WorldWideScience

Sample records for amnesia

  1. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  2. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

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    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA. PMID:27025088

  3. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

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    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  4. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. P...

  5. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, R Rhys; Larner, A J

    2012-01-01

    Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA), a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The st...

  6. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  7. The Many Faces of Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    Results from studies of retrograde amnesia provide much of the evidence for theories of memory consolidation. Retrograde amnesia gradients are often interpreted as revealing the time needed for the formation of long-term memories. The rapid forgetting observed after many amnestic treatments, including protein synthesis inhibitors, and the parallel…

  8. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

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    JanelleNBeadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  9. [Transient global amnesia after general anaesthesia].

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    Galipienzo, J; Lablanca, M S; Zannin, I; Rosado, R; Zarza, B; Olarra, J

    2012-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is a neurological syndrome in which there is a sudden and brief inability to form new memories, as well as an intense retrograde amnesia. However, awareness, personal identity and attention remain intact. It is an uncommon condition seen after an anaesthetic procedure. There are several aetiopathogenic hypotheses (epileptic, migrainous or ischaemic origin) and triggering factors (pain, anxiety, temperature changes, exercise, Valsalva manoeuvres, diagnostic tests or certain drugs). We describe the case of a patient with a high level of pre-operative anxiety who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia after undergoing otolaryngology surgery. With an acute and continued amnesia after general anaesthesia, the first thing that must be done is to establish a suitable differencial diagnosis, which should include transient global amnesia, as this is mainly an exclusion diagnosis. Preoperative anxiety may be a triggering factor to take into account in this condition, with anxiolytic treatment prior to the surgery being important. PMID:22575776

  10. Amnesia in an Elderly Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明亮

    1989-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was refered because of an episode of amnesia.Three days previous1y,she had driven to her niece's house,bringing severalgifts for different members of her fami1y.She appeared norma1 on arriva1.After about an hour,though,her fami1y noted that she seemed confuse.Sherecognized her relatives,knew who and where she was,but had noreco11ection of how she had arrived there.She had no remembrance of heractivities ear1ier that day,but could reca11 events of days,weeks,months or

  11. Transient global amnesia occurring as migraine aura

    OpenAIRE

    Montagna, Pasquale; Cerullo, Angelina; Cortelli, Pietero

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of transient global amnesia (TGA) occurring as migraine aura. TGA prevalence is higher among migraineurs and has been ascribed to spreading depression in the hippocampus. Our patient, a 38-year-old physician, developed migraine without aura in early adolescence and from age 20 years, had experienced rare attacks of migraine with aura,. At ages 36 and 38 years, he suffered two attacks of sudden-onset anterograde amnesia, which lasted 5 hours and were immediately followed by ...

  12. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

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    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  13. Stranger than fiction: literary and clinical amnesia.

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    Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter broadly covers literary uses of amnesia and memory disorders. Amnesia in fiction offers authors an efficient and dramatic device to tackle themes such as identity, personal liberty, or guilt. We argue against the common complaint that fictional amnesia is scientifically inaccurate, pointing out that the goals of literature are different from those of science, that amnesia is still poorly understood, and that real-life cases can sometimes be stranger than fiction. The chapter provides examples from the neuropsychological literature, media reports, mythology, historical cases, detective stories, war stories, theatrical plays, and other genres. Special attention is given to retrograde and dissociative amnesia, as these are the most frequent types of amnesia portrayed in fiction, while other types of memory disorders are more shortly treated. We argue that the predominance of disorders affecting autobiographical memory in fiction is in itself a revealing fact about the mechanisms of human memory, illustrating how fictional treatments of pathology can inform back neurological and psychological research. PMID:23485898

  14. Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighivand, Saman

    2015-01-01

    In the beginning of my study at KIT, After a period of struggling, the subject of refugee/immigrant's traumas got the most interesting subject for me to work on. A proper medium which is harmonized with this subject is puppetry. I saw the majority of refugee/immigrants as puppets who are under control of their powerful governments. By experiencing and getting more into puppets, I finally decided to work on a puppet/human film which was really different from my film background before studying ...

  15. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

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    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  16. A mathematical model of forgetting and amnesia

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    JaapM. J.Murre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model of learning and memory and apply it to the dynamics of forgetting and amnesia. The model is based on the hypothesis that the neural systems involved in memory at different time-scales share two fundamental properties: (1 representations in a store decline in strength (2 while trying to induce new representations in higher-level more permanent stores. This paper addresses several types of experimental and clinical phenomena: (i the temporal gradient of retrograde amnesia (Ribot's Law, (ii forgetting curves with and without anterograde amnesia, and (iii learning and forgetting curves with impaired cortical plasticity. Results are in the form of closed-form expressions that are applied to studies with mice, rats, and monkeys. In order to analyze human data in a quantitative manner, we also derive a relative measure of retrograde amnesia that removes the effects of non-equal item difficulty for different time periods commonly found with clinical retrograde amnesia tests. Using these analytical tools, we review studies of temporal gradients in the memory of patients with Korsakoff's Disease, Alzheimer's Dementia, Huntington's Disease, and other disorders.

  17. Inhibiting Irrelevant Information in Malingered Amnesia

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    Ferraro, F. Richard; Park II, Ronald V.; Hage, Hilary; Palm, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Two groups of undergraduates received simulated amnesia instructions that either informed them how amnesics perform on memory tasks (informed; n = 11) or did not inform them about how amnesics perform on memory tasks (uninformed; n = 9). A third group received no such instructions (control; n = 9). Performance on a negative priming task revealed…

  18. Benjamin Franklin and Shock-Induced Amnesia

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    Finger, Stanley; Zaromb, Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Shock-induced amnesia received considerable attention after Cerletti popularized electroconvulsive shock therapy in the late 1930s. Yet, often overlooked is the fact that Benjamin Franklin recognized that passing electricity through the head could affect memory for the traumatic event. Franklin described his findings on himself and others in…

  19. Infantile Amnesia: Forgotten but Not Gone

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    Li, Stella; Callaghan, Bridget L.; Richardson, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Unlike adult memories that can be remembered for many years, memories that are formed early in life are more fragile and susceptible to being forgotten (a phenomenon known as "infantile" or "childhood" amnesia). Nonetheless, decades of research in both humans and nonhuman animals demonstrate the importance of early life…

  20. Infant Memory Development: Implications for Childhood Amnesia

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    Hayne, Harlene

    2004-01-01

    When asked to recall their earliest personal memories, most children and adults have virtually no recollection of their infancy or early childhood. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as childhood amnesia. The fate of our earliest memories has puzzled psychologists for over 50 years, particularly in light of the importance of early experience…

  1. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.)

  2. Ictal Neuropsychological Assessment in a Patient with Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ju-Young; Chae, Hee-Yun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by anterograde amnesia and variable retrograde amnesia without other focal neurological deficits. Neuropsychological tests during attack in TGA have been rarely reported. We report a 62-year-old man with TGA who was evaluated with detailed neuropsychological tests during attack. Ictal neuropsychological tests showed encoding failure in verbal and visual memory with frontal/executive dysfunction.

  3. Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, S. L.; Maguire, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    We often engage in counterfactual (CF) thinking, which involves reflecting on “what might have been.” Creating alternative versions of reality seems to have parallels with recollecting the past and imagining the future in requiring the simulation of internally generated models of complex events. Given that episodic memory and imagining the future are impaired in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia, we wondered whether successful CF thinking also depends upon the integrity of the hipp...

  4. Transient global amnesia in legal proceedings.

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    Griebe, Martin; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Kablau, Micha; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder characterized by an acute onset of severe anterograde amnesia. While retrograde amnesia may be present-although to a lesser extent-patients have no further cognitive disturbances or neurological signs. These symptoms resolve fully within several hours leaving a permanent memory gap for the duration of the episode and do not lead to long-term neurological deficits. In addition to well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria, in up to 80 % of patients, small, point-shaped lesions in the hippocampus are detected 24-48 h after symptom onset on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. Despite several etiological hypotheses, to date, there is no scientific proof for the etiology of TGA or the small hippocampal lesions. Interestingly, in a large number of cases, an emotionally or physically straining event precipitates the onset of TGA, suggesting a stress-related mechanism. We report two cases of TGA occurring in legally relevant settings: affecting the victim of brutal burglary and the key witness in a murder trial. In the context of forensic medicine, the knowledge of this disorder and recognition of its typical features are essential. PMID:24961536

  5. Persistent Autobiographical Amnesia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Repetto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 47-year-old man who referred to the Emergency Department for sudden global amnesia and left mild motor impairment in the setting of increased arterial blood pressure. The acute episode resolved within 24 hours. Despite general recovery and the apparent transitory nature of the event, a persistent selective impairment in recollecting events from some specific topics of his personal life became apparent. Complete neuropsychological tests one week after the acute onset and 2 months later demonstrated a clear retrograde memory deficit contrasting with the preservation of anterograde memory and learning abilities. One year later, the autobiographic memory deficit was unmodified, except for what had been re-learnt. Brain MRI was normal while H20 brain PET scans demonstrated hypometabolism in the right globus pallidus and putamen after 2 weeks from onset, which was no longer present one year later. The absence of a clear pathomechanism underlying focal amnesia lead us to consider this case as an example of functional retrograde amnesia.

  6. Disrupting circadian rhythms in rats induces retrograde amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Mátyás; Ree, J.M. van; Niesink, Raymond J.M.; Wied, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Disrupting circadian organization in rats by phase-shifting the illumination cycle or by exposure to a reversed day/night cycle or to continuous light, resulted in retrograde amnesia for passive avoidance behavior. This retrograde amnesia induced by phase-shifting lasted at least 2 days, and gradual

  7. Defining the Boundary: Age-Related Changes in Childhood Amnesia

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    Tustin, Karen; Hayne, Harlene

    2010-01-01

    Childhood amnesia refers to the inability of adults to recall events that occurred during their infancy and early childhood. Although it is generally assumed that children and adolescents also experience childhood amnesia, with limited exceptions, most empirical research on the phenomenon has focused exclusively on adults. Here, we developed a new…

  8. Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia

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    Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim

    2009-01-01

    To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…

  9. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Oorsouw, K. van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  10. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

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    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation. PMID:18221797

  11. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

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    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  12. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

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    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  13. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  14. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

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    Yang, Jong Chul; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Lee, Moo Suk; Kang, Heoung Keun; Eun, Sung Jong; Lee, Yo Han [Chonnam National Univeristy Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Ku [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus.

  15. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus

  16. Developmental amnesia: Effect of age at injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, F.; Salmond, C. H.; Watkins, K. E.; Friston, K. J.; Gadian, D. G.; Mishkin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic events sustained within the first year of life can result in developmental amnesia, a disorder characterized by markedly impaired episodic memory and relatively preserved semantic memory, in association with medial temporal pathology that appears to be restricted to the hippocampus. Here we compared children who had hypoxic–ischemic events before 1 year of age (early group, n = 6) with others who showed memory problems after suffering hypoxic–ischemic events between the ages of 6 and 14 years (late group, n = 5). Morphometric analyses of the whole brain revealed that, compared with age-matched controls, both groups had bilateral abnormalities in the hippocampus, putamen, and posterior thalamus, as well as in the right retrosplenial cortex. The two groups also showed similar reductions (≈40%) in hippocampal volumes. Neuropsychologically, the only significant differences between the two were on a few tests of immediate memory, where the early group surpassed the late group. The latter measures provided the only clear indication that very early injury can lead to greater functional sparing than injury acquired later in childhood, due perhaps to the greater plasticity of the infant brain. On measures of long-term memory, by contrast, the two groups had highly similar profiles, both showing roughly equivalent preservation of semantic memory combined with marked impairment in episodic memory. It thus appears that, if this selective memory disorder is a special syndrome related to the early occurrence of hypoxia-induced damage, then the effective age at injury for this syndrome extends from birth to puberty. PMID:12904585

  17. Novelty preference in patients with developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Chadwick, M; Perez-Hernandez, E; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2011-12-01

    To re-examine whether or not selective hippocampal damage reduces novelty preference in visual paired comparison (VPC), we presented two different versions of the task to a group of patients with developmental amnesia (DA), each of whom sustained this form of pathology early in life. Compared with normal control participants, the DA group showed a delay-dependent reduction in novelty preference on one version of the task and an overall reduction on both versions combined. Because VPC is widely considered to be a measure of incidental recognition, the results appear to support the view that the hippocampus contributes to recognition memory. A difficulty for this conclusion, however, is that according to one current view the hippocampal contribution to recognition is limited to task conditions that encourage recollection of an item in some associated context, and according to another current view, to recognition of an item with the high confidence judgment that reflects a strong memory. By contrast, VPC, throughout which the participant remains entirely uninstructed other than to view the stimuli, would seem to lack such task conditions and so would likely lead to recognition based on familiarity rather than recollection or, alternatively, weak memories rather than strong. However, before concluding that the VPC impairment therefore contradicts both current views regarding the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory, two possibilities that would resolve this issue need to be investigated. One is that some variable in VPC, such as the extended period of stimulus encoding during familiarization, overrides its incidental nature, and, because this condition promotes either recollection- or strength-based recognition, renders the task hippocampal-dependent. The other possibility is that VPC, rather than providing a measure of incidental recognition, actually assesses an implicit, information-gathering process modulated by habituation, for which the hippocampus is

  18. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde am

  19. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  20. Collaborative Discourse Facilitates Efficient Communication and New Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Melissa C.; Hengst, Julie A.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    In previous work we reported robust collaborative learning for referential labels in patients with hippocampal amnesia, resulting in increasingly rapid and economical communication or "common ground" with their partners [Duff, M. C., Hengst, J., Tranel, D., & Cohen, N. J. (2006). "Development of shared information in communication despite…

  1. Reactivation-Dependent Amnesia in Pavlovian Approach and Instrumental Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of memory reconsolidation relates to the hypothesized restabilisation process that occurs following the reactivation of a memory through retrieval. Thus, the demonstration of reactivation-dependent amnesia for a previously acquired memory is a prerequisite for showing that such a memory undergoes reconsolidation. Here, we show that the…

  2. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  3. Preserved semantic access in global amnesia and hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Erbetta, A; Bugiani, O

    2001-12-01

    C.B., a right-handed 33-year-old man, presented with anterograde amnesia after acute heart block. Cognitive abilities were normal except for serious impairment of long-term episodic memory. The access to semantic information was fully preserved. Magnetic resonance showed high signal intensity and marked volume loss in the hippocampus bilaterally; the left and right parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipito-temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal cortex were normal. This case underlines that global amnesia associated with hippocampal damage does not affect semantic memory. Although the hippocampus is important in retrieving context-linked information, its role is not so crucial in retrieving semantic contents. Cortical areas surrounding the hippocampus and lateral temporal areas might guide the recall of semantic information. PMID:11935452

  4. Influenza-associated global amnesia and hippocampal imaging abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jonathan; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; Koshy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The acute phase of influenza infection is rarely associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. We describe a case of a 24 year-old man who developed global amnesia in the acute phase of influenza A infection. His deficits resolved over the course of several weeks. Transient abnormalities of diffusion and T2-weighted imaging were seen in the bilateral hippocampi. We review cerebral complications of influenza and discuss the possible role of previously proposed mechanisms in our patient’s ...

  5. Obstruction of Venous Drainage Linked to Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal extracranial venous drainage modality has been considered an etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA). Evidence suggests that the transmission of the intrathoracic/intraabdominal pressure during a Valsalva maneuver (VM) is mainly through the vertebral venous system, and patency of internal jugular vein (IJV) is essential for venous drainage and pressure releasing. We hypothesize that obstruction of IJV venous drainage is a contributing factor in TGA pathogenesis. A magnetic resonan...

  6. Influenza-associated global amnesia and hippocampal imaging abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jonathan; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; Koshy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The acute phase of influenza infection is rarely associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. We describe a case of a 24 year-old man who developed global amnesia in the acute phase of influenza A infection. His deficits resolved over the course of several weeks. Transient abnormalities of diffusion and T2-weighted imaging were seen in the bilateral hippocampi. We review cerebral complications of influenza and discuss the possible role of previously proposed mechanisms in our patient’s case. PMID:23697757

  7. Dissociations in cognitive memory: the syndrome of developmental amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargha-Khadem, F; Gadian, D G; Mishkin, M.

    2001-01-01

    The dearth of studies on amnesia in children has led to the assumption that when damage to the medial temporal lobe system occurs early in life, the compensatory capacity of the immature brain rescues memory functions. An alternative view is that such damage so interferes with the development of learning and memory that it results not in selective cognitive impairments but in general mental retardation. Data will be presented to counter both of these arguments. Results obtained from a series ...

  8. FLAIR images of mild head trauma with transient amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamoto, Hirooki; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Inaba, Makoto; Ishiyama, Naomi [Hiratsuka City Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kawase, Takeshi

    1998-11-01

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no signal intensity area. We examined 45 cases of mild head trauma with posttraumatic amnesia by FLAIR images and could detect some findings which could not be detected by CT scan and conventional MR images. These findings could be detected in many patients with long posttraumatic amnesia (over 2 hours), but they could not be detected in patients with short posttraumatic amnesia (within 30 mins). These findings existed surrounding lateral ventricles and we classified them into 3 types: type 1 is anterior horn of lateral ventricle, type 2 is the base of frontal lobe, and type 3 is cerebral deep white matter. Some of them were examined again by FLAIR images a month later, and these findings had disappeared. We suspect that these lesions were brain edema or mild contusion without hemorrhage. (author)

  9. FLAIR images of mild head trauma with transient amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no signal intensity area. We examined 45 cases of mild head trauma with posttraumatic amnesia by FLAIR images and could detect some findings which could not be detected by CT scan and conventional MR images. These findings could be detected in many patients with long posttraumatic amnesia (over 2 hours), but they could not be detected in patients with short posttraumatic amnesia (within 30 mins). These findings existed surrounding lateral ventricles and we classified them into 3 types: type 1 is anterior horn of lateral ventricle, type 2 is the base of frontal lobe, and type 3 is cerebral deep white matter. Some of them were examined again by FLAIR images a month later, and these findings had disappeared. We suspect that these lesions were brain edema or mild contusion without hemorrhage. (author)

  10. Neural Correlate of Anterograde Amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Louis; Pignat, Jean-Michel; Bouzerda-Wahlen, Aurélie; Gabriel, Damien; Liverani, Maria Chiara; Lazeyras, François; Ptak, Radek; Richiardi, Jonas; Haller, Sven; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele F; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin

    2015-09-01

    The neural correlate of anterograde amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still debated. While the capacity to learn new information has been associated with integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), previous studies indicated that the WKS is associated with diencephalic lesions, mainly in the mammillary bodies and anterior or dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The present study tested the hypothesis that amnesia in WKS is associated with a disrupted neural circuit between diencephalic and hippocampal structures. High-density evoked potentials were recorded in four severely amnesic patients with chronic WKS, in five patients with chronic alcoholism without WKS, and in ten age matched controls. Participants performed a continuous recognition task of pictures previously shown to induce a left medial temporal lobe dependent positive potential between 250 and 350 ms. In addition, the integrity of the fornix was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WKS, but not alcoholic patients without WKS, showed absence of the early, left MTL dependent positive potential following immediate picture repetitions. DTI indicated disruption of the fornix, which connects diencephalic and hippocampal structures. The findings support an interpretation of anterograde amnesia in WKS as a consequence of a disconnection between diencephalic and MTL structures with deficient contribution of the MTL to rapid consolidation. PMID:25148770

  11. A sinister cause of anterograde amnesia: painless aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Fossum, Kurt; Hounshell, Charles; Stolper, Katherine; Spear, Leigh; Semelrath, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Aortic dissection is a frequently devastating diagnosis classically associated with severe chest pain.We present a case of painless aortic dissection with anterograde amnesia. An 84-year-old man was brought to the emergency department by ambulance, when his wife noted that he developed acute onset complete loss of short-term memory. Medical history was notable for a 4.5-cm fusiform thoracic aortic root aneurysm. On arrival,he denied pain or syncope.On examination, he was mildly hypotensive(110/59 mm Hg); and there were no murmurs, pulse deficits, or focal neurologic deficits. During his stay, he developed left flank pain. Chest radiography demonstrated subtle mediastinal widening and obscuration of the aortic knob compared with previous films. Computed tomography revealed an extensive intimal flap consistent with an aortic dissection involving the sinus of Valsalva and left renal artery. The patient subsequently developed acute onset chest pain after which he became unresponsive. Echocardiography demonstrated tamponade physiology.The family decided to transition to comfort care measures, and the patient died soon after.We identified 7 other cases in the literature of aortic dissection cases with presentations consistent with transient global amnesia,5 of which without neurologic deficits and 3 of which without pain. This case highlights the imperative of a thorough history and high index of suspicion for this catastrophic diagnosis in patients with transient global amnesia who otherwise might be expected to have an excellent prognosis and little need for diagnostic work-up. PMID:25649752

  12. Infantile amnesia reconsidered: a cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2003-01-01

    A number of theories have been offered over the past hundred years to explain the phenomenon of infantile amnesia, the common inability to remember autobiographical experiences from the first years of life. Recent comparative studies that examine autobiographical memories in different populations, particularly populations in North America and East Asia, have yielded intriguing findings that provide a unique opportunity to revisit some of the major theoretical views and to propose new accounts. In light of these findings, this article discusses five theoretical explanations for infantile amnesia, including cognitive and social discontinuity, the emergence of the self, early parent-child memory sharing, functions of autobiographical memory, and the complexity of life experience. The reconsideration of infantile amnesia from a cross-cultural perspective suggests that while the basic mechanisms and contributing factors may be universal, the specific ways in which these mechanisms and factors are manifested differ qualitatively across cultures. A theoretical approach that takes the larger cultural context into account can help us understand this long-standing puzzle. PMID:12653489

  13. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  15. The effects of ACTH- and vasopressin-analogues on CO2-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, H.; Riezen, H. van; Wied, D. de

    1974-01-01

    Amnesia for a one-trial step-through passive avoidance response was induced in rats by application of CO2 until respiratory arrest occurred. The ACTH-analogue ACTH4–10 alleviated the amnesia when administered 1 hr prior to the retrieval test but not when given 1 hr prior to the acquisition trial. Th

  16. [A method for reproducing amnesia in mice by the complex extremal exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, V V; Provornova, N A

    2003-01-01

    It is suggested to reproduce a retrograde amnesia in mice by means of a complex extremal action: emaciating swim in cold water with simultaneous wheel rotation. It was found that nootropes such as pyracetam, mexidol, semax, nooglutil, acephen, and noopept fully or completely prevent from the amnesia development. PMID:12924240

  17. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  18. Electrophysiological Correlates of Deficient Encoding in a Case of Post-Anoxic Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sandra; Morand, Stephanie; James, Clara; Schnider, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the initial stages of information processing in amnesia as compared to normal memory. In this study, we used electrical spatiotemporal mapping to compare cortical activation during encoding and recognition in a 56-year-old patient with severe, chronic post-anoxic amnesia and an age-matched control group. Event-related…

  19. Noradrenergic control of emotion-induced amnesia and hypermnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlemann, René

    2006-01-01

    Emotional memory encoding is associated with retrograde and anterograde episodic memory changes involving amnesia and hypermnesia, respectively. These effects are noradrenergic-dependent and reflect an interaction with emotional arousal and valence. Whereas anterograde amnesic effects most likely result from attentional capture by emotional arousal, retrograde amnesic and hypermnesic effects may reflect a valence-dependent filter mechanism that operates during emotional memory encoding and controls episodic memory access based upon behavioral significance. This filter mechanism may originnate in amygdala-hippocampal interactions that are modulated by both ascending locus coeruleus and descending prefrontal cortex inputs. PMID:17180877

  20. Are brief or recurrent transient global amnesias of epileptic origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, T P; Ferro, J. M.; Paiva, T.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate if short (less than one hour) or recurrent, or both, episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) have an epileptic origin or carry a subsequent risk of epilepsy a group of patients with these types of TGA attacks was studied. The group was selected from a prospective series of 103 patients with TGA. Sixteen patients had an episode lasting less than one hour, 13 had more than one episode, and five patients had both short and recurrent attacks. For each patient the number of recurren...

  1. A case-control study of transient global amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, M; Anzalone, N; A. Morabito; Landi, G

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors and prognosis of transient global amnesia (TGA), three groups of 30 subjects each affected respectively by: (1) first-ever TGA; (2) first-ever transient ischaemic attack (TIA); (3) depressive neurosis, were compared. Prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors was similar in patients with TGA and TIA, but significantly lower in the third group. CT showed more hypodense lesions in TIA patients than in those with TGA. In a mean follow-up of 36 months, five TGA patients e...

  2. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  3. Transient global amnesia after cerebral angiography still occurs: Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Wagner, Aase; Hauerberg, John; Snoer, Agneta Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is considered a very rare complication of diagnostic cerebral angiography, and has only been reported in a limited number of case reports more than 15 years ago. We describe a patient experiencing transient global amnesia following cerebral digital subtraction angiography....... While the condition by definition is self-limiting, its differential diagnoses may cause severe morbidity and/or mortality if left untreated. It is therefore important to build and maintain awareness of transient global amnesia as a possible complication of cerebral angiography....

  4. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  5. The chicken with four legs: a case of semantic amnesia and cryptogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna R; Villani, Flavio; Bell, Brian; Erbetta, Alessandra; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe the unusual condition of selective semantic amnesia related to cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy. XY, an adult male patient, presented with partial seizures and disabling dysnomia. Neuropsychological tests revealed seriously impaired semantic memory. Electroencephalography documented ictal epileptic abnormalities in the left temporal lobe. Positron emission tomography showed reduced metabolism in the temporoparietal regions, but the results of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were normal. After 11 years, neuropsychological tests showed selective impairment of semantic memory and computed tomography provided normal results. This case shows that semantic memory may be selectively and lastingly altered, highlighting a distinction between semantic amnesia and global amnesia. Moreover, it is unique in that it occurred without evidence of gross temporal lobe pathology. The pathophysiological pattern of epileptic abnormalities in the left temporoparietal cortex supports the role played by dysfunctional neuronal networks (as provoked by focal epileptic discharges) in determining selective semantic amnesia. PMID:18930165

  6. Cerebellar Hypoperfusion during Transient Global Amnesia: An MRI and Oculographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, YoungSoon; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, SangYun; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kwak, Yong Tae; Han, Il-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by sudden anterograde and retrograde amnesia lasting for up to 24 hours. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in cases of TGA and ischemia demonstrates a high frequency of high signal intensities restricted to the hippocampus, and this has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. The aims of this study were to characterize the DWI and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings during the acute a...

  7. Value of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Acute Phase of Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Alex; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U.; Böhme, Johannes; Mürle, Bettina; Groden, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) in TGA in the acute phase. Methods From a MRI report database we identifie...

  8. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Bartsch

    2014-01-01

    The transient global amnesia (TGA) is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA...

  9. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Kirti S.; Kasture, S.B.; Mengi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Metho...

  10. Dissociative Amnesia and DSM-IV-TR Cluster C Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Stephanie; Waits, Wendi; Diebold, Carroll

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative amnesia is a disorder characterized by retrospectively reported memory gaps. These gaps involve an inability to recall personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. Dissociative amnesia most commonly occurs in the presence of other psychiatric conditions, particularly personality disorders. In the literature and in clinical practice, it is often associated with DSM-IV-TR Cluster B personality disorders. However, there is evidence to suggest that dissociative a...

  11. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery], e-mail: cleciojunior@yahoo.com.br; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto [Fleury Diagnostic Center, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  12. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  13. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  14. Cognitive findings after transient global amnesia: role of prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Francesco; Giuffrida, Salvatore; Maci, Tiziana; Reggio, Ester; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify, after recovery, the presence of specific patterns of cognitive dysfunctions in Transient Global Amnesia (TGA). Fourteen patients with the diagnosis of TGA were submitted to a battery of neuropsychological tests and compared to a matched control group. We found significant qualitative and quantitative differences between TGA patients and controls in the California Verbal Learning Test (CLVT) and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Our data support the presence of selective cognitive dysfunctions after the clinical recovery. Moreover, for Verbal Fluency, Digit Span Backward, and Number of Clusters in the CVLT short-term memory test, the relation resulted as positively related with the temporal interval from the TGA episode. Reduction of categorical learning, attention, and qualitative alterations of spatial strategy seem to postulate a planning defect due to a prefrontal impairment. PMID:16422663

  15. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic crit...

  16. "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": tradução e validação "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": traducción y validación "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir e validar o Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para uso em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Esse teste foi traduzido para o português e retro-traduzido para o inglês por diferentes especialistas na língua e por fim, feita a avaliação da equivalência entre o instrumento original e a versão retro-traduzida. Sua aplicação em 73 vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico contuso e a indicação da gravidade dessa lesão, estabelecida pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitiram verificar as propriedades de medida do instrumento. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade verificada pelo Alfa de Cronbach resultou em 0,76. Houve indicação de validade convergente e discriminante do instrumento quando os resultados de aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test foram analisados perante a gravidade do trauma crânio-encefálico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados observados dão suporte para a aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test em nosso meio como indicador do término da amnésia pós-traumática.OBJETIVO: Traducir y validar el Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para su uso en nuestro medio. MÉTODOS: El test fue traducido al portugués retrotraducido al inglés por diferentes especialistas en la lengua y por fin, realizada la evaluación de la equivalencia entre el instrumento original y la versión retrotraducida. Su aplicación en 73 víctimas de traumatismo encéfalo craneano con constusión y la indicación de la gravedad de esa lesión, establecida por la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitieron verificar las propiedades de medida del instrumento. RESULTADOS: La confiabilidad verificada por el Alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,76. Hubo indicación de validez convergente y discriminante del instrumento cuando los resultados de aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test fueron analizados frente a la gravedad del traumatismo encéfalo craneano. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados observados dan soporte para la aplicación del

  17. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that…

  18. Children's Autobiographical Memories across the Years: Forensic Implications of Childhood Amnesia and Eyewitness Memory for Stressful Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of two bodies of research conducted by myself and my colleagues that is relevant to child witness issues, namely childhood amnesia and children's eyewitness memory for stressful events. Although considerable research over the years has investigated the phenomenon of childhood amnesia in adults, only recently has it begun to be…

  19. Global Similarity Predicts Dissociation of Classification and Recognition: Evidence Questioning the Implicit-Explicit Learning Distinction in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K.; Holmes, Signy; Mewhort, D. J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Dissociation of classification and recognition in amnesia is widely taken to imply 2 functional systems: an implicit procedural-learning system that is spared in amnesia and an explicit episodic-learning system that is compromised. We argue that both tasks reflect the global similarity of probes to memory. In classification, subjects sort…

  20. Dissociations in cognitive memory: the syndrome of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, F; Gadian, D G; Mishkin, M

    2001-01-01

    The dearth of studies on amnesia in children has led to the assumption that when damage to the medial temporal lobe system occurs early in life, the compensatory capacity of the immature brain rescues memory functions. An alternative view is that such damage so interferes with the development of learning and memory that it results not in selective cognitive impairments but in general mental retardation. Data will be presented to counter both of these arguments. Results obtained from a series of 11 amnesic patients with a history of hypoxic ischaemic damage sustained perinatally or during childhood indicate that regardless of age at onset of hippocampal pathology, there is a pronounced dissociation between episodic memory, which is severely impaired, and semantic memory, which is relatively preserved. A second dissociation is characterized by markedly impaired recall and relatively spared recognition leading to a distinction between recollection-based versus familiarity-based judgements. These findings are discussed in terms of the locus and extent of neuropathology associated with hypoxic ischaemic damage, the neural basis of 'remembering' versus 'knowing', and a hierarchical model of cognitive memory. PMID:11571034

  1. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MelissaMercado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/ objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by lack of other focal neurological deficits. Cerebrovascular disease, migraine and seizures have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. TGA may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular or other neurological events. We studied the relation of TGA, vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indices of subclinical ischemia and neurological events in a community-based sample. Design/setting: A total of 12 TGA cases were ascertained using standard criteria by experienced neurologists, and matched to 41 stroke- and seizure-free controls. Vascular risk factors, brain MRI findings, and subsequent cerebrovascular or seizure events were compared in cases and controls. Participants: Framingham Heart Study (FHS original and offspring cohort participants were included. Results: No significant differences between the groups were observed in the prevalence of vascular risk factors, or brain MRI measures. Few incident stroke/transient ischemic attacks (TIA (1 event among the cases and 4 in controls or subsequent seizures occurred in either group. Head CT during the acute event (n=11 and brain MRI (n=7 were negative for acute abnormalities. Electroencephalograms (EEG (n=5 were negative for epileptiform activity. Extracranial vascular studies were negative for significant stenosis in all cases. Conclusions: In our community-based study TGA was not related to traditional vascular risk factors, or cerebrovascular disease. However, our study is limited by small sample size and power, and larger studies are required to exclude an association.

  2. The Remains of the Day in Dissociative Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Staniloiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not a unity, but is divided along a content axis and a time axis, respectively. Along the content dimension, five long-term memory systems are described, according to their hierarchical ontogenetic and phylogenetic organization. These memory systems are assumed to be accompanied by different levels of consciousness. While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system. Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia—a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging. Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called “internal coherence of life”.

  3. Social Cognition in a Case of Amnesia with Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HansJ.Markowitsch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM is considered to emerge gradually in concert with the development of other cognitive abilities. Developmental studies have emphasized socio-cultural-linguistic mechanisms that may be unique to the development of EAM. Furthermore it was hypothesized that one of the main functions of EAM is the social one. In the research field, the link between EAM and social cognition remains however debated. Herein we aim to bring new insights into the relation between EAM and social information processing (including social cognition by describing a young adult patient with amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms due to perinatal complications accompanied by hypoxia. The patient was investigated medically, psychiatrically and with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Structural high resolution MRI revealed significant bilateral hippocampal atrophy as well as indices for degeneration in the amygdalae, basal ganglia and thalamus, when a less conservative threshold was applied. In addition to extensive memory investigations and testing other (non-social cognitive functions, we employed a broad range of tests that assessed social information processing (social perception, social cognition, social regulation. Our results point to both preserved (empathy, core theory of mind functions, visual affect selection and discrimination, affective prosody discrimination and impaired domains of social information processing (incongruent affective prosody processing, complex social judgments. They support proposals for a role of the hippocampal formation in processing more complex social information that likely requires multimodal relational handling.

  4. Dissociations in cognitive memory: the syndrome of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, F; Gadian, D G; Mishkin, M

    2001-09-29

    The dearth of studies on amnesia in children has led to the assumption that when damage to the medial temporal lobe system occurs early in life, the compensatory capacity of the immature brain rescues memory functions. An alternative view is that such damage so interferes with the development of learning and memory that it results not in selective cognitive impairments but in general mental retardation. Data will be presented to counter both of these arguments. Results obtained from a series of 11 amnesic patients with a history of hypoxic ischaemic damage sustained perinatally or during childhood indicate that regardless of age at onset of hippocampal pathology, there is a pronounced dissociation between episodic memory, which is severely impaired, and semantic memory, which is relatively preserved. A second dissociation is characterized by markedly impaired recall and relatively spared recognition leading to a distinction between recollection-based versus familiarity-based judgements. These findings are discussed in terms of the locus and extent of neuropathology associated with hypoxic ischaemic damage, the neural basis of 'remembering' versus 'knowing', and a hierarchical model of cognitive memory. PMID:11571034

  5. Autobiogutobiographical amnesia and cognltive disorder resulgting from bilateral severe thalamic infarction Two cases reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ytt Kai; Yu Feng Qi; Lei Zheng Lin; Zhang Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of patients with bilateral severe thalamic infarction.which showed autobiographical amnesia and cognitive disorders and to shed light on the mechanisms underlying thc retrograde amenesia. Method The two cases were studied clinically, CT and MRI were performed also, Language and neuropsychological tests were evaluated. Results Two patients with a chronic amnesia and cogntive disorders resulting from bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction showed a pattern of retrograde amnesia personally relevent autobiographical memory were prefoundly impaired .Whereas about the famous people and public events were relatively impaired. The patients almost had no thalamic aphasia.The events the one described showed spontaneously confabulated. Conclusion We think a probable explanation that the disorders at the thematic retrieval fiomwork ievel of memory and the information reconstruction due to a disconnetion of frontal and medial temperal memory systems.

