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Sample records for amnesia

  1. Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... permanent amnesia. Another rare type of amnesia, called dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia, stems from emotional shock or trauma, such as being the victim of a violent crime. In this disorder, a person may lose personal memories and autobiographical ...

  2. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  3. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  4. Psychogenic amnesia: syndromes, outcome, and patterns of retrograde amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Neil A; Johnston, Kate; Corno, Federica; Casey, Sarah J; Friedner, Kimberley; Humphreys, Kate; Jaldow, Eli Joseph; Pitkanen, Mervi; Kopelman, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little of prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (3M:1F), in comparis...

  5. [Transient amnesia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François

    2006-03-01

    The two main aetiologies of transient amnesia in the elderly are idiopathic transient global amnesia (TGA) and iatrogenic or toxic amnesia. Vascular and epileptic amnesia are less common. According to the literature, transient psychogenic amnesia, which is a frequent cause of amnesia at age 30 to 50, is very rare in the elderly. TGA is the prototypical picture of transient amnesia. It occurs more often after age 50, with no identified cause, even if some authors accept emotional stress or minor head trauma as occasional precipitants. The mechanism of TGA remains a matter of discussion. It may be the consequence of a spreading depression similar to that described in migraine with aura, but other arguments support an ischemic mechanism. Iatrogenic amnesias are mainly caused by benzodiazepines (BZs) or anticholinergics. The former may occur in a non-anxious subject, who is not a usual consumer of BZ and takes a single dose. The latter are more often due to a hypersensitivity to anticholinergic drugs, in particular in patients presenting with a covert, incipient Alzheimer's disease. A vascular origin must be considered when amnesia is accompanied by other neurological symptoms, and when the regression of the amnesic disorder is slow, lasting several days. It results from lesions involving various mechanisms and locations, mainly subcortical. Partial seizures, most often mesio-temporal, more rarely frontal, may be the cause of transient amnesia in the elderly, in the absence of a past history of epilepsy. The red flag supportive of an epileptic origin is the repetition of stereotyped amnesic episodes. EEG demonstration of seizures may be difficult and the response to antiepileptic drugs effective on partial seizures is usually good.

  6. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  7. Psychogenic amnesia: syndromes, outcome, and patterns of retrograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Johnston, Kate; Corno, Federica; Casey, Sarah J; Friedner, Kimberley; Humphreys, Kate; Jaldow, Eli J; Pitkanen, Mervi; Kopelman, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects. In particular, we examined the pattern of retrograde amnesia on an assessment of autobiographical memory (the Autobiographical Memory Interview). We found that our patients with psychogenic memory loss fell into four distinct groups, which we categorized as: (i) fugue state; (ii) fugue-to-focal retrograde amnesia; (iii) psychogenic focal retrograde amnesia following a minor neurological episode; and (iv) patients with gaps in their memories. While neurological cases were characterized by relevant neurological symptoms, a history of a past head injury was actually more common in our psychogenic cases (P = 0.012), perhaps reflecting a 'learning episode' predisposing to later psychological amnesia. As anticipated, loss of the sense of personal identity was confined to the psychogenic group. However, clinical depression, family/relationship problems, financial/employment problems, and failure to recognize the family were also statistically more common in that group. The pattern of autobiographical memory loss differed between the psychogenic groups: fugue cases showed a severe and uniform loss of memories for both facts and events across all time periods, whereas the two focal retrograde amnesia groups showed a 'reversed' temporal gradient with relative sparing of recent memories. After 3-6 months, the fugue patients had improved to normal scores for facts

  8. Transient global amnesia and functional retrograde amnesia: contrasting examples of episodic memory loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchevsky, M; Zouzounis, J; Squire, L R

    1997-01-01

    We studied 11 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) and ten patients with functional retrograde amnesia (FRA). Patients with TGA had a uniform clinical picture: a severe, relatively isolated amnesic syndrome that started suddenly, persisted for 4-12 h, and then gradually improved to essentially normal over the next 12-24 h. During the episode, the patients had severe anterograde amnesia for verbal and non-verbal material and retrograde amnesia that typically covered at least two decade...

  9. Contextual and Temporal Disorganization During Posthypnotic Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Frederick J.; Kihlstrom, John F.

