manifestation of implicit memory can be dissociated from explicit memory recognition. To examine the contribution of the medial temporal lobe to musical preference and recognition, we tested patients with either left (LTL) or right (RTL) temporal lobe lesions as well as normal control (NC) participants using the procedure of Peretz et al. The results in the affect task showed that NC and LTL participants preferred the studied over nonstudied melodies, thereby demonstrating an implicit exposure effect on liking judgments, whereas RTL patients failed to exhibit this effect. Explicit recognition was impaired in both LTL and RTL patients as compared to NC participants. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that RTL structures play a critical role in the formation of melody representations that support both priming and memory recognition, whereas LTL structures are more involved in the explicit retrieval of melodies. Furthermore, we were able to test an amnesic patient (PC) with bilateral lesions of the temporal lobe. In this case, the exposure effect on liking was also absent. However, repeated exposure to melodies was found to enhance both liking and recognition judgments. This remarkable sparing of memory observed through melody repetition suggests that extensive exposure may assist both implicit and explicit memory in the presence of global amnesia. PMID:16597796

  14. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine eSouchay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.

  15. Ligustrazine phosphate ethosomes for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, in vitro and in animal model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated transdermal administration of ligustrazine phosphate (LP), as an antioxidant, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LP transdermal ethosomal system was designed and characterized. Franz-type diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the in vitro permeation studies. Furthermore, the effect of LP transdermal ethosomal system on AD was evaluated in the scopolamine-induced amnesia rats by evaluating the behavioral performance in the Morris water maze test. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain of rats were also determined. The results showed that both the penetration ability and the drug deposition in skin of the LP ethosomal system were significantly higher than the aqueous one. The LP transdermal ethosomal system could recover the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the levels of MDA in the brain of the amnesic rats to the similar status of the normal rats, which was also indirectly reflected by the improvement in the behavioral performance. In conclusion, LP might offer a potential alternative therapeutic drug in the fight against AD, and ethosomes could be vesicles of choice for transdermal delivery of LP. PMID:22415639

  16. Cognitive activity limitations one year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive activity limitations and predictors of outcome 1 year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury. Subjects: The study included 119 patients with severe traumatic brain injury admitted to centralized sub-acute re......Objective: To examine cognitive activity limitations and predictors of outcome 1 year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury. Subjects: The study included 119 patients with severe traumatic brain injury admitted to centralized sub......-acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... was documented among patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the first year post-trauma. The results of the current study suggest that absence of consciousness at discharge from acute care should not preclude patients from being referred to specialized sub-acute rehabilitation....

  17. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAB receptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has become increasingly popular among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB causes cognitive impairments and the mechanism by which GHB induces these impairments is not clarified. The present study investigates the impact of GHB treatment on spatial learning and memory using a water maze (WM) test in rats. Furthermore, the behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the animals administered with GHB display an impaired performance in the WM test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  19. Intoxication of a Young Girl Reveals the Pitfalls of GHB Rapid Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Linda G; Andrews, Louise M; Slooff, Valerie D; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koch, Birgit C P

    2016-02-01

    The authors discuss the case of a 14-year-old girl who was transferred to the ICU of our hospital with ethanol intoxication (3.3 g/L), loss of consciousness (E5M3V1), and severe amnesia on recovery that was suspected of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication. STAT toxicology screening may be necessary, when sexual assault under GHB intoxication is suspected. Therefore, the initial analysis of a urine sample was performed with a new enzymatic assay analysis for GHB. The enzymatic assay reported a GHB concentration of 26 mg/L, which is above the cut-off value of 10 mg/L. This cut-off value is to differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels because low levels of GHB occur naturally in the body. However, confirmation of these results by gas chromatography, which is common practice to confirm a positive GHB, gave a negative result. This discrepancy is probably contributed to interference of ethanol with the assay. This is a substantial downside of the GHB rapid screening, since the combination of GHB and ethanol is common. It is therefore advised to confirm that the positive GHB results are lower than 50 mg/L by gas chromatography, when using the rapid screening. This way the false-positive results and consequent inappropriate social and legal actions may be avoided.

  20. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) disruption of passive avoidance learning in the day-old chick appears to be due to its effect on GABAB not gamma-hydroxybutyric [corrected] acid (GHB) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Joanne M; Hazi, Agnes; Hale, Mathew W; Milsome, Sarah L; Crowe, Simon F

    2009-02-11

    Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and metabolises to GHB when ingested. Discrimination stimulus studies report generalisation of effects of GHB to GBL. While amnesia is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of GHB's ingestion in human users, as yet few studies have examined this effect. Although an endogenous GHB specific receptor is present in the brain, several studies have indicated that the clinical effects of exogenous doses of GBL/GHB are due to its action on GABA(B) receptors rather than on the GHB receptor. In this series of studies, New Hampshire x White leghorn cockerels were trained using a modified version of the passive avoidance learning task. Subcutaneous injections of GBL induced a memory deficit by 10 min post-training, which persisted for at least 24 h. No effect on memory was seen with administration of the specific GHB agonist NCS-356 (gamma-p-chlorophenyl-trans-4-hydroxycrotonate). The GBL-induced memory deficit appeared similar to the deficit produced by baclofen, where the antagonist facilitated learning. Additionally, GBL-induced memory deficit was ameliorated by application of a GABA(B) antagonist. The results support the hypothesis that GBL exerts its influence on memory via the GABA(B) receptor rather than by the specific GHB receptor.