  6. Psychological therapy for psychogenic amnesia: Successful treatment in a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Anneli; Humphreys, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic amnesia is widely understood to be a memory impairment of psychological origin that occurs as a response to severe stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapy approaches in the treatment of this disorder. The current article describes a single case, "Ben", who was treated with formulation-driven psychological therapy using techniques drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychogenic amnesia. Before treatment, Ben exhibited isolated retrograde and anterograde memory impairments. He received 12 therapy sessions that targeted experiential avoidance followed by two review sessions, six weeks and five months later. Ben's retrograde and anterograde memory impairments improved following therapy to return to within the "average" to "superior" ranges, which were maintained at follow-up. Further experimental single case study designs and larger group studies are required to advance the understanding of the effectiveness and efficacy of psychological therapy for psychogenic amnesia. PMID:25894932

  7. Towards Solving the Riddle of Forgetting in Functional Amnesia: Recent Advances and Current Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eStaniloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remembering the past is a core feature of human beings, enabling them to maintain a sense of wholeness and identity and preparing them for the demands of the future. Forgetting operates in a dynamic neural connection with remembering, allowing the elimination of unnecessary or irrelevant information overload and decreasing interference. Stress and traumatic experiences could affect this connection, resulting in memory disturbances, such as functional amnesia. An overview of clinical, epidemiological, neuropsychological and neurobiological aspects of functional amnesia is presented, by preponderantly resorting to own data from patients with functional amnesia. Patients were investigated medically, neuropsychologically and neuroradiologically. A detailed report of a new case is included to illustrate the challenges posed by making an accurate differential diagnosis of functional amnesia, a condition that may encroach on the boundaries between psychiatry and neurology. Several mechanisms may play a role in forgetting in functional amnesia, such as retrieval impairments, consolidating defects, motivated forgetting, deficits in binding and reassembling details of the past, deficits in establishing a first person autonoetic connection with personal events and loss of information. In a substantial number of patients, we observed a synchronization abnormality between a frontal lobe system, important for autonoetic consciousness, and a temporo-amygdalar system, important for evaluation and emotions, which provides empirical support for an underlying mechanism of dissociation (a failure of integration between cognition and emotion. This observation suggests a mnestic blockade in functional amnesia that is triggered by psychological or environmental stress and is underpinned by a stress hormone mediated synchronization abnormality during retrieval between processing of affect-laden events and fact-processing.

  8. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  9. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  10. Effectiveness of lorazepam-assisted interviews in an adolescent with dissociative amnesia A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuna Seo; Mi-Hee Shin; Sung-Gon Kim; Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate gathering information during a psychiatric interview, some psychiatrists advocate augmenting the interview using drugs. Rather than barbiturates, benzodiazepines have been used for drug-assisted interviews. Dissociative amnesia is one of the indications for these interviews. Herein, we present the case of a 15-year-old female who was diagnosed as having dissociative amnesia because of conflicts with her friends. She was administered a lorazepam-assisted interview to aid recovery of her memories. In this case, a small dose of lorazepam was sufficient to recover her memories without any adverse effects.

  11. Social cognition in a case of amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Borsutzky, Sabine; Woermann, Friedrich G; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM) is considered to emerge gradually in concert with the development of other cognitive abilities (such as executive functions, personal semantic knowledge, emotional knowledge, theory of mind (ToM) functions, language, and working memory). On the brain level its emergence is accompanied by structural and functional reorganization of different components of the so-called EAM network. This network includes the hippocampal formation, which is viewed as being vital for the acquisition of memories of personal events for long-term storage. Developmental studies have emphasized socio-cultural-linguistic mechanisms that may be unique to the development of EAM. Furthermore it was hypothesized that one of the main functions of EAM is the social one. In the research field, the link between EAM and social cognition remains however debated. Herein we aim to bring new insights into the relation between EAM and social information processing (including social cognition) by describing a young adult patient with amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms due to perinatal complications accompanied by hypoxia. The patient was investigated medically, psychiatrically, and with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Structural high resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant bilateral hippocampal atrophy as well as indices for degeneration in the amygdalae, basal ganglia, and thalamus, when a less conservative threshold was applied. In addition to extensive memory investigations and testing other (non-social) cognitive functions, we employed a broad range of tests that assessed social information processing (social perception, social cognition, social regulation). Our results point to both preserved (empathy, core ToM functions, visual affect selection, and discrimination, affective prosody discrimination) and impaired domains of social information processing (incongruent affective prosody processing, complex social judgments

  12. Developing an Animal Model of Human Amnesia: The Role of the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes a series of experiments aimed at answering the question whether the hippocampus in rats can serve as an animal model of amnesia. It is recognized that a comparison of the functions of the rat hippocampus with human hippocampus is difficult, because of differences in methodology, differences in complexity of life experiences,…

  13. The Review of Retrograde Amnesia%逆行性遗忘研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓雪

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia has great important influence on internal memory of the human, especially in cognitive neuro-science. Through literature analysis, the temporal graded retrograde amnesia is the most extensive type. The characteristics of retro-grade amnesia is different and graded, and it is also featured with the full implicit memory. It mainly stems from the brain injury such as medial temporal lobe, diencephalon, and frontal lobe. In addition, drinking, lacking of vitamin B1 and trauma can also cause the symptoms. Now the main methods of memory rehabilitation are operation therapy, implicit memory rehabilitation and error-less learning. In the future, the memory rehabilitation about retrograde amnesia will more effectively promote the progress of the treatment.%遗忘症主要分为逆行性遗忘和顺行性遗忘。逆行性遗忘指病人失去提取脑损伤前事件记忆的能力,即能学习新东西和编码新事件,但是不能回忆发生在脑损伤前的经历和事件。它具有逆行期的梯度性、差异性,语义记忆、内隐记忆正常等特点;受伤脑区多与颞叶内侧、额叶、间脑损伤相关联。

  14. The dynamic time course of memory recovery in transient global amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Guillery-Girard, B; Desgranges, B.; Urban, C; Piolino, P; de la Sayette, V.; Eustache, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the dynamic time course of transient global amnesia (TGA)—that is, the process of recovery and the interindividual variability—by testing four patients during the day of TGA itself (on three occasions) and at follow up (on two occasions).

  15. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  16. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  17. Gudden's Ventral Tegmental Nucleus Is Vital for Memory: Re-Evaluating Diencephalic Inputs for Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Seralynne D.

    2009-01-01

    Mammillary body atrophy is present in a number of neurological conditions and recent clinical findings highlight the importance of these nuclei for memory. While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study tested the importance of the other…

  18. Amnesia of Inhibitory Avoidance by Scopolamine Is Overcome by Previous Openfield Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colettis, Natalia C.; Snitcofsky, Marina; Kornisiuk, Edgar E.; Gonzalez, Emilio N.; Quillfeldt, Jorge A.; Jerusalinsky, Diana A.

    2014-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MAChR) blockade with scopolamine either extended or restricted to the hippocampus, before or after training in inhibitory avoidance (IA) caused anterograde or retrograde amnesia, respectively, in the rat, because there was no long-term memory (LTM) expression. Adult Wistar rats previously exposed to one or two…

  19. Dynamics of the Development of Amnesia Caused by Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation by Neurotransmitter Receptors Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of amnesia development under conditions of memory reconsolidation disruption by serotonin receptor antagonist methiothepin or NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 was studied in snails trained in conventional food aversion. In 2 days after training, injection of methiothepin or MK-801 before reminder induced amnesia development. During repeated training in 3 days after amnesia induction, the skill was formed more rapidly than during the initial training. During repeated training in 10 days after administration of methiothepin and reminder, the dynamics of habit formation was similar to that during initial learning. At the same time, repeated training in 10 days after MK-801 administration and reminder did not result in long-term memory formation. Disruption of reconsolidation of conditioned food aversion memory by antagonists of serotonin or NMDA glutamate receptors led to the development of different types of amnesia that had similar strengthening gradient at the early stages, but differed by the possibility of memory formation during re-training at the late stage. PMID:27021109

  20. Episodic Representations Support Early Semantic Learning: Evidence from Midazolam Induced Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug "midazolam" to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory…

  1. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  2. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  3. Can We Remember Future Actions yet Forget the Last Two Minutes? Study in Transient Global Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainselin, Mathieu; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Beatrice; Martinaud, Olivier; Hannequin, Didier; de La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the abrupt onset of a massive episodic memory deficit that spares other cognitive functions. If the anterograde dimension is known to be impaired in TGA, researchers have yet to investigate prospective memory (PM)--which involves remembering to perform an intended action at…

  4. Retrieval Failure versus Memory Loss in Experimental Amnesia: Definitions and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R.; Matzel, Louis D.

    2006-01-01

    For at least 40 years, there has been a recurring argument concerning the nature of experimental amnesia, with one side arguing that amnesic treatments interfere with the formation of enduring memories and the other side arguing that these treatments interfere with the expression of memories that were effectively encoded. The argument appears to…

  5. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  6. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  7. Route learning in Korsakoff's syndrome: Residual acquisition of spatial memory despite profound amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja; Wijnia, J.W.; Seekles, M.L.; Postma, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by explicit amnesia, but relatively spared implicit memory. The aim of this study was to assess to what extent KS patients can acquire spatial information while performing a spatial navigation task. Furthermore, we examined whether residual spatial acquisit

  8. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  9. The effect of hypnotic drug type on anesthetic depth and amnesia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Bispectral index (BIS index shows the depth of anesthesia. The effects of drugs on BIS and amnesia are different. This study was performed to evaluate the association between two different sedative regimens on BIS and amnesia."n"nMethods: In this clinical trial, 60 patients who needed elective orthopedic surgery under regional anesthesia with intravenous sedation were elected. Patients divided in two equal groups based on sedation protocol by block randomization method: midazolam plus fentanyl group (MF group or propofol group (P group. Dose of sedative drugs were adjusted according to clinical findings of sedation. Depth of sedation in all patients, preserved in four based on modified Ramsey Sedation Score. Patients questioned about spontaneous recall after full awakening in recovery room. Recall of any event during operation considered as failed amnesia. Correlation of BIS index with recall was measured in two different groups separately."n"nResults: The frequency of recall was 2 (6.7% in P group and 10 (33.3% in MF group (p=0.01. The mean± SD of BIS in P group was 76±5 (68-91 and in MF group was 93.4±5 (77-98 (p<0.001. The difference of BIS in patients without amnesia (p=0.019 and with amnesia (p<0

  10. Attenuating effect of bioactive coumarins from Convolvulus pluricaulis on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2016-03-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Convolvulaceae) has been used in Ayurveda as Medhya Rasyana (nervine tonic) to treat various mental disorders. This study was designed to isolate the bioactive compound(s) of this plant and to evaluate their effect against scopolamine-induced amnesia. Column chromatography of the chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions led to the isolation of three coumarins identified as scopoletin, ayapanin and scopolin. All the three compounds at 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced amnesia using elevated plus maze and step down paradigms. Effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in mice brain was also evaluated. Scopoletin and scopolin, in both the paradigms, significantly and dose dependently attenuated the scopolamine-induced amnesic effect. Furthermore, these compounds at 10 and 15 mg/kg exhibited activity comparable to that of standard drug, donepezil. The compounds also exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:25828605

  11. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively. PMID:19090415

  12. Focal retrograde amnesia: Voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sehm, B.; Frisch, S; Thöne-Otto, A.; Horstmann, A.; Villringer, A.; Obrig, H

    2011-01-01

    Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unrema...

  13. Is a Cancer Diagnosis Associated with Subsequent Risk of Transient Global Amnesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jianwei; Lu, DongHao; Sveinsson, Olafur; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Fall, Katja; Piehl, Fredrik; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychological stress has been associated with transient global amnesia (TGA). Whether a cancer diagnosis, a severely stressful life event, is associated with subsequent risk of TGA has not been studied. Methods Based on the Swedish Cancer Register and Patient Register, we conducted a prospective cohort study including 5,365,608 Swedes at age 30 and above during 2001–2009 to examine the relative risk of TGA among cancer patients, as compared to cancer-free individuals. Incidence rat...

  14. Memory and Cerebral Blood Flow in Cases of Transient Global Amnesia During and After the Attack

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kazui; Tanabe, H; Ikeda, M.; Nakagawa, Y; Shiraishi, J.; K. Hashikawa

    1995-01-01

    We administered various memory tests and neuroimaging examinations to four pure cases who met Hodges' clinical criteria for transient global amnesia (TGA), during and after the attack. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether procedural learning is acquired during TGA and whether priming effects are preserved during TGA, and to investigate the anatomical basis of various memory subcomponents through these cases. Episodic memory was severely disturbed only during TGA, consiste...

  15. The diagnosis and management of transient global amnesia in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Magnus; Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Transient Global Amnesia (TGA) is a benign and temporary loss of anterograde memory with the preservation of remote memories and immediate recall. TGA was first described in 1956 and since then epilepsy, transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), migraine and now intracranial venous stasis have been implicated in its aetiology. Precipitants of TGA include physical exertion and valsalva‐like manoeuvres. In order to diagnose TGA the criteria created by Hodge and Warlow in 1990 can be used. This require...

  16. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Griebe; Frauke Nees; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link st...

  17. Incompetence of internal jugular vein valve in patients with transient global amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Zagorka B.; Vujisić-Tešić Bosiljka; Pavlović Aleksandra M.; Zidverc-Trajković Jasna J.; Mijajlović Milija D.; Boričić-Kostić Marija V.; Cvitan Edita Ž.; Radojičić Aleksandra P.; Tomić Gordana; Šundić Ana; Šternić-Čovičković Nadežda M.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Transient global amnesia (TGA) could be related to acute ischemic disturbances in mesial parts of temporal lobes, which are important for memory. Incompetence of internal jugular vein (IJV) valve with venous congestion causes venous microthrombosis of hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of IJV valve incompetence, as well as other hemodynamic and structural properties of cerebral circulation in TGA patients. Methods. IJV valve competence wa...

  18. Make Love to Forget: Two Cases of Transient Global Amnesia Triggered by Sexual Intercourse

    OpenAIRE

    Bučuk, Mira; Muzur, Amir; Willheim, Ksenija; Jurjević, Ante; Tomić, Zoran; Tuškan-Mohar, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset and by a typical resolution within several hours. Several precipitating events have been proposed: physical exertion, emotional experiences, etc. The aim of this paper was to present two cases of TGA triggered by sexual intercourse and to suggest a possible mechanism for the development of TGA. In both patients, clinical examination revealed elevated blood pressure. Laboratory examinations and brain CTs were normal. EEG demonst...

  19. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stres...

  20. Transient global amnesia following cerebral angiography with non-ionic contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transit global amnesia (TGA) is an uncommon syndrome of recent memory deficit and inability to learn new data, usually resolving within 24 hours. Two cases following use of non-ionic contrast media in cerebral angiography are presented. The neuroanatomy of memory is reviewed. Possible aetiologies of TGA in relation to cerebral angiography include ischemia (embolic, arterial spasm), epilepsy that may be primary or tumour-related and direct toxic effects of contrast media. 19 refs., 1 fig

  1. Faces are special but not too special: Spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Mariam; Robert T Knight; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Most current theories of human memory are material-general in the sense that they assume that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for retrieving the details of prior events, regardless of the specific type of materials. Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words, but is not involved in remembering faces. We examined recognition memory for faces and words in a group of amnesic patients, whi...

  2. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Karen R.; Gardiner, John M.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively.

  3. Longitudinal Cerebral Perfusion Change in Transient Global Amnesia Related to Left Posterior Medial Network Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Wang, Min Jeong; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Chun, In Kook; Yang, YoungSoon; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is not fully understood. Previous studies using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have reported inconclusive results regarding cerebral perfusion. This study was conducted to identify the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in TGA patients via longitudinal SPECT analysis. An association between the observed SPECT patterns and a pathophysiological mechanism was considered. Methods Based on the TGA reg...

  4. Let's use those tests! Evaluations of crime-related amnesia claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Maarten J V; van Oorsouw, Kim I M; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-02-21

    Suspects awaiting trial often claim that they cannot remember important parts of their violent crimes. It is not unusual that forensic experts readily accept such claims and interpret them in terms of dissociative amnesia or, more specifically, a "red-out". This interpretation hinges on the assumption that heightened levels of stress implicated in violent crimes interfere with memory. We argue that the notion of red-out is a priori not plausible and that alternative interpretations-primarily malingering and substance-induced organic amnesia-should be considered and ruled out first before concluding that memory loss is dissociative in nature. We illustrate our point with four cases that superficially have the contours of red-out tragedies. We believe that, in such cases, neuropsychological tests and/or psychopharmacological information on dose-response relationships can assist forensic experts to exclude malingering or substance-induced amnesia. There is no reason for not using tests and tools from neuropsychology and psychopharmacology. PMID:23425323

  5. Faces are special but not too special: spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Knight, Robert T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2010-11-01

    Most current theories of human memory are material-general in the sense that they assume that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for retrieving the details of prior events, regardless of the specific type of materials. Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words, but is not involved in remembering faces. We examined recognition memory for faces and words in a group of amnesic patients, which included hypoxic patients and patients with extensive left or right MTL lesions. Recognition confidence judgments were used to plot receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) in order to more fully quantify recognition performance and to estimate the contributions of recollection and familiarity. Consistent with the extant literature, an analysis of overall recognition accuracy showed that the patients were impaired at word memory but had spared face memory. However, the ROC analysis indicated that the patients were generally impaired at high confidence recognition responses for faces and words, and they exhibited significant recollection impairments for both types of materials. Familiarity for faces was preserved in all patients, but extensive left MTL damage impaired familiarity for words. These results show that face recognition may appear to be spared because performance tends to rely heavily on familiarity, a process that is relatively well preserved in amnesia. In addition, the findings challenge material-general theories of memory, and suggest that both material and process are important determinants of memory performance in amnesia. PMID:20833190

  6. Reversible hippocampal lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of transient selective amnesia for simple machine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yumiko; Bandoh, Mitsuaki; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-08-01

    We report two extremely rare cases involving the development of transient selective retrograde amnesia for simple machine operation lasting for several hours. A 61-year-old male taxi driver suddenly became unable to operate a taximeter, and a 66-year-old female janitor suddenly became unable to use a fax machine. They could precisely recount their episodes to others both during and after the attacks, and their memories during their attacks corresponded to the memory of the witness and the medical records of the doctor, respectively. Therefore, it appears that these individuals remained alert and did not develop anterograde amnesia during their attacks. On day 4, they underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion-weighted MRI with 2-mm section thickness revealed small high-intensity signal lesions in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) region. However, these lesions disappeared during the chronic phase. This is the first report describing lesions detected by MRI in patients with transient selective amnesia without anterograde amnesia. Reversible damage to the hippocampal CA1 region may cause transient selective amnesia by impairing the retrieval of relevant memories. PMID:27367337

  7. What does a comparison of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and thalamic infarction tell us about thalamic amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    In this review, the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and in thalamic amnesia, resulting from focal infarction, are compared. In both disorders, there is controversy over what is the critical site for anterograde amnesia to occur-damage to the anterior thalamus/mammillo-thalamic tract has most commonly been cited, but damage to the medio-dorsal nuclei has also been advocated. Both syndromes show 'core' features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia is generally much more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome. Likewise, spontaneous confabulation occurs more commonly in the Korsakoff syndrome, although seen in only a minority of chronic cases. These differences are attributed to the greater prevalence of frontal atrophy and frontal damage in Korsakoff cases. PMID:25218758

  8. Pain and intra-operative amnesia evaluation with local anesthesia and sedation in patients subjected to rhinosseptoplasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Raimar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The local anesthesia practice and sedation to rhinoplasty and others aesthetics procedures of the face are each time more frequents. In the Brazil, the Federal Council of Medicine defines it and regulate its practice. Objective: To analyze the analgesia' effectiveness and of the intro operative amnesia through analogous visual and subjective scales in the rhinosseptoplasties performed under local anesthesia and sedation, looking for associations with the medium quantities of medication utilized. Method: A retrospective study based in reports relatives to 158 aesthetic-functional rhinoplasties. The surgeon recorded in a protocol the data relatives to the use of local anesthetics and sedatives (including concentration and quantities utilized as well as the side effects. In the first return post surgery the patient quantifies the pain that he felt in the intra operative utilizing a analogous visual scale as described by Hasen and collaborators. The Amnesia considered ideal when the patient referred to remind "nothing" or "a few of the procedure. Results: The sample constituted of 80 (73,4% women and 29 26,6% men, average of age of 29,3 ± 9,5 years. The median of the pain by the analogous visual scale was 0,05; 80% under 3,35. The amnesia was ideal in 51 (46,8% surgeries. The midazolam was utilized in all the surgeries. Fentanyl in 32 (29,4% and, pethidine in 77 (70,6%. Had not statistically significants differences between the quantities of medication utilized between the groups of patients with ideal amnesia when compared with those that do not obtained satisfactory amnesia. Conclusion: Local anesthesia and sedation in rhinoplasties are comfortable and secures in the majority of the cases, even without have a satisfactory amnesia.

  9. When the past is lost: focal retrograde amnesia. Focus on the "functional" form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciari, Andrea; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We report the clinical findings and neuropsychological profiles of a sample of patients exhibiting a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) seen consecutively during the period 1992-2007. The cohort comprised 13 patients, five males, with a mean age of 30 years (range 16-49). They were given a neurologic examination, psychiatric interview and formal neuropsychological examination (all but one) during the amnesic phase, underwent neuroimaging, and were followed up for six months to ten years. All presented with an acute amnesia characterized by an impaired recollection of memories predating the acute event, with spared or minimally and transiently affected anterograde memory, thus consistent with FRA. The events triggering FRA varied widely: mild to severe head injury, road accident without head injury, seizure, dissociative fugue, BDZ overdose, posttraumatic headache, syncope, migraine attack, acute distress. The neuropsychological hallmark of FRA was a selective or prominent impairment of autobiographical memory. The defect was often so severe as to cover most or all of the patients' lives and, in some cases, to erase the knowledge of their own identity. Conventional neuroimaging (brain CT and MRI) was unimpressive. Cerebral SPECT/PET disclosed unilateral frontal hypoperfusion in three (two left). All but one patient fully recovered, time of recovery ranging from three days to six months. FRA is a condition reflecting a block of memory function triggered by heterogeneous events, including both physical and psychic insults. Analogies shared with the more frequently encountered and better known condition of transient global amnesia suggests common pathogenetic mechanisms. A tentative nosographic classification of FRA is finally offered. PMID:19641249

  10. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27388114

  11. The Still Enigmatic Syndrome of Transient Global Amnesia: Interactions Between Neurological and Psychopathological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Audrey; Quinette, Peggy; Hainselin, Mathieu; Dayan, Jacques; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2015-06-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological syndrome that usually occurs in middle-aged or older people. It is characterized by the abrupt onset of profound anterograde amnesia, associated with more variable retrograde amnesia and repetitive questioning. The whole episode lasts no more than 24 h. Almost 60 years after its first descriptions, the etiology of TGA remains unknown. Until now, TGA has been described exclusively as a memory disorder, but there is a growing body of evidence to show that emotional and psychological factors (as anxious and depressive symptoms) are present at different times of TGA. Their role therefore needs to be clarified. First, these factors seem to play a part in triggering TGA, at least for a subgroup of patients, suggesting the existence of an emotional TGA subtype. Second, recent research shows that almost all the TGA patients displayed modifications of their emotional state during the episode, possibly linked to sudden memory loss. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms could even reach a pathological threshold in patients with the so-called "emotional TGA subtype". Third, the persistence of these depressive and anxious symptoms after the end of the episode could account for lasting memory disorders in some patients. Finally, the analysis of these emotional syndrome and emotional factors and the recent data in neuroimaging could allow us to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind TGA. The aim of this review was thus to discuss whether the anxious and depressive symptoms are causative, resultant or coincidental of TGA. PMID:25868986

  12. Alcoholic Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Protects Against Amnesia by Regulation of Arc Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Akash; Kaul, Sunil C; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier report on scopolamine-induced amnesia and its improvement by pre-treatment with i-Extract (alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaf) suggested that the i-Extract mediated nootropic effect may involve neuronal immediate early gene, Arc. With a hypothesis that the i-Extract induced expression of Arc protein may cause augmentation in Arc function, we examined the effect of i-extract on a major function of Arc protein, i.e. F-actin expansion, using Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Stereotaxic infusion of Arc antisense ODN in the CA1 region of hippocampus decreased the level of Arc protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. However, this decrease was attenuated when treated with i-Extract prior to infusion of Arc antisense ODN. We noted a significant decrease in the polymerization of F-actin during scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as Arc antisense ODN infusion that was restored rather enhanced when pre-treated with i-Extract in both the cases. We also compared the corresponding changes between CA1 (the infusion site) and CA3 (neighbouring site of infusion) regions of hippocampus, and found more pronounced effects in CA1 than in the CA3 region. The extent of F-actin polymerization, as revealed by changes in the dendritic spine architecture through Golgi staining, showed that both scopolamine as well as Arc antisense ODN disrupted the spine density and mushroom-shaped morphology that was again regained if pre-treated with i-Extract. In conclusion, the findings reveal that the Arc helps in polymerization of F-actin and subsequent changes in the morphology of dendritic spines after pre-treatment with i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, suggesting an important role of Arc in scopolamine-induced amnesia and its recovery by i-Extract. PMID:25744565

  13. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Kirti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer′s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods : The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory parameters were evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM, passive avoidance and motor activity paradigms. Brain ChE activity and serum biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, total triglycerides and glucose were evaluated. Results : It was observed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. Conclusion : Because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, PA may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.

  14. Postoperative amnesia in a patient undergoing general anesthesia for electro-physiologic (EP) catheter ablation of an irritable atrial focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, Aris; Chen, Linda; Lin, David; Liu, Renyu

    2014-10-31

    This case report describes the anesthetic management of a 67-year-old who underwent a catheter based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) of long-standing, persistent atrial fibrillation. When the patient awoke from the 6.5 hour procedure, he was found to have a transient retrograde and anterograde amnesia that persisted for 18-24 hours postoperatively. This is a unique instance of global amnesia following a cardiac ablation procedure under prolonged general anesthesia. This case study highlights important topics in postoperative cognitive deficits including the differential diagnosis, risk factors, and strategies for optimizing patient outcomes in high risk procedures. PMID:25429367

  15. Transient Global Amnesia After Cerebral Angiography With Iomeprol: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Cristina; Terecoasă, Elena Oana; Grecu, Nicolae; Dorobăţ, Bogdan; Marinescu, Andreea Nicoleta; Băjenaru, Ovidiu Alexandru

    2016-05-01

    Transient global amnesia is now considered a very rare complication of cerebral angiography. Various etiological mechanisms have been suggested to account for this complication, but no consensus has been reached yet. This case report documents one of the few reported cases of cerebral angiography-related transient global amnesia associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of unilateral hippocampal ischemia, most probably as a consequence of a transient reduction in regional hippocampal blood flow. However, the possibility of a direct neurotoxic effect of the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol on the Cornu ammonis - field 1 neurons cannot be firmly ruled out.We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman admitted to our department for left upper limb weakness with acute onset 8 days before. The brain computed tomography (CT) scan performed at admission revealed subacute ischemic lesions in the right watershed superficial territories and a right thalamic lacunar infarct. Diagnostic digital subtraction cerebral angiography was performed 4 days after admission with the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol. A few minutes after completion of the procedure, the patient developed symptoms suggestive for transient global amnesia. The brain MRI performed 22 hours after the onset of symptoms demonstrated increased signal within the lateral part of the right hippocampus on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences, associated with a corresponding reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased signal on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, consistent with acute hippocampal ischemia and several T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the right watershed superficial territories and in the right thalamus, corresponding to the lesions already identified on the CT scan performed at admission. A follow-up MRI, performed 2 months later, demonstrated the disappearance of the increased signal within the right hippocampus on the DWI, T2/FLAIR

  16. Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Baddeley, Alan D; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-09-01

    We report the acquisition and recall of novel facts by Jon, a young adult with early onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired due to selective bilateral hippocampal damage. Jon succeeded in learning some novel facts but compared with a control group his intertrial retention was impaired during acquisition and, except for the most frequently repeated facts, he was also less accurate in correctly sourcing these facts to the experiment. The results further support the hypothesis that despite a severely compromised episodic memory and hippocampal system, there is nevertheless the capacity to accrue semantic knowledge available to recall. PMID:18589461

  17. [Neuroanatomical Networks Supporting Memory and Their Relation to Amnesia; a View from the Thalamus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-12-01

    The anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei form neuroanatomical networks supporting memory along with the mammillary body, medial temporal structures, prefrontal cortices and posterior cingulate cortex. In this review article, we discuss human diencephalic amnesic syndromes, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and amnesia associated with thalamic infarcts, and animal neuropsychological studies from a neuroanatomical network perspective. In addition, we suggest future research directions for understanding the functional roles of the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei in memory function based on findings from recent animal studies. PMID:26618762

  18. Transient Global Amnesia Associated with an Acute Infarction at the Cingulate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Gallardo-Tur; Jorge Romero-Godoy; Carlos de la Cruz Cosme; Adriá Arboix

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small...

  19. Serial Changes in Delayed Focal Hippocampal Lesions in Patients with Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Hiroki; Naka, Hiromitsu; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is not well understood. MR studies, including studies using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of TGA, and focal hippocampal lesions have been detected in some studies. The aim of this study was to investigate serial changes in MR images from the patients with TGA. In seven TGA patients, serial MRI scans (from the same day of the・ onset to several days after the, onset of symptoms) using a 1.5-T MR...

  20. Preserved recognition in a case of developmental amnesia: implications for the acquisition of semantic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2001-04-01

    We report the performance on recognition memory tests of Jon, who, despite amnesia from early childhood, has developed normal levels of performance on tests of intelligence, language, and general knowledge. Despite impaired recall, he performed within the normal range on each of six recognition tests, but he appears to lack the recollective phenomenological experience normally associated with episodic memory. His recall of previously unfamiliar newsreel events was impaired, but gained substantially from repetition over a 2-day period. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the recollective process of episodic memory is not necessary either for recognition or for the acquisition of semantic knowledge. PMID:11371313

  1. Absence of amnesia induction in mice with hydroxyzine in comparison with three other minor tranquillizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenègre, A; Avril, I; Fromage, S; Milinkevitch, D; Porsolt, R D

    1988-04-01

    Hydroxyzine (Atarax) was compared with three traditional anxiolytics (diazepam, meprobamate, triazolam) for potential amnesic activity in a step-through passive avoidance task in the mouse. The doses investigated were: hydroxyzine (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg); diazepam (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg); meprobamate (8, 16 and 32 mg/kg); triazolam (0.0015, 0.003 and 0.006 mg/kg). The doses investigated were chosen on the basis of prior experiments for not having sedative effects as measured in a photo-cell activity meter. All drugs were administered i.p. 30 min before the first trial of the passive avoidance task. The compounds were also investigated for eventual analgesic activity using the hot plate test. The results indicated that hydroxyzine up to sedative doses was devoid of amnesic activity, whereas clear signs of amnesia were induced by diazepam, meprobamate and triazolam at doses at least 8 times lower than those which reduced spontaneous motor activity. None of the compounds showed analgesic activity in the hot plate test suggesting that the signs of amnesia observed in the passive avoidance test were not due to reduced sensitivity to aversive stimulation. PMID:2900011

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea); Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-06-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  3. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Bernhard; Frisch, Stefan; Thöne-Otto, Angelika; Horstmann, Annette; Villringer, Arno; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2011-01-01

    Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA) is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20) disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits. PMID:22028902

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  5. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  6. Route learning in Korsakoff's syndrome: Residual acquisition of spatial memory despite profound amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Seekles, Maaike L; Postma, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is characterized by explicit amnesia, but relatively spared implicit memory. The aim of this study was to assess to what extent KS patients can acquire spatial information while performing a spatial navigation task. Furthermore, we examined whether residual spatial acquisition in KS was based on automatic or effortful coding processes. Therefore, 20 KS patients and 20 matched healthy controls performed six tasks on spatial navigation after they navigated through a residential area. Ten participants per group were instructed to pay close attention (intentional condition), while 10 received mock instructions (incidental condition). KS patients showed hampered performance on a majority of tasks, yet their performance was superior to chance level on a route time and distance estimation tasks, a map drawing task and a route walking task. Performance was relatively spared on the route distance estimation task, but there were large variations between participants. Acquisition in KS was automatic rather than effortful, since no significant differences were obtained between the intentional and incidental condition on any task, whereas for the healthy controls, the intention to learn was beneficial for the map drawing task and the route walking task. The results of this study suggest that KS patients are still able to acquire spatial information during navigation on multiple domains despite the presence of the explicit amnesia. Residual acquisition is most likely based on automatic coding processes. PMID:25345967

  7. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  8. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  9. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  10. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr ∼ 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1∼9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI

  11. Unexpected anterograde amnesia associated with Buscopan used as a predmedication for endocscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been known that peripheral adverse event is caused by peripheral antimuscarinic action, from hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany)used as a premedication for endoscopy. However,symptoms or signs associated with the central nervous system are rarely reported in the field of anesthesiology and peripartum labor. This central anticholinergic syndrome is likely caused by blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. There is no report on Buscopan-induced central anticholinergic syndrome in endoscopy room so far. Three middle-aged females unexpectedly suffered from anterograde amnesia after intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide as an antispasmodic premedication for endoscopy at our endoscopy unit in the Health Promotion Center.

  12. Aprendizaje de nombres en una paciente con amnesia anterógrada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la aplicación de algunas técnicas empleadas para la rehabilitación de la memoria en personas con daño cerebral, con el fin de facilitar el aprendizaje de nombres de personas cercanas y conocidas en una paciente de 55 años, universitaria, diestra y quien como secuela de una encefalitis herpética presentó lesión isquémica en territorio frontotemporal izquierdo y severas alteraciones cognoscitivas y funcionales. Aunque la aplicación combinada de técnicas favorece los procesos de aprendizaje, éstos suelen ser lentos y desgastantes en personas con amnesia severa. No obstante, los resultados apoyan la propuesta de la conservación de la memoria implícita en esta población y favorecen el planteamiento de perspectivas de intervención.