    This paper discusses work on hypnotic amnesia as a paradigm of laboratory induced state-specific memory. Earlier research on sleep-specific learning and learning in varied states of consciousness is reviewed. Posthypnotic amnesia is viewed as an effective method of studying state-specific recall of episodic experiences. It is noted that highly…

  10. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  11. Stranger than fiction: literary and clinical amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter broadly covers literary uses of amnesia and memory disorders. Amnesia in fiction offers authors an efficient and dramatic device to tackle themes such as identity, personal liberty, or guilt. We argue against the common complaint that fictional amnesia is scientifically inaccurate, pointing out that the goals of literature are different from those of science, that amnesia is still poorly understood, and that real-life cases can sometimes be stranger than fiction. The chapter provides examples from the neuropsychological literature, media reports, mythology, historical cases, detective stories, war stories, theatrical plays, and other genres. Special attention is given to retrograde and dissociative amnesia, as these are the most frequent types of amnesia portrayed in fiction, while other types of memory disorders are more shortly treated. We argue that the predominance of disorders affecting autobiographical memory in fiction is in itself a revealing fact about the mechanisms of human memory, illustrating how fictional treatments of pathology can inform back neurological and psychological research. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde amnesia within semantic memory. No evidence for a gradient within this amnesia was found, although one was present on an autobiographic test of retrograde amnesia that had a wider time scale. Several...

  13. A mathematical model of forgetting and amnesia

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    Jaap M. J. Murre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model of learning and memory and apply it to the dynamics of forgetting and amnesia. The model is based on the hypothesis that the neural systems involved in memory at different time-scales share two fundamental properties: (1 representations in a store decline in strength (2 while trying to induce new representations in higher-level more permanent stores. This paper addresses several types of experimental and clinical phenomena: (i the temporal gradient of retrograde amnesia (Ribot's Law, (ii forgetting curves with and without anterograde amnesia, and (iii learning and forgetting curves with impaired cortical plasticity. Results are in the form of closed-form expressions that are applied to studies with mice, rats, and monkeys. In order to analyze human data in a quantitative manner, we also derive a relative measure of retrograde amnesia that removes the effects of non-equal item difficulty for different time periods commonly found with clinical retrograde amnesia tests. Using these analytical tools, we review studies of temporal gradients in the memory of patients with Korsakoff's Disease, Alzheimer's Dementia, Huntington's Disease, and other disorders.

  14. Autobiographical Memory for Emotional Events in Amnesia

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    Irene Daum

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated autobiographical memory for emotionally flavoured experiences in amnesia. Ten amnesic patients and 10 matched control subjects completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview and three semi-structured interviews which assessed memory for personal events associated with pain, happiness and fear. Despite retrograde amnesia for autobiographical facts and incidents, amnesics remembered a similar number of emotionally significant personal experiences as control subjects. Their recollections generally lacked elaboration and detail, but pain-related memories appeared to be more mildly impaired than memories associated with happiness and fear. The findings are discussed in relation to recent views on the relationship between affect and memory.

  15. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.)

  16. A mathematical model of forgetting and amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.; Chessa, A.G.; Meeter, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a mathematical model of learning and memory and apply it to the dynamics of forgetting and amnesia. The model is based on the hypothesis that the neural systems involved in memory at different time scales share two fundamental properties: (1) representations in a store decline in

  17. Transient Global Amnesia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alan Rison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient global amnesia is a syndrome of temporary and reversible disruption of short-term memory accompanied by repetitive questioning. Although the etiology is unknown, the prognosis usually benign, and no particular treatment is required, it is important for all involved clinicians to recognize the diagnosis and possess knowledge about the evaluation of these affected patients. Case Presentation: A middle-aged Caucasian woman presented for neurologic evaluation for acute forgetfulness. Neurologic examination disclosed repetitive questioning with preserved orientation and no focal motor, speech, sensory, coordination, or cranial nerve deficits. Neurologic investigations did not reveal any pathologic findings. Her memory improved and reverted to normal baseline over the course of a 24-hour hospital stay. Conclusion: Transient global amnesia is an interesting syndrome of reversible anterograde amnesia associated with repetitive questioning that occurs with an unclear etiology in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Due clinical diligence is required in the investigation of these patients. Treatment is generally not required, and the condition usually does not recur. Clinicians, including neurologists, internists, family practice physicians, and psychiatrists, need awareness of this condition.