  13. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 104 dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-μsec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 106 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (106 rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli

  14. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10/sup 4/ dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-..mu..sec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 6/ rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10/sup 6/ rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  15. Transient global amnesia associated with an acute infarction at the cingulate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Tur, Alejandro; Romero-Godoy, Jorge; de la Cruz Cosme, Carlos; Arboix, Adriá

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small size (15 mm of maximal diameter) at the right cerebral cingulate gyrus diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. No lesions involving other limbic system structures such as thalamus, fornix, corpus callosum, or hippocampal structures were seen. The remainder of the examination was normal. Conclusion. Unilateral ischemic lesions of limbic system structures may result in TGA. We must bear in mind that TGA can be an associated clinical disorder of cingulate gyrus infarct. PMID:25126430

  16. Orientation Group Monitoring System: an indicator for reversible impairments in cognition during posttraumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R D; Mysiw, W J; Corrigan, J D

    1989-01-01

    During posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), confusion, attention deficits, impaired memory, disorientation, and inability to process external stimuli often preclude accurate assessment of subtle neurologic changes. The Orientation Group Monitoring System (OGMS) has proven to be a simple, useful strategy for assessing cognitive status. Retrospective analysis of weekly aggregate OGMS scores indicated that a decline in performance of 0.23 or greater is clinically significant. Over a one-year period, 27 patients demonstrated significant decrements in OGMS performance, and in 93% of these instances, the decrease was attributable to a medical problem. Adverse effects of medication was the most common etiology of decreased performance (n = 13). Overwhelmingly, the decline in the OGMS score was the first indication of impaired cognition. This monitoring device is therefore useful as an indicator during PTA of declining cognitive function, warranting further medical evaluation. PMID:2916916

  17. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:±5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8±2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA

  18. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:{+-}5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8{+-}2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA.

  19. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  20. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  1. Inhibition of PARP-1 participates in the mechanisms of propofol-induced amnesia in mice and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lijie; Wang, Wenyuan; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Lu, Han; Xue, Qingsheng; Yu, Buwei

    2016-04-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) has emerged as an important regulator in learning and memory. Propofol leads to amnesia, however, the mechanism remains unclear. The present study was designed to examine whether and how PARP-1 plays a role in propofol-induced amnesia. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with propofol before acquisition training. Cognitive function was evaluated by object recognition test. PARP-1 and PAR expression was determined through Western blot. The protein and mRNA levels of Arc and c-Fos were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR. Thirty volunteers were assigned to three groups according to codon 762 variation of PARP-1 gene (rs1136410). They learned word lists awake and during propofol sedation. Their cognitive traits were evaluated through fMRI. Rodent data demonstrated that propofol inhibited acquisition-induced increase in PARP-1 and PAR, thereby suppressing Arc and c-Fos, which impaired object recognition 24h after learning. Consistent with this, carriers of a low-catalyzing function PARP-1 variant (Val762Ala) exhibited decreased retrieval-induced hippocampal reactivity 24h after learning under propofol-sedative condition. These findings suggested that inhibition of PARP-1 might participate in the mechanism of propofol-induced amnesia in mice and human. More generally, our approach illustrated a potential translational research bridging animal models and human studies. PMID:26921778

  2. Forgetting heart break: a fascinating case of transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome associated with dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussi, Amir; Bryk, Jodie; Alam, Abdulkader

    2014-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (TLVABS), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes that mimic acute myocardial infarction in patients without angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease. Most patients are post-menopausal women and an emotional or physiologic stressor frequently precedes the presentation. Psychogenic or dissociative amnesia is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde memory loss with inability to recall personal information said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years after a stressful event. Interestingly, the mechanism of both disorders has been linked to plasma elevation in catecholamines. Here we present the case of a 66-year-old female diagnosed with both TLVABS and dissociative amnesia following the sudden unexpected death of her sister. To our knowledge, this is surprisingly the first report of the co-occurrence of TLVABS and dissociative amnesia, two processes with a potential shared underlying etiology. PMID:24238814

  3. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. PMID:24657480

  4. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  5. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages.

  6. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  7. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages

  8. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms. PMID:11103682

  9. ANTIAMNESIC POTENTIAL OF SOLASODINE AGAINST β-AMYLOID PROTEIN INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Alpesh B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly population, is characterized by an insidious onset with memory impairment and an inexorable progression of cognitive decline. Nootropic agents are a heterogeneous groups of drugs developed for use in dementia and other cerebral disorders. Nootropics agents are being primarily used to improve memory, mood and behavior. However, the resulting adverse effects associated with these agents have limited their use. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the utility of traditional medicines for the treatment of various cognitive disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of solasodine on β-amyloid induced amnesia in mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM was employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. Solasodine (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o. was screened for claimed potential in mice. Solasodine improved both short term memory and long term memory when assessed on Elevated pluz maze and Morris Water maze respectively. Hence, solasodine might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in the Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. Exposure to hypomagnetic field space for multiple generations causes amnesia in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Lu, Huimin; Xi, Wang; Zhou, Xianju; Xu, Shiyu; Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Jinchang; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2004-11-23

    This is the introduction of Drosophila into the study of learning and memory affected by removal of the geomagnetic field (GMF) for successive generations. Using the operant visual learning/memory paradigm at a flight simulator, the present study revealed that wild-type flies raised in a hypomagnetic field environment continuously for 10 successive generations were gradually impaired in visual conditioning learning and memory formation and finally the 10th generation flies became morphs of nonlearners and completely amnesiac. The control experiments show that the impairment could not be ascribed to any apparent sensorimotor problems in Drosophila. The reverse shift from hypomagnetic field (HMF) to natural GMF restored the GMF-free induced amnesia fully after six consecutive generations. Thus, our findings demonstrate conclusively that some serious, but reversible learning and memory impairment may occur for living organisms in a prolonged separation from GMF over many consecutive generations. And Drosophila has the potential to develop into a new model organism for the study of the neurobiology of magnetism for multiple generations. PMID:15519755

  11. Predicting clearing of post-traumatic amnesia following closed-head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneda, D L; Corrigan, J D

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the resolution of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) early in the course of acute rehabilitation was studied in a sample of 98 closed-head injury (CHI) patients admitted for acute rehabilitation. The subjects' age, length of coma, time post-injury and Orientation Group Monitoring System (OGMS) subscale and aggregate scores were evaluated for the ability to predict if and when a patient would clear PTA. The results indicated that the combination of time post-injury and week one OGMS aggregate score provided the best prediction of whether and when PTA would clear. A shorter time from injury to acute rehabilitation was a positive prognostic indicator, accounting for more variance than either age or duration of coma. Whereas the aggregate OGMS score was a better indicator than any of the subscale scores, the results also suggested that specific aspects of cognition have differential predictive power, which may derive from different types of injury to the brain. Although the prediction model was statistically significant, its practical significance was limited. In particular, the high base rate for clearing PTA, 83.7%, attenuated the potential for differential prediction. Finally, this study provided additional support for the construct validity of the OGMS as a measure of cognitive function during the acute phase of recovery from CHI. PMID:1571721

  12. Advances in transient global amnesia%短暂性完全遗忘研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 邢成名

    2009-01-01

    短暂性完全遗忘(transient global amnesia,TGA)是一种具有戏剧性特色的疾病,常有生理性和心理性诱发因素,表现为突发的顺行性遗忘,伴反复询问,持续数分钟至数小时后好转.TGA的研究主要集中存病因和病理学机制方面,目前主要有以下几种假说:短暂性脑缺血发作学说、癫癎学说、偏头痛学说、脑静脉缺血或静脉栓塞学说、人格障碍或情绪刺激学说以及其他学说.TGA的预后较好,复发率低,无需特殊治疗措施.文章对TGA的研究进展做了综述.%Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disease with dramatic manifestations. It is often induced by the physical or psychogenic factors, and is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia accompanied by repeated asking of questions, lasting for minutes or hours. The study of TGA mainly focused on the aspects of etiological and pathological mecha-nisms. Currently, there are several following hypotheses: Transient ischemic attack, epilepsy,migraine, cerebral venous ischemia or venous embolism, personality disorder or emotional stimulation. The prognosis of TGA is better with low recurrence rate. No specific treatment is needed. This article reviews the advances in research on TGA.

  13. The influence of dopaminergic system in medial prefrontal cortex on ketamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-15

    Dopaminergic modulations of glutamate receptors are essential for the prefrontal cortical (PFC) behavioral and cognitive functions. In order to understand the effect of dopamine/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of dopaminergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia by using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC administration of SKF 38393, D1 receptor agonist and quinpirol D2 receptor agonist, alone did not affect memory acquisition. However, amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) significantly decreased by pretreatment of SKF 38393 (2 and 4µg/mouse) and quinpirol (0.3, 1 and 3µg/mouse). Pre-training administration of SCH 23390, D1 receptor antagonist (0.75 and 1μg/mouse, intra-mPFC), and sulpiride D2 receptor antagonist (3μg/mouse, intra-mPFC) impaired memory acquisition. In addition, co-pretreatment of different doses of SCH 23390 and sulpiride with lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. It may be concluded that dopaminergic system of medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition. PMID:27041647

  14. Between Truth and Amnesia: State Terrorism, Human Rights Violations and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmin Goes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The military rule in Brazil between 1964 and 1985 employed less violence than similar authoritarian regimes in neighbouring countries, and attempted to maintain a façade of legitimacy by allowing for a consented opposition. Nevertheless, Brazil was the last Latin American nation to establish a truth commission. Ever since the Amnesty Law was passed in 1979, authorities and citizens have both struggled to come to terms with the human rights violations committed in the past. The Brazilian government went as far as offering material reparations to the presumed victims without disclosing official information to establish what the reparations were being paid for. Is it better to remember or forget? This Exploration discusses transitional justice strategies, and documents recent developments in Brazil's political history.Resumen: Entre la verdad y la amnesia. Terrorismo de Estado, violaciones de derechos humanos y justicia transicional en BrasilEntre 1964 y 1985, el régimen militar en Brasil empleó menos violencia que regímenes autoritarios de países vecinos, e intentó mantener una fachada de legitimidad. Sin embargo, Brasil fue el último país latinoamericano en establecer una comisión de la verdad. Desde la aprobación de la Ley de Amnistía en 1979, tanto las autoridades como los ciudadanos luchan para hacer justicia a las violaciones de derechos humanos cometidas en el pasado. El gobierno brasileño llegó al extremo de ofrecer reparaciones materiales a las presuntas víctimas, sin revelar informaciones oficiales para establecer por qué las estaba pagando. ¿Es mejor recordar u olvidar? Esta Exploración analiza las estrategias de justicia transicional y documenta evoluciones recientes en la política histórica brasileña.

  15. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  16. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kohjidai 5-7-1, 651-2273, Nishi-ku, Kobe-City, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Katsunori [Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  17. Using Post-Traumatic Amnesia To Predict Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie L; Spitz, Gershon; McKenzie, Dean

    2016-06-01

    Duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) has emerged as a strong measure of injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite the growing international adoption of this measure, there remains a lack of consistency in the way in which PTA duration is used to classify severity of injury. This study aimed to establish the classification of PTA that would best predict functional or productivity outcomes. We conducted a cohort study of 1041 persons recruited from inpatient admissions to a TBI rehabilitation center between 1985 and 2013. Participants had a primary diagnosis of TBI, emerged from PTA before discharge from inpatient hospital, and engaged in productive activities before injury. Eight models that classify duration of PTA were evaluated-six that were based on the literature and two that were statistically driven. Models were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as well as model-based Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) statistics. All categorization models showed longer PTA to be associated with a greater likelihood of being nonproductive at 1 year after TBI. Classification systems with a greater number of categories performed better than two-category systems. The dimensional (continuous) form of PTA resulted in the greatest AUC, and lowest AIC as well as BIC, of the classification systems examined. This finding indicates that the greatest accuracy in prognosis is likely to be achieved using PTA as a continuous variable. This enables the probability of productive outcomes to be estimated with far greater precision than that possible using a classification system. Categorizing PTA to classify severity of injury may be reducing the precision with which clinicians can plan the treatment of patients after TBI. PMID:26234939

  18. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography (99mTc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, 99mTc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  19. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGriebe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027. The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008; p = 0.010 respectively, as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022; p= 0.024 respectively. The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021 and anxiety (p = 0.007, but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  20. False Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease—Disinhibition or Amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Emma C.; Wong, Stephanie; Dutt, Aparna; Tu, Sicong; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Rao, Sulakshana; Hodges, John R.; Ghosh, Amitabha; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory recall processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be similarly impaired, whereas recognition performance is more variable. A potential reason for this variability could be false-positive errors made on recognition trials and whether these errors are due to amnesia per se or a general over-endorsement of recognition items regardless of memory. The current study addressed this issue by analysing recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 39 bvFTD, 77 AD and 61 control participants from two centers (India, Australia), as well as disinhibition assessed using the Hayling test. Whereas both AD and bvFTD patients were comparably impaired on delayed recall, bvFTD patients showed intact recognition performance in terms of the number of correct hits. However, both patient groups endorsed significantly more false-positives than controls, and bvFTD and AD patients scored equally poorly on a sensitivity index (correct hits—false-positives). Furthermore, measures of disinhibition were significantly associated with false positives in both groups, with a stronger relationship with false-positives in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed similar neural correlates of false positive endorsement across bvFTD and AD, with both patient groups showing involvement of prefrontal and Papez circuitry regions, such as medial temporal and thalamic regions, and a DTI analysis detected an emerging but non-significant trend between false positives and decreased fornix integrity in bvFTD only. These findings suggest that false-positive errors on recognition tests relate to similar mechanisms in bvFTD and AD, reflecting deficits in episodic memory processes and disinhibition. These findings highlight that current memory tests are not sufficient to accurately distinguish between bvFTD and AD patients. PMID:27489543

  1. Hypo-retrieval and hyper-suppression mechanisms in functional amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramoni, Eve; Aubert-Khalfa, Stéphanie; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean P; Felician, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2009-02-01

    Functional amnesia (FA) is characterized by an extensive retrograde memory loss in the absence of detectable structural brain damage. The two main hypotheses put forward to explain this disturbance involve a global retrieval deficit (affecting both pre- and post-onset memories) and a selective inability to explicitly retrieve pre-onset memories. Here, we extensively examined P.P., a patient with FA, with a view to obtaining additional insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying this disorder. In Experiments 1 and 2, post-onset memories were assessed using tasks focusing on the state of consciousness associated with their retrieval. Although subtle deficits in the ability to recollect post-onset personal events were detected, P.P.'s performances were normal when the encoding of the event was monitored in a laboratory setting. In Experiment 3, implicit recognition of pre-onset memories was tested using skin conductance responses. Results showed that P.P. responded implicitly to photographs of personal pre-onset events that were not explicitly recognized. In Experiment 4, designed to assess the patient's ability to suppress newly acquired information, P.P. suppressed more items than controls. Additionally, while no grey matter loss was evidenced with voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetization transfer imaging showed significant metabolic and structural changes within the white matter of the right prefrontal lobe. In conclusion, our results suggest that FA may result from a combination between two processes, a "hypo-retrieval" of pre-onset memories, tentatively due to white matter tract damage, and a "hyper-suppression" mechanism, concomitantly preventing the retrieval of pre-onset memories. PMID:19071144

  2. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang Alleviates Memory Deficits and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Scopolamine-induced Amnesia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Heeeun; Park, Hwayong; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anti-amnesic effects of SJ and fermented SJ (FSJ) on scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia mouse model. Mice were orally co-treated with SJ or FSJ (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and SCO (1 mg/kg), which was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. SCO decreased the step-through latency and prolonged latency time to find the hidden platform in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test, respectively, and both SCO effects were ameliorated by FSJ treatment. FSJ was discovered to promote hippocampal neurogenesis during SCO treatment by increasing proliferation and survival of BrdU-positive cells, immature/mature neurons. In the hippocampus of SCO, oxidative stress and the activity of acetylcholinesterase were elevated, whereas the levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were diminished; however, all of these alterations were attenuated by FSJ-treatment. The alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, and phosphorylated Akt that occurred following SCO treatment were protected by FSJ administration. Therefore, our findings are the first to suggest that FSJ may be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of amnesia and aging-related or neurodegenerative disease-related memory impairment. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which FSJ exerts its effects may involve modulation of the cholinergic system and BDNF/CREB/Akt pathway. PMID:26939918

  3. A new method for assessing the impact of medial temporal lobe amnesia on the characteristics of generated autobiographical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton-Brym, Ariella; Kurczek, Jake; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Sheldon, Signy

    2016-05-01

    Constructing autobiographical events involves an initial phase of event selection, in which a memory or imagined future event is initially brought to mind, followed by a phase of elaboration, in which an individual accesses detailed knowledge specific to the event. While considerable research demonstrates the importance of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in the later phase, its role in initial event selection is unknown. The present study is the first to investigate the role of the MTL in event selection by assessing whether individuals with MTL lesions select qualitatively different events for remembering and imagining than matched control participants. To do so, we created "event captions" that reflected the type of events selected for an autobiographical event narrative task by four individuals with MTL amnesia and control counterparts. Over 450 online raters assessed these event captions on qualitative dimensions known to vary with autobiographical recall (frequency, significance, emotionality, imageability, and uniqueness). Our critical finding was that individuals with MTL amnesia were more prone to select events that were rated as more frequently occurring than healthy control participants. We interpret this finding as evidence that people with impaired episodic memory from MTL damage compensate for their compromised ability to recall detailed information by relying more heavily on semantic memory processes to select generalized events. We discuss the implications for theoretical models of memory and methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory. PMID:26951933

  4. Advanced on the Clinical Research of Transient Global Amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘的临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 王文敏

    2007-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘(Transient global amnesia,TGA)是临床神经病学中最典型的综合症之一.本文从TGA的发病机制及影像诊断技术两个角度综述了最新的临床研究进展.

  5. Role of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia induced by nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Piri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drugs of abuse such as nicotine and morphine used systemically by addicts produce their effects via the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Furthermore, evidence indicates that some behavioral effects of nicotine and morphine are mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc injection of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, on the nicotine’s effect on the morphine-induced amnesia. Methods: As a model of memory assessment, a step-through type passive avoidance task was used. All animals were bilaterally implanted with a chronic cannulae in the NAc shell and trained by using a 1 mA foot shock. Animals were tested 24 h after training to measure step-through latency. Results: Post-training injection of morphine impaired memory performance on the test day. Pre-test administration of the same doses of morphine reversed amnesia induced by post-training administration of morphine. Moreover, administration of nicotine before the test prevented morphine amnesia. Impairment of memory because of post-training injection of morphine was also prevented by pretest administration of L-NAME. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of nicotine with ineffective doses of L-NAME synergistically improved memory that was impaired by morphine. On the other hand, pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME impaired passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the effects of pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME alone or in combination with ineffective dose of nicotine on morphine amnesia, it may be concluded that nitric oxide system of nucleus accumbens has an important role in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia and morphine state-dependent memory caused by nicotine.

  6. Effects of level of processing but not of task enactment on recognition memory in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-09-01

    We report the performance in four recognition memory experiments of Jon, a young adult with early-onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired in tests of recall, but seems relatively preserved in tests of recognition, and who has developed normal levels of performance in tests of intelligence and general knowledge. Jon's recognition performance was enhanced by deeper levels of processing in comparing a more meaningful study task with a less meaningful one, but not by task enactment in comparing performance of an action with reading an action phrase. Both of these variables normally enhance episodic remembering, which Jon claimed to experience. But Jon was unable to support that claim by recollecting what it was that he remembered. Taken altogether, the findings strongly imply that Jon's recognition performance entailed little genuine episodic remembering and that the levels-of-processing effects in Jon reflected semantic, not episodic, memory. PMID:21049360

  7. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: casual parameters and duration of memory loss. Final report for November 84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron-beam exposure was investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task for 10, 1, and 0.1 microsecond pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 1,000,000 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (1,000,000 rad/s) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory system activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  8. A global amnesia associated with the specific variant of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that developed due to severe preeclampsia and malignant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac, Josip Anđelo; Božić, Joško; Žaja, Nikola; Kolić, Krešimir; Hrboka, Vedran

    2016-04-01

    A case is reported of a 26-year-old primiparous woman in the 32nd week of gestation who presented to the emergency department with the symptoms of a severe headache, nausea and vomiting. The patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia that later progressed to eclampsia. This state was characterized by a sudden onset of a headache and diplopia that advanced to cortical blindness and precipitated significant alterations in mental status, most notable being global amnesia that resolved within 48 h. A post-partum magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in FLAIR mode revealed multiple cortico-subcortical areas of hyperintense signals suggestive of edematous lesions that chiefly involved occipital and parietal lobes with additional atypical manifestations. Such radiologic findings suggested a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome variant with the global amnesia as an extraordinary constituent. This unique feature should be acknowledged when treating a preeclamptic or hypertensive patient that exhibits neurological symptomatology and vision disturbances. PMID:27099774

  9. A global amnesia associated with the specific variant of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that developed due to severe preeclampsia and malignant hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac, Josip Anđelo; Božić, Joško; Žaja, Nikola; Kolić, Krešimir; Hrboka, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported of a 26-year-old primiparous woman in the 32nd week of gestation who presented to the emergency department with the symptoms of a severe headache, nausea and vomiting. The patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia that later progressed to eclampsia. This state was characterized by a sudden onset of a headache and diplopia that advanced to cortical blindness and precipitated significant alterations in mental status, most notable being global amnesia that resolved within 48 h. A post-partum magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in FLAIR mode revealed multiple cortico-subcortical areas of hyperintense signals suggestive of edematous lesions that chiefly involved occipital and parietal lobes with additional atypical manifestations. Such radiologic findings suggested a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome variant with the global amnesia as an extraordinary constituent. This unique feature should be acknowledged when treating a preeclamptic or hypertensive patient that exhibits neurological symptomatology and vision disturbances. PMID:27099774

  10. Study on EEG analysis of 20 cases of transient global amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘症20例脑电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任歆; 杨芳; 刘长春; 周卫东

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨短暂性全面遗忘症的脑电图表现.方法 比较短暂性全面遗忘症患者与正常人的脑电图表现,对其病理机制及治疗进行探讨.结果 短暂性全面遗忘症患者的脑电图异常率明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异显著(P<0.05),不同年龄短暂性全面遗忘症患者脑电图异常差异无显著性.结论 短暂性全面遗忘症患者的脑电图有明显异常,可根据其异常对患者进行个体化治疗,脑电图表现对探索其病因及病理机制有一定的指导意义.%Objective To explore the findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia. Methods The findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia were compared with those of normal persons, and try to explore the mechanism and treatment of this disease. Results The findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia were significantly abnormal in comparison with those of normal persons, their difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in EEG with age. Conclusion Findings of EEG in patients with transient global amnesia are obviously abnormal, and the treatment should be individualized according to the abnormality of EEG in patients. There is certain significance in study of findings of EEG in exploration of etiology and pathogenesis of this disease.

  11. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. PMID:26548495

  12. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeonah; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hoon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Evidence of intracranial venous reflux flow due to jugular venous reflux (JVR) on time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) is thought to be highly associated with transient global amnesia (TGA) - evidence that supports the venous congestion theory of TGA pathophysiology. However, recent studies indicate that intracranial JVR on TOF MRA is occasionally observed in normal elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA in patients with TGA and two control groups. Three age- and sex-matched groups of subjects that received MRI and MRA were enrolled. The groups comprised 167 patients with TGA, 167 visitors to the emergency room (ER) and 167 visitors to a health promotion centre (HPC). Intracranial JVR was defined as abnormal venous signals in the inferior petrosal, sigmoid and/or transverse sinuses on TOF MRA. The prevalence of intracranial JVR was assessed across the three groups. Intracranial JVR was seen in seven (4.2 %) TGA patients, eight (4.8 %) ER visitors and three (1.8 %) HPC visitors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups. TGA patients showed a low prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA, and no statistical differences were found in comparison with control groups. (orig.)

  13. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence of intracranial venous reflux flow due to jugular venous reflux (JVR) on time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) is thought to be highly associated with transient global amnesia (TGA) - evidence that supports the venous congestion theory of TGA pathophysiology. However, recent studies indicate that intracranial JVR on TOF MRA is occasionally observed in normal elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA in patients with TGA and two control groups. Three age- and sex-matched groups of subjects that received MRI and MRA were enrolled. The groups comprised 167 patients with TGA, 167 visitors to the emergency room (ER) and 167 visitors to a health promotion centre (HPC). Intracranial JVR was defined as abnormal venous signals in the inferior petrosal, sigmoid and/or transverse sinuses on TOF MRA. The prevalence of intracranial JVR was assessed across the three groups. Intracranial JVR was seen in seven (4.2 %) TGA patients, eight (4.8 %) ER visitors and three (1.8 %) HPC visitors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups. TGA patients showed a low prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA, and no statistical differences were found in comparison with control groups. (orig.)

  14. Hippocampal memory enhancing activity of pine needle extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Sam-Keun; Kim, Dong-Woon; Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on memory impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice hippocampus. Mice were orally pretreated with PNE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or tacrine (10 mg/kg) for 7 days, and scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally, 30 min before the Morris water maze task on first day. To evaluate memory function, the Morris water maze task was performed for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine increased the escape latency and cumulative path-length but decreases the time spent in target quadrant, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with PNE. Oxidant-antioxidant balance, acetylcholinesterase activity, neurogenesis and their connecting pathway were abnormally altered by scopolamine in hippocampus and/or sera, while those alterations were recovered by pretreatment with PNE. As lipid peroxidation, 4HNE-positive stained cells were ameliorated in hippocampus pretreated with PNE. Pretreatment with PNE increased the proliferating cells and immature neurons against hippocampal neurogenesis suppressed by scopolamine, which was confirmed by ki67- and DCX-positive stained cells. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in both protein and gene were facilitated by PNE pretreatment. These findings suggest that PNE could be a potent neuropharmacological drug against amnesia, and its possible mechanism might be modulating cholinergic activity via CREB-BDNF pathway. PMID:25974329

  15. Johann August Philipp Gesner (1738-1801). A review of his essay "The language amnesia" in the bicentennial anniversary of his death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatti, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    On the 200th anniversary of Johann August Philipp Gesner's death, this paper summarizes and discusses a paper on language amnesia published in 1770. The author had clear knowledge of selective mental impairments resulting from brain diseases, and of separate mental representations for words and their underlying concepts. However, to explain the language impairment, Gesner suggested that it would not be caused by focal damage to a specific anatomic and functional unit of the mind, but is the consequence of a general sluggishness of the mental processes. PMID:12012573

  16. El tratamiento de la impotencia primaria mediante la sugestión posthipnótica, la amnesia posthipnótica y el entrenamiento sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bullmer

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year old male in whom a diagnosis of primary impotence was made, was forced into therapy by his wife. Five sessions of hypi10therapy were gíven, with emphasis on posthypnotic suggestion, and posthypnotic amnesia. Following these hypnotherapy sessions,the patient began sensory exercise as had been posthypnotically suggested. The first time that an attempt at vaginal penetration was permitted was during the fifth exercíse, and this was achieved without problem. After two more excercises with repeated .coital connections, the treatment was terminated. Follow·up sessions with the patient thirty days lata failed lo disclose knowledge of the suggestions made while the patient was in hypnotic trance.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and {sup 1}H-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru [Dokkyo Univ., Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Toshihiko

    1997-06-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using {sup 1}H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of {sup 1}H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  18. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using 133Xe et 99mTc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the 133Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 ± 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( 99mTc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the133Xe calibration. (authors)

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using 1H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of 1H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  20. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana S Nade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods : The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT and passive avoidance test (PAT were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. Results : The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL. EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GSH. Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

  1. Empathy in Hippocampal Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    JanelleNBeadle; NealJ.Cohen; MelissaDuff; DanielTranel

    2013-01-01

    The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula,...

  2. Clinical Observation on Nao-xin-kang Granule Treating Amnesia of Qi-blood Deficiency%脑心康颗粒剂治疗气血亏虚型健忘症临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑岚

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the effect of nao-xin-kang granule treating amnesia of qi-blood deficiency. [Methods] In clinical practice, 160 patients with amnesia of qi-blood deficiency were randomly divided into two groups,including treatment group of 120 patients and control group 40 patients, the two groups were assigned to receive either nao-xin-kang granule or an-shen-bu-nao mixture for 4 weeks. Symptoms of TCM,amnesia and so on were observated before and after treatment. [Result]The clinical result showed that nao-xin-kang granule could decrease the score with amnesia of qi-blood deficiency,improve the clinical symptoms such as insomnia, dizziness, palpitation, short breath, a close mouse, pale complexion, and improve self-care and computering ability. The overall response rate was 92.5 %, P<0. 01. There was statistical significance between the two groups. [Conclusion] Nao- xin-kang granule was an effective TCM preparation on treating amnesia of qi-blood deficiency.%[目的]探讨脑心康颗粒剂治疗气血亏虚型健忘症的疗效.[方法]选择气血亏虚型健忘症患者160例,随机分为治疗组120例,服用脑心康颗粒剂;对照组40例,服用安神补脑液,疗程为4周.观察治疗前后患者的中医症状、遗忘等各项指标.[结果]临床观察表明脑心康颗粒剂能降低气血亏虚型健忘患者的健忘积分,改善患者失眠、头晕心悸、气短懒言、面色少华等中医症候积分,提高患者生活自理能力和计算能力,总有效率为92.5%,P<0.01,有显著性差异.[结论]脑心康颗粒剂是治疗气血亏虚型健忘症的有效中药制剂.

  3. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    Full Text Available Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9 cfu/kg body weight (BW, LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC, or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC. Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE, myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  4. Fatores associados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração Fatores asociados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración Factors associated with long-term post-traumatic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores relacionados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, longitudinal, com 187 vítimas de trauma cranioencefálico contuso, idade >14 anos, atendidos em hospital de referência para trauma. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, sexo, gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, local e tipo de lesão, número de lesões encefálicas e uso de medicação com atividade em sistema nervoso central ou corticoides. RESULTADO: O modelo de regressão logística múltipla ajustado pela variável área de lesão (intra/extra axial evidenciou: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 e uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 ou ambas as drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do Midazolan e da Fenitoína, além da gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, destacaram-se como fatores relacionados à amnésia de longa duração.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores relacionados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, realizado con 187 víctimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, edad >14 años, atendidos en un hospital de referencia para trauma. Las variables independientes fueron: edad, sexo, gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, local y tipo de lesión, número de lesiones encefálicas y uso de medicación con actividad en el sistema nervioso central o corticoides. RESULTADO: El modelo de regresión logística múltiple ajustado por la variable área de lesión (intra/extra axial evidenció: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 y uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 o ambas drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSIÓN: El uso del Midazolan y de Fenitoína, además de la gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, se destacaron como factores relacionados a la amnesia de larga duración.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to post-traumatic amnesia of long duration. METHOD: A prospective, longitudinal study, with 187 victims of blunt head trauma

  5. 短暂性全面遗忘症的随访分析%Follow-up analysis in patients with transient global amnesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宪光; 陈亮; 范晓芳

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,GA)和脑卒中的发病关系.方法:选择1994-10/2004-10安阳市人民医院和安阳市第二人民医院神经内科住院及门诊有详细记录且已得到随访的TGA患者16例为观察组.选择同期在两所医院就诊的高血压、糖尿病、冠心病患者16例作为对照组.嘱两组患者2~6个月复诊一次作为随访,比较两组患者随访期间脑卒中发生率.结果:观察组患者患TGA后1~10年的患者出现脑卒中的发生率[44%(7/16)]明显高于对照组[12%(2/16)],两组比较,差异有显著性意义(x2=3.865,<0.05).结论:TGA和脑缺血有关,应将TGA患者作为脑卒中二级预防的对象.

  6. Experimental study on the relationship between benzodiazepine receptor and the isoflurane-induced amnesia in mice%苯二氮(艹卓)受体与异氟烷遗忘作用关系的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艺聪; 刘强; 符香; 刘绪华; 李雨虹; 许历阳; 张珏; 孟晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of flumazenil on the isoflurane - induced amnesia and to reveal the relationship between benxodiazepine receptor and the mechanism oi isoflurane - induced amnesia.Methods 48 mice were randomized into six groups.The effects of intraperitoneal injection of different doses of flumazenil ( 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) on the step - through latency and error times were observed in mice treated with isoflurane (0.2 ml/kg).Results Compared with the normal saline group , the step - through latency and error times had no statistical differences in the flumazenil groups ( P < 0.05 ); the isoflurance group and the isoflurance - flumazenil combination groups showed reduced step - through latency ( P< 0.05) and elevated error times ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ).Compared with the isoflurance group, no statistical differences in step - through lateney and error times were observed between the isoflurance group and the isoflurance -flumazenil combination groups ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion Flumazenil has no significant influence on the isoflurance - induced amnesia, suggesting that the isoflurance - induced amnesia is not related to henzodiazepine receptor.%目的 通过观察氟马西尼对异氟烷遗忘作用的影响,揭示异氟烷遗忘机制与苯二氮艹卓受体的关系.方法 将48只小鼠随机分成6组,采用避暗实验观察腹腔注射不同剂量氟马西尼(0.5、1.0 mg/kg)对异氟烷处理小鼠步入潜伏期和错误次数的影响.结果 与生理盐水组相比,氟马西尼单用组小鼠的步入潜伏期和错误次数均无明显差异(P>0.05);异氟烷单用或合用组步入潜伏期明显缩短(P0.05).结论 氟马西尼对异氟烷遗忘作用无明显影响,提示异氟烷遗忘作用与苯二氮艹卓受体关系不大.

  7. Midazolam assisted intraspinal anesthesia for the amnesia forgotten role of administration%咪唑安定用于硬膜外麻醉辅助用药遗忘作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄安宁; 陈娜; 胡彬; 丁莉莉; 刘丽萍

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the effects of midazolam on sedation and amnesia in intraspinal anesthesia. [Methods] Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A received midazolm, group B received Diazepam and group C received droperidol. MAP, HR, sPO2 monitorelg before and after administration. Record the time of reaching se-dation and hypnosis and scored the effect of amnesia. [Results] The value of MAP, HR, sPO2 had no difference a-mongst group A, B and C after administration (P > 0.05) . It took shorter time in group A than group B and C that OAA/S reach the scale of 3 (P 0.05).A组(咪唑安定组)使患者达到OAA/S评分标准3级的时间明显短于B组和C组(P<0.05).A组产生遗忘效果优于B组和C组(P<0.05).[结论]咪唑安定作为椎管麻醉前用药具有相对快速的起效时间和完善的遗忘效果.

  8. The investigation of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the sedation and anterograde amnesia%不同剂量右美托咪定镇静程度及顺行性遗忘作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on the sedation and anterograde amnesia in patients undergoing operation on bythus.Methods Two hundred patients,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,aged 20-60,101 males and 99 females were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with Dex,undergoing operation on bythus without caesarean section.After Dex 1 μg/kg was infused intravenously 10 min (group De0 was infused intravenously the same volume of physiological saline),according to different maintenance doses of Dex,they were divided into four groups by random number table method:group De0 (group physiological saline),group De1 (0.2 μg·kg1·h-1),group De2 (0.4 μg·kg-1·h-1),group De3 (0.6 μg·kg-1·h-1).By observer's assessment of alertness/sedation(OAA/S) method,the sedation degree of the Dex was evaluated at 5 min(T1),10 min(T2),15 min (T3),20 min(T4),25 min(T5),30 min(T6),40 min(T7),50 min(T8).After 24 h of operation,the anterograde amnesia degree of Dex was assessed.Results When the OAMS scores of group De0 of sedation were all(5.00±0) at T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,and T8 point,with the time of Dex infused intravenously longer and the dose of Dex increased,the OAA/S scores of group De1,group De2 and group De3[The OAMS scores of group De1 of sedation was(3.15±0.37) at T2 point,(3.26±0.44) at T3 point,(2.70±0.66) at T4 point,(2.55±0.60) at T5 point,(2.40±0.60) at T2 point,(2.05±0.76) at T7 point,(2.02±0.73) at T8 point,The OAA/S scores of group De2 of sedation was (3.10±0.64) at T2 point,(2.95±0.51) at T3 point,(2.35±0.67) at T4 point,(2.25±0.55) at T5 point,(2.10±0.45) at T6 point,(1.60±0.50) at T7 point,(1.65±0.49) at T8 point;The OAMS scores of group De3 of sedation was (3.10±0.31) at T2 point,(2.65±0.49) at T3 point,(1.95±0.39) at T4 point,(1.90±0.45) at T5 point,(1.75±0.44) at T6 point,(1.20±0.62) at T7 point,(1.25± 0.64) at T8 point] became smaller in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05).When there were 50 cases of the no

  9. 右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty ASAⅠ~Ⅱpatients, age from 18 years to 84 years, 73 cases of male and 47 cases of female , who were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with dexmedetomidine and performed operation on hypogastrium ( except for caesarean section ) .All patients were randomly divided into four groups:group A, group B, group C and group D.Dexmedetomidine(1μg/kg) was infused intravenously for 10 min and the maintenance dose was 0.2 μg・ kg-1・ h-1 .The anterograde amnesia degree of dexmedetomidine was as-sessed 24 h after the operation .Results There was no significant difference in the anterograde amnesia of dexmedeto -midine between group A and group B ( P>0.05 ) , while there were significant differences in group C and group D compared with both group A and group B ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Anterograde amnesia occurs after using dexme-detomidine in elderly patients and with aging , the anterograde amnesia becomes more severe .%目的:观察右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响。方法选择美国麻醉医师学会( ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级、年龄18~84岁,在腰硬联合麻醉下复合右美托咪定行下腹部(剖宫产术除外)手术患者120例,其中男73例,女47例。根据患者年龄的不同分为四组:A组(23±4)岁, B组(36±3)岁, C组(65±3)岁,D组(75±5)岁。所有患者均给予右美托咪定负荷量1μg/kg,泵入10 min之后以0.2μg・ kg-1・ h-1剂量维持。术后24 h回访患者并评定右美托咪定的顺行性遗忘作用。结果 A组和B组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用无明显不同(P>0.05),而C组与D组较前两组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用比较明显(P<0.05),并随年龄的增大明显增加( P<0.05)。结论右美托咪定具有一定的顺行性遗忘作用,且对老年患者更为明显。

  10. 术前口服咪唑安定的遗忘作用与内隐记忆的关系%Relationship of implicit memory and amnesia effect of oral midazolam premedication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彤; 岳云; 贾宝森

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of implicit memory and amnesia effect of oral midazolarn premedication and to observe its anterograde amnesia, the effect on short-term memory and the onset time and out come of retrograde amnesia. Methods 60 patients with ASA I - Ⅱ status undergoing abdomen and limb operations were divided into 3 groups with 20 cases each. Group A:oral midazolam 7.5mg;Group B:oral 15mg;Group C:placebo. The patients received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia after oral midazolam. The parameterns of EEG, SEF 95 %, BISwere collected at the same time and the degree and remark of sedation were dome according to OAA/S. The amnesia and implicit memory were investigated with pictures and muddy identified hearing rate 6 hours after operation. Results (1)Twenty min following drug ad dministration the remarks of sedation of group A and B were significantly loWver than that before and that of group C, Which was not significently different between group A and B. ( 2)The amnesia rates tested six hrs after surgery were significantly higher at 30min in group A, 20min in group B than those before treatment and were kept at 70%-80% levels, which in group C was remained zero. (3)The muddy identified hearing rate was not different significantly, among the three groups. (4) The short-term memory was all 100%during the period of drug action. (5)BIS and SEF 95% Were lower 30min after the treatment and all kept at 80 Hz and 20 Hz, which were not different remarkably between group A and B. Conclnsion Oral midazolam 7. 5mg has a good effect on anterograde amnesia 30min after treatment, which may not be improved with increament in dosage. It does not lead to retrograde amnesia. The long-term memory, but not short-term memory, was impaired by midazolam. It only affects the explicit memory. Oral premnedication with midazolam can not prevent the awareness during operation totally.%目的观察咪唑安定的遗忘作用与内隐记忆的关系,同时调查术前口服

  11. 氟马西尼对抗丙泊酚减弱小鼠学习记忆功能的影响%Effect of flumazenil on propofol-induced amnesia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉清; 宋征; 周成华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepines receptor antagonist, on propofol-induced amnesia in mice. Methods: Totally 40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, propofol group, flumazenil group and flumazenil plus propofol group. Mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of flumazenil or saline 20 min before training, and with intraperitoneal injection of intralipid or propofol 10 min before training. The latency of step through and step down as well as the numbers of errors were recorded to evaluate the effect of flumazenil on amnesia induced by propofol. Results: Flumazenil markedly improved propofol-induced increased error times and prolonged the step down latency and step through latency in mice. Conclusion; Benzodiazepines receptor may be an important target for propofol-induced amnesia.%目的:考察苯二氮(桌)受体拮抗剂氟马西尼对丙泊酚所致学习记忆功能减弱的影响.方法:昆明种小鼠40只,随机分为对照组、丙泊酚组、氟马西尼组和氟马西尼+丙泊酚组.训练前20 min皮下注射氟马西尼或生理盐水,训练前10 min腹腔注射脂肪乳或丙泊酚.在跳台实验和避暗实验中观察氟马西尼对丙泊酚导致健忘小鼠错误次数、跳台潜伏期和步入潜伏期的影响.结果:氟马西尼可减少丙泊酚所致健忘小鼠的错误次数,延长跳台潜伏期和步入潜伏期.结论:苯二氮(桌)类受体可能是丙泊酚致小鼠学习记忆功能减弱的重要靶位之一.

  12. 5-羟色胺受体对小鼠异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘作用的影响%Effects of 5-HT receptor on isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced amnesia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽丽; 许鹏程; 戴体俊

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytry ptamine,5-RT)受体与吸入麻醉药异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘作用的关系.方法 建立小鼠腹腔注射异氟烷、七氟烷遗忘模型,在跳台、避暗实验中观察和记录不同剂量5-HT受体拮抗剂(WAY100635)侧脑室注射对跳台潜伏期、步入潜伏期、错误次数的影响.结果 侧脑室注射5-HT受体拮抗剂可延长异氟烷、七氟烷所致记忆障碍小鼠的跳台潜伏期(P<0.05)、步入潜伏期(P<0.05),减少错误次数(P<0.05).结论 5-HT受体介导了异氟烷、七氟烷的遗忘作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between 5-hydroxytry ptamine(5-HT) receptor and the amnesia induced by isoflurane and sevoflurane in mice. Methods Animal models were established by intraperitoneal injection of isoflurane (0.3 ml/ kg) and sevoflurane (3 ml/kg). After intracerebroventricular injection (icv) of different doses of WAY100635, 5-HT receptor antagonist, step down latency (SDL), error times in step down test and step through latency (STL), error times in step through test were observed and recorded. Results Intracerebroventricular injection of WAY 100635 might extend SDL and STL, and reduced error times of isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in mice. Conclusion 5-HT receptor involves in isoflurane-and sevoflurane-induced amnesia.

  13. No evidence of risk-taking or impulsive behaviour in a person with episodic amnesia: Implications for the role of the hippocampus in future-regarding decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, R S; Kwan, D; Floden, D; Levine, B; Stuss, D T; Craver, C F

    2016-08-01

    Does advantageous decision-making require one to explicitly remember the outcome of a series of past decisions or to imagine future personal consequences of one's choices? Findings that amnesic people with hippocampal damage cannot form a clear preference for advantageous decks over many learning trials on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have been taken to suggest that complex decision-making on the IGT depends on declarative (episodic) memory and hippocampal integrity. Alternatively, impaired IGT performance in amnesic individuals could be secondary to risk-taking and/or impulsive behaviour resulting from impaired episodic future thinking (i.e. prospection) known to accompany amnesia. We tested this possibility in the amnesic individual K.C. using the IGT and the Toronto Gambling Task (TGT), a novel task that dissociates impulsivity from risk-taking without placing demands on declarative memory. K.C. did not develop a preference for advantageous over disadvantageous decks on the IGT and, instead, showed a slight preference for short-term gains and an inability to acquire a more adaptive appreciation of longer-term losses. He also did not display impulsive or risk-taking behaviour on the TGT, despite a profound inability to imagine personal future experiences. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making on the IGT in amnesia is unlikely to reflect a predilection to act in the moment or failure to take future consequences into account. Instead, some forms of future-regarding decision-making may be dissociable, with performance on tasks relying on declarative learning or on episodic-constructive processes more likely to be impaired. PMID:26440609

  14. Information Technology and Educational Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Langdon

    2009-01-01

    Waves of enthusiasm for technological innovations that promise to revitalize teaching and learning are at least a century old. Unfortunately, the record of accomplishment for the many varieties of hardware and software introduced into schools over the decades is remarkably thin. Today's promoters of technology in education tend to forget similar…

  15. Vascular Thalamic Amnesia: A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided…

  16. Advantages of slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia for anterior cervical surgery%健忘镇痛慢诱导用于颈椎前路手术的优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国玲; 高丽霞; 单学栋; 韩凤梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and advantages of slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia for anterior cervical surgery. Methods A total of 52 patients receiving surgery of anterior cervical spine were averagely divided into groups A and B before operation. Patients of Group A developed slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesi-a through endotracheal intubation, and those of group B underwent quick induction of anesthesia through tracheal intubation. The cough response during tracheal intubation and the tolerance of incubating conditions were recorded respectively. At the same time, the postoperative impression of tracheal intubation was followed up. Results Both group A and B had successful operation procedures. The patients in group A were intubated without changing the head positions; their own muscle tension effectively protected the cervical spine; and the patients were well tolerant to intubation after surgery. Whereas, the patients of group B had to have their cervical spine well-protected by others, and were not tolerant to intubation removal. In this group, 19 cases had restlessness during intubation taking-off and drug had to be applied for intubation tolerance. Conclusion Slow anesthesia induced by amnesia and analgesia is a simple, convenient and practical approach for anterior cervical surgery, which can effectively protect the cervical spine and patients well tolerate intubation.%目的 探讨健忘镇痛慢诱导用于颈椎前路手术的可行性和优势.方法 将52例颈椎前路手术患者平均分为2组:A组行健忘镇痛慢诱导气管插管全麻,B组行快诱导气管插管全麻.分别记录患者气管插管过程中的呛咳反应、带气管插管患者耐管情况,随访患者术后对气管插管的印象.结果 A组和B组都顺利完成手术,A组患者插管不改变头位,在自身肌张力保护下插管,有效保护颈椎病变部位,且术后能很好耐受带管.B组插管时令专人保护颈椎,

  17. 双侧海马病变引起的短暂性全面性遗忘一例及文献综述%Transient Global Amnesia Caused by Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions:Case Report and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 王国瑾; 王丽萍; 庄儒鸿; 袁振华; 黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis, pathological location and the pathophysiology of transient glob-al amnesia(TGA). Methods: The history, clinical presentations, neuropsychological examinations and neuroimaging data of the TGA patient were collected. Results: The patient had no risk factors of cerebrovascular disease and had no the other neurological diseases, had a transient anterograde amnesia, had the disorder in word recognition and the increased signals of the CA1 field of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) in the DWI and T2FLAIR of brain MRI. Conclusioin: The hippocampal CA1 neurons is the lesion location of TGA. Stress can play a key role in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an acute cytotoxic edema of hippocampal CA1 neurons during TGA.%目的:探讨短暂性全面性遗忘(TGA)的诊断、发病部位、病因及发病机制。方法:收集一例 TGA 患者的病史、临床表现、神经心理学检查和神经影像学资料。结果:该患者无脑血管病的危险因素及神经科疾病的病史,临床表现为一过性顺行性情景记忆障碍,神经心理学检查提示词语再认障碍,头颅 MRI 的液体衰减反转恢复序列、MR 扩散加权成像序列在海马 CA1区显示高信号。结论:TGA 的发病部位在海马 CA1区,其发病机制可能为应激诱发海马 CA1区一系列病理生理的级联反应,导致海马神经元的急性细胞性水肿。

  18. Contrast study on cognitive function with MRI and positron emission tomography imaging in transient global amnesia%短暂性全面遗忘症的认知功能和MRI及PET的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾建军; 王鲁宁; 尹岭; 汤洪川

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study cognitive function and cerebral metabolic changes in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). Methods Three patients with TGA were given mini-mental state examination (MMSE), revised Wechsler memory scale (WMS-R) examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans after they had been diagnosed as TGA. Using 18 F labelled deoxyglucose as tracer, patients were given a positron emission tomography (PET) examination at different periods during recovery. Results No obvious abnormality was found in MMSE and MRI scans in the three patients. However, WMS-R examination and cerebral PET imaging displayed cognitive dysfunction of varying degrees and low metabolism in local areas related to memory in 2 of 3 patients. Conclusions In TGA patients, cognitive function and cerebral metabolic levels are closely correlated with duration of symptoms. It is necessary to stop the TGA attack as quickly as possible early time.%目的研究短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)患者认知功能及脑代谢状况.方法对3例临床诊断为TGA的患者分别行简易心理测试(MMSE)、修订的韦氏记忆量表(WMS-R)测定和脑核磁共振成像(MRI)检查,在恢复后不同时间以18氟标记的脱氧葡萄糖(18 F-FDG)为示踪剂行脑正电子发射型计算机断层扫描(positron emission tomography,PET)成像,并对其图像、量表测试结果与病史作对照研究.结果 3例患者MMSE测试及MRI扫描均未见明显异常,而WMS-R测试及PET成像显示:1例正常,另外2例有不同程度认知功能损害,与记忆相关结构有不同程度的低代谢.结论 TGA患者认知功能及局部脑代谢与其症状持续时间密切相关,尽早终止其发作是必要的.

  19. Prospective memory disorder in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害患者的前瞻性记忆障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程怀东; 汪凯; 龚亮; 尹长林; 孟玉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the event-based prospective memory(EBPM)and time-based prospective memory(TBPM) in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment(aMCI).Methods Thirty patients with aMCI and 30 healthy adults with age and education-matched were administered with a neuropsychological battery of tests including EBPM and TBPM tasks.Results Compared with healthy elders (EBPM:2.33±0.66,TBPM:4.90±1.03)patients with aMCI had impaired EBPM(0.90±1.09,t=-6.143,P<0.01)as well as TBPM(4.23±1.14,t=-2.383,P<0.05),and EBPM was impaired more significantly than TBPM.Conclusions The results suggest that aMCI impairs both RM and PM,and EBPM is impaired more significantly than TBPM and RM.The EBPM impairment may be a sensitive early indicator of aMCI.Assessment of EBPM may help early diagnosis of aMCI.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnesia mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)患者前瞻性记忆(prospective memory,PM)改变的特征,初步了解基于事件的PM(event-based prospective memory,EBPM)和基于时间的PM(time-based prospective memory,TBPM)在aMCI患者中的损害情况.方法 建立PM的神经心理学测验方法,对30例aMCI患者以及年龄、受教育程度相匹配的30名健康老年人进行测试.结果 与健康对照组[EBPM:(2.33±0.66)分、TBPM:(4.90±1.03)分]相比,aMCI组的EBPM成绩[(0.90±1.09)分]和TBPM成绩[(4.23 ±1.14)分]差异均有统计学意义(t=-6.143,P<0.01;t=-2.383,P<0.05).结论 aMCI患者的记忆障碍不仅表现为回顾性记忆(retrospective memory,RM)损害,PM损害可能更为突出,且EBPM的损害程度大于TBPM和RM,提示EBPM的测查可能有利于aMCI的早期识别.

  20. Clinical observation of the sedation and amnesia effect of dexmedetomidine on pelvic floor reconstruction%右美托咪定用于盆底重建术中镇静遗忘作用的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 刘文领

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察右美托咪定在腰硬联合麻醉下行盆底重建术患者中的镇静及遗忘作用.方法 选择50例45~65岁、ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级拟在腰硬联合麻醉下行盆底重建术的女性患者,随机分为右美托咪定组(D组)和空白对照组(C组),每组25例.记录麻醉前(T)、麻醉后(T0)、用药后10 min(T1)、30 min(T2)、45 min(T3)、60 min(T4)及术毕时(T5)的平均动脉压(MAP)、基础心率(HR)、呼吸频率(RR)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)、Ramsay评分,术后24h随访并记录患者用药后至手术结束对有关操作的遗忘程度.结果 T1 ~ T5时D组Ramsay评分显著高于C组(P<0.05).T1~T5时D组MAP、HR低于C组(P<0.05).RR、低氧血症发生率两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).术后24h随访,D组患者对手术操作的遗忘程度明显高于C组(P<0.01).结论 右美托咪定辅助应用于腰硬联合麻醉下盆底重建术中的镇静效果优越,呼吸抑制作用小,且有一定的顺行性遗忘,是一种安全有效的镇静药物.%Objective To observe the sedation and amnesia effect of dexmedetomidine on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in patients with pelvic floor reconstruction.Methods Fifty female patients with 45 to 65 years old,ASA I-Ⅱ scheduled for pelvic reconstructive surgery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia,were randomly divided into two groups (n =25):dexmedetomidine group (D group),blank control group (group C).MAP,HR,RR and SpO2,Ramsay score was recorded before anesthesia (T),after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (T0),10 min (T1),30 min (T2),45 min (T3),60 min (T4) after the treatment and at the end of operation (T5),and the forgetting degree of related procedure from medication to the ending of the operation during the 24 h follow-up was recorded.Results Ramsay score was significantly higher at T1-5 in group D than that in group C (P < 0.05).MAP,HR levels were lower at T1-5 in group D than those in group C (P < 0.05).There were no significant

  1. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍和轻度阿尔茨海默病的认知损害特征研究%Cognitive Profile of Amnesia-mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布茂振; 张聚斓

    2011-01-01

    目的 明确遗忘型轻度认知障碍(amnesia-mild cognitive impairment,a-MCI)患者和轻度阿尔茨海默病(alzheimer's disease,AD)患者的认知损害特征.方法 对13例a-MCI患者、22例轻度AD患者和37例正常对照进行全面的认知测查,除简易精神状态检查(mini-mental state examination,MMSE)外,测验可覆盖4个认知域:记忆力、信息处理速度、执行功能、视空间结构能力,进行组间比较.结果 3组患者在年龄、受教育程度及性别组成上匹配.轻度AD组的所有认知测验成绩都差于正常对照组,而且多数测验较a-MCI组也有减退.a-MCI组的MMSE、记忆相关测验以及多个执行功能相关测验结果都差于正常对照组,信息处理速度和视空间结构能力相关测验与对照组间无统计学差异.结论 轻度AD患者表现为全面的认知功能减退.a-MCI患者除存在显著的记忆障碍外,还存在执行功能的异常,信息处理速度和视空间结构能力尚正常.

  2. Utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia DA and dissociative motor disorders DMD (previously termed as hysteria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia (DA) and dissociative motor disorders (DMD) (previously termed as Hysteria). Materials and Methods: 20 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 26 years, 08 of them suffering from DA and 12 from DMDs. A consultant psychiatrist on the basis of ICD-10 criteria made the diagnosis. Patients were divided into two categories according to the duration of their illness. Category A; included 10 patients having less than six months duration of illness. Category B; included 10 patients having duration of illness more than six months. Ten normal controls having no signs and symptoms of any psychiatric disorder were also included in the study. Brain SPECT study was carried out using 99mTc-HMPAO. Semiquantitative analysis was done by calculating cortical and cerebellar ratios in normals and comparing the same in the patients. Results: By comparing regional cerebral blood flow ratios of both the categories with normal group, patients suffering from DA showed hypoperfusion in bilateral temporal lobes, in both frontal association areas and both orbito frontal regions and patients suffering for more than 06 months showed a slightly more exaggerated pattern of hypoperfusion in the same cortical areas. On the other hand in DMD only the patients suffering for more than 06 months showed altered cerebral blood perfusion like hypoperfusion in both of the frontal motor areas, hypoperfusion in both temporal lobes and marked hyperperfusion in both orbito frontal areas. Conclusion: Patients of DA show abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern whether in acute or chronic stage while only chronic DMD states precipitate altered cerebral perfusion patterns and these can be visualized on a Brain SPECT study. (author)

  3. 咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的研究%Effects of combination of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继元; 戴体俊; 李茂琴; 张舟; 卢飞; 李琳; 李家琼; 莫逊; 许艳军; 刘君

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的影响.方法 选择重症加强治疗病房(ICU)行机械通气2~4 d的患者60例,随机分为丙泊酚组、咪唑安定组和咪唑安定加丙泊酚联用组,每组20例.分别于用药后1、2和3 d唤醒患者并出示不同颜色、图形、数字的卡片,于患者停用机械通气完全清醒后评估药物对其镇静-遗忘作用的影响.结果 ①丙泊酚、咪唑安定和联用组分别有70%、95%和90%的患者产生遗忘,停药30 min后患者均恢复记忆.②咪唑安定组静脉推注负荷量药物起效的时间((5.1±2.8)min]和停药清醒后拔除气管插管的时间[(2.7±0.3)h]均较丙泊酚组[(2.7±1.1)min、(0.7±0.2)h]、联用组[(3.1±1.3)min、(1.2±0.6)h]明显延长(P均<0.01);丙泊酚组和联用组药物起效时间和停药清醒后拔除气管插管时间相近,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).③镇静费用咪唑安定组[(1 200±112)元]和联用组[(1 300±132)元]接近,丙泊酚组[(2 100±125)元]高于咪唑安定组约75%(P<0.01).结论 丙泊酚与咪唑安定联合用药既可确保患者产生镇静-遗忘效应,减少各自的用量,降低药物不良反应,又有利于降低患者的住院费用,可能是ICU危重患者较好的镇静-遗忘治疗方案.%Objective To observe the effects of sedation with midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients.Methods Sixty selected patients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit (ICU)were randomly divided into three subgroups(propofol,midazolam,and midazolam and propofol combination group),with 20 cases in each group.Patients who were awakened from sedation were showed with a card depicted with different colors,figures and numbers.When patients were totally conscious after weaning from mechanicaI ventilation,the influence of the different methods of sedation on anterograde amnesia in propofol,midazolam and the combination group

  4. Influence of Gabapentin on analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia effects of sevoflurane in mice.%加巴喷丁对七氟烷小鼠镇痛、催眠、遗忘作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一肖; 董盟; 何珂; 戴体俊; 田艳艳; 宋致静; 严涛; 丁晓维; 王波; 刘晴晴; 郭根花; 朱虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of Gabapentin (GBP) on analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia effects of sevoflurane (SEV) in mice. Methods The hot-plate test and hot water tail-flick test were used to observe the influence of GBP on the analgesia effect of SEV in mice, and righting reflex test was used to observe the changes of sleep latency, sleep time and sleep ratio. Step-through test and step-down test were used to observe the latency and error times. For the righting reflex test the animals were divided into GBP(G), SEV(S),and GBP+ SEV(GS) groups, with 10 mice in each group. In the rest tests, animals were divided into normal saline (NS), G, S, and GS groups, with 10 mice in each group. Results The results of hot plate test showed that the HPPT value in GS group was significantly higher than those in G and S groups at 15 and 25 min (P<0.05); hot water tail-flick test showed that the HPPT value in GS group was significantly higher than those in G and S groups at 5, 10, and 15 min (all P<0.01). Righting reflex test showed that the sleep latency in GS group was significantly shorter (all P<0.05), the sleep time was significantly longer (P<0.05 or 0.01), and the sleep ratio was significantly higher than those in group G and S (P<0.01). The step-through test showed that the GS group had a significantly longer latency (all P<0.05) and significantly more error times (P< 0.01 ). Step-down test showed that the latency in GS group was significantly shorter than that in S group (P<0.05) and the error times were significantly increased than those in S group (P<0.05). Conclusion GBP can enhance the analgesia, hypnosis,and amnesia effects of SEV.%目的:观察加巴喷丁(GBP)对吸入七氟烷(SEV)的小鼠的镇痛、催眠和遗忘作用的影响.方法:采用热板法和甩尾法观察GBP对SEV小鼠痛阈(HPPT)的影响,翻正反射实验观察各实验组小鼠睡眠潜伏期、睡眠维持时间和人睡率,避暗和跳台实验观察潜伏期和错

  5. Amnesia and sedative effect with different doses of dexmedetomidine for elderly patients under epidural anesthesia%不同剂量右美托咪定对硬膜外麻醉的老年患者镇静遗忘效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翠霞; 石海霞; 陈冬梅; 范玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the amnesia and sedation effect with different doses of dexmedetomidine for elderly patients under epidural anesthesia.Methods Sixty patients aged from 71 to 83 years old,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ grade,receiving lower limb orthopedic surgery were selected and divided into three group(20 in each group).After intravenous infusion of epidural dexmedetomidine with a loading dose of 0.5 μg/kg,then infused at a rate of 0.2、0.3、0.4 μg/(kg · h)in three guoups respectively until suture incision.MAP,HR,SpO2 and OAA/S sedation score were observed and recorded at different time points:before anesthesia(T1),15 minutes after infusion (T2),30 minutes after infusion (T3),60 minutes after infusion (T4),and the end of the operation (T5).The degree of amnesia about the operation after 24 hours was followed up aslo.Results After administration of dexmedetomidine,MAP,HR was lower than that before anesthesia (P<0.05),and HR was decreased more obiviously in group Ⅲ.The effect of sedative and amnesia in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ was better than that in group Ⅰ,while deep sedation-induced SpO2 decline was found in a quarter of patients in group Ⅲ.Conclusions It will receive safe and comfortable sedation and amnesia effect in aged patients to administrate dexmedetomidine at loading dose of 0.5 μg/h,and then at a rate of 0.3 μg/(kg · h) infusion.%目的 观察不同剂量右美托咪定对硬膜外麻醉的老年患者镇静遗忘效应. 方法 选择60例71~83岁,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)评级为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,拟在连续硬膜外麻醉下行下肢手术的骨科患者,随机分为3组(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组),每组20例.硬膜外麻醉后静脉输注右美托咪定负荷剂量0.5 μg/kg,之后3组分别以0.2、0.3、0.4μg/(kg·h)泵注至手术开始缝合刀口时停药,观察用药后3组平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)和OAA/S镇静评分,术后24 h随访患者用药后至手术结束前对有关操作的遗忘程度. 结果 3组用

  6. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients; Evolution des debits sanguins cerebraux entre la phase aigue et un mois apres un ictus amnesique: etude chez 18 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, 69 - Lyon (France); Croisile, B. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Lab. de Neuropsychologie, Fonctions Cognitives, Langage et Memoire, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-03-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using {sup 133}Xe et {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the {sup 133}Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 {+-} 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the{sup 133}Xe calibration. (authors)

  7. 咪达唑仑不同剂量和时机给药的遗忘程度%Extent of Amnesia with Midazolam Different Doses and Timing Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁力勇; 戴体俊; 王霞民; 孙志强; 傅红

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨咪达唑仑遗忘作用的合适给药时机和剂量.方法 以240例ASAⅠ级病人对椎管内麻醉穿刺操作的遗忘程度为评价指标,分为椎管内麻醉穿刺操作前(A)组和后(B)组,每组120例;每大组又随机分为4小组,分别给予不同剂量的咪达唑仑,分为0.01mg/kg(M1组)、0.03mg/kg(M2组)、0.1mg/kg(M3组)和生理盐水(NS)组,每组30例.记录用药后的警觉-镇静(OAA/S)评分和手术后1h的遗忘评分(amnesia score,AS).结果 OAA/S评分:A组和B组中,不同剂量M组与NS组之间,不同OAA/S评分所占人数比例有明显差异;B组中M2与A组中M2相比,OAA/S评分秩次有显著差异,B组中M3组与A组中M3组相比,秩次有显著差异;AS评分:A组中,各剂量M组均有不同程度的遗忘;M2、M3组与M1组间相比,遗忘程度增加,P<0.05;而M2、M 3组之间P>0.05;B组中,M1、M2组与NS组遗忘程度相似(P>0.05),而M 3组与其余三组相比,遗忘程度明显增加,但其与A组中M3组相比,遗忘程度明显不如后者.结论 咪达唑仑的镇静作用同其剂量成正相关;咪达唑仑具有明确的顺行性遗忘作用,并同镇静程度相关,但有封顶效应(ceiling effect);在较大剂量情况下,亦能产生逆行性遗忘作用,但是效力不及同等剂量下预先给药;这提示咪达唑仑应以适当剂量、在有创操作前给药,可以产生满意的遗忘作用,剂量过大并不能够产生更强的遗忘作用.

  8. 遗忘型轻度认知损害患者记忆错误的神经心理学分析%Neuropsychological study of false memory in patients with amnesia mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹丹; 程怀东; 尹长林; 吕心怡; 汪凯

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the profile of false memory in aMCI ( amnesia mild cognitive impairment) and to elucidate the neuropsychological mechanism of false memory. Methods False memory provoked by pictures and feeling-of-knowing (FOK) test in episodic memory (EM) were conducted in 25 aMCI patients at our hospital from October 2009 to May 2010. And 25 age and education level-matched healthy patients were recruited into the healthy control (HC) group. Results As compared with HC group,the rate of false memory was higher in the aMCI group. The rate of false memory in recall stage was 26% ±7% and that of questionnaire stage 28% ± 12%. And the difference between two group was significant (t = 14. 437, 7. 597, P <0. 05). The FOK-EM of correct judgment and false recognition in the aMCI group (41% ± 10% ) was higher than the HC group. And the difference was significant (t =4. 207, P <0. 05).The rates of false memory in recall and questionnaire stages were positively correlated with FOK-EM in aMCI group(r = 0. 563, 0. 705, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion The aMCI patients tend to have more false memory provoked by pictures. The deficit of memory monitoring in aMCI may be the foundation of false memory.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(aMCI)患者记忆错误的认知神经心理学特征,了解aMCI患者记忆错误的神经心理学机制.方法 采用图片诱发情景记忆的记忆错误和知道感判断(feeling-of-knowing,FOK)的神经心理学测试方法,分别对25例来自2009年10月至2010年5月期间在安徽医科大学第一附属医院就诊的aMCI患者以及年龄、教育程度相匹配25名健康老年人进行测试.结果 与健康对照组相比,aMCI组故事编码和回忆阶段的记忆错误率(26%±7%)、问卷阶段的记忆错误发生率(28%±12%)和FOK-EM的正确判断/错误再认成绩(即高估)(41%±10%)均较高,差异有统计学意义(分别为t=14.437、7.597、4.207,P<0.05),且故事编码和回忆阶段的记忆错误率

  9. Clinical Observation of Midazolam's Sedative Effect and Anterograde Amnesia Effect on Gynecologic Surgery Patients Undergoing Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia%咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者镇静和术后遗忘效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锐捷; 刘少芬; 张松林; 房瑞林; 陈铭君; 莫坚

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the sedative effects and anterograde amnesia effect of midazolam intravenous injection used before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on calming down the patients and their forgetting degree of procedure.Method:200 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients scheduled for gynecologic surgery under spinal-epidural anesthesia were included in the study.Patients were randomly assigned into two groups with 100 cases each.Group A used midazolam while Group B used 0.9% sodium as control.Group A used midazolam (0.lmg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia while group B used 2ml 0.9% sodium as control.Record and compare the patients' sedative effect before operation began and the forgetting degree 24 hours after operation finished.Result:According to the Ramsay standard,the patients in group A have significant better sedative effect than group B since operation started (P<0.05).In group A the transient global amnesia rate of was 97% while the transient partial amnesia rate was 3%.Meanwhile,the transient global amnesia rate,the transient partial amnesia rate and the unforgotten rate were 68,25% and 7% in Group B separately.There was a significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).Conclusions:Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia can reduce the patients' worries and horrors.It not only helps to keep patients sedative but also cooperate with anesthesia and controlling body position.It has good calm and amnesia effects on anesthesia and procedure.%目的:本文旨在观察咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者术后镇痛遗忘效果.方法:将200例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级腰硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术患者随机分为两组:咪唑安定组(A组)和对照组(B组).两组患者分别于麻醉前30分钟静脉注射咪唑安定0.1 mg/kg和0.9%生理盐水2mL.观察用药前后病人镇静情况,镇静分级,对麻醉和手术操作的遗忘程度和病人的心理状态.结果:根

  10. Citation Amnesia. Not Good for Our Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Raloff; 黄春(选注)

    2009-01-01

    您可能比较熟悉“选择性遗忘症”这样的病症术语,而对于“引用遗忘症”一说,恐怕知之甚少。这个十多年前才被杜撰出来的病理术语指向的是特定的患者人群——科研人员,其症状是患者在描述自己的科研成果时总会忽略前人所做的相关贡献,而其后果当然与其它遗忘症一样,是不利于人们的健康的。

  11. Tracelink: A model of consolidation and amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeter; J.M.J. Murre

    2005-01-01

    A connectionist model is presented, the TraceLink model, that implements an autonomous "off-line" consolidation process. The model consists of three subsystems: (1) a trace system(neocortex), (2) a link system (hippocampus and adjacent regions), and (3) a modulatory system (basal forebrain and other

  12. Terminus Amnesia: Cherokee Freedmen, Citizenship, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Nicholas; Solyom, Jessica Ann; Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma amended its constitution to limit membership to only those who can trace lineal descent to an individual listed as "Cherokee by Blood" on the final Dawes Rolls. This exercise of sovereignty paradoxically ties the Dawes Rolls, the colonial instruments used to divide the lands and peoples of the…

  13. Experimental study on amnesia caused by piracetam and diazepam%吡拉西坦拮抗地西泮致健忘作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建春; 张士善

    2004-01-01

    experiment was done in the pharmacology teaching section of Wenzhou Medical College. The necessary materials include 415rats of Kunming species, diazepam, piracetam, glutamicacid(Glu)and γ-aminiobutyricacid (GABA).METHODS: In dark aviodance test and the spontaneous activities, rats were divided into normal saline group, diazepam group, piracetam group, and piracetam + diazepam group. In the Y-maze test, there were normal saline group, Glu group, GABA group, GABA + Glu group, diazepam + Glu group,piracetam + GABA group, diazepam group and diazepam + piracetam group. The times og mistakes of mistates and latent period recorded during lesrning and testing. And then observed their spontaneous activities and learning ability of distinguishing space.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of mistakes made by rats during learning and tests. Spontaneous activity and learning ability of distinguishing space.RESULTS: Diazepam obviously impairs the abilities of memory acquiring and learning how to distinguish open space of rats. But the use of piracetam improve clesrly these damages while the central inhibitive effects of diazepam were not affected by piracetam.CONCLUSION: Piracetam can redress the amnesia caused by diazepam without its central inhibitive effects affected.