  18. Persistent Autobiographical Amnesia: A Case Report

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    C. Repetto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 47-year-old man who referred to the Emergency Department for sudden global amnesia and left mild motor impairment in the setting of increased arterial blood pressure. The acute episode resolved within 24 hours. Despite general recovery and the apparent transitory nature of the event, a persistent selective impairment in recollecting events from some specific topics of his personal life became apparent. Complete neuropsychological tests one week after the acute onset and 2 months later demonstrated a clear retrograde memory deficit contrasting with the preservation of anterograde memory and learning abilities. One year later, the autobiographic memory deficit was unmodified, except for what had been re-learnt. Brain MRI was normal while H20 brain PET scans demonstrated hypometabolism in the right globus pallidus and putamen after 2 weeks from onset, which was no longer present one year later. The absence of a clear pathomechanism underlying focal amnesia lead us to consider this case as an example of functional retrograde amnesia.

  19. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Oorsouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  20. Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim

    2009-01-01

    To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…

  1. Disrupting circadian rhythms in rats induces retrograde amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Mátyás; Ree, J.M. van; Niesink, Raymond J.M.; Wied, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Disrupting circadian organization in rats by phase-shifting the illumination cycle or by exposure to a reversed day/night cycle or to continuous light, resulted in retrograde amnesia for passive avoidance behavior. This retrograde amnesia induced by phase-shifting lasted at least 2 days, and

  2. Attribute amnesia is greatly reduced with novel stimuli

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    Weijia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.

  3. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissociative amnesia: a case with management challenges

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    Priti Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of dissociative amnesia with regressed behaviour was diagnosed applying the existing criteria for dissociative disorder in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. Though there are number of cases of such condition, but when coupled with regressed behaviour it adds to new dimension in the management. An applied strategy in lines with both pharmacological and non pharmacological was used, and we found that it helped our patient to gradually improve her behaviour. This is one of the few cases reported and we hope more such cases should be reported in understanding the psychopathology.

  5. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  6. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia following Bitemporal Infarction

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    A. Schnider

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient suffered very severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia following infarction of both medial temporal lobes (hippocampus and adjacent cortex and the left inferior temporo-occipital area. The temporal stem and the amygdala were intact; these structures do not appear to be critical for new learning in humans. Extension of the left-sided infarct into the inferior temporo-occipital lobe, an area critically involved in visual processing, appears to be responsible for our patient's loss of remote memories.

  7. The loss of episodic memories in retrograde amnesia: single-case and group studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopelman, M D; Kapur, N

    2001-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia in neurological disorders is a perplexing and fascinating research topic. The severity of retrograde amnesia is not well correlated with that of anterograde amnesia, and there can be disproportionate impairments of either. Within retrograde amnesia, there are various dissociations which have been claimed-for example, between the more autobiographical (episodic) and more semantic components of memory. However, the associations of different types of retrograde amnesia are als...

  8. Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Birkenhager, T.; van den Broek, W.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally considered effective against depression, it remains controversial because of its association with retrograde memory loss. Here, we assessed memory after ECT in circumstances most likely to yield strong retrograde amnesia. Method: A

  9. Transient global amnesia: emergency department evaluation and management [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jeremy Samuel; Nemes, Andreea; Zaurova, Milana

    2016-08-22

    Transient global amnesia is a clinically distinct syndrome characterized by the acute inability to form new memories. It can last up to 24 hours. The diagnosis is dependent on eliminating other more serious etiologies including toxic ingestions, acute strokes, complex partial seizures, and central nervous system infections. Transient global amnesia confers no known long-term risks; however, when abnormal signs or symptoms are present, they take precedence and guide the formulation of a differential diagnosis and investigation. In witnessed transient global amnesia with classic features, a minimalist approach is reasonable, avoiding overtesting, inappropriate medication, and medical interventions in favor of observation, ensuring patient safety, and reassuring patients and their families. This review provides a detailed framework for distinguishing transient global amnesia from its dangerous mimics and managing its course in the emergency department. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  10. Scopolamine intoxication as a model of transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Moreno, C

    1991-03-01

    In Colombia (South America) during recent decades the administration of scopolamine, extracted from plants belonging to the Datura or Brugmansia genus, has become an important neurologic and toxicologic phenomenon. These extracts have been popularly known as "Burundanga." Chemical characteristics and clinical features of scopolamine intoxication are described. Anterograde amnesia and submissive behavior found in patients intoxicated with scopolamine are analyzed. Burundanga intoxication is related to other toxic phenomena found in different countries and similitudes with transient global amnesia are emphasized.