  14. α-硫辛酸合锌对痴呆模型小鼠学习记忆能力的影响%Effects of Zinc α-lipoate Complex on the Learning and Memory Abilities of Scopolamine-induced Amnesia Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 李燕; 罗瑛; 田卫群; 周青山

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of zincα-lipoate complex on the learning and memory abilities as well as the oxidative stress in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Methods A total of 32 mice were randomly divided into the model control group, the group with α-lipoic acid, the group with zinc sulfate, the group with zincα-lipoate complex. rats in each group were administered corresponding drugs and trained with Y-maze five hours later. After 8 days,Rats in each group received the celiac injection of the scopolamine at a dose of 5mg/kg. After half an hour, the memory ability was tested, and then the mice were decapitated. The content of GSH and protein, the activity of SOD in the cerebral tissue were determined. Results Compared with the model control group and other groups, the zincα-li-poate complex can decrease the false times and the activity of SOD (P < 0. 01) in the cerebral tissue, while increase the content of GSH (P < 0. 01) and protein (P < 0. 05). Conclusion The zinc α-lipoate complex can improve the learning and memory abilities and de-crease the level of oxidative stress in the cerebral tissue of amnesia mice.%目的 观察α-硫辛酸合锌对东莨菪碱致痴呆模型小鼠学习记忆能力及氧化应激的影响. 方法 将32只昆明小鼠随机均分成模型对照组、硫辛酸组、硫酸锌组、α-硫辛酸合锌组. 每组每天分别给予生理盐水、硫辛酸、硫酸锌和α-硫辛酸合锌,每次给药5h后进行Y迷宫训练,连续8天后各组均给予5mg/kg东莨菪碱,半小时后进行记忆能力测试. 测定小鼠匀浆后脑组织内还原型谷胱甘肽和蛋白含量及超氧化物歧化酶的活力. 结果 与模型对照组及其他各组相比,α-硫辛酸合锌组小鼠错误次数明显减少,脑组织内还原型谷胱甘肽和蛋白质含量明显升高(P<0. 05),超氧化物歧化酶活力明显降低(P<0. 01). 结论α-硫辛酸合锌可以显著提高痴呆小鼠的学习记忆能力,降低脑组织内氧化应激水平.

  15. 不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on anterograde amnesia of propofol in patients undergoing gynecological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 茅晓玉; 张卫

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响.方法 择期行腹腔镜下全子宫切除术患者60例,年龄20~50岁,体重指数18 ~ 25 kg/m2,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=20):异丙酚组(C组)、低剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D1组)和高剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D2组).D1组和D2组分别经15 min静脉输注右美托咪定0.2、0.4 μg/kg.随后3组靶控输注异丙酚,初始血浆靶浓度(Cp)为0.5 μg/ml,依次递增至0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml,每一浓度维持3 min.分别于入室后(基础水平)、右美托咪定输注完毕、异丙酚Cp达0.5、0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml维持3 min时进行遗忘测试和警觉/镇静评分(OAA/S评分),计算遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和BIS值,并记录该期间低血压、心动过缓、呼吸抑制和上呼吸道梗阻的发生情况.结果 与C组比较,D1组和D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和呼吸抑制发生率降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),其他不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与D1组比较,D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),D1组和D2组不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 右美托咪定增强妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的适宜剂量为0.4 μg/kg.%Objective To evaluate the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia of propofol in the patients undergoing gynecological surgery.Methods Sixty patients,aged 20-50 yr,with body mass index of 18-25 kg/m2,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,scheduled for elective laparoscopic total hysterectomy,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:propofol group (group C),low-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D1) and high-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D2).Dexmedetomidine 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg were

  16. 咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的比较分析%Comparative analysis of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠同; 黄梅英; 陈新妹; 温清娴; 李金波; 吴开华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient.Methods One hundred and twenty patients underwent the epidural anesthesia for the abdomen or legs operation were randomly divided into observation group and control group,every group for 60 cases.Patient in control group were given target-controlled infusion of propofol,patient in observation group were given target-controlled infusion of midazolam.Calmness depth were assessed by OAA/S mark criterion.The changes of SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the different time were recorded.Results The SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the observation group were not changed,HR in the control group was increased after intravenous injection for 1-5 min(P < 0.05),return to onrmal after ten to twenty minutes; and the SBP,DBP,RR were not changed in the other time.The SpO2 was 95%-100%.The OAA/S mark was reduced from 4 to 2,calmness depth was gradually deepen,and the forgetting rate was gradually rising.Patients in 2-3 mark was 93.3% and 65.0%,the complete forgetting rate was 91.7% and 25.0%,the observation group was better than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions Both of midazolam and propofol have anterograde amnesia effect,and the propofol presented the effects in deeper sedation,midazolam has rerograde amnesia effect in shallow calm.%目的 比较咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的差异.方法 选择120例硬膜外麻醉下择期行腹部及下肢手术的患者,并随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例,观察组靶控输注咪达唑仑,对照组靶控输注丙泊酚.用OAA/S评分标准评定镇静深度,并记录.记录用药后不同时间点的收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、呼吸(HR)、心率(RR)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)的变化.结果 观察组SBP、DBP、HR 、RR 、Sp02平稳,对照组静脉注射后l~5 min HR明显加快(P<0.05),10~20 min恢复;其余观察时

  17. Using Chemistry Simulations: Attention Capture, Selective Amnesia and Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-one convenience sample student volunteers aged between 14-15 years worked in pairs (and one group of three) with two randomly allocated high quality conceptual (molecular level) and operational (mimicking wet labs) simulations. The volunteers were told they had five minutes to play, repeat, review, restart or stop the simulation, which in…

  18. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  19. Apparent Amnesia : interidentity memory functioning in dissociative identity disdorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual s behavior. Between 95 and 100 % of DID patients report experiences of blank spells for periods of time when other identities

  20. Episodic Memory and Event Construction in Aging and Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Kristoffer; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Construction of imaginative or fictitious events requires the flexible recombination of stored information into novel representations. How this process is accomplished is not understood fully. To address this problem, older adults (mean age = 74.2; Experiment 1) and younger patients with MTL lesions (mean age = 54.2; Experiment 2), both of whom…

  1. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  2. Recession Amnesia: Prospects for New England Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are organized to assume uninterrupted growth in enrollments and endowments, steady public funding, an annual ability to inflict tuition hikes on students and their families, everlasting degree programs, vast building operations and permanent commitments to a senior professoriate. Lacking an agile and responsive governance structure,…

  3. The Anatomy of Amnesia: Neurohistological Analysis of Three New Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    The most useful information about the anatomy of human memory comes from cases where there has been extensive neuropsychological testing followed by detailed post-mortem neurohistological analysis. To our knowledge, only eight such cases have been reported (four with medial temporal lobe damage and four with diencephalic damage). Here we present…

  4. Emotion-Induced Retrograde Amnesia and Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C.; Heilman, Renata M.; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R.…

  5. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.)

  6. Retrograde amnesia for visual memories after hippocampal damage in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Jonathan; Keith, Julian R.; Spanswick, Simon C.; Stone, Jared C.; Prusky, Glen T.; Sutherland, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that the hippocampus is not required for simple discrimination learning. However, a small number of studies have shown that hippocampus damage impairs retention of a previously learned visual discrimination task. We propose that, although simple discrimination learning may proceed in the absence of the hippocampus, it plays an important role in this type of learning when it is intact. In order to test the role of the hippocampus in simple discrimination learning, we p...

  7. Recession Amnesia and the Prospects for New England's Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the little truly predictable, the author suggests three truths. First is the inevitability of recessions. Second is the belief that, in prosperity, these good times will just keep on rolling. Third is the fall. Bubbles will burst, myths shatter, plans unravel and pain sadly borne unjustly by those who didn't have a hand in the decisions that…

  8. Fictionalized History in the Philippines: Five Narratives of Collective Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Will P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes five historical fictions for children in the Batang Historyador (Young Historian) series which detail five periods in Philippine history. The books discuss the issues of child labor in precolonial Philippines, child labor and the right to education regardless of gender during the Spanish colonial period, child labor during the…

  9. Patterns of preserved and impaired spatial memory in a case of developmental amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shayna eRosenbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is believed to have evolved to support allocentric spatial representations of environments as well as the details of personal episodes that occur within them, whereas other brain structures are believed to support complementary egocentric spatial representations. Studies of patients with adult-onset lesions lend support to these distinctions for newly encountered places but suggest that with time and/or experience, schematic aspects of environments can exist independent of the hippocampus. Less clear is the quality of spatial memories acquired in individuals with impaired episodic memory in the context of a hippocampal system that did not develop normally. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the integrity of spatial representations of environments navigated repeatedly over many years in the rare case of H.C., a person with congenital absence of the mammillary bodies and abnormal hippocampal and fornix development. H.C. and controls who had extensive experience navigating the residential and downtown areas known to H.C. were tested on mental navigation tasks that assess the identity, location, and spatial relations among landmarks, and the ability to represent routes. H.C. was able to represent distances and directions between familiar landmarks and provide accurate, though inefficient, route descriptions. However, difficulties producing detailed spatial features on maps and accurately ordering more than two landmarks that are in close proximity to one another along a route suggest a spatial representation that includes only coarse, schematic information that lacks coherence and that cannot be used flexibly. This pattern of performance is considered in the context of other areas of preservation and impairment exhibited by H.C. and suggests that the allocentric-egocentric dichotomy with respect to hippocampal and extended hippocampal system function may need to be reconsidered.

  10. Amnesia and the DRM Paradigm: How Encoding Factors (Do Not Affect Lure Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Damme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the DRM paradigm, participants are presented with, and their memory is tested for, lists of words that are associatively related to a non-presented lure word. Recent studies have revealed that amnesic patients show heightened immediate, but diminished delayed false recognition of such related lure words as compared to healthy controls. These findings may reflect deficient encoding, retrieval, or both. In two experiments, the importance of encoding factors was evaluated by investigating whether story contexts would increase delayed lure recognition, and whether personally-relevant content would decrease immediate lure recognition in Korsakoff patients. With delayed testing, patients' lure recognition was consistently lower than controls'. With immediate testing, lure recognition was less frequent for personally-relevant than for neutral materials. However, as opposed to controls, Korsakoff patients did not show a difference in source memory, but merely a change in response bias. Results point to the conclusion that deficient explicit recollection is the main factor determining the difference in false recognition between amnesic patients and controls.

  11. Using semantic memory to boost 'episodic' recall in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-17

    We report two experiments that investigated factors that might boost 'episodic' recall for Jon, a developmental amnesic whose episodic memory is gravely impaired but whose semantic memory seems relatively normal. Experiment 1 showed that Jon's recall improved following a semantic study task compared with a non-semantic study task, as well as following four repeated study trials compared with only one. Experiment 2 additionally revealed that Jon's recall improved after acting compared with reading action phrases at study, but only if the phrases were well integrated semantically. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that Jon's 'episodic' recall depends on the extent to which he is able to retrieve events using semantic memory. PMID:16791103

  12. Transient Global Amnesia Syndrome%短暂性完全遗忘综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓钢

    2001-01-01

    短暂性完全遗忘综合征是一种突然发生的、以短暂性近事遗忘为主要特点的临床综合征.多在24小时内完全恢复.本文就其临床特点、病因和发病机制、辅助检查、治疗和预后作了简要介绍.

  13. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  14. Formidable Mass amnesia%可怕的群体失忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涵流

    2003-01-01

    SARS逝去了。社会的、道德的、习惯的、体制和机制的陋习又卷土重来。壮烈的已经壮烈.与亲历者毫不相干。虽然我们吞吃和喷撒了许多苦涩呛人中西药物,但好像什么也没发生过,依然我行我素。仿佛鲁迅先生笔下的小栓.尽管把沾过人血的馒头当成药引子趁热吞下,却还是咳、并且咳个不止。

  15. Transient partial amnesia complicating cardiac and peripheral arteriography with nonionic contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A.; Yencilek, E.; Apaydin, F.D.; Duce, M.N.; Oezer, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey); Atalay, A. [Dept. of Cardiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case of disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the coronary and lower extremity angiographies with radiological and clinical findings. This condition was secondary to intraarterial use of a nonionic, monomeric contrast medium. A total of 450 cc contrast media was used. Computed tomography examination showed contrast enhancement of the right occipital and frontoparietal cortical regions, which returned to normal one day after. The patient also fully recovered from the neurological symptoms within 24 h. We discussed the possible mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption in this case. (orig.)

  16. The Effect of Ginkgo on Baclofen Induced Amnesia using Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elaheh Nooshinfar; Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani; Akram Safaei; Yara Tambrchi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: Ginkgo biloba is an herbal medicine that has a positive effect on improving memory. It prevents oxidative damage in mitochondria and cell death in a variety of Neuropathies. Besides, baclofen is prescribed for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects but has negative impact on memory. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction of ginkgo with GABA b receptor agonist (baclofen) by passive avoidance behavior in mice. Materials & Methods: Passive ...

  17. Selective Amnesia and Racial Transcendence in News Coverage of President Obama's Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerl, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The mainstream press frequently characterized the election of President Barack Obama, the first African American US President, as the realization of Martin Luther King's dream, thus crafting a postracial narrative of national transcendence. I argue that this routine characterization of Obama's election functions as a site for the production of…

  18. Amnesia in frontotemporal dementia: shedding light on the Geneva historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Beratis, Ion N; Horvath, Judit; Herrmann, François R; Bouras, Constantin; Kövari, Enikö

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulated evidence indicates that episodic memory impairments could be part of the initial clinical expression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). An early study on this issue was carried out by Constantinidis and colleagues in 1974, but it was subsequently overlooked for a long period of time. The scope of the present research was: (a) to explore the presence of early episodic memory impairments in the entire population of neuropathologically confirmed FTD patients from the Geneva brain collection; and (b) to expand the present insight on the association between the initial symptomatology and various characteristics, namely gender, age at onset, disease duration, and presence of Pick body neuropathology. A careful review of the records of 50 FTD patients hospitalized at the Department of Psychiatry of the Bel-Air Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, from 1929 to 1999, was conducted. Further in-depth neuropathological analysis with novel immunohistological methods was carried out in 37 of the cases. The data showed that memory impairments were the first clinical symptom in several of the patients. In addition, this specific phenotypic expression of FTD was associated with the female gender, advanced age, and positive Pick body neuropathology. The current findings give the opportunity to historically vindicate the early work of Constantinidis and colleagues. In addition, the novel observations about the association of episodic memory impairments with the female gender and positive Pick body neuropathology add to the existing knowledge about this phenotypic expression of FTD. PMID:26810723

  19. Quantifying the Environmental Memory of Tropical Cyclones: Lingering Footprint or Climate Amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, B. A.; Hart, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the great remaining unanswered questions in tropical meteorology is why there are 90 tropical cyclones (TCs) globally, on average, per year as opposed to 10, 1000, or 10000 TCs. In contrast to extratropical cyclones whose annual frequency can be roughly calculated given the large scale characteristics of the mid-latitudes, there is no equivalent theory that even justifies the order of magnitude of TCs that occur globally each year. In spite of this, there appears to be a preferential spacing of approximately 1500-2000 km between TCs during multiple TC episodes in the Eastern North Pacific, North Atlantic, and Western North Pacific possibly suggesting that the number of storms in each basin is limited energetically by the environment. Reconciling these issues is fundamentally rooted in determining the role of TCs within the climate. Building upon previous research (e.g. Sobel and Camargo 2005, Hart et al. 2007), the following study seeks to take a preliminary step in addressing these questions by quantifying the spatiotemporal scales over which TCs and the large scale environment interact. Four-dimensional, storm-relative composites of raw variables, raw anomalies, and normalized anomalies for Western North Pacific TCs are utilized in the analysis presented here. Preliminary results show that the passage of a TC may be initially responsible for exciting a large scale cooling and drying of the atmospheric environment spanning the majority of the composite domain. Within two weeks, these anomalies are found to become localized over the region in which the TC directly passed through and most strongly manifest themselves as a drying of the lower and middle tropospheric environment. The spatial distribution of the moisture and temperature anomalies in the area immediately surrounding the TC track suggests that the suppression of convection potentially due to the underlying sea surface temperature cold wake induced by the TC is the predominant factor in anomaly maintenance. Furthermore, the periodic pulsation in the magnitude of the dry anomalies, approximately every 10 days following TC passage, either implies the passage of waves generated independently of the TC or in response to the passage of the TC itself that further serve to increase the stabilization of the atmospheric environment. In their totality, these results suggest that TCs serve as an efficient mechanism for regulating atmospheric instability within the tropics for weeks after TC passage.

  20. Reactivation-Dependent Amnesia for Appetitive Memories Is Determined by the Contingency of Stimulus Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously acquired aversive and appetitive memories are not stable and permanent. The reactivation of such memories by re-exposure to training stimuli renders them vulnerable to disruption by amnestic agents such as the noncompetitive N-methyl-"D"-aspartate receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-"SH"-dibenzo{a,d}cyclohepten-5,10imine…

  1. Perirhinal Cortex Lesions Produce Retrograde Amnesia for Spatial Information in Rats: Consolidation or Retrieval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Juan M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence in humans and experimental animals suggest that the hippocampus is critical for the formation and retrieval of spatial memory. However, although the hippocampus is reciprocally connected to adjacent cortices within the medial temporal lobe and they, in turn, are connected to the neocortex, little is known regarding the…

  2. Transient partial amnesia complicating cardiac and peripheral arteriography with nonionic contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to present a case of disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the coronary and lower extremity angiographies with radiological and clinical findings. This condition was secondary to intraarterial use of a nonionic, monomeric contrast medium. A total of 450 cc contrast media was used. Computed tomography examination showed contrast enhancement of the right occipital and frontoparietal cortical regions, which returned to normal one day after. The patient also fully recovered from the neurological symptoms within 24 h. We discussed the possible mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption in this case. (orig.)

  3. Memory or amnesia: the dilemma of stem cell therapy in muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies are monogenetic diseases that are often characterized by the degeneration of both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Gene therapy to correct the mutated gene has shown promise in both animal models and clinical trials; however, current gene delivery strategies are limited to the introduction of the corrected gene into only one tissue. Strategies to target multiple striated muscle types would provide a much-needed improvement for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In this issue of the JCI, Quattrocelli and colleagues demonstrate that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a myogenic propensity are able to engraft into both cardiac and skeletal muscles. The authors also identified a novel pool of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs). Moreover, the authors show that these MiPs are amenable to gene correction and can restore function in murine dystrophic models. Together, the results of this study provide an important advance in improving gene delivery to treat patients with muscular dystrophy. PMID:26571391

  4. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  5. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and subseq

  6. On Borges' Amnesia and Talmudic Understanding: Reviving Ancient Traditions in Re-search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Neuman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic bases, which sustain traditional western psychological interpretative efforts, need not be just a footnote to Plato. In this paper we introduce the Talmudic interpretative perspective, which we use to point at some weaknesses we identify in contemporary research imaginings. While the empiricist approach may be traced to Plato and the interpretative and the critical approaches may be traced to Heraclitus, we argue that the Talmudic approach is a differentiated and unique perspective that, because of its non-epistemic nature, its dialogical character, and its recognition of two intermingled levels of interpretation, can make an important contribution to new ways of thinking about understanding and meaning in research.

  7. ANTIAMNESIC POTENTIAL OF SOLASODINE AGAINST β-AMYLOID PROTEIN INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Desai Alpesh B; Kagathara Virendra G; Desai Chetan B; Patel Suresh V; Patel Vijay K

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in the elderly population, is characterized by an insidious onset with memory impairment and an inexorable progression of cognitive decline. Nootropic agents are a heterogeneous groups of drugs developed for use in dementia and other cerebral disorders. Nootropics agents are being primarily used to improve memory, mood and behavior. However, the resulting adverse effects associated with these agents have limited their use. Therefore, ...

  8. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia I: H.M.’s Spared Retrieval Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. James

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three studies examined amnesic H.M.’s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC. In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs and one syntactic category (noun phrases with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and with reliably greater-than-normal frequency. In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names. Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level “compensation hypothesis” for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1. Present results suggested that (a frontal mechanisms for retrieving word-, phrase-, and propositional-categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia, (b using his intact retrieval mechanisms, H.M. has developed a never-previously-observed proposition-level free association strategy to compensate for the hippocampal region damage that has impaired his mechanisms for encoding novel linguistic structures, and (c H.M.’s overuse of proper names warrants further research.

  9. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  10. Security Through Amnesia: A Software-Based Solution to the Cold Boot Attack on Disk Encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Disk encryption has become an important security measure for a multitude of clients, including governments, corporations, activists, security-conscious professionals, and privacy-conscious individuals. Unfortunately, recent research has discovered an effective side channel attack against any disk mounted by a running machine\\cite{princetonattack}. This attack, known as the cold boot attack, is effective against any mounted volume using state-of-the-art disk encryption, is relatively simple to perform for an attacker with even rudimentary technical knowledge and training, and is applicable to exactly the scenario against which disk encryption is primarily supposed to defend: an adversary with physical access. To our knowledge, no effective software-based countermeasure to this attack supporting multiple encryption keys has yet been articulated in the literature. Moreover, since no proposed solution has been implemented in publicly available software, all general-purpose machines using disk encryption remain vu...

  11. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy, hypertensive surge, blood-brain barrier breach, and amnesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical evidence show that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced intraictal surge in blood pressure may result in a small, transient breach in the blood-brain barrier, leading to mild cerebral edema and a possible leach of noxious substances from blood into brain tissues. These...... changes may impair neuronal functioning and contribute to the mechanisms underlying ECT-induced cognitive deficits. Some but not all clinical data on the subject suggest that blood pressure changes during ECT correlate with indices of cognitive impairment. In animal models, pharmacological manipulations...... of blood pressure during electroconvulsive shocks attenuate electroconvulsive shock-induced amnestic changes; however, the evidence suggests that antihypertensive mechanisms may not necessarily be involved. Clinical studies involving pre-ECT administration of antihypertensive medications do not...

  13. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.'s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Hadley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans) some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC), H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun "her" to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b) encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c) H.M.'s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d) H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information. PMID:24961410

  14. Archives and the Cure for Institutional Amnesia: College and University Saga as Part of the Campus Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2009-01-01

    College and university archivists face changes in their responsibilities that place at risk their ability to document the history of their institutions. Educational institutions that preserve, make known, and promote their history create a strong and lively institutional identity. This identity can be shaped and boosted through documenting…

  15. Transient Global Amnesia as the First Clinical Symptom for Malignant B-Cell Lymphoma with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Zafar

    2015-01-01

    be diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement a few weeks later. This is the first ever case reported in literature with lymphoma presenting as TGA. Literature review and pertinent points regarding high-yield imaging protocol for presumed TGA patients are discussed.

  16. A single dose of propofol can produce excellent sedation and comparable amnesia with midazolam in cystoscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sajedi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study we compared the sedative and amnesic effects of propofol with midazolam in cystoscopy examination. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was done on 44 adults, with American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I, II, III, who were candidate for cystoscopic examination. Patients were recruited according to convenience sampling method and randomized into two equal groups. In study group, propofol plus fentanyl and in control group midazolam plus fentanyl were given intravenously. Vital signs and SaO2, the number of patients movements, presence of eyelid movements and verbal contact all at the first and 10th minutes after beginning the procedure were recorded. Also, frequency distributions of patients recalls, VAS (visual analog scale for pain and VAS for satisfaction scores were evaluated in recovery room. RESULTS: Frequency distribution of patients movements, frequency distribution of verbal contact and eyelid movements at the first and 10th minutes were higher in midazolam group (P<0.05. There were a lower VAS pain score and higher VAS satisfaction score in propofol group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.041 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol was more effective than midazolam in inducing deep sedation and immobility in patients undergoing cystoscopy examination, without interfacing patients with additional danger. KEYWORDS: Propofol, midazolam, cystoscopy.

  17. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hadley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC, H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun “her” to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c H.M.’s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information.

  18. Cholinergic deafferentation of the hippocampus causes non-temporally graded retrograde amnesia in an odor discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Jenny R; Stuebing, Sarah L; Sieg, Megan L; Blackwell, Ashley A; Blankenship, Philip A; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Wallace, Douglas G

    2016-02-15

    Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by loss of hippocampal cholinergic tone and significant memory impairments, specifically for memories acquired prior to disease onset. The nature of this relationship, however, remains debated. The current study used the string pulling task to evaluate the temporal effects of odor discrimination learning in animals with selective cholinergic lesions to determine the role of the septohippocampal cholinergic system in mnemonic function. Rats with 192-IgG-Saporin lesions to the medial septum had a higher number of correct responses in the reversal training when compared to sham rats, suggesting an inability to retrieve the previously learned discrimination; however, no temporal gradient was observed. Furthermore, there were no group differences when learning a novel odor discrimination, demonstrating the ability for all rats to form new memories. These results establish a role for the cholinergic medial septum projections in long-term memory retrieval. The current study provides a behavioral assessment technique to investigate factors that influence mnemonic deficits associated with rodent models of DAT. PMID:26611564

  19. AC-3933, a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, improves memory performance in MK-801-induced amnesia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Iwamura, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, is a drug candidate for cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that AC-3933 enhances acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and age-related cognitive decline in both rats and mice. In this study, we further evaluated the procognitive effect of AC-3933 on memory impairment induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in mice. Unlike the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist FG-7142, oral administration of AC-3933 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test and in the object location test. Interestingly, the procognitive effects of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment were not affected by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, although this was not the case for the beneficial effects of AC-3933 on scopolamine-induced memory deficit. Moreover, the onset of AC-3933 ameliorating effect on scopolamine- or MK-801-induced memory impairment was different in the Y-maze test. Taken together, these results indicate that AC-3933 improves memory deficits caused by both cholinergic and glutamatergic hypofunction and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment is mediated by a mechanism other than inverse activation of the benzodiazepine receptor. PMID:26946254

  20. The End of Amnesia: Measuring the Metallicities of Type Ia SN Progenitors with Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2009-05-01

    The Mn to Cr mass ratio in supernova ejecta has recently been proposed as a tracer of Type Ia SN progenitor metallicity. We review the advantages and problems of this observable quantity, and discuss them in the framework of the Tycho Supernova Remnant. The fluxes of the Mn and Cr Kα lines in the X-ray spectra of Tycho observed by the Suzaku satellite suggests a progenitors of supersolar metallicity.

  1. Malignant lymphoma in central nervous system (CNS). Report of a case with characteristic CT finding and amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiyoshi, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Nishimura, Toshio

    1984-07-01

    A 71-year-old male was admitted to Kohka Public Hospital on January 4, 1980, because of frequent vomiting and recent memory loss. Two weeks before admission upper G-I series showed no abnormalities. Physical and neurological examinations revealed no abnormalities except for slightly apathetic appearance and recent memory loss. Mild pleocytosis and marked increase of protein in CSF were observed. CT scan on January 17 showed high density areas in both medial sides of temporal lobes with remarkable contrast enhancement. His memory and, consciousness disturbances gradually aggravated, accompanied by abnormal density spreading around the ventricle walls like ventriculitis. He was transfered to Kyoto University Hospital on March 17, and malignant lymphoma was diagnosed on the basis of CSF cytology. Radiation and chemotherapy alleviated the CNS involvement and he regained normal mental function. On June 16, he developed pneumonia followed by status epilepticus. Autopsy findings revealed no lymphoid cell infiltration, but fibrous tissues in both hippocampal gyri and lymphomatous cells in the liver, which could not be suspected on clinical examinations. Apparent malignant lymphoma cells were not found in lymph nodes. This case indicated peculiar evolution of malignant lymphoma from liver to CNS or vice versa. We could not decide which organ was primary. CT findings of this case was very interesting; they resembled ventriculitis, which simulate tumors such as medulloblastoma or ependymoma spreading under ependymal lining.

  2. The End of Amnesia: Measuring the Metallicities of Type Ia SN Progenitors with Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

    2009-01-01

    The Mn to Cr mass ratio in supernova ejecta has recently been proposed as a tracer of Type Ia SN progenitor metallicity. We review the advantages and problems of this observable quantity, and discuss them in the framework of the Tycho Supernova Remnant. The fluxes of the Mn and Cr Kalpha lines in the X-ray spectra of Tycho observed by the Suzaku satellite suggests a progenitor of supersolar metallicity.

  3. Remembering the Past in Researching for the Future: Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Amnesia in the Educational Technology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszowski, Alexander; Rushby, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The theme of this article is that educational technologists are particularly bad at remembering the lessons from the past. We fail to remember what went before--whether the projects were successes or failures. This article explores why this might be, why in particular we fail to profit from failures, and what steps we might take to help…

  4. Amnesia International - varajane arvutikunst ja liikumine Tendencies / Darko Fritz ; tõlk. Rael Artel ja Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fritz, Darko

    2001-01-01

    1960. ja 1970. aastate arvutikunstist Tendenciese liikumise põhjal. Zagrebi Kaasaegse Kunsti Galerii näitused "The Tendencies" aastatel 1961-1973. Darko Fritzi ja netikunstnik Vuk Cosici kirjavahetusest 2000. aastal

  5. Cognitive enhancing, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant properties of Tagetes patula on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory associated with shrinkage of brain tissue and loss of neurons with a diminished level of the central cholinergic neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Objective: The present study was performed to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of Tagetes patula (EETP on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, in mice. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with EETP and donepezil for 15 successive days followed by treatment with scopolamine (1 mg/kg for 3 days. The changes in behavioral, biochemical, and neurotransmitters were assessed in rats. Cognitive functions were assessed using step-through latency on a passive avoidance apparatus and Morris water maze test. Antioxidants parametes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and nitrates were assessed. Neurotransmitters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE, dopamine (DA, and serotonin were also assessed, and neuronal damage was also analyzed. Results: Scopolamine-treated rats showed impaired learning and memory, increased activity of AChE, LPO and decreased levels of SOD, reduced glutathione, nitrates, serotonin, and DA. The EETP significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice was measured by the passive avoidance test. In addition, EETP decreased escape latency in the Morris water maze. In probe trail session, EETP increased the latency time in the target quadrant. Ex vivo EETP inhibited AChE activity in the mice brain. EETP treated mice significantly increased the SOD, GR, nitrates, DA, and serotonin levels, and decreased the level of LPO when compared with scopolamine-treated mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that EETP may exert anti-amnesic effect through both by anti-AChE and antioxidant mechanisms.

  6. Rule knowledge aids performance on spatial and object alternation tasks by alcoholic patients with and without Korsakoff’s amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Bardenhagen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiona J Bardenhagen1,2, Marlene Oscar-Berman3, Stephen C Bowden2,41School of Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Clinical Neurosciences, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; 3Division of Psychiatry and Departments of Neurology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine; and Psychology Research Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain Campus, MA, USA; 4School of Behavioural Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Delayed alternation (DA and object alternation (OA tasks traditionally have been used to measure defective response inhibition associated with dysfunction of frontal brain systems. However, these tasks are also sensitive to nonfrontal lesions, and cognitive processes such as the induction of rule-learning strategies also are needed in order to perform well on these tasks. Performance on DA and OA tasks was explored in 10 patients with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome, 11 abstinent long-term alcoholics, and 13 healthy non-alcoholic controls under each of two rule provision conditions: Alternation Rule and Correction Rule. Results confirmed that rule knowledge is a crucial cognitive component for solving problems such as DA and OA, and therefore, that errors on these tasks are not due to defective response inhibition alone. Further, rule-induction strategies were helpful to Korsakoff patients, despite their poorer performance on the tasks. These results stress the role of multiple cognitive abilities in successful performance on rule induction tasks. Evidence that these cognitive abilities are served by diffusely distributed neural networks should be considered when interpreting behavioral impairments on these tasks.Keywords: alcoholism, Korsakoff’s syndrome, comparative neuropsychology, perseveration, rule induction, working memory

  7. Effect of Jyotiṣmatī seed oil on spatial and fear memory using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Sanket B.; Parekar, Reshma R.; Kshitij S Jadhav; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Nirmala N Rege

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of memory impairment associated with dementia such as Alzheimer′s disease is still inadequate and requires development of new drugs. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the memory enhancing effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil. Materials and Methods: C. paniculatus seed oil was mixed with equal amount of pure ghee and administered orally to mice in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as a standard nootropic. Elevated plus maze and passive avoid...

  8. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Hadley; Johnson, Laura W.; Donald G. MacKay

    2013-01-01

    Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans) some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC), H.M. produced uncorrec...

  9. A Critical Role for the Hippocampus and Perirhinal Cortex in Perceptual Learning of Scenes and Faces: Complementary Findings from Amnesia and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Matthew E.; Downing, Paul E.; Dwyer, Dominic M.; Honey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    It is debated whether subregions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL), in particular the hippocampus (HC) and perirhinal cortex (PrC), play domain-sensitive roles in learning. In the present study, two patients with differing degrees of MTL damage were first exposed to pairs of highly similar scenes, faces, and dot patterns and then asked to make repeated same/different decisions to preexposed and nonexposed (novel) pairs from the three categories (Experiment 1). We measured whether patients would show a benefit of prior exposure (preexposed > nonexposed) and whether repetition of nonexposed (and preexposed) pairs at test would benefit discrimination accuracy. Although selective HC damage impaired learning of scenes, but not faces and dot patterns, broader MTL damage involving the HC and PrC compromised discrimination learning of scenes and faces but left dot pattern learning unaffected. In Experiment 2, a similar task was run in healthy young participants in the MRI scanner. Functional region-of-interest analyses revealed that posterior HC and posterior parahippocampal gyrus showed greater activity during scene pattern learning, but not face and dot pattern learning, whereas PrC, anterior HC, and posterior fusiform gyrus were recruited during discrimination learning for faces, but not scenes and dot pattern learning. Critically, activity in posterior HC and PrC, but not the other functional region-of-interest analyses, was modulated by accuracy (correct > incorrect within a preferred category). Therefore, both approaches revealed a key role for the HC and PrC in discrimination learning, which is consistent with representational accounts in which subregions in these MTL structures store complex spatial and object representations, respectively. PMID:23785161

  10. Reduced false recognition in amnesia could be a result of impaired item-specific memory: the relationship between item-specific memory and gist memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissan, Jack

    2007-01-01

    It is a common finding that amnesic patients produce fewer false recognitions than healthy controls, and this has led to assumptions that gist memory is damaged in these patients (Schacter et al., 1996, Budson et al., 2000). Two experiments used false recognition paradigms to ascertain whether this result could instead be a consequence of impaired item-specific memory. Experiment 1 aimed to reduce the item-specific memory of healthy adults to reflect that of an amnesic patient,...

  11. 企业健忘症:"无疾而终"的杀手%Enterprise's amnesia is the killer of "ending up in vein"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春洋

    2005-01-01

    @@ 企业可以死于战略,可以死于竞争,也可以死于政策,但有7成以上的企业却在经历辉煌以后"无疾而终",曾经的成功许没有带来继续的成功,这其中最大的原因是他们患上了企业健忘症.一个企业治疗"健忘症"的过程,就是企业效率大量提升的过程.

  12. 脑外伤后遗忘症%Posttraumatic amnesia(PTA) YIN Wen-gang.Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹文刚

    2001-01-01

    介绍脑外伤后遗症 (PTA)的遗忘的发生、表现的类型以及持续时间等方面的基本特征 , 从精神心理的角度较为深入地研讨这种记忆障碍的内在机制 , 并从脑外伤康复的临床实践出发 , 着重介绍国内外几种常用的记忆量表 , 探讨如何对 PTA进行测定和评估的问题 .

  13. A case of elective retrograde amnesia caused by estazolam%艾司唑仑片致选择性逆行性遗忘症一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪标; 刘宁

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 病例报告 患者,女,24岁.因失眠目服艾司哗仑片20 mg.服药后2h患者表现为全身乏力、站立不稳、倦怠不堪,自述有自杀倾向.患者主诉未服过其他药物,平素身体健康,无药物、食物等过敏史,无遗传性家族病史.

  14. 短暂性全面遗忘综合征2例报道%Transient Global Amnesia:2 Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿木提·托乎提; 范丽; 阚美云

    2008-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘(transient global amnesia,TGA)是易发生于中老年人的一种急性遗忘综合征,表现为患者短期内突然不能接受新的信息而保留远期记忆,症状常在24h内缓解。1956年Bender首次报道,称为伴有遗忘的精神错乱;1958年由Fisher和Adam正式命名为TGA。其后国外有很多这样的病例报道。

  15. 老年健忘脾胃始动病机论%Discuss on Beginning Pathogenesis of Senile Amnesia from Weakness of the Spleen and the Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珀; 赵俊芳

    2005-01-01

    老年健忘是一种由增龄所引起的记忆减退,“增龄相关性记忆减退”(AAMI)可进一步发展为轻度认知损害(mild cogitive impairment,MCI)甚至发生阿尔海默氏病(AD)。有研究表明,MCI患者发生AD的危险性明显增高。随着社会人口老龄化程度日益加重,探讨老年健忘症对于预防阿尔海默氏病(AD)具有重要的战略意义。本文试就老年健忘的病机探讨如下。

  16. 金元医家论治健忘特色撷菁%Selection on Characteristic Treatment for Amnesia by Medical Practitioners in Jin and Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白钰; 陈永灿

    2009-01-01

    @@ 健忘是指记忆力减退,遇事易忘的一种病症.经过历代医家的不断实践和探索,祖国医学在健忘的证治方面积累有独特而丰富的经验,值得深入挖掘和研究.

  17. The end of amnesia: A new method for measuring the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using manganese lines in supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes Montoliu, Carles; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Hughes, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remna...

  18. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn-to-Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kα X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku, to derive a metallicity of log (Z) = - 1.32+ 0.67-0.33 for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log (Z/Z⊙) = 0.60+ 0.31-0.60 according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund and coworkers. The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  19. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku (Tamagawa et al. 2008) to derive a metallicity of log(Z) = -1.32 (+0.67,-0.33) for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log(Z/Zsun)= 0.60 (+0.31,-0.60) according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund et al. (2005). The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  20. Premarin improves memory, prevents scopolamine-induced amnesia and increases number of basal forebrain choline acetyltransferase positive cells in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Jazmin I.; Mayer, Loretta; Talboom, Joshua S.; Zay, Cynthia; Scheldrup, Melissa; Castillo, Jonathan; Demers, Laurence M.; Enders, Craig K.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) is the most commonly prescribed estrogen therapy, and is the estrogen used in the Women's Health Initiative study. While in-vitro studies suggest that CEE is neuroprotective, no study has evaluated CEE's effects on a cognitive battery and brain immunohistochemistry in an animal model. The current experiment tested whether CEE impacted: I) spatial learning, reference memory, working memory and long-term retention, as well as ability to handle mnemonic delay and...

  1. Recovering from "amnesia" brought about by radiation. Verification of the "Over the air" (OTA) application software update mechanism On-Board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Antonio; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo

    Computer memories are not supposed to forget, but they do. Because of the proximity of the Sun, from the Solar Orbiter boot software perspective, it is mandatory to look out for permanent memory errors resulting from (SEL) latch-up failures in application binaries stored in EEPROM and its SDRAM deployment areas. In this situation, the last line in defense established by FDIR mechanisms is the capability of the boot software to provide an accurate report of the memories’ damages and to perform an application software update, that avoid the harmed locations by flashing EEPROM with a new binary. This paper describes the OTA EEPROM firmware update procedure verification of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. Since the maximum number of rewrites on real EEPROM is limited and permanent memory faults cannot be friendly emulated in real hardware, the verification has been accomplished by the use of a LEON2 Virtual Platform (Leon2ViP) with fault injection capabilities and real SpaceWire interfaces developed by the Space Research Group (SRG) of the University of Alcalá. This way it is possible to run the exact same target binary software as if was run on the real ICU platform. Furthermore, the use of this virtual hardware-in-the-loop (VHIL) approach makes it possible to communicate with Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) through real SpaceWire interfaces in an agile, controlled and deterministic environment.

  2. Emotion-Induced Amnesia in Rats: Working Memory-Specific Impairment, Corticosterone-Memory Correlation, and Fear Versus Arousal Effects on Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, James C.; Macintosh, Deric; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that psychological stress (predator exposure) impairs spatial memory in rats. We have extended that finding here to show that predator stress selectively impaired recently acquired (hippocampal-dependent) spatial working memory without affecting long-term (hippocampal-independent) spatial reference memory. We also investigated why predator exposure impairs memory. Was spatial memory impaired because of the fear-provoking aspects of predator exposure or only because th...

  3. [Biographical anamnesis and social amnesia. A review of medical history taking, exploration, clinical interview, biographical analysis and diagnostic-clinical consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobbé, U

    1988-06-01

    The article describes the historical roots of the development of anamnesis including life-event-research and offers an overview of objective, subjective and situative information levels during diagnostic interviews. The author proposes as method the narrative interview completed by the so-called regressive-progressive method from Sartre. He calls special attention to the interpersonal aspect and to the therapeutic function of anamnesis as well as autobiographical writing. PMID:3062652

  4. 78 FR 53764 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...) to ``severe'' (an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury). In 1996, Congress... injury to the head that resulted in amnesia, skull fracture, or intracranial lesion. It is estimated...

  5. Amnesia's Fertility,Infection and the Interactive Causality between Amnesia and Reality:Taking Shituo's Orchard Garden as an Example%遗忘的生殖力、传染性和现实互因关系——以师陀《果园城记》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣欣; 张昭兵

    2009-01-01

    在"果园城"表面的寂静下,涌动着遗忘的暗流.遗忘以集体潜意识的方式在每个人心中繁衍生长,然后在人与人之间传染蔓延,由此形成的遗忘之网把现实生活牢牢地网在时空静止的死寂之中,而死寂的现实生活又反过来强化着遗忘的再度繁殖和传染.通过的文本分析,挖掘出遗忘的社会、历史、哲学动因和自返性,从而拓展出遗忘的心理范畴之外的思维向度.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  7. La legitimidad franquista de la Monarquía de Juan Carlos I: un ejercicio de amnesia periodística durante la transición española

    OpenAIRE

    Zugasti, R. (Ricardo)

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza la cobertura periodística otorgada por los diarios españoles a la legitimidad franquista de la Monarquía de Juan Carlos I durante la transición a la democracia. El tratamiento concedido a dicha legitimidad puede considerarse un ejemplo útil para ilustrar las especiales relaciones de complicidad que se produjeron entre la prensa y la Corona en aquel período histórico, con la vista puesta en la democratización del sistema político.

  8. Clinical observation of small dosage of Midazolam amnesia in epidural anesthesia epidural blocks%硬膜外阻滞时小剂量咪唑安定术中遗忘作用的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付井泉; 付冬梅; 李海东

    2005-01-01

    目的观察硬膜外麻醉时应用小剂量咪唑安定后的术中遗忘作用.方法选择60例腹部手术病人,硬膜外麻醉成功后经静脉滴入咪唑安定0.08~0.1mg·kg-1,术后随访观察病人术中遗忘情况.结果该组病人均有不同程度的顺行性遗忘.结论硬膜外麻醉时辅助应用小剂量咪唑安定可取得良好的顺行性遗忘作用.

  9. 海德格尔对现代科学"遗忘症"的生存论剖析%On Heidegger's Existential Analyses to the Amnesia in Modern Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷德鹏; 黄时进

    2005-01-01

    海德格尔认为,现代科学仅与存在者打交道而遗忘了存在本身,被现代科学所遗忘的存在即是"无";现代科学的这种"遗忘症"是由决定现代科学的本质的形而上学基础、数学因素和技术本质等多种因素所造成的.

  10. Evaluation of nootropic activity of Curcuma longa leaves in diazepam and scopolamine-induced amnesic mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Reddy; Chandrashekar M. Sultanpur; Saritha, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to assess the nootropic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa leaves (HAECL) in diazepam-induced amnesia in mice using Morris water maze method and scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats by using elevated plus maze behavioral paradigm and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were carried out. Methods: Amnesia was induced by administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i....

  11. Hydrocephalus during rehabilitation following severe TBI. Relation to recovery, outcome, and length of stay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemann, Mia; Tibæk, Maiken; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    rehabilitation. METHODS: We studied 417 patients with severe TBI admitted consecutively to a single hospital - based neurorehabilitation department serving Eastern Denmark between 2000 and 2010. Demographics (age and gender) and clinical characteristics (length of acute treatment, post traumatic amnesia (PTA...

  12. Comparative study between dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine and midazolam/nalbuphine in monitored anesthesia care during ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that the combination of dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine is a better alternative to midazolam/nalbuphine in MAC since it provides analgesia, amnesia and sedation with better intraoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction with better surgical field exposure.

  13. PartⅡ Example Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangWei; ShangXiukui; HuMinghai; XuLi

    2000-01-01

    Male, age of 27 years. History of the present disease: In the recent three weeks, the patient has the symptoms including tiredness, difficult falling in sleep even sleeplessness duringwhole night, accompanied with restlessness,palpitation, poor appetite, amnesia.

  14. Part II Example Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 尚秀葵; 胡明海; 徐莉

    2000-01-01

    Male, age of 27 years. History of the present disease: In the recent three weeks, the patient has the symptoms including tiredness, difficult falling in sleep even sleeplessness during whole night, accompanied with restlessness,palpitation, poor appetite, amnesia.

  15. Varenicline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased intoxicating effects of alcohol, sometimes associated with aggressive behavior and/or amnesia. In addition, rare accounts of ... stop taking varenicline if they develop agitation, hostility, aggressive behavior, depressed mood, or changes in behavior or thinking ...

  16. Kognitives Langzeit-Outcome bei transienter globaler Amnesie

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Silke

    2008-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by sudden onset anterograde amnesia, which was thought to resolve completely. However, some authors have also suggested permanent memory impairment. It is unclear whether these results reflect a true persistent damage or a simply too short assessment interval in the context of a prolonged recovery phase after TGA. To evaluate the cognitive long-term outcome, 16 patients who had suffered from TGA at a mean ...

  17. Transiente Globale Amnesie versus Transiente Ischämische Attacke – Klinik und Schlaganfallrisiko

    OpenAIRE

    Slezak, Agnieszka Anna; Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Heldner, Mirjam Rachel; Fischer, Urs; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia versus transient ischaemic attack: clinical presentation and cerebral vascular accident risk Transient global amnesia is an acute, benign, isolated and temporarily limited disturbance of memory, that can occur repeatedly but shows no increased risk of cardiovascular events or stroke in particular. Therefore, patients with the typical clinical presentation and a normal brain magnetic resonance-scan require neither further diagnostic nor therapeutic interventions....

  18. Rapidly measuring the speed of unconscious learning: amnesics learn quickly and happy people slowly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Dienes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We introduce a method for quickly determining the rate of implicit learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The task involves making a binary prediction for a probabilistic sequence over 10 minutes; from this it is possible to determine the influence of events of a different number of trials in the past on the current decision. This profile directly reflects the learning rate parameter of a large class of learning algorithms including the delta and Rescorla-Wagner rules. To illustrate the use of the method, we compare a person with amnesia with normal controls and we compare people with induced happy and sad moods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Learning on the task is likely both associative and implicit. We argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that both amnesia and also transient negative moods can be associated with an especially large learning rate: People with amnesia can learn quickly and happy people slowly.

  19. The Recovery of Memory after Traumatic Brain Injury%脑外伤病人记忆功能的康复特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯炯; 尹岭; 张亚旭; 周晓林

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the time course of memory recovery during post-traumatic amnesia after brain injury.Methods: A patient (WGS, aged 34) with lesions in the left temporal lobe was compared with four matched control subjects on various cognitive tests. These tests included Galveston Orientation and Amnesia test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Test, Semantic Memory, and Remote Memory Test. WGS was tested at 20th days and 33rd days after the brain injury. Results: During the period of post-traumatic amnesia, marked recovery was observed for orientation, semantic memory and remote memory (especially the recent and the earlier items). While the recovery of learning for new knowledge was slow, learning curve of association of unrelated items was flat.Conclusion: The differential time courses for recovery of cognitive functions should be well considered in rehabilitative training after traumatic brain injury.

  20. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors. PMID:24555225

  1. Noradrenergic modulation of emotion-induced forgetting and remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlemann, René; Hawellek, Barbara; Matusch, Andreas; Kolsch, Heike; Wollersen, Heike; Madea, Burkhard; Vogeley, Kai; Maier, Wolfgang; Dolan, Raymond J

    2005-07-01

    We used a free-recall paradigm to establish a behavioral index of the retrograde and anterograde interference of emotion with episodic memory encoding. In two experiments involving 78 subjects, we show that negatively valenced items elicit retrograde amnesia, whereas positively valenced items elicit retrograde hypermnesia. These data indicate item valence is critical in determining retrograde amnesia and retrograde hypermnesia. In contrast, we show that item arousal induces an anterograde amnesic effect, consistent with the idea that a valence-evoked arousal mechanism compromises anterograde episodic encoding. Randomized double-blind administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol compared with the selective norepinephrine (NE) reuptake-inhibitor reboxetine, and placebo, demonstrated that the magnitude of this emotional amnesia and hypermnesia can be upregulated and downregulated as a function of emotional arousal and central NE signaling. We conclude that a differential processing of emotional arousal and valence influences how the brain remembers and forgets. PMID:16000624

  2. Differential effects of protein kinase inhibitors and activators on memory formation in the 2-day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, P A; Beniston, D S; Oxonian, M G; Rodriguez, W A; Rosenzweig, M R; Bennett, E L

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) were investigated in chicks for their in vitro effects on PKC activity and for their in vivo effects on memory formation for a peak-avoidance task. Amnesia occurred by 15-30 min post-training when agents that inhibit primarily Ca2+/calmodulin were injected into brain. Amnesia occurred by 60 min post-training when agents that inhibit PKC-, PKA-, and/or PKG-dependent protein kinases, but not Ca2+/calmodulin, were injected. Enhancement of memory formation was accomplished by injecting bradykinin, but not forskolin. Both of these agents, however, attenuated the amnesia produced by H-7. These results are discussed as relevant neural processes involved in memory and synaptic plasticity. PMID:8129687

  3. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  4. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-old children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people’s age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications.

  5. Cognitive activity limitations one year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2013-01-01

    -acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... consciousness during the first year post-trauma. At follow-up 33-58% of patients had achieved functional independence within the cognitive domains on the Cog-FIM. Socio-economic status, duration of acute care and post-traumatic amnesia were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Substantial recovery was...

  6. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  7. AG-4:A NICOTINIC AGONIST ENDOWED WITH ANTIAMNESIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Di Cesare Mannelli, L.; S. Dei; F. GUALTIERI; Bartolini, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the nicotinic agonist AG-4 on memory processes was evaluated in the mouse passive avoidance test. AG-4 (100 mg per mouse icv) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 ip), mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1 ip), and dihydro-b-erythroidine (10 mg per mouse icv). In the same experimental conditions, AG-4 (100 mg per mouse icv) also prevented baclofen (2 mg kg–1 ip), clonidine (0.125 mg kg–1 ip), and diphenhydramine (20 mg kg–1 ip) amnesia in mice. AG-4 exerted an an...

  8. ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF THE NICOTINIC AGONIST DBO-83 IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Giuliani, F.; D. Barlocco; Bartolini, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of administration of DBO-83 on memory processes was evaluated in the mouse passive avoidance test. DBO-83 (1–5 mgkg–1 ip) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mgkg–1 ip), mecamylamine (20 mgkg–1 ip) and dihydro-b-erythroidine (10 mg per mouse i.c.v.). In the same experimental conditions, DBO-83 (10 mgkg–1 ip) also prevented baclofen (2 mgkg–1 ip), clonidine (0.125 mgkg–1 ip) and diphenhydramine (20 mgkg–1 ip) amnesia in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DBO-83 wa...

  9. Memory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Memory is the cognitive ability that allows to acquire, store and recall information; its dysfunction is called amnesia and can be a presentation of unilateral ischemic stroke in the territory of the posterior cerebral and anterior choroidal artery as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22377863

  10. Ophelia syndrome with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antibodies in CSF

    OpenAIRE

    Mat, Arimin; Adler, Hugh; Merwick, Aine; Chadwick, Geoff; Gullo, Giuseppe; Dalmau, Josep O.; Tubridy, Niall

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old man developed progressive memory problems and personality changes over the course of 6 months. This amnesia culminated in overt functional impairment as he began getting lost in familiar places and paid his rent multiple times in one day. He then displayed increased aggression and was admitted to hospital after assaulting a family member.

  11. Chronic meningitis as the first presentation of sarcoidosis: an uncommon finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hashemi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 40-year-old woman presenting with headache, nausea, episodic amnesia and blurred optic disc. Brain MRI disclosed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement. CSF analysis showed aseptic meningitis with elevated ACE level. Neurosarcoidosis was diagnosed based on granulomatosis changes on tissue biopsy.

  12. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. PMID:26238378

  13. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data...

  14. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2013-01-01

    -traumatic amnesia in the patients. Conclusion: Of the relatives who reported scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales at patient's admission, approximately 40% experienced CSC in anxiety and depression during the patient's rehabilitation. Relatives of patients experiencing improvement during...

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy as a treatment for protracted refractory delirium in the intensive care unit--five cases and a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R M; Olsen, K S; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg;

    2014-01-01

    stress, and able to cooperate with the ventilator but remained in a state of posttraumatic amnesia after a head trauma. CONCLUSION: Although controversial, ECT is nevertheless recognized as an efficient and safe treatment for various psychiatric illnesses including delirium. Considering the significantly...

  16. Patients with the most severe traumatic brain injury benefit from rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Norup, Anne; Liebach, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    -acute inpatient rehabilitation during a 12-year period followed an intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Severity of injury was defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on rehabilitation admission and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Patients were routinely measured with...

  17. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    the prospective study, six died, and 92 (1.27 per 100,000 population per year) survived after a post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) period of at least 28 days. All 19 patients with PTA 7-27 days and 48% of survivors with PTA at least 4 weeks were discharged directly home. The incidence of patients vegetative...

  18. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  19. Rehabilitering af svaer traumatisk hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbo, Annette M; Jakobsen, Johannes K

    2007-01-01

    regardless of the level of consciousness. Patients were assessed using established rating-scales. Local social authorities were involved at discharge. RESULTS: Of 77 consecutive patients, 5 died before follow-up and 6 patients were not seen at follow up. 79% of the remaining group had post-traumatic amnesia...

  20. Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine S; Engberg, Aase W; Larsen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients age 16 to 65 years (N=173) with severe TBI (posttraumatic amnesia from 7d to >6 mo) admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously...

  1. Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laurent

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating recovery of learning is discussed.

  2. Posterior cortical dementia with alexia: neurobehavioural, MRI, and PET findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, L; Selchen, D H; Black, S E; Kaplan, R; Garnett, E. S.; Nahmias, C

    1991-01-01

    A progressive disorder of relatively focal but asymmetric biposterior dysfunction is described in a 54 year old right handed male. Initial clinical features included letter-by-letter alexia, visual anomia, acalculia, mild agraphia, constructional apraxia, and visuospatial compromise. Serial testing demonstrated relentless deterioration with additional development of transcortical sensory aphasia, Gerstmann's tetrad, and severe visuoperceptual impairment. Amnesia was not an early clinical feat...

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined, using SPECT by Xe-133 inhalation, in patients with primary degenerative dementia who were subgrouped according to predominant symptoms with respect to amnesia, apraxia, agnosia, aphasia, and personality changes. Also the effect of sex and age at dementia onset on the rCBF patterns was assessed. (author). 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  4. Enhanced thalamocortical phase synchronization reflects successful memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Staudigl; Tino Zaehle; Jürgen Voges; Simon Hanslmayr

    2011-01-01

    Thalamic lesions can cause severe cognitive impairments including anterograde and retrograde amnesia. It has been argued that deficits in memory retrieval reflect a disconnection of thalamocortical pathways. However, direct experimental evidence for a contribution of thalamocortical communication to memory retrieval is scarce. We hypothesized that phase synchronization of thalamic and cortical oscillations reflects such thalamocortical communication. Intracranial thalamic EEG was recorded in ...

  5. Memory as social glue: Close interpersonal relationships in amnesic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S.R. Davidson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia. All three patients were less involved than demographically-matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A. cases’ close relationships were with family members, and they had made few new close friends in the decades since the onset of their amnesia. On the other hand, the patient with developmental amnesia (H.C. had forged a couple of close relationships, including one with her fiancé. Social networks appear to be winnowed, but not obliterated, by amnesia. The obvious explanation for the patients’ reduced social functioning stems from their memory impairment, but we discuss other potentially important factors for future study.

  6. Bolus dose with continuous infusion of midazolam as sedation for outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyk, N H; Zacharias, M; Wanwimolaruk, S

    1992-06-01

    This double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial in 41 patients for 3rd molar surgery compared the safety, amnesic properties and psychomotor recovery between a bolus injection of midazolam and a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion of midazolam. The latter showed good safety and better amnesia to events during the procedure, but prolonged the recovery time. PMID:1640130

  7. Do Amnesic Patients with Korsakoff's Syndrome Use Feedback when Making Decisions under Risky Conditions? An Experimental Investigation with the Game of Dice Task with and without Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Labudda, Kirsten; Laier, Christian; von Rothkirch, Nadine; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of feedback processing in decision making under risk conditions in 50 patients with amnesia in the course of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). Half of the patients were administered the Game of Dice Task (GDT) and the remaining 25 patients were examined with a modified version of the GDT in which no feedback was…

  8. Anterograde episodic memory in Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  9. Independence of First- and Second-Order Memories in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Joly, Virginie; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The mammary pheromone promotes the acquisition of novel odorants (CS1) in newborn rabbits. Here, experiments pinpoint that CS1 becomes able to support neonatal learning of other odorants (CS2). We therefore evaluated whether these first- and second-order memories remained dependent after reactivation. Amnesia induced after CS2 recall selectively…

  10. [Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome with Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko

    2016-04-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome with limbic encephalopathy tends to progress rapidly, presenting with physical symptoms such as ataxia or sensory disturbance. However, some affected patients demonstrate amnesia, inactivity, or abnormal behavior, which lead to the diagnosis of dementia. It is important to perform an extensive differential diagnosis with autoantibody-examination and tumor survey, so as not to overlook potentially treatable dementia. PMID:27056857

  11. Risks of Brain Injury after Blunt Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The association of loss of consciousness (LOC and/or amnesia with traumatic brain injury (TBI identified on CT and TBI requiring acute intervention was evaluated in 2043 children <18 years old enrolled prospectively in a level 1 trauma center ED at University of California, Davis School of Medicine, CA.

  12. Kynurenic acid prevented social recognition deficits induced by MK-801 in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2003), s. 805-808. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * kynurenic acid * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  13. Oxiracetam prevented the scopolamine but not the diazepam induced memory deficits in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 2 (2002), s. 395-399. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * oxiracetam * scopolamine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  14. STRESS AND TRAUMA: Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Snyder, Malynda; Marie Gillig, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization/derealization disorder is characterized by depersonalization often co-occurring with derealization in the absence of significant psychosis, memory, or identity disturbance. Depersonalization/derealization is categorized as one of the dissociative disorders, which also includes dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Although these disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, ma...

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of cutamesine in rats using NONMEM, 11C-SA4503, and microPET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, N.K.; Pilla Reddy, V.; Proost, J.H.; Nyakas, C.J.; Kwizera, C.; Sijbesma, J.W.A.; Elsinga, P.H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Van Waarde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cutamesine (SA4503) is a selective sigma-1 receptor agonist, currently in Phase II clinical trials for depression and post stroke neurological disturbances. Cutamesine has been found to be effective in several rodent models of amnesia and depression. We used data obtained with carbon-11-labeled cuta

  16. Improving Functional Skills Using Behavioral Procedures in a Child with Anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Bernard; And Others

    A behavioral treatment program was used to improve the functional skills of a 12-year-old anoxic child. Neuropsychological test results indicated marked amnesia and global cognitive deficits. Functionally, self-care tasks could be performed, but only with verbal and physical prompting. Introduction of a monetary reward system significantly reduced…

  17. The Intentional Archivist: What Jonathan Taught Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always seeking the meaning behind her educational practice with children, colleagues, and the institution in which she works on a daily basis. Dr. Jonathon Silin's thinking around loss, collective memory and social amnesia resonate strongly with her (Silin, 2011). In this article, the possibilities of intentionally…

  18. Is the Hippocampus Necessary for Visual and Verbal Binding in Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan; Allen, Richard; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments test the recent claim that the hippocampus is necessary for the binding of features in working memory. Some potential limitations of studies underlying this claim are discussed, and an attempt is made to further test the hypothesis by studying a case of developmental amnesia whose extensively investigated pathology appears…

  19. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  20. RAISED GLUCOSE-LEVELS ENHANCE SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED ACETYLCHOLINE OVERFLOW FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DURKIN, TP; MESSIER, C; DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Behavioural studies in both humans and animals have shown that an acute rise in circulating glucose levels at or around the time of training enhances subsequent retention performance and can also afford protection from the amnesia produced by posttraining injections of scopolamine. In an attempt to

  1. Platonic & Freirean Interpretations of W. E. B. Du Bois's, "Of the Coming of John"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    In the current Neoliberal climate of educational reform, the enlightenment project in education is more susceptible than ever to the machinations of historical amnesia. The notion that education can be transformative in a positive sense represents a moral ideal that teachers in the foundations of education find increasingly difficult to integrate…

  2. STRATEGIES OF PERMISSIVE HYPNOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Holdevici, Irina

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper the main principles of the ericksonian hypnotherapy are disscused: the comunication in client s system of references, symptoms conceptualization and utilization, indirect sugestions and therapeutic mataphores. The authors considers that some hypnotic phenomena specific to psychopathological symptoms: age regression, anesthesia, amnesia, hipermnesia dissociation, time disfortion and hallucinations, can be used as therapeutic strategics for symptoms reduction.

  3. 基于时间方向划分的三类遗忘症特征分析%Analysis on Characteristics of Three Types Memory Disorders of Time-Dimension-Divided

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓雪; 张锦坤

    2015-01-01

    记忆障碍多为脑创伤导致,其影响范围越来越广。根据遗忘的时间方向将遗忘症分为顺行性遗忘、逆行性遗忘和进行性遗忘。海马和颞叶内侧损伤导致的遗忘综合征主要表现为顺行性遗忘,而某些苯二氮卓类药物亦可诱发。间脑损伤导致的科萨科夫综合征主要表现为逆行性遗忘,另外,颞叶癫痫、ECT治疗等也会伴随该症状。随病程日益加重的进行性遗忘,主要形式为阿尔茨海默病。目前,记忆障碍只能以记忆康复为主,主要包括通过联想法、图像法等记忆技巧达到的内部代偿,以及利用外显方式、编制程序等方法达到的外部代偿。以脑神经科学为核心的记忆康复,是未来临床神经心理学发展的方向和领域。%Mostly memory disorders were caused by brain trauma , its influence was more and more widely .Com-mon forms of memory disorders had anterograde amnesia , retrograde amnesia and progressive amnesia .The main symptom of amnesia syndrome was anterograde with the hippocampus and temporal lobe damaged .Because of dien-cephalon damaged , Korsakoff syndrome appeared retrograde amnesia and so on .Progressive amnesia was a style with the duration extension .Its main form was Alzheimer disease .Currently , memory disorders only gave priority to memory rehabilitation , including internal compensation ( using the association method and the image way ) and ex-ternal compensation ( using explicit ways and programming methods ) .In the future , memory rehabilitation , which focused on brain science , was the direction and the field of clinical neuropsychology booming .

  4. Thalamic infarcts and hemorrhages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy and supply of thalamic arteries are briefly described here. Thalamic infarcts and small-size hemorrhages are classified according to their sites: (1) posterolateral, (2) anterolateral, (3) medial, and (4) dorsal. (1) Posterolateral hemorrhages or lateral thalamic infarcts are usually characterized by severe motor impairment and sensory loss. Transient reduced consciousness, vertical-gaze abnormalities, and small fixed pupils may be evidenced. (2) Patients with anterolateral hemorrhages or tuberothalamic artery infarcts present frontal-type neuropsychological symptoms associated with mild hemiparesis and hemihypesthesia. (3) Medially located hemorrhages or paramedian artery infarcts have decreased levels of consciousness, vertical- and horizontal-gaze abnormalities, amnesia, and abulia. (4) Dorsal hemorrhages or posterior choroidal artery infarcts present with minimal transient hemiparesis and hemihypesthesia; apraxia, aphasia, and amnesia have also been described. PMID:22377880

  5. [Is frontotemporal dementia a disease of identity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, Florence

    2009-06-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have major behavioral troubles and a loss of insight. These factors contribute to reduce self-awareness and recognition of identify of others and by others. Autobiographical amnesia, loss of insight and executive dysfunctions are the major reasons of vulnerable "self" in FTD. Mind representation deficits, decrease of perception of emotions and semantic amnesia contribute to reduced recognition of the relative's identity. Alterations of body expressions, social disinhibition, changes in social and religious values decrease the recognition of patient's identity by the relatives. Different psychological components of identity are modified by the FTD such as feeling of unity, of consistency, of temporality and of affiliation. The fact that brain lesions of FTD are focalized can contribute to understand the biological knowledge of "identity". To know the neurological substrate of alterations of identity, this can help to improve the empathy of the suffering caregivers for the patient. PMID:19473950

  6. Case Report : A Relieved Family with the Diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kokurcan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS is a diagnosis formed from Wernicke ensephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome together. WKS is usually a chronic syndrome beginning acutely. Wernicke%u2019s encephalopathy is an acute syndrome composed of the triad of oculomotor signs; ataxia and confusion. B vitamines especially tiamine are considered to cause the syndrome. Korsakoff syndrome is a syndrome presenting with amnesia and amnesia is permanent in many cases. While Korsakoff syndrome is a continuation form of Wernicke; the syndromes are admitted as the acute and chronic conditions of the same pathophysiology. WKS syndrome means despair for many psychiatrists and the family unless treatment is initiated in the acute phase and irreversible cognitive impairment is prevented. We will discuss a case of WKS pleasing his family as nervousness has improved with cognitive impairment.

  7. Memories of unethical actions become obfuscated over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Gino, Francesca

    2016-05-31

    Despite our optimistic belief that we would behave honestly when facing the temptation to act unethically, we often cross ethical boundaries. This paper explores one possibility of why people engage in unethical behavior over time by suggesting that their memory for their past unethical actions is impaired. We propose that, after engaging in unethical behavior, individuals' memories of their actions become more obfuscated over time because of the psychological distress and discomfort such misdeeds cause. In nine studies (n = 2,109), we show that engaging in unethical behavior produces changes in memory so that memories of unethical actions gradually become less clear and vivid than memories of ethical actions or other types of actions that are either positive or negative in valence. We term this memory obfuscation of one's unethical acts over time "unethical amnesia." Because of unethical amnesia, people are more likely to act dishonestly repeatedly over time. PMID:27185941

  8. Bilateral paramedian thalamic artery infarcts: report of eight cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M.; De Renzi, E; Crisi, G

    1987-01-01

    Eight consecutive patients with CT scan evidence of a bilateral infarct in the territory of the paramedian thalamic artery are reported. In seven cases the infarct also extended to the territory of the polar artery. The main symptoms were: disorder of vigilance which cleared in a few days, and hypersomnolence which lasted longer and in two patients was still present a year later; amnesia, detectable clinically in four patients and only with tests in two patients, which persisted in one patien...

  9. The Endocrine Dyscrasia that Accompanies Menopause and Andropause Induces Aberrant Cell Cycle Signaling that Triggers Cell Cycle Reentry of Post-mitotic Neurons, Neurodysfunction, Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Craig S.; Bowen, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones are the physiological factors that regulate neurogenesis during embryogenesis and continuing through adulthood. These hormones support the formation of brain structures such as dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture of information (memories). Intriguingly, a recent animal study has demonstrated that induction of neurogenesis results in the loss of previously encoded memories in animals (e.g. infantile amnesia). In this connection, much evidence now indicate...

  10. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, D.; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-01-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a hi...

  11. Effects of Ketamine on Neuronal Spontaneous Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents and Miniature Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents in the Somatosensory Cortex of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chengdong Yuan; Yajun Zhang; Yu Zhang; Song Cao; Yuan Wang; Bao Fu; Tian Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ketamine is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic which produces dissociation anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia. The mechanism of ketamine-induced synaptic inhibition in high-level cortical areas is still unknown. We aimed to elucidate the effects of different concentrations of ketamine on the glutamatergic synaptic transmission of the neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex by using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (11–19 postnatal days, n=...

  12. The Rich Get Richer: Brain Injury Elicits Hyperconnectivity in Core Subnetworks

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary, Frank G.; Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roman, Cristina A.; Medaglia, John D.; Slocomb-Dluzen, Julia E.; Calhoun, Vincent D.; Good, David C.; Wylie, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    There remains much unknown about how large-scale neural networks accommodate neurological disruption, such as moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A primary goal in this study was to examine the alterations in network topology occurring during the first year of recovery following TBI. To do so we examined 21 individuals with moderate and severe TBI at 3 and 6 months after resolution of posttraumatic amnesia and 15 age- and education-matched healthy adults using functional MRI and...

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. ...

  14. [Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenibut and piracetam under experimental cerebral ischemia conditions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetov, M N; Epishina, V V; Borodkina, L E; Voronkov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective properties of phenibut and piracetam were studied in rats with cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenibut and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced a neuralgic deficiency, amnesia, and the degree of cerebral circulation drop, and improved the spontaneous movement and research activity deteriorated by brain ischemia. PMID:16878492

  15. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters. PMID:20396730

  16. 遗忘型轻度认知损害患者的前瞻性记忆障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    为了探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnesia mild cognitive impairment, aMCI)患者前瞻性记忆(prospective memory,PM)改变的特征,初步了解基于事件的PM(event-based prospective memory, EBPM)和基于时间的PM(time-based prospective memory,TBPM)在aMGI患者中的损害情况,

  17. 16例短暂性全面遗忘症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肇杰; 党春伟; 张金霞

    2009-01-01

    @@ 短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia, TGA)是一种以一过性记忆丧失为主要特征的临床综合征.现就本院2005年1月~2009年1月收治的16例患者进行分析,探究其病因及临床特点,并报告如下.

  18. 自传记忆%Autobiographical Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 何谓自传记忆 所谓自传记忆(autobiographical memory)是一种关于自我(self)信息的记忆([1]).成人很少能回忆起两三岁前所经历的事情,却可以回忆起此后经历的事情.这一现象在心理学领域被称为婴儿遗忘症(infantile amnesia).

  19. Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, O.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Varlet, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Anatomopathology, Paris (France); Page, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

  20. The anterior thalamus provides a subcortical circuit supporting memory and spatial navigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shane M O‘Mara

    2013-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei, a central component of Papez’ circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the anterior thalamic nuclei (anteromed...

  1. The anterior thalamus provides a subcortical circuit supporting memory and spatial navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Maciej M.; Ronnqvist, Kim C.; Tsanov, Marian; Vann, Seralynne D.; Wright, Nicholas F.; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Aggleton, John P.; O'Mara, Shane M.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), a central component of Papez' circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the ATN (anteromedial, anterovent...

  2. Modeling the dynamical effects of anesthesia on brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, ShiNung; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    General anesthesia is a neurophysiological state that consists of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility along with maintenance of physiological stability. General anesthesia has been used in the United States for more than 167 years. Now, using systems neuroscience paradigms how anesthetics act in the brain and central nervous system to create the states of general anesthesia is being understood. Propofol is one of the most widely used and the most widely studied anesthetics. Wh...