  11. Bilateral hippocampal infarction and amnesia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Smiljana; Pasovski Viktor; Krsmanović Željko; Bošković Željko; Kostić Dejan; Jovanovski Aleksandar; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus along with other structures of the medial temporal lobe plays an important role in the process of learning and memory consolidation. Bilateral hippocampal lesions lead to persistent anterograde amnesia while unilateral damage results in milder, content-specific forms of amnesia. Hippocampus may be affected by an acute or chronic pathologic process from a wide spectrum of neurological disorders. Case report. A 61-year-old female patient with ...

  12. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transient global amnesia: neuropsychological dysfunction during attack and recovery in two "pure" cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Regard, M; Landis, T

    1984-01-01

    Two patients with transient global amnesia are reported. Comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, during the amnesic episode, as well as follow-up examinations on memory were performed. The course of the amnesia was exemplified by two comparable memory tests in different modalities. Partial retrograde amnesia and complete anterograde amnesia were demonstrated during the transient episode. Objective recovery was found to be slower than subjectively experienced, but test performance was com...

  14. 'Les ictus amnésiques' and transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2009-01-01

    In March 1909, R. Benon was probably the first to report a typical case of what we now call transient global amnesia. In 1956, Bender, and independently, Guyotat and Courjon described clinical and epidemiological features of transient amnesic attacks. The condition achieved general recognition after the term transient global amnesia (TGA) was introduced by Fisher and Adams in 1958. Their historic work is the main focus of this review. They reported 17 patients, with an abrupt anterograde amnesia of short duration. Classification and criteria are outlined. Various aetiologies have been postulated, but although TGA remains a clinically distinct syndrome, usually with a good prognosis, evidence of neither ischaemia nor epilepsy is demonstrable in most patients. Theories of jugular venous reflux may be relevant in some but probably not in most cases of this heterogeneous disorder. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Propofol sedation in children: sleep trumps amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert; Kelhoffer, Eric; Mehta, Meghana; Root, James C; Robinson, Fay; Mason, Keira P

    Detailed assessments of the effects of propofol on memory in children are lacking. We assessed the feasibility of measuring memory during propofol infusion, as commonly performed in sedation for MRI scanning. In addition, we determined the onset of memory loss in relation to the onset of sedation measured by verbal responsiveness. Children scheduled for sedation for MRI received a 10-min infusion of propofol (3 mg/kg) as they viewed and named 100 simple line drawings, one shown every five seconds, until they were no longer responsive (encoding). A control group receiving no sedation for MRI underwent similar tasks. Sedation was measured as any verbal response, regardless of correctness. After recovery from sedation, recognition memory was tested, with correct yes/no recognitions matched to sedation responses during encoding (subsequent memory paradigm). Of the 48 children who received propofol, 30 could complete all study tasks (6.2 ± 1.6 years, 16 males). Individual responses could be modeled in all 30 children. On average, there was a 50% probability of no verbal response 3.1 min after the start of infusion, with 50% memory loss at 2.7 min. Children receiving propofol recognized 65 ± 16% of the pictures seen, whereas the control group recognized 93 ± 5%. Measurement of memory and sedation is possible in verbal children receiving propofol by infusion in a clinical setting. Despite propofol being an amnestic agent, there was little or no amnestic effect of propofol while the child was verbally responsive. It is important for sedation providers to realize that propofol sedation does not always produce amnesia while the child is responsive. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02278003. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Lee, Moo Suk; Kang, Heoung Keun; Eun, Sung Jong; Lee, Yo Han [Chonnam National Univeristy Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Ku [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus.

  17. Functional MR imaging of psychogenic amnesia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Lee, Moo Suk; Kang, Heoung Keun; Eun, Sung Jong; Lee, Yo Han; Kim, Yong Ku

    2005-01-01

    We present here a case in which functional MR imaging (fMRI) was done for a patient who developed retrograde psychogenic amnesia for a four year period of her life history after a severe stressful event. We performed the fMRI study for a face recognition task using stimulation with three kinds of face photographs: recognizable familiar faces, unrecognizable friends' faces due to the psychogenic amnesia, and unfamiliar control faces. Different activation patterns between the recognizable faces and unrecognizable faces were found in the limbic area, and especially in the amygdala and hippocampus

  18. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  19. Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Birkenhager, Tom; van den Broek, W W

    2011-07-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally considered effective against depression, it remains controversial because of its association with retrograde memory loss. Here, we assessed memory after ECT in circumstances most likely to yield strong retrograde amnesia. A cohort of patients undergoing ECT for major depression was tested before and after ECT, and again at 3-months follow-up. Included were 21 patients scheduled to undergo bilateral ECT for severe major depression and 135 controls matched for gender, age, education, and media consumption. Two memory tests were used: a verbal learning test to assess anterograde memory function, and a remote memory test that assessed memory for news during the course of one year. Before ECT the patients' scores were lower than those of controls. They were lower again after treatment, suggesting retrograde amnesia. At follow-up, however, memory for events before treatment had returned to the pre-ECT level. Memory for events in the months after treatment was as good as that of controls. The sample size in this study was not large. Moreover, memory impairment did not correlate with level of depression, which may be due to restriction of range. Our results are consistent with the possibility that ECT as currently practiced does not cause significant lasting retrograde amnesia, but that amnesia is mostly temporary and related to the period of impairment immediately following ECT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  1. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  2. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Knollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  3. Retrograde amnesia following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Peter R; Heaver, Catriona

    2008-07-01

    Retrograde amnesia is a recognised neurological complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. This article describes the case of a female found dead in her bath where initial post-mortem findings and the surrounding circumstances raised strong suspicions of homicide, especially when there was contradictory evidence from her husband who was the only other person present. He was later diagnosed as having retrograde amnesia between his two visits to the bathroom to attend to his wife which caused him to merge them into one event, thus arousing suspicions of foul play. The discussion explores the current clinical views on non-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning as well as problems of interpretation of information derived from case work.

  4. Semantic memory and frontal executive function during transient global amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, J R

    1994-01-01

    To assess semantic memory and frontal executive function, two patients underwent neuropsychological testing during transient global amnesia (TGA) and after an interval of 6-8 weeks. In spite of a profound deficit in anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory, semantic memory was normal, as judged by category fluency measures, picture naming, and picture-word and picture-picture matching, and reading ability was normal. Similarly, there were no deficits on a number of tests known to be sensitive...

  5. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITION AND MEMORY: FORMATION VS AMNESIA1

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies using protein synthesis inhibitors have provided key support for the prevalent view that memory formation requires the initiation of protein synthesis as a primary element of the molecular biology of memory. However, many other interpretations of the amnesia data have received far less attention. These include: a) Protein synthesis may play a constitutive role in memory formation, providing proteins prior to an experience that can be activated by training; b) Protein synthesis may be ...

  6. Visual memory-deficit amnesia: A distinct amnesic presentation and etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, David C.; Greenberg, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a form of amnesia, which we have called visual memory-deficit amnesia, that is caused by damage to areas of the visual system that store visual information. Because it is caused by a deficit in access to stored visual material and not by an impaired ability to encode or retrieve new material, it has the otherwise infrequent properties of a more severe retrograde than anterograde amnesia with no temporal gradient in the retrograde amnesia. Of the 11 cases of long-term visual memory...

  7. Neural Correlate of Anterograde Amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Louis; Pignat, Jean-Michel; Bouzerda-Wahlen, Aurélie; Gabriel, Damien; Liverani, Maria Chiara; Lazeyras, François; Ptak, Radek; Richiardi, Jonas; Haller, Sven; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele F; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin

    2015-09-01

    The neural correlate of anterograde amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still debated. While the capacity to learn new information has been associated with integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), previous studies indicated that the WKS is associated with diencephalic lesions, mainly in the mammillary bodies and anterior or dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The present study tested the hypothesis that amnesia in WKS is associated with a disrupted neural circuit between diencephalic and hippocampal structures. High-density evoked potentials were recorded in four severely amnesic patients with chronic WKS, in five patients with chronic alcoholism without WKS, and in ten age matched controls. Participants performed a continuous recognition task of pictures previously shown to induce a left medial temporal lobe dependent positive potential between 250 and 350 ms. In addition, the integrity of the fornix was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WKS, but not alcoholic patients without WKS, showed absence of the early, left MTL dependent positive potential following immediate picture repetitions. DTI indicated disruption of the fornix, which connects diencephalic and hippocampal structures. The findings support an interpretation of anterograde amnesia in WKS as a consequence of a disconnection between diencephalic and MTL structures with deficient contribution of the MTL to rapid consolidation.

  8. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  9. FLAIR images of mild head trauma with transient amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamoto, Hirooki; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Inaba, Makoto; Ishiyama, Naomi [Hiratsuka City Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kawase, Takeshi

    1998-11-01

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no signal intensity area. We examined 45 cases of mild head trauma with posttraumatic amnesia by FLAIR images and could detect some findings which could not be detected by CT scan and conventional MR images. These findings could be detected in many patients with long posttraumatic amnesia (over 2 hours), but they could not be detected in patients with short posttraumatic amnesia (within 30 mins). These findings existed surrounding lateral ventricles and we classified them into 3 types: type 1 is anterior horn of lateral ventricle, type 2 is the base of frontal lobe, and type 3 is cerebral deep white matter. Some of them were examined again by FLAIR images a month later, and these findings had disappeared. We suspect that these lesions were brain edema or mild contusion without hemorrhage. (author)

  10. FLAIR images of mild head trauma with transient amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamoto, Hirooki; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Inaba, Makoto; Ishiyama, Naomi; Kawase, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no signal intensity area. We examined 45 cases of mild head trauma with posttraumatic amnesia by FLAIR images and could detect some findings which could not be detected by CT scan and conventional MR images. These findings could be detected in many patients with long posttraumatic amnesia (over 2 hours), but they could not be detected in patients with short posttraumatic amnesia (within 30 mins). These findings existed surrounding lateral ventricles and we classified them into 3 types: type 1 is anterior horn of lateral ventricle, type 2 is the base of frontal lobe, and type 3 is cerebral deep white matter. Some of them were examined again by FLAIR images a month later, and these findings had disappeared. We suspect that these lesions were brain edema or mild contusion without hemorrhage. (author)

  11. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  12. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  13. Anterograde amnesia during electroconvulsive therapy: A prospective pilot-study in patients with major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Boere (Ingrid); A.M. Kamperman (Astrid); Van't Hoog, A.E. (Arianne E.); W.W. van den Broek (Walter); T.K. Birkenhäger (Tom)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective treatment for major depression with melancholic features. However, neurocognitive side-effects such as anterograde amnesia still regularly occur. The present study aims to evaluate the severity and course of anterograde amnesia

  14. Is dissociative amnesia a culture-bound syndrome? Findings from a survey of historical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G; Poliakoff, Michael B; Parker, Michael P; Boynes, Matthew; Hudson, James I

    2007-02-01

    Natural human psychological phenomena, such as depression, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations and dementia, are documented across the ages in both fictional and non-fictional works. We asked whether 'dissociative amnesia' was similarly documented throughout history. We advertised in three languages on more than 30 Internet web sites and discussion groups, and also in print, offering US$1000 to the first individual who could find a case of dissociative amnesia for a traumatic event in any fictional or non-fictional work before 1800. Our search generated more than 100 replies; it produced numerous examples of ordinary forgetfulness, infantile amnesia and biological amnesia throughout works in English, other European languages, Latin, Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit and Chinese before 1800, but no descriptions of individuals showing dissociative amnesia for a traumatic event. If dissociative amnesia for traumatic events were a natural psychological phenomenon, an innate capacity of the brain, then throughout the millennia before 1800, individuals would presumably have witnessed such cases and portrayed them in non-fictional works or in fictional characters. The absence of cases before 1800 cannot reasonably be explained by arguing that our ancestors understood or described psychological phenomena so differently as to make them unrecognizable to modern readers because spontaneous complete amnesia for a major traumatic event, in an otherwise lucid individual, is so graphic that it would be recognizable even through a dense veil of cultural interpretation. Therefore, it appears that dissociative amnesia is not a natural neuropsychological phenomenon, but instead a culture-bound syndrome, dating from the nineteenth century.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  16. The effects of ACTH- and vasopressin-analogues on CO2-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, H.; Riezen, H. van; Wied, D. de

    Amnesia for a one-trial step-through passive avoidance response was induced in rats by application of CO2 until respiratory arrest occurred. The ACTH-analogue ACTH4–10 alleviated the amnesia when administered 1 hr prior to the retrieval test but not when given 1 hr prior to the acquisition trial.

  17. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R

    2010-08-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A review on citation amnesia in depression and inflammation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Once original scientific results are published the author has the "intellectual property" and may claim ownership. Discovery credit is one of the most important "rewards" for scientists and thus incorrect credits undermine the reward system of science. Scientists who publish should therefore give proper credit and acknowledge the primary sources. Failure to do so is regarded as "citation negligence", "the disregard syndrome", "citation amnesia", "plagiarism by omission", "bibliographic plagiarism" or "citation plagiarism", and may range from an unconscious or conscious "failure to credit a prior discoverer so as to give an improper impression of priority" to "the appropriation of another person's ideas or results without given proper credit". False discovery credit is considered to be "a menace to honest science", "a serious transgression" or "intellectual theft, be it intentional or not". This paper describes some examples of citation amnesia showing that scientists often fail to credit prior sources and give false discovery credit to other scientists. One example is the association between major depression and activated immuno-inflammatory pathways, a discovery by European groups and published in many papers since 1990. Now, 25 years later, it is commonplace that these theories are credited to secondary American sources whose work in "the last decade", did or did not examine these pathways in major depression. This gives an improper impression of priority of American-based scientists. Here it is proposed that this citation amnesia and plagiarism reinforced the wrong science and had negative effects on the development of immune-inflammatory biomarkers and new immune-related treatments for depression. It is concluded that journal editors should improve their citation standards to guarantee correct assignment of discovery credit for example by demanding a signed pledge from the authors that correct citations to the primary sources were made.

  19. TRANSIENT GLOBAL AMNESIA IN A PATIENT WITH HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yakovleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia was established by Fisher et Adams is 1964 for phenomena characterized by the sudden onset of all types memory loss, retrograde amnesia and the inability to form new  memories and to recall the recent past. The incidence of TGA is 5  to10 people per 100,000 worldwide but the real incidence is unknown because the episodes of memory loss are temporary and many patients don’t go to see a doctor at the time of attack. The triggers of TAG are physical activity, sexual  intercourse, pain, Valsalva maneuver etc. In routine clinical practice  TAG is more important for neurologists. But this problem is also  interesting for therapeutists because TAG could be developed in  patients with arterial hypertension, foramen ovale, mitral valve  prolapse and heart blocks. We present a 57-year-old female with  TAG. She was admitted to the hospital due to hypertensive crisis and an impaired ability to retain new information that started after  physical activity. The diagnosis of TAG was based on information  from attacks witnesses, the sudden onset of anterograde amnesia,  normal cognition of the patient and short duration of attack. Also,  the patient had no features of stroke, acute hypertensive encephalopathy, epilepsy and alcohol blackout. TAG is more typical for females over 50 years, all symptoms start after physical activity and resolve within 24 hours. It is characterized by reversibility of all symptoms and good prognosis of 2 years of follow-up.

  20. Transient Global Amnesia Associated With a Unilateral Infarction of the Fornix: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an extremely uncommon cause of transient global amnesia. Unilateral lesions of the fornix rarely cause amnesia and have not previously been reported to be associated with the distinctive amnesic picture of transient global amnesia. We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with acute onset, recent retrograde and anterograde amnesia characteristic of transient global amnesia. Serial magnetic resonance imaging showed a persistent focal infarction of the body and left column of the fornix, without acute lesions in the hippocampus or other structures. Amnesia resolved in 6 hours. Infarction of the fornix should thus be included in the differential diagnosis of transient global amnesia, as it changes the management of this otherwise self-limited syndrome.

  1. Transient global amnesia after cerebral angiography still occurs: Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Snoer, Agneta Henriette; Wagner, Aase

    2014-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is considered a very rare complication of diagnostic cerebral angiography, and has only been reported in a limited number of case reports more than 15 years ago. We describe a patient experiencing transient global amnesia following cerebral digital subtraction angiography....... While the condition by definition is self-limiting, its differential diagnoses may cause severe morbidity and/or mortality if left untreated. It is therefore important to build and maintain awareness of transient global amnesia as a possible complication of cerebral angiography....

  2. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de

    2009-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  3. Personal semantic memory: insights from neuropsychological research on amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of personal semantic memory, knowledge that is specific and unique to individuals, by reviewing neuropsychological research on stable amnesia secondary to medial temporal lobe damage. The results reveal that personal semantic memory does not depend on a unitary set of cognitive and neural mechanisms. Findings show that autobiographical fact knowledge reflects an experience-near type of personal semantic memory that relies on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval, albeit less so than personal episodic memory. Additional evidence demonstrates that new autobiographical fact learning likely relies on the medial temporal lobe, but the extent to which remains unclear. Other findings show that retrieval of personal traits/roles and new learning of personal traits