  3. Women's Voices in Italian Postcolonial Literature from the Horn of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lavagnino, Claire Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes works by two African Italian women writers of Somali descent, Ubax Cristina Ali Farah and Igiaba Scego, with a particular focus on representations of the voice and the body. Ali Farah and Scego, two of the most prominent authors of Italian postcolonial literature, address Italy's historical amnesia in their works through the personal stories/testimonies of their characters. The voices of Ali Farah's and Scego's protagonists narrate the intertwined histories betwee...

  4. QIU Chang-lin's Experience in the Differential Treatment of Senile Dementia Based on Phlegm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zu-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Senile dementia refers to the various dementia syndromes occurring in the geratic period, including Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VD),and mixed type dementia. It is mainly manifested by disturbance of intelligence and cognition, which falls into the TCM category of 'dementia', 'idiocy','amnesia', and 'melancholia'. At present, this disease is considered by TCM differentiation to be excess in superficiality and deficiency in origin, and should be treated for cleating away pathogens and strengthening the body resistance at the same time.

  5. Converting three general-cognitive function scales into Persian and assessment of their validity and reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Moin; Nima Khalighinejad; Arash Yusefi; Ziba Farajzadegan; Majid Barekatain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), Galveston Amnesia and orientation Test (GOAT) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) are three popular outcome measure tools used principally in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. We conducted this study to provide a Farsi version of these outcome scales for use in Iran. Methods: Following a comprehensive literature review, Farsi transcripts were prepared by "forward-backward" translation and reviewed by subject experts. After a pretest on...

  6. Converting Three General-Cognitive Function Scales into Persian and Assessment of Their Validity and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Moin, Payam; Khalighinejad, Nima; Yusefi, Arash; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Barekatain, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), Galveston Amnesia and orientation Test (GOAT) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) are three popular outcome measure tools used principally in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. We conducted this study to provide a Farsi version of these outcome scales for use in Iran. Methods: Following a comprehensive literature review, Farsi transcripts were prepared by “forward-backward” translation and reviewed by subject experts. After a pretest on a f...

  7. Rapid neocortical acquisition of long-term arbitrary associations independent of the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon, Tali; Moscovitch, Morris; Gilboa, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    Anterograde amnesia following hippocampal damage involves the loss of the capacity to form new declarative memories but leaves nondeclarative memory processes intact. Current theories of declarative memory suggest the existence of two complementary memory systems: a hippocampal-based system that specializes in rapid acquisition of specific events and a neocortical system that slowly learns through environmental statistical regularities and requires the initial support of the hippocampal syste...

  8. Análisis de métricas de similitud en razonamiento basado en casos para administrar proyectos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Guillermo Horacio; Berdun, Luis S.; Soria, Alvaro; Amandi, Analía; Campo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    La administración de proyectos de software es crucial para el desarrollo controlado de los productos de software. Sin embargo, cuando un administrador de proyectos experimentado abandona el proyecto y es reemplazado por alguien con menor experiencia y sin conocimiento del entorno del proyecto, aparece la Amnesia Organizacional. En efecto, administrar un proyecto de software se convierte en una tarea costosa, con incertidumbre y escasa garantía de éxito. En este contexto, Razonamiento Basado e...

  9. Lorazepam: A Weapon of Offence

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir; Aggarwal, Akashdeep

    2015-01-01

    The use of knock out drugs for perpetuation of crime has significantly increased in recent years. These drug facilitated crimes mainly involve robbery and sexual offences. Most of the drugs employed for these purposes affect the nervous system and bring a state of incapacitation and amnesia. The miscreants exploit these properties of drugs to commit such crimes. The unsuspecting travellers on public transport vehicles and women in disco parties are most vulnerable to such crimes. The unrestri...

  10. Ligustrazine Phosphate Ethosomes for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease, In Vitro and in Animal Model Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jun; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated transdermal administration of ligustrazine phosphate (LP), as an antioxidant, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The LP transdermal ethosomal system was designed and characterized. Franz-type diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the in vitro permeation studies. Furthermore, the effect of LP transdermal ethosomal system on AD was evaluated in the scopolamine-induced amnesia rats by evaluating the behavioral ...

  11. Different Training Procedures Recruit Either One or Two Critical Periods for Contextual Memory Consolidation, Each of Which Requires Protein Synthesis and PKA

    OpenAIRE

    Bourtchouladze, Roussoudan; Abel, Ted; Berman, Nathaniel; Gordon, Rachael; Lapidus, Kyle; Kandel, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    We have used a combined genetic and pharmacological approach to define the time course of the requirement for protein kinase A (PKA) and protein synthesis in long-term memory for contextual fear conditioning in mice. The time course of amnesia in transgenic mice that express R(AB) and have genetically reduced PKA activity in the hippocampus parallels that observed both in mice treated with inhibitors of PKA and mice treated with inhibitors of protein synthesis. This PKA- and protein synthesis...

  12. Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

  13. The effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on the learning of newborn mice by electric shock: interaction with caffeine and diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Zargar-Nattaj, Seyed Sadegh; Tayyebi, Pooya; Zangoori, Vahid; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Roodgari, Hasan; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholamali; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    Coriander has been recommended for the relief of pain, anxiety, flatulence, and loss of appetite. In traditional medicine, it is believed that coriander can induce some degree of amnesia in a child when his/her mother uses coriander during the pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on learning in second-generation mice. Ethanolic extract (2%) of coriander (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) was dissolved in sunflower oil (oil) as a vehicle and injected into the control ...

  14. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov A.V.; Opryshko V.I.

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats we...

  15. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumanthachar Joshi; Milind Parle

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg k...

  16. Frontoparietal cortical atrophy with gliosis in the gray matter of cerebral cortex: case report Atrofia cortical frontoparietal com gliose na substância cinzenta do córtex cerebral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques; Roberto Vieira de Mello; Luciano Montenegro

    2002-01-01

    The case of a patient who suffered from progressive amnesia, depressive humor, language and visuospatial disturbances, and hallucination episodies with interference at the daily living activities is reported. She had moderate neuropsichological diffuse deficits at the first examination, especially at the executive and visuo-constructive functions. Her cerebrospinal fluid test presented high total protein. Magnetic resonance image showed slight white matter increase in periventricular, semi-ov...

  17. Cerebral haemorrhage as the presenting feature of myeloproliferative disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondlapudi, Jyothi; O’Connor, Rory J; Mawer, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders predispose individuals to bleeding and thrombosis, often with devastating consequences. We report a 41-year-old man who presented with headache, amnesia and dysphagia due to cerebral haemorrhage. Extensive investigation revealed the cause of the neurological syndrome as an underlying essential thrombocytosis. The patient made a full recovery following extensive inpatient and community rehabilitation, returning to work after 6 months. We discuss the diagnosis and m...

  18. 〈Articles〉Considering Eating Behaviors at Night: Sleep Related Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jahyeon; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2011-01-01

    [abstract] Eating and sleep are two basic instincts of human being, essential to maintaining energetic lives. Abnormal circadian patterns of eating are observed in clinical field. Two disorders are known sleep related eating disorder and nocturnal eating syndrome. Eating behavior in sleep related eating disorder (SRED) is manifested by recurrent episodes of eating after arousals with or without subsequent amnesia. High calorie foods with carbohydrates and fats are frequently consumed such as ...

  19. Re-examination of the Controversial Coexistence of Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Misdiagnosis and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Robert J.; Ruff, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated wi...

  20. Spontaneous adverse event reports associated with zolpidem in Australia 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamou, Monsif; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R; Saini, Bandana; Fois, Romano A

    2011-12-01

    A prominent media publicity cluster during 2007-2008 in Australia linked the common hypnotic zolpidem to adverse drug reaction reports of parasomnias, amnesia, hallucinations and suicidality. The collection of adverse drug reaction data through spontaneous reporting systems is a mainstay of drug safety monitoring, but a stimulated reporting event such as this often renders such data uninterpretable. As such, we aimed to investigate whether these associations were present before the media cluster and then to quantify the effect of stimulated reporting on those four specific outcomes. Using disproportionality analyses we compared zolpidem to all other drugs in the database, and then separately to each of all hypnotics, then all benzodiazepines, and then temazepam alone, and did so in every year from 2001 to 2008. Year-by-year analyses of Reporting odds ratios for zolpidem exposure and adverse events of interest, adjusted for a number of covariates, revealed an association between zolpidem exposure and parasomnias, amnesia and hallucination both before and after the cluster of media publicity beginning in early 2007. The odds ratios increased significantly after the media publicity for only parasomnias and amnesia. Suicidality was increased in some analyses, but limited data make this outcome difficult to interpret. We conclude that zolpidem adverse drug reaction reports have higher odds for parasomnia, amnesia, hallucination and perhaps suicidality compared to either all other drugs or hypnotics, even before the media publicity cluster. However, the extant literature and the limitations of these spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction data do not allow us to conclude that these events are related causally to zolpidem. PMID:21481053

  1. An unusual presentation of visual hallucinations with zolpidem: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sai Krishna; Shareef S. Mabu

    2015-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug with rapid -onset and short duration of action. It is popularly used for the induction and maintenance of sleep in adults suffering from insomnia. It supersedes benzodiazepines with better tolerability and has fewer side effects such as less residual sedation and the potential for rebound insomnia and dependence is also less. Adverse neuropsychiatric reactions such as visual hallucinations, amnesia, sleepwalking and nocturnal eating are known to occur with zolpidem...

  2. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

    OpenAIRE

    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco; LIMA, Cristiane da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aes...

  3. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  4. Emotion strengthens high priority memory traces but weakens low priority memory traces

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Fryer, Kellie; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    When encountering emotional events, memory for those events is typically enhanced. But it has been unclear how emotionally arousing events influence memory for preceding information. Does emotional arousal induce retrograde amnesia or retrograde enhancement? The current study revealed that this depends on the top-down goal relevance of the preceding information. Across three studies, we found that emotional arousal induced by one image facilitated memory for the preceding neutral item when pe...

  5. Pantomime Terror Diasporic Music in a Time of War

    OpenAIRE

    Hutnyk, John

    2007-01-01

    I find it increasingly problematic to write analytically about ‘diaspora and music’ at a time of war. It seems inconsequential; the culture industry is not much more than a distraction; a fairytale diversion to make us forget a more sinister amnesia behind the stories we tell. This article nonetheless takes up debates about cultural expression in the field of diasporic musics in Britain. It examines instances of creative engagement with, and destabilization of, music genres by Fundamental and...

  6. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction and...... observed using positron emission tomography and fluor-18-labeled fluorodesoxyglucose. The neuropsychological deficits are related to the location of deficits in glucose metabolism....

  7. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of...

  8. [Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Iu G; Morozov, I S; Glozman, O M; Nerobkova, L N; Zhmurenko, L A

    1983-04-01

    The central neurotropic effects of 4-phenylpyracetam, a new phenyl analog of pyracetam, were studied and compared with the effects of pyracetam, morpholene and 4-phenylpyrrolidone. 4-Phenylpyracetam was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Unlike pyracetam, 4-phenylpyracetam exhibits a specific anticonvulsant action. When given in high doses, the compound under study produces psychodepressant effects. PMID:6403074

  9. Changes in cognition and continence as predictors of rehabilitation outcomes in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Kushner, MD; Doug Johnson-Greene, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to examine postacute changes in bowel and bladder continence and cognition after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in persons with long-term functional recovery to full independence. This case series included nine patients initially admitted to inpatient rehabilitation (IR) with severe TBI who had returned to prior responsibilities and functional independence by 8 to 15 mo. Patients had initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 to 6, posttraumatic amnesia durations of 1...

  10. John Seamon's Memory & Movies: What Films Can Teach Us about Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alan A

    2016-01-01

    From trauma to amnesia to senior moments, memory has been a major plot line in films since the 1942 classic, Random Harvest. John Seamon, an author and professor of psychology whose research includes how a camera aids memory and the impact of storytelling on memory, has shifted his lens to focus on how memory has been portrayed in one of the world's most beloved art forms. PMID:27408672

  11. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  12. Hierarchical organization of cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, M; Suzuki, W A; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the organization of memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. Evidence obtained in patients with late-onset amnesia resulting from medial temporal pathology has given rise to two opposing interpretations of the effects of such damage on long-term cognitive memory. One view is that cognitive memory, including memory for both facts and events, is served in a unitary manner by the hippocampus and its surrounding cortices; the other is that the basic function affected in amnesia is event memory, the memory for factual material often showing substantial preservation. Recent findings in patients with amnesia resulting from relatively selective hippocampal damage sustained early in life suggest a possible reconciliation of the two views. The new findings suggest that the hippocampus may be especially important for event as opposed to fact memory, with the surrounding cortical areas contributing to both. Evidence from neuroanatomical and neurobehavioural studies in monkeys is presented in support of this proposal. PMID:9368934

  13. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2000-11-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  14. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  15. Impairment of aversive memory reconsolidation by localized intracranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehberg, Jimmy; Levy, Dino; Zangen, Abraham

    2009-03-01

    Reconsolidation of long-term memory is blocked in animal models by macromolecular synthesis inhibitors, resulting in item-specific post-retrieval amnesia. The induction of such amnesia could ameliorate traumatic memories and phobias. However, this pharmacological approach is of limited value in humans because of toxicity. Here we report that reconsolidation of conditioned taste aversion in the rat is impaired by localized intracranial electrical stimulation. Lasting impairment was obtained only when stimulation was applied during memory reactivation and only to the dysgranular insular cortex bilaterally, which subserves the memory, but not to adjacent brain sites. The ability to learn a new association was not affected. The same method blocked new memory consolidation, but produced anterograde amnesia, reminiscent of the known effect of non-localized electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that localized electrical microstimulation, such as produced by deep-brain stimulation or deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, could be used to impair long-term memory if applied during memory reactivation, and could lead to the development of a novel treatment for intractable post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19200060

  16. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o. was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.

  17. Fish oil prevents oxidative stress and exerts sustained antiamnesic effect after global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; Matsushita, Makoto; Santos Previdelli, Isolde; Mori, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) causes hippocampal/cortical damage and the persistent loss of welltrained, long-term memory (retrograde amnesia). Fish oil (FO), a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, abolishes such amnesia in the absence of neurohistological protection. The present study investigated whether FO prevents ischemia-induced oxidative stress and whether such an action contributes to the lasting effect of FO on memory recovery. In a first experiment, FO was administered for 4 days prior to ischemia, and antioxidant status was subsequently measured after 24 h of reperfusion. In another experiment, naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze until they achieved asymptotic performance and then subjected to TGCI. One group of rats received FO as in the first experiment (i.e., 4 days prior to ischemia), whereas another group received FO for 4 days prior to ischemia plus 6 days postischemia. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 2-5 weeks after ischemia. TGCI depleted the level of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of protein carbonylation, indicating oxidative damage. Fish oil reversed oxidative damage to control levels. The same treatment that attenuated oxidative stress after 24 h of reperfusion also prevented retrograde amnesia assessed several weeks later. This antiamnesic effect afforded by short preischemia treatment was comparable to 10 days of treatment but not as consistent. These data indicate that an antioxidant action in the hyperacute phase of ischemia/reperfusion may contribute to the long-term, antiamnesic effect of FO. PMID:25714977

  18. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. To test behavioral deficits, an object recognition test was conducted in mouse. In this test, ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) impaired object recognition memory, but SM (200 mg/kg) prevented this impairment. To evaluate synaptic deficits, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampal slices were tested, as they are known to be vulnerable to ethanol and are associated with ethanol-induced amnesia. SM (10 and 100 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced long-term potentiation and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP deficits in the hippocampal slices. Therefore, these results suggest that SM prevents ethanol-induced amnesia by protecting the hippocampus from NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:27257009

  19. [Memory: clinico-pathologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyckaerts, C; Suarez, S; Hauw, J J

    1998-01-01

    Synaptic modifications are probably the basis of the memory processes that take place in the central nervous system. They have been studied in Aplysia or in hippocampal slices. How these minute alterations of the synaptic strength are integrated in larger neural systems is still poorly understood. In man, hippocampal lesions, when bilateral, cause a deficit in anterograde episodic memory. The loss of previously acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is limited. Procedural memory is spared. Young patients with hippocampal lesions remain able to learn how to read or to write (abilities that belong to semantic memories). Recordings obtained with intracerebral electrodes have shown that some neurons of the hippocampus act as "place cells". They fire when the animal is in a specific place of the experimental maze, an observation that suggests that the hippocampus acts as a map that may also be viewed as a context indicator (a "cognitive map"). Computer models have been devised to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus recorded the map of the activated synapses at a particular moment in time. This pattern of activity could secondarily be transferred to the isocortex during a process known as consolidation. The frontal lobe plays a role in attention, which greatly influences the memory process. It also plays a role in the various strategies that are used to recall a memory and in the analysis of the quality of the recall (metamemory). An asymmetry has been shown by the PET-scan: the left frontal lobe is activated during acquisition, and the right one during recall. The ability to integrate one's own memories in one's own history and consciousness (self-awareness or "autonoesis") also depends on the activity of the prefrontal region. The loss of acquired memories (retrograde amnesia) is most often observed in cases of large lesions of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Partial amnesias are difficult to separate from possibly localized deficits of a cognitive

  20. Effect of propofol anesthesia on short-term memory%丙泊酚麻醉对患者短期记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘馨烛; 陈斌; 朱莎莎

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察丙泊酚麻醉对患者短期记忆的影响.方法 选择无痛胃镜或肠镜检查的非住院患者67例,静注芬太尼和丙泊酚,待患者睫毛反射消失、OAA/S评分达0分开始进行胃镜或肠镜检查.检查结束后待患者OAA/S评分达5分后进行问卷调查.问卷调查内容包括给药前10min内患者的亲历事件、开始苏醒至OAA达5分之间的亲历事件以及患者检查前睡眠、精神状况等.结果 49.25%的患者发生了遗忘,其中发生顺行性遗忘、逆行性遗忘、顺行性十逆行性遗忘的患者分别有21.2%、69.7%和9.1%.发生记忆障碍与无记忆障碍患者的性别、年龄、职业类型、丙泊酚用约总量、术前情绪、检查时间、恢复时间、是否发生梦境的差异无统计学意义,无记忆障碍者的平均文化水平构成更低,用药量更大(P<0.05).结论 丙泊酚镇静麻醉可导致一定程度的短期记忆障碍发生,其中逆行性遗忘较顺行性遗忘发生更多.%Objective To investigate the effect of propofol anesthesia on short-term memory.Methods Sixty-seven outpatients undergoing gastroscopy or colonoscopy received the combination of propofol and fentanyl for anesthesia.At loss of eye lash reflex and Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scores equal to 0, the procedure started.Interviews were conducted postoperatively when patients recovery from anaethesia reaching an OAA/S score of 5.The questionnaire designed for the patients comprised the events of experience during 10 minutes prior to administration and during eyes open and OAA/S score of 5, and state of insomnia and emotion before the examination.Results 49.25% of patients manifested amnesia of which anterograde amnesia,retrograde amnesia, and antero + retrograde amnesia account for 21.2%, 69.7% and 9.1%,respectively.There was no significant difference in age, gender, occupation, totoal propofol consumption, emotion before the study, examination time

  1. Intranasal midazolam administration enhances amnesic effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Takao; Kawano, Takashi; Yamanaka, Daiki; Tateiwa, Hiroki; Urakawa, Manami; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2016-06-01

    Intranasal (i.n.) administration of midazolam has been shown to be effective and safe for its sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, there has been no investigation on the influence of i.n. administration on midazolam-induced anterograde amnesia. In addition, although the potential of direct drug delivery from the nose to the central nervous system (CNS) has recently become a topic of great interest, it remains unclear whether this pathway is also involved after i.n. midazolam. In this study, we examined the efficacy and the underlying mechanism of i.n. administration compared with intramuscular (i.m.) administration on midazolam-induced amnesia in rats. Equivalent doses of 0.6 mg/kg midazolam were administered via either the i.m or the i.n. route. Anterograde amnesia was assessed by a contextual/cued fear conditioning test. Each animal was conditioned 20 min after drug administration and then tested for a freezing response 24 h later. Midazolam administration by either route produced a similar level of light sedation (minimum spontaneous activity). However, i.n. administration of midazolam induced significantly less freezing behavior compared with i.m. midazolam. Furthermore, in rats with disrupted electrical input from the olfactory epithelium after an olfactotoxicant 3-methylindole administration, the i.n.-mediated enhanced amnesic effect of midazolam was not observed. Our findings indicate that i.n midazolam could probably generate olfactory signals to the brain via benzodiazepine receptors and, compared with i.m. administration, can produce a more significant amnesic effect without alteration in sedative levels. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:26943484

  2. Impaired Basal Forebrain Induces Spontaneous Confabulation%基底前脑受损导致自发性虚构案例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁征; 高建步; 尹文刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whether the impaired basal forebrain can induce spontaneous confabulation or not is a controversial issue', the study was carried out to explore it. Methods: Three patients who underwent rupture and repair of anterior communicating artery aneurysm were selected and assessed in the following 5 to 28 days after their onsets. The assessments included spontaneous confabulation, provoked confabulation, temporal context confusion, memory, executive functions, and so on. Results: The patient with no impairment in the CT scans is normal, the patient with impairment of basal forebrain has amnesia and moderate spontaneous confabulation, the patient with impairment of both basal forebrain and frontal lobe exhibits amnesia, spontaneous confabulation and personality change. Conclusion: Impairment of basal forebrain alone is sufficient for amnesia and spontaneous confabulation.%目的:探讨基底前脑受损是否导致自发性虚构.方法:收集三例前交通动脉瘤破裂的病人,在病人发病后5到28天期间,进行测量,测量项目包括自发性虚构、诱发性虚构、时间背景混淆性、智力、记忆力、执行功能等.结果:在CT资料上没有可见损伤的病人,一切表现正常;仅仅基底前脑损伤的病人,出现了顺行性遗忘和中等程度的自发性虚构;而基底前脑和额叶同时受损的病人,出现了顺行性遗忘、明显的自发性虚构和人格改变.结论:仅仅基底前脑损伤就可以导致自发性虚构.

  3. Effects of Tahitian Noni Juice on Ketamine Anaesthesia in Some Local Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Bayo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tahitian Noni Juices (TNJ from Morinda citrifolia is known with some therapeutic properties that include; anxiety and stress relief, production of calm and relax state, improvement of mood and sense of well being, and sleep restoration. This study attempt to evaluate TNJ effects in some ketamine sedated local rabbits. Six adult rabbits (1.5-1.7 kg were given intramuscular injection of 5% ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, following which the quality of sedation w as evaluated using: muscle relaxation/rigidity, presence or loss of pain sensation, quality of amnesia as well as heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature as control values. TNJ was administered orally at 2 mL/kg twice daily for 28 days during which period ketamine injection was repeated at 7 days interval. Presence of muscle relaxation or rigidity, presence or absence of pain sensation, quality of amnesia as well as heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were evaluated. Duration of sleep before and after noni administration was 40.7±9.6 and 46.8±13.7 min, respectively. There was improved quality of amnesia and behavioral responses. Rough induction and recovery gave way to smooth induction and recovery, and spontaneous movement during anesthesia was minimized. Salivation w as abolished in all except one rabbit. Mean basal heart rate before and after administration of noni were 204.8±48.4 and 264.4±35.6 beats per min, respectively. Basal respiratory rate also increased from 192±46.3 to 317.6±66.4 breaths per min. TNJ produced appreciable level of calmness, muscle relaxation, and loss of anxiety, and could be useful for premedication prior to aneasthesia.

  4. Cognitive-enhancing activities of the polyprenol preparation Ropren® in gonadectomized β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-04-01

    The present preclinical study was designed to examine the effects of prolonged Ropren® administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, 28days) in a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. The experimental model was created by intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid (25-35) into gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, 28days) supplementation. Ropren® was administered to the GDX rats and GDX rats treated with TP. Memory performance was assessed using the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests and the spontaneous locomotor activity was assessed using the open field test. Treatment with Ropren® significantly improved and restored the cognitive ability of GDX rats with β-amyloid (25-35)-induced amnesia in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze. Co-administration of Ropren® with TP exerted a markedly synergistic memory-enhancing effect in the GDX rats with β-amyloid (25-35)-induced amnesia on the same models of memory testing. Ropren® administered alone or together with TP significantly enhanced crossing, frequency of rearing and grooming of the GDX rats with β-amyloid (25-35)-induced amnesia in the open field test. These results indicate that Ropren® has a marked memory-enhancing action in the experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in male rats with altered levels of androgens. PMID:26821186

  5. Síndrome de ingesta nocturna como efecto colateral del zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Valiensi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El zolpidem es una droga hipnótica utilizada para el tratamiento del insomnio. Disminuye la latencia del sueño, el número total de despertares y aumenta el tiempo total del sueño respetando en general su arquitectura. Se cree que aumenta la fase 3 del sueño lento profundo. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar 8 casos de síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño y conductas automáticas complejas asociadas a sonambulismo como efecto colateral del zolpidem. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 8 pacientes tratados con zolpidem que referían ingesta nocturna de alimentos con amnesia total o parcial del episodio. Se presentan 6 mujeres y 2 hombres, entre 32 y 72 años (media: 58 años, 7 tratados con zolpidem 10 mg/noche y 1 con zolpidem 12.5 mg/noche de liberación prolongada. El tiempo de exposición previo al desarrollo de eventos fue de 1 a 180 días (media de 39.8. El número de episodios relatados era de 1 a 8/noche (media 2.5 asociado con amnesia. Los episodios desaparecieron por completo en el 100% de los casos al suspender la medicación. El síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño es una parasomnia de sueño lento profundo que consiste en episodios de ingesta de alimento o bebida durante la noche, con amnesia parcial o completa del episodio. El zolpidem podría inducir el síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño en aproximadamente el 1% de pacientes, aunque creemos que es un efecto adverso que está subdiagnosticado. Se resuelve simplemente suspendiendo la medicación.

  6. Pharmacological evalution of Marsilea qudrifolia plant extracts against Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini .G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease which is age related. The whole plant of Marsilea quadrifolia isused to enhance the memorypower. The present work was undertaken to justify the traditional claim of the plant Marsilea quadrifolia as anti alzheimeric agent in mice. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant was selected for the study. The exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze, Morris water maze and Ymaze were used to evaluate the learning and memory, where as scopolamine is the natural ageing inducing amnesia served as interoceptive models. Two doses of (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg ethanolic extract of Marsilea qudrifolia were orally administered for seven successive days in separate groups of animals and the doses were selected according to the animal weight. The both doses of ethanolic extract of plant marsilea significantly improved the learning and memory in mice. Furthermore the both doses were significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4mg/kg I.P. The anti oxidant property and presence of steroids of Marsilea quadrifolia may be contributing favorably to memory enhancement effect. Since scopolamine induced amnesia was reversed by Marsilea, it is possible that the beneficial effect on learning and memory was due to facilitation of cholinergic transmission in mouse brain. However further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation Marsilea quadrifolia has shown promise a memory enhancing agent in all the laboratory models employed.

  7. Dead Spaces, Living Architecture and the Functionality of Death in Post-Conflict Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana El Richani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Death has the ability to influence an architectural site in such a way that it defines its identity. Bullet holes, political graffiti, and scarred buildings are evidence of past events that have involved death and continue to do so. However, recognizing death through these sites allows post-conflict nations a chance to construct a narrative that was once hidden away. These sites allow death to function in a positive manner—if amnesia-driven urban development projects do not erase them first, that is.

  8. Dead Spaces, Living Architecture and the Functionality of Death in Post-Conflict Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Diana El Richani

    2015-01-01

    Death has the ability to influence an architectural site in such a way that it defines its identity. Bullet holes, political graffiti, and scarred buildings are evidence of past events that have involved death and continue to do so. However, recognizing death through these sites allows post-conflict nations a chance to construct a narrative that was once hidden away. These sites allow death to function in a positive manner—if amnesia-driven urban development projects do not erase them first,...

  9. Pain and anxiety management for pediatric dental procedures using various combinations of sedative drugs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazal, Giath; Fareed, Wamiq Musheer; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2016-07-01

    For fearful and uncooperative children behavioral management techniques are used. In order to control the pain and anxiety in pedodontic patients, pharmacologic sedation, anesthesia and analgesia are commonly used. Midazolam is commonly used as an oral sedation agent in children; it has several features such as safety of use, quick onset and certain degree of amnesia that makes it a desirable sedation agent in children. This review paper discusses various aspects of oral midazolam, ketamine and their combinations in conscious sedation including, advantages of oral route of sedation, pharmacokinetics, range of oral doses, and antagonists for clinical dental treatment procedures. PMID:27330369

  10. 短暂性全面性遗忘症3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维星; 曾庆鑫; 王东

    2006-01-01

    短暂性全面性遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)是指患者短期内突然不能接受新的信息而保留远期记忆,常在24小时内缓解的一种综合征。TGA是短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)中椎-基底动脉系统TIA的一种特殊类型,临床上少见,现报告我院收治的3例患者如下。

  11. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  12. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  13. Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Keun; Na, Hyoung Il; Yu, Hyeon; Byun, Jun Soo; Youn, Young Chul; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Gi Hyeon [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases.

  14. 老年人短暂性完全遗忘综合症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾三鹏; 杨华; 任礼静; 高红梅

    2002-01-01

    @@ 短暂性完全遗忘综合症(transient global amnesia syndrome, 简称TGAS), 首例于1956年由Bender描述, 1958年Fisher和Adams正式命名为TGAS. 近年来被认为是一种独立的疾病, 其特点为突然不能接受新的信息, 近记忆丧失, 保留远期记忆, 常在24小时内恢复. 现将我们诊治的3例报告如下.

  15. 短暂性全面性遗忘症2例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈怀红

    2005-01-01

    短暂性全面遗忘症(transient global amnesia,TGA)是一种以一过性记忆丧失为主要特征的临床综合征,迄今其确切病因及发病机制尚未明确,国内报告较少.为进一步提高临床对本病的认识,现将我科近年收治的2个TGA病例报告如下.

  16. How the brain goes out of its mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Dreaming is characterized by formal visual imagery (akin to hallucination), by inconstancy of time, place and person (akin to disorientation), by a scenario-like knitting together of disparate elements (akin to confabulation) and by an inability to recall (akin to amnesia). Taken together, these four dream features are similar to the delirium of organic brain disease. By studying the brain during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep--the phase of sleep in which most dreaming occurs--we can begin to understand its basis in the altered neurophysiology of REM.

  17. Brain tumor and psychiatric manifestations: a case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Danan, Deepa; Brenner, Ronald; Bogunovic, Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Brain tumors may present multiple psychiatric symptoms such as depression, personality change, abulia, auditory and visual hallucinations, mania, panic attacks, or amnesia. A case of a 79-year-old woman who presented with depressive symptoms but showed minimal neurological signs and symptoms is discussed. Neuroimaging revealed a brain tumor in the left parietal lobe, and patient underwent neurosurgical treatment and subsequently received chemotherapy and radiation. Some patients with neurologically silent brain tumors may present with psychiatric symptoms only. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with a change in mental status regardless of a lack of neurological symptoms. PMID:15328904

  18. Recurrent prolonged fugue states as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta A Khwaja; Ashish Duggal; Amit Kulkarni; Neera Chaudhry; Meena Gupta; Debashish Chowdhury; Vikram Bohra

    2013-01-01

    A fugue state is defined as an altered state of consciousness with varying degrees of motor activity and amnesia for the event. It may last for hours to days and may be psychogenic or organic in nature. Epileptic fugue states can be encountered in patients with absence or complex partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus or may occur as a postictal phenomenon in patients with generalized seizures. ′′absence status epilepticus′′ (AS) is rare and seen in only 2.6% of the cases with ′′childhood a...

  19. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyomasu, Teruo; Nakashima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomie; Shida, Kenshiro (Ohmuta Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1982-10-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis.

  20. Pick 'n' mix: neuropatholgical detection of peri-tumour taupathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin

    2013-11-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat recurrent oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 tumours. Potential morbitities include steroid-responsive radiation necrosis and radiation leucoencephalopathy, characterised pathologically by reactive astrogliosis, focal necrosis, demyelination, axonal loss, and clinically by progressive subcortical deficits (ataxia, amnesia, incontinence, cognitive decline), with relative sparing of cortical function. Although subcortical features may overlap with neurodegenerative conditions (eg frontotemporal dementia), focal cortical atrophy of FTD causes loss of language function in addition to memory, and specific histopathological features characterise FTD subtypes (eg Pick disease). Association between mitotic disease and tauopathy has not been reported widely, but co-existence is possible. Diagnostic accuracy may guide management.

  1. Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases

  2. The Pleiades mass function: models versus observations

    CERN Document Server

    Moraux, E; Bouvier, J

    2004-01-01

    Two stellar-dynamical models of binary-rich embedded proto-Orion-Nebula-type clusters that evolve to Pleiades-like clusters are studied with an emphasis on comparing the stellar mass function with observational constraints. By the age of the Pleiades (about 100 Myr) both models show a similar degree of mass segregation which also agrees with observational constraints. This thus indicates that the Pleiades is well relaxed and that it is suffering from severe amnesia. It is found that the initial mass function (IMF) must have been indistinguishable from the standard or Galactic-field IMF for stars with mass m 2 Mo.

  3. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis. (author)

  4. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  5. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.)

  6. The novel nootropic compound DM232 (UNIFIRAM) ameliorates memory impairment in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ghelardini; Nicoletta Galeotti; Fulvio Gualtieri; Dina Manetti; Corrado Bucherelli; Elisabetta Baldi; Alessandro Bartolini

    2002-01-01

    The favorable pharmacological profile exhibited by piracetam stimulated the synthesis of related compounds potentially endowed with a higher nootropic potency. The antiamnesic and procognitive activity of DM232 (unifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, was investigated. Mouse passive avoidance and rat Morris water maze and Social learning tests were employed. DM232 (0.001–1 mg/kg i.p. – 0.01–0.1 1mg/kg p.o.) prevented amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), mecamy...

  7. DM235 (sunifiram): a novel nootropic with potential as a cognitive enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini C; Galeotti N.; Gualtieri F.; Romanelli M; Bucherelli C.; Baldi E.; Bartolini A.

    2002-01-01

    DM235 (sunifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, prevented the amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 i.p.), after intraperitoneal (0.001–0.1 mg kg–1) or oral (0.01–0.1 mg kg–1) administration, as shown by a passive avoidance test in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DM235 was comparable to that of well-known nootropic drugs such as piracetam (30–100 mg kg–1 i.p.), aniracetam (100 mg kg–1 p.o.) or rolipram (30 mg kg–1 p.o.). DM235 also prevented mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1...

  8. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ladde Shivakumar; Gouda Shivaraj T; N. Venkat Rao; Shalam; Verma Richa

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation t...

  9. El punzante pasado : sobre arte, historia y memoria en el estado español

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Aliaga, Juan

    2012-01-01

    En el texto se plantea la pregunta, y se trata de ofrecer algunas respuestas, sobre la ausencia durante muchos años de trabajos artísticos surgidos en el estado español sobre el pasado histórico, y concretamente sobre el periodo de la II República, la guerra civil y la dictadura franquista. Asimismo se propone una reflexión sobre la amnesia generada en la etapa de la transición a la democracia tras la muerte de Franco. Se estudian distintas propuestas artísticas que han abordado desde finales...

  10. Population-based, inception cohort study of the incidence, course, and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury after motor vehicle collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Boyle, Eleanor; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    -up. RESULTS: Of 7170 adults injured in a motor vehicle collision over the 2-year inception period, 1716 (24%) met our cohort definition of MTBI. There were more women affected (53%), and MTBI was most common in the 18- to 23-year-old group. Most were not hospitalized (73%), but 28% reported loss of...... problems, having headaches, having low back pain, and having thoracic back pain. Loss of consciousness and posttraumatic amnesia were not associated with recovery. CONCLUSIONS: MTBI affects almost a quarter of persons reporting an injury after a traffic collision. The median time to recovery is 100 days...

  11. Le cas K. Königsberg, Kant, Kaliningrad… K, ou la métamorphose!

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Deguy

    2012-01-01

    «What’s in a name? », asked themselves Romeo and Juliet (II, ii: 45), forced by the patronymic logic of discrepancy, more powerful than that of a shared love. Within the heart of Europe after WWII, even The Name Berlin, written by Maurice Blanchot in an article for the “Gulliver”, a magazine owned by Italo Calvino and Elio Vittorini, is a place of disunion and metamorphosis – of amnesia – of those that, speaking the same language, transitioned from one world to another, from one story to anot...

  12. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aesthetic experience arguing that music can be a privileged memory device still nowadays. To test our hypothesis, we rehearsed the analysis of the song Triste Bahia, by Caetano Veloso.

  13. Extravíos, rememoración e identidad en " Del corazón todavía " (2008), de Silda Cordoliani

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Velázquez, Mariana Libertad

    2012-01-01

    El cuento "Del corazón todavía" (2008), de Silda Cordoliani propone la construcción de un sujeto femenino interpelado por su historia personal. La protagonista de este relato busca, por medio de alteraciones de la memoria como la amnesia, la alomnesia, la hipermnesia o la paramnesia, construir parcelas de pasado que justifiquen la contemporaneidad deseada, imaginada o vivida por ella. De ahí que, a partir de las nociones en torno a la identidad esbozadas por Judith Butler en "Dar cuenta de sí...

  14. ANTIAMNESIC EFFECT OF THE TWO NOVEL K-OPIOID AGONISTS, VA-100 AND VA-101, IN THE MOUSE PASSIVE AVOIDANCE TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Di Cesare Mannelli, L.; A. Cappelli; M.ANZINI; Bartolini, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the two novel k-opioid agonists (VA-100, VA-101) on memory processes were evaluated with the mouse passive avoidance test. The administration of VA-100 (50–100 mg kg–1 p.o.) and VA-101 (100 mg kg–1 p.o.) administered 20 min before the training session prevented nor-binaltorphimine (4.9 mg per mouse i.c.v.), scopolamine (1.5 mg kg–1 i.p.), mecamylamine (20 mg kg–1 i.p.), diphenhydramine (20 mg kg–1 i.p.), and baclofen (2 mg kg–1 i.p.) amnesia. A...

  15. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  16. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed. PMID:27322885

  17. Memory for Public Events in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: The Importance of Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Roxane; Joubert, Sven; Benoit, Sophie; Dostie, Valérie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2016-01-22

    Ribot's law refers to the better preservation of remote memories compared with recent ones that presumably characterizes retrograde amnesia. Even if Ribot-type temporal gradient has been extensively studied in retrograde amnesia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), this pattern has not been consistently found. One explanation for these results may be that rehearsal frequency rather than remoteness accounts for the better preservation of these memories. Thus, the aim of present study was to address this question by studying retrograde semantic memory in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 20), mild AD (n = 20) and in healthy older controls (HC; n = 19). In order to evaluate the impact of repetition as well as the impact of remoteness, we used a test assessing memory for enduring and transient public events that occurred in the recent and remote past. Results show no clear temporal gradient across time periods (1960-1975; 1976-1990; 1991-2005; 2006-2011), but a better performance was observed in all three groups for enduring compared with transient events. Moreover, although deficits were globally found in both patients groups compared with HC, more specific analyses revealed that aMCI patients were only impaired on transient events while AD patients were impaired on both transient and enduring events. Exploratory analyses also revealed a tendency suggesting preservation of remote transient events in aMCI. These findings are discussed with regards to memory consolidation models. PMID:26836162

  18. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  19. Abraham Joshua Heschel and Nostra Aetate: Shaping the Catholic Reconsideration of Judaism during Vatican II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Furnal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Nostra Aetate is only comprised of five short paragraphs, this document represents a turning point, not just for Catholic-Jewish relations, but also sketches the fundamental aims of embodying the Christian faith in a pluralistic age. There is a complex but important narrative that needs to be revisited so that we do not forget the ways in which Catholic learning has developed, and how this development has often been prompted by non-Catholics. In this article, I will re-examine some crucial details in the back-story of the formulation of Nostra Aetate and offer some observations about the potential consequences of omitting these details. My argument is that some recent events and scholarship suffer from a form of amnesia about the role that Jewish people have played in the development of Catholic learning—a form of amnesia that manifests in explicit proselytizing tendencies. In particular, I want to highlight the role that Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel played during the Second Vatican Council as an instructive example for Catholic-Jewish dialogue today.

  20. Anxiety in Children Undergoing VCUG: Sedation or No Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Herd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Voiding cystourethrograms are distressing for children and parents. Nonpharmacological methods reduce distress. Pharmacological interventions for VCUG focus on sedation as well as analgesia, anxiolysis, and amnesia. Sedation has cost, time, and safety issues. Which agents and route should we use? Are we sure that sedation does not influence the ability to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux? Methods. Literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Review of comparative studies found. Results. Seven comparative studies including two randomised controlled trials were reviewed. Midazolam given orally (0.5-0.6 mg/kg or intranasally (0.2 mg/kg is effective with no apparent effect on voiding dynamics. Insufficient evidence to recommend other sedating agents was found. Deeper sedating agents may interfere with voiding dynamics. Conclusion. Midazolam reduces the VCUG distress, causes amnesia, and does not appear to interfere with voiding dynamics. Midazolam combined with simple analgesia is an effective method to reduce distress to children undergoing VCUG.

  1. Antiamnesic Effects of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Mugwagwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crinum macowanii has been found to contain alkaloids that have activity against acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo ability of hydroethanolic crude extract of Crinum macowanii to ameliorate memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Thirty-six male Balb/c mice weighing around 25–35 g were employed in the present investigation. Y-maze and novel object recognition apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioural models, and scopolamine-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioural model. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o. was administered in single doses to the mice. Donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o. was used as a positive control agent. C. macowanii extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in spontaneous alternation performance in the Y-maze task. C. macowanii 40 mg/kg showed significant activity (p<0.05 versus negative control, comparable to that of the positive control. C. macowanii also showed memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the long-term memory novel object recognition performance as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in the discrimination index. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii may be a useful memory restorative mediator in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  2. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  3. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  4. Memory consolidation from seconds to weeks: A three-stage neural network model with autonomous reinstatement dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fiebig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Declarative long-term memories are not created at an instant. Gradual stabilization and temporally shifting dependence of acquired declarative memories on different brain regions - called systems consolidation - can be tracked in time by lesion experiments. The observation of temporally graded retrograde amnesia following hippocampal lesions, points to a gradual transfer of memory from hippocampus to neocortical long-term memory. Spontaneous reactivations of hippocampal memories, as observed in place cell reactivations during slow-wave-sleep, are supposed to drive neocortical reinstatements and facilitate this process.We propose a functional neural network implementation of these ideas and furthermore suggest an extended three-stage framework that also includes the prefrontal cortex and bridges the temporal chasm between working memory percepts on the scale of seconds and consolidated long-term memory on the scale of weeks or months.We show that our three-stage model can autonomously produce the necessary stochastic reactivation dynamics for successful episodic memory consolidation. The resulting learning system is shown to exhibit classical memory effects seen in experimental studies, such as retrograde and anterograde amnesia after simulated hippocampal lesioning; furthermore the model reproduces peculiar biological findings on memory modulation, such as retrograde facilitation of memory after suppressed acquisition of new long-term memories - similar to the effects of benzodiazepines on memory.

  5. Influence of isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M Bunting

    2016-01-01

    Results: On a cellular level, isoflurane administered at high doses (general anesthesia prevented initiation of transcription, but did not stop transcription of Arc and Zif268 mRNA initiated prior to anesthesia. On a behavioral level, the same level of isoflurane anesthesia produced anterograde amnesia for fear conditioning when administered before and during training, but did not produce retrograde amnesia when administered immediately after training. Conclusions: General anesthesia with isoflurane prevents initiation of learning-related transcription but does not stop ongoing transcription of two plasticity-related IEGs, Arc and Zif268, a pattern of disruption that parallels the effects of isoflurane on memory formation. Combined with published research on the effects of volatile anesthetics on memory in behaving animals, our data suggests that different levels of anesthesia affect memory via different mechanisms: general anesthesia prevents elevation of mRNA levels of Arc and Zif268 which are necessary for normal memory formation, while anesthesia at lower doses affects the strength of memory by affecting levels of plasticity-related proteins.

  6. Atypical parkinsonism of Japan: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex of the Kii peninsula of Japan (Muro disease): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Shigeki; Kokubo, Yasumasa

    2005-08-01

    An update of the endemic parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) frequently associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the high prevalence ALS focus of the Kii peninsula of Japan is presented. The initial symptom was parkinsonian gait or hypobulia/amnesia, which was followed by akinesia, rigidity, occasional tremor, bradyphrenia, abulia and amnesia, and finally by akinetic mutism. In several years, most of the patients developed ALS symptoms such as muscle atrophy, bulbar palsy, and upper motor neuron signs. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain showed marked atrophy of the temporal and frontal lobes and the cerebral blood flow reduction on single-photon emission computed tomography. Marked loss of nerve cells associated with abundant neurofibrillar tangles (NFTs) in the entire central nervous system, most predominantly in the brainstem and temporal lobe was characteristic. Concomitant ALS pathology involving the upper and lower motor neurons was common, and senile plaques were absent in most cases. NFTs consisted of twisted tubules on electron microscopy. Western blot of tau protein showed three bands consisting of six tau isoforms, similar to those of Alzheimer's disease. A family history of ALS/PDC was recorded in more than 70% of patients, but no abnormal mutation or polymorphism was found in the genes of SOD1, tau, and apolipoprotein E. Familial nature and continuing morbidity of Kii ALS/PDC suggest that genetic factors may be more likely in its pathogenesis. PMID:16092099

  7. Pharmacological characterization of memoquin, a multi-target compound for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Capurro

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function, dementia and altered behavior. Over 30 million people worldwide suffer from AD and available therapies are still palliative rather than curative. Recently, Memoquin (MQ, a quinone-bearing polyamine compound, has emerged as a promising anti-AD lead candidate, mainly thanks to its multi-target profile. MQ acts as an acetylcholinesterase and β-secretase-1 inhibitor, and also possesses anti-amyloid and anti-oxidant properties. Despite this potential interest, in vivo behavioral studies with MQ have been limited. Here, we report on in vivo studies with MQ (acute and sub-chronic treatments; 7-15 mg/kg per os carried out using two different mouse models: i scopolamine- and ii beta-amyloid peptide- (Aβ- induced amnesia. Several aspects related to memory were examined using the T-maze, the Morris water maze, the novel object recognition, and the passive avoidance tasks. At the dose of 15 mg/kg, MQ was able to rescue all tested aspects of cognitive impairment including spatial, episodic, aversive, short and long-term memory in both scopolamine- and Aβ-induced amnesia models. Furthermore, when tested in primary cortical neurons, MQ was able to fully prevent the Aβ-induced neurotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress. The results support the effectiveness of MQ as a cognitive enhancer, and highlight the value of a multi-target strategy to address the complex nature of cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  8. Tc-99m HMPAO brain uptake patterns in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional gamma camera SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO (10 MBq/kg patient weight) was carried out in 21 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), fulfilling the criteria established by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the ADRDA criteria (nine with amnesia as the main symptom [group 1], 12 with amnesia, aphasia, and/or apraxia and agnosia [group 2], and eight age-matched control subjects. Perfusion was quantitatively studied by means of cerebrum-cerebellum activity ratios. In group 1, perfusion deficits in the mesial cortex of the temporal lobes (right, 0.70; left, 0.68) were found, and ratios were significantly lower than in the control group (right, 0.77; left, 0.76 [P < .05]). Group 2 showed low ratios throughout both temporal lobes (mesial and lateral cortex), bilaterally in the posterior parietal cortex (right, 0.69; left, 0.66 [control: right, 0.80; left, 0.81] [P < .001]), and left frontal cortex (0.75 [control, 0.79] [P < .05]). In conclusion, SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO identifies perfusion deficits in patients with DAT, and these correlate well with the clinical findings and are significantly different from those in the control group

  9. Memory retrieval by activating engram cells in mouse models of early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dheeraj S; Arons, Autumn; Mitchell, Teryn I; Pignatelli, Michele; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2016-03-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and subsequent loss of broader cognitive functions. Memory decline in the early stages of AD is mostly limited to episodic memory, for which the hippocampus has a crucial role. However, it has been uncertain whether the observed amnesia in the early stages of AD is due to disrupted encoding and consolidation of episodic information, or an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory information. Here we show that in transgenic mouse models of early AD, direct optogenetic activation of hippocampal memory engram cells results in memory retrieval despite the fact that these mice are amnesic in long-term memory tests when natural recall cues are used, revealing a retrieval, rather than a storage impairment. Before amyloid plaque deposition, the amnesia in these mice is age-dependent, which correlates with a progressive reduction in spine density of hippocampal dentate gyrus engram cells. We show that optogenetic induction of long-term potentiation at perforant path synapses of dentate gyrus engram cells restores both spine density and long-term memory. We also demonstrate that an ablation of dentate gyrus engram cells containing restored spine density prevents the rescue of long-term memory. Thus, selective rescue of spine density in engram cells may lead to an effective strategy for treating memory loss in the early stages of AD. PMID:26982728

  10. Posttraumatic intrusive symptoms across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; O'Donnell, Meaghan L; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick

    2011-06-01

    Reexperiencing symptoms are a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the pattern of reexperiencing symptoms in non-PTSD posttraumatic disorders. This study recruited 1084 traumatically injured patients during hospital admission and conducted follow-up assessment 12 months later (N = 817, 75%). Twelve months after injury, 22% of patients reported a psychiatric disorder they had never experienced prior to the traumatic injury. One-third of patients with a non-PTSD disorder satisfied the PTSD reexperiencing criteria. Whereas patients with a non-PTSD disorder were more likely to experience intrusive memories, nightmares, psychological distress and physiological reactivity to reminders, only patients with PTSD were likely to experience flashback memories (OR: 11.41, 95% CI: 6.17-21.09). The only other symptom that was distinctive to PTSD was dissociative amnesia (OR: 4.50, 95% CI: 2.09-9.71). Whereas intrusive memories and reactions are common across posttraumatic disorders, flashbacks and dissociative amnesia are distinctive to PTSD. PMID:21159353

  11. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems. PMID:25588455

  12. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladde Shivakumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation tested on Actophotometer. In case of passive avoidance paradigm all dose of polyherbal formulation have shown an increased step-down latency (SDL, decreased time spent in shock zone and no of errors. SR-105 also reverse sodium nitrite induced amnesia and decreases lithium induced head twitches. In the present study. Polyherbal formulation SR-105, showed elevation of acetylcholine level by significant reduction of cholinesterase activity in rat’s brain and ultimately improved memory. In the light of above, it may be worthwhile to explore the potential of this formulation in the management of Alzheimer patients.

  13. Memory-enhancing activity of Rose alba in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naikwade Nilofar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder currently without an effective treatment. Impairment of memory is the initial and most significant symptom of AD. Memantine is the first novel class of AD medications acting on the glutaminergic system and produces symptomatic improvement in learning. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam, and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are being used to improve memory, mood, and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Rose alba (RA on learning and memory in mice. Male Swiss albino mice (3 months old weighing around 25 g were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. RA (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. was administered for eight successive days to the mice. Piracetam (200 mg/kg i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. RA improved learning and memory of mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. RA significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.. The results indicate that the aqueous extract of calyces of RA might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  14. Loss of quinone reductase 2 function selectively facilitates learning behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Bastianetto, Stephane; Brouillette, Jonathan; Tse, YiuChung; Boutin, Jean A; Delagrange, Philippe; Wong, TakPan; Sarret, Philippe; Quirion, Rémi

    2010-09-22

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with deficits in learning and memory with age as well as in Alzheimer's disease. Using DNA microarray, we demonstrated the overexpression of quinone reductase 2 (QR2) in the hippocampus in two models of learning deficits, namely the aged memory impaired rats and the scopolamine-induced amnesia model. QR2 is a cytosolic flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of its substrate and enhances the production of damaging activated quinone and ROS. QR2-like immunostaining is enriched in cerebral structures associated with learning behaviors, such as the hippocampal formation and the temporofrontal cortex of rat, mouse, and human brains. In cultured rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, selective inhibitors of QR2, namely S26695 and S29434, protected against menadione-induced cell death by reversing its proapoptotic action. S26695 (8 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited scopolamine-induced amnesia. Interestingly, adult QR2 knock-out mice demonstrated enhanced learning abilities in various tasks, including Morris water maze, object recognition, and rotarod performance test. Other behaviors related to anxiety (elevated plus maze), depression (forced swim), and schizophrenia (prepulse inhibition) were not affected in QR2-deficient mice. Together, these data suggest a role for QR2 in cognitive behaviors with QR2 inhibitors possibly representing a novel therapeutic strategy toward the treatment of learning deficits especially observed in the aged brain. PMID:20861374

  15. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-31

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  16. Executive functioning in chronic alcoholism and Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharasingam, Malini; Macniven, Jamie A B; Mason, Oliver J

    2013-01-01

    Korsakoff syndrome (KS) is characterized by dense anterograde and retrograde amnesia. There is often a temporal gradient to the retrograde amnesia, with earlier memories more readily recalled than recent memories. Executive functioning has also been found to be impaired in KS. However, research comparing executive functioning between chronic alcoholics (AL) and patients with KS has been relatively sparse to date. In a group comparison design, executive functioning in 15 KS patients and 16 chronic alcoholic patients was assessed using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome test (BADS) and other secondary measures. The KS group was found to be significantly more impaired than the AL group on overall performance on the BADS (p Korsakoff patients are significantly more impaired in executive functioning than non-Korsakoff chronic alcoholics. We thank the participants of the study and also acknowledge the support of the University of Nottingham, particularly Nadina Lincoln, and the North East London NHS Foundation Trust. We are also very grateful to the anonymous reviewers of earlier drafts of this manuscript for their invaluable comments. PMID:23656524

  17. Mechanism of disorientation: reality filtering versus content monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzerda-Wahlen, Aurélie; Nahum, Louis; Ptak, Radek; Schnider, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Disorientation is frequent after brain damage. It is a constituent component of post-traumatic amnesia and was part of the original definition of the Korsakoff syndrome, together with amnesia and confabulations. Orbitofrontal reality filtering is a pre-conscious memory control process that has been held accountable for disorientation and a specific type of confabulations that patients act upon. A recent study questioned the specificity of this process and suggested that confabulating patients who failed in orbitofrontal reality filtering similarly failed to monitor the precise content of memories, a critical step within the strategic retrieval account, which describes a series of processes leading up to the recollection of memories. In the present study we combined the proposed experimental requirements of both processes in a single continuous recognition task and tested a group of 21 patients with a matched deficit of delayed free recall. We found that only deficient reality filtering, but not content monitoring, significantly correlated with disorientation and distinguished between confabulators and non-confabulators. Thus, reality confusion, as evident in disorientation and behaviourally spontaneous confabulation, primarily reflects an inability to monitor memories' relation with ongoing reality rather than to monitor their precise content. PMID:24012137

  18. Emotion-based learning: Insights from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hugh Turnbull

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the cognitive and/or emotional basis of complex decision-making, and the related phenomenon of emotion-based learning, has been heavily influenced by the Iowa Gambling Task. A number of psychological variables have been investigated as potentially important in understanding emotion-based learning. This paper reviews the extent to which humans are explicitly aware of how we make such decisions; the biasing influence of pre-existing emotional labels; and the extent to which emotion-based systems are anatomically and functionally independent of episodic memory. Systematic review suggests that (i an aspect of conscious awareness does appear to be readily achieved during the IGT, but as a relatively unfocused emotion-based ‘gut-feeling’, akin to intuition; (ii Several studies have manipulated the affective pre-loading of IGT tasks, and make it clear that such labelling has a substantial influence on performance, an experimental manipulation similar to the phenomenon of prejudice. (iii Finally, it appears that complex emotion-based learning can remain intact despite profound amnesia, at least in some neurological patients, a finding with a range of potentially important clinical implications: in the management of dementia; in explaining infantile amnesia; and in understanding of the possible mechanisms of psychotherapy.

  19. Cognitive rehabilitation of episodic memory disorders: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Ptak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioural management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioural disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behaviour management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids.

  20. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  1. Differential compromise of prospective and retrospective metamemory monitoring and their dissociable structural brain correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Kwon, Dongjin; Serventi, Matthew R; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2016-08-01

    Metamemory refers to personal knowledge about one's own memory ability that invokes cognitive processes relevant to monitoring and controlling memory. An impaired monitoring system can potentially result in unawareness of symptoms as can occur in addiction denial. Monitoring processes can be assessed with prospective measures such as Feeling-Of-Knowing (FOK) judgments on prediction of future recognition performance, or retrospective confidence judgments (RCJ) made on previous memory performance. Alcoholic patients with amnesia showed poor FOK but intact RCJ. The neuropsychological continuum from mild to moderate deficits in nonamnesic to amnesic alcoholism raised the possibility that alcoholics uncomplicated by clinically-detectable amnesia may suffer anosognosia for their mild memory deficits. Herein 24 abstinent alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls completed an episodic memory paradigm including prospective FOK and retrospective RCJ monitoring measures and underwent 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Alcoholics were less accurate than controls in recognition and in assessing their future recognition performance, which was marked by overestimation, but were as accurate as controls on confidence ratings of actual recognition performance. Examination of brain structure-function relations revealed a double dissociation where FOK accuracy was selectively related to insular volume, and retrospective confidence accuracy was selectively related to frontolimbic structural volumes. Impaired FOK with intact RCJ was consistent with mild anosognosia and suggested evidence for neuropsychological and neural mechanisms of unawareness in addiction. PMID:27244277

  2. Posttraining infusion of cholinergic drugs into the ventral subiculum modulated memory in an inhibitory avoidance task: interaction with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Lan; Liang, K C

    2009-03-01

    The ventral subiculum (vSUB), a hippocampal efferent target implicated in learning and stress coping, receives cholinergic input and sends glutamatergic output to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). This study examined the roles of vSUB muscarinic activation and its interaction with BNST N-methyl-D-aspartate and noradrenergic receptors in formation of aversive memory. Male Wistar rats with cannulae implanted into the vSUB or BNST were trained on a step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Shortly after training, they received cholinergic drugs infused into the vSUB and/or glutamatergic or noradrenergic drugs infused into the BNST. Results of the 1-day retention tests showed that intra-vSUB infusion of oxotremorine (0.01 microg) or scopolamine (0.3 or 3.0 microg) enhanced or impaired retention, respectively. Both effects were dose- and time-dependent, and 0.001 microg oxotremorine attenuated the amnesia induced by 3.0 microg scopolamine. The oxotremorine-induced memory enhancement was blocked by intra-BNST infusion of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid or propranolol at a dose not affecting retention; the amnesia induced by scopolamine was blunted by intra-BNST infusion of glutamate or norepinephrine at a dose with a negligible effect on retention. These data suggest that in an inhibitory avoidance task muscarinic activation of the vSUB modulated memory formation by interacting with the BNST glutamatergic and noradrenergic functions. PMID:19041726

  3. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems. PMID:26588602

  4. Artery of Percheron Infarction as an Unusual Cause of Korsakoff's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongxing; Fox, Derrick; Anand, Abhishek; Elhaj, Amal; Kapoor, Arushi; Najibi, Faranak; Kim, Han; Weir, Roger; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2015-01-01

    The Korsakoff syndrome is defined as "an abnormal mental state in which memory and learning are affected out of all proportion to other cognitive functions in an otherwise alert and responsive patient." Confabulation refers to false or erroneous memories arising, not deliberately, in the context of a neurological amnesia and is often thought of as pathognomonic of the Korsakoff syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, various studies have identified brain lesions in the thalami, mammillary bodies, and frontal cortex. We report a case of a 68-year-old male presenting with acute altered mental status on July 16, 2015. The neuropsychological dysfunctions included prominent Korsakoff's syndrome, which became apparent when the altered mental status resolved. Amnesia was accompanied by prominent confabulation, disorientation, and lack of insight into his own disability. Neuroradiological data indicated that the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei in bilateral thalami were infarcted by occlusion of the artery of Percheron. We believe that ours is one of few reported cases of Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with infarction involving the territory of the artery of Percheron. We conclude that bilateral thalamic lesions could cause Korsakoff's syndrome and the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei might be important structures in the pathogenesis of confabulation. PMID:26688763

  5. Artery of Percheron Infarction as an Unusual Cause of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korsakoff syndrome is defined as “an abnormal mental state in which memory and learning are affected out of all proportion to other cognitive functions in an otherwise alert and responsive patient.” Confabulation refers to false or erroneous memories arising, not deliberately, in the context of a neurological amnesia and is often thought of as pathognomonic of the Korsakoff syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, various studies have identified brain lesions in the thalami, mammillary bodies, and frontal cortex. We report a case of a 68-year-old male presenting with acute altered mental status on July 16, 2015. The neuropsychological dysfunctions included prominent Korsakoff’s syndrome, which became apparent when the altered mental status resolved. Amnesia was accompanied by prominent confabulation, disorientation, and lack of insight into his own disability. Neuroradiological data indicated that the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei in bilateral thalami were infarcted by occlusion of the artery of Percheron. We believe that ours is one of few reported cases of Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with infarction involving the territory of the artery of Percheron. We conclude that bilateral thalamic lesions could cause Korsakoff’s syndrome and the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei might be important structures in the pathogenesis of confabulation.

  6. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

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    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  7. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  8. Effect of soybean supplementation on the memory of alprazolam-induced amnesic mice

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    Nitin Bansal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr. (Leguminoseae, is known as golden bean. It contains vegetable protein, oligosaccharide, dietary fiber, vitamins, isoflavones and minerals. Earlier studies have demonstrated a cholesterol lowering, skin protective, antitumour, antidiabetic and antioxidative potential of soybean. Soy isoflavones are also utilized as estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of soybean on memory of mice when consumed along with diet. Soybean was administered chronically for 60 consecutive days as three soybean diets viz. Soy2, Soy5, Soy10. These diet contains soybean in normal diet at concentration of 2%, 5%, 10% w/w respectively. Passive avoidance paradigm and elevated plus maze served as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Alprazolam (0.5 mg/kg; i.p. induced amnesia served as interoceptive behavioral model. The administration of soybean significantly reversed alprazolam-induced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by the increased step down latency of mice using passive avoidance paradigm and increased transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Theses results suggest that consumption of soybean in diet may not only improve memory but also reverse the memory deficits, owing to its multifarious activities. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this nutrient in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.

  9. 纪念空间与社会记忆%Memory, History and Space (Symposium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕴茜

    2012-01-01

    Wang Xiaokui observes that evolving from an interpretive framework of the cultural construction of modern nation states, memory studies has been expanded to encompass the entire realm of modern social culture and provides a possible approach to current cultural issues. Given the corporeality and subjectivity of memory, a multi-disciplinary perspective is necessary to counter a flat and stereotypical tendency in the studies. As far as collective memory is concerned to Hu Heng, amnesia is not the residue of memory; on the contrary, memory results from amnesia. Categorizing collective memories into three forms, he explores the possibility of constructing an amnesia theatre in an effort to establish the connections between past and present, and to make history an integral part in our lives. Chen Yunqian considers social memory an important source of a country and society's legitimacy. As concrete sites of social memory, memorial space has gained mounting attention in the recent decades. The dialectics between memorial space and social memory lays the foundation for the former's existence and agency. Modern China is found to be a case in point, which has witnessed a quickened sense of modernity and locality in the conversion of memorial space and the construction of social memory.%近代民族国家出现后,共同的社会记忆是国家与社会运作的重要合法性来源,因此,作为人们对过去事件、人物表达崇敬、景仰和怀念行为的纪念空间日益受到重视,因为纪念空间具有调动情感、引发思考、唤起并塑造记忆的功能,与社会记忆之间的关系极为密切。但是,纪念空间与社会记忆之间不是不证自明的关系,两者之间的辩证关系是纪念空间得以存在并发挥塑造社会记忆功能的基础,而且在近代中国,纪念空间的转换与社会记忆的塑造更具有现代性与本土性,这是研究中国记忆不可忽略的关键。

  10. 不同剂量咪达唑仑加舒芬太尼用于腰硬联合麻醉效果观察%Effect observation of different doses of midazolam and sufentanil on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦振波; 李秀民; 王海玲; 肖仁俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the mioimum effective dose of midazolam and sufentanil on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods A toral of 100 female patients with hypogastrium operation were divided into groups 1 , II , HI and IV . The four groups received midazolam 0. 02, 0. 04, 0. 06 and 0. 08 mg/kg combined with sufentanil 0. 1 μg/kg for spinal-epidural anesthesia respectively. The degree of sedation and amnesia, vital signs and complications in the four groups were compared. Results The degree of sedation and amnesia was as follows: groups IV > III > II > I , but the incidence of glossocoma in group IV was the highest . Conclusion Midazolam 0.04-0. 06 mg/kg combined with sufentanil 0.1 fμg/kg has satisfying effect of sedation and amnesia and it can effectively prevent the visceral guyed reaction.%目的 探讨咪达唑仑加舒芬太尼用于联合麻醉时的最小有效剂量.方法 随机选择100例择期下腹部手术的女性患者,分为Ⅰ 、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ4组,分别采用0.02、0.04、0.06和0.08 mg/kg咪达唑仑辅助舒芬太尼0.1μg/kg进行腰硬联合麻醉,比较4组患者镇静和遗忘程度、生命体征及并发症.结果 镇静、遗忘程度依次为Ⅳ 组>Ⅲ组>Ⅱ组>Ⅰ组,但Ⅳ组舌后坠发生率最高.结论 0.04 ~0.06 mg/kg的咪达唑仑辅助0.1 μg/kg舒芬太尼有良好的镇静遗忘作用,并可有效预防内脏牵拉反应.

  11. Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and recovery of function: Relevance to cognitive thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Harland, Bruce; Loukavenko, Elena A; Perry, Brook; Mercer, Stephanie; Collings, David A; Ulrich, Katharina; Abraham, Wickliffe C; McNaughton, Neil; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and their neural connections is the most consistent neuropathology associated with diencephalic amnesia. ATN lesions in rats produce memory impairments that support a key role for this region within an extended hippocampal system of complex overlapping neural connections. Environmental enrichment is a therapeutic tool that produces substantial, although incomplete, recovery of memory function after ATN lesions, even after the lesion-induced deficit has become established. Similarly, the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin, also counters the negative effects of ATN lesions. ATN lesions substantially reduce c-Fos expression and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, and reduce spine density on CA1 neurons; only the latter is reversed by enrichment. We discuss the implications of this evidence for the cognitive thalamus, with a proposal that there are genuine interactions among different but allied thalamo-cortical systems that go beyond a simple summation of their separate effects. PMID:25637779

  12. Strategies to avoid a missed diagnosis of co-occurring concussion in post-acute patients having a spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Kushner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research scientists and clinicians should be aware that missed diagnoses of mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries in post-acute patients having spinal cord injuries may approach 60-74% with certain risk factors, potentially causing clinical consequences for patients, and confounding the results of clinical research studies. Factors leading to a missed diagnosis may include acute trauma-related life-threatening issues, sedation/intubation, subtle neuropathology on neuroimaging, failure to collect Glasgow Coma Scale scores or duration of posttraumatic amnesia, or lack of validity of this information, and overlap in neuro-cognitive symptoms with emotional responses to spinal cord injuries. Strategies for avoiding a missed diagnosis of mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries in patients having a spinal cord injuries are highlighted in this perspective.

  13. Cognitive problems related to vertebrobasilar circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Supporting this concept, both cognitive training exercises and physical activity promote blood flow increase and correlate with healthy cognitive aging. The terminal branches of the posterior circulation supply blood to areas of the brain, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum, involved with important intellectual functions, particularly recent memory, visual-spatial functioning, and visuomotor adaptations. Amnesia and visual agnosia may be a complication of not only posterior circulation infarctions but also vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) without accompanying structural infarcts. The cognitive impairment maybe a manifestation of transient attacks and may persist beyond resolution of symptoms related to ischemia. Early recognition of cognitive deficits in the VBI patient is important because several recent reports show stent placements or medical treatment may improve cognition. PMID:26738337

  14. [Acute head injuries in primary health care--internet survey conducted with general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury. PMID:23786110

  15. Effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on anxiety-like extinction behavior in an animal model of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Leslie A; Flint, Robert W; McNay, Ewan C

    2012-05-16

    The effect of cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, on memory reconsolidation and extinction was explored in rats using a model of post-traumatic stress. Forty-two animals were exposed to predator stress followed by 1, 2, or 4 extinction trials. Saline or CXM (1 mg/kg) was administered following the last extinction trial and anxiety was measured in the elevated-plus maze (EPM) seventy-two hours later. Saline control animals exhibited elevated anxiety levels in comparison to a no stress control group. Cycloheximide appeared to maintain stress-induced anxiety responses, which otherwise declined with repeated extinction trials in the saline control groups. These findings suggest that cycloheximide may have induced amnesia for extinction, leaving the target memory of the predatory stress intact resulting in elevated levels of anxiety. The relationships between de novo protein synthesis and reconsolidation of anxiety-related memories following extinction trials may be more complex than originally thought. PMID:22465354

  16. [Benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of insomnia shows an age-associated increase. Especially, persons with age over 60 years frequently suffer from arousal during sleep and early-morning awakening. The reason of this phenomenon can be explained by age-related change in sleepwake regulation, comorbid diseases and psycho-social status. Benzodiazepine derivatives and benzodiazepine agonists have been widely used for treatment of insomnia. These GABA-A receptor agonist hypnotics have sedative effect, possibly causing various adverse events, i.e. falls and hip fracture, anterograde amnesia, next morning hangover especially in the elderly. When making a choice of treatment drugs for the elderly, low dose benzodiazepine hypnotics with relatively high Ω1-selectivity, and newer hypnotics including melatonic receptor agonist or orexin receptor antagonist can become important candidates considering their comorbid diseases or drug interaction with other medications. PMID:26065134

  17. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (pplant.

  18. [Atypical early posttraumatic syndromes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, G E

    1974-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 1,925 head injuries, 283 patients (14.7%), could not be classified, neither in the group of simple head injuries without cerebral symptoms, nor in the group of typical concussions characterized by immediate amnesia or observed coma. We have prefered the rather neutral term of atypical early posttraumatic syndromes. In this group, apart from neurovegetative manifestations, partial disturbances of consciousness and perception, we have also classified delayed disturbances of consciousness. Special attention has been given to migraineous phenomena and to a syndrome, characteristic for children, described by Mealey. This is an intermediate group important from a medico-legal point of view because certain transient cerebral manifestations risk to be mistaken for psychological reactions. On the other hand symptoms probably of psychic origin were discussed. PMID:4469864

  19. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment. PMID:15617601

  20. Misdiagnosing absent pedicle of cervical spine in the acute trauma setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad H. Abduljabbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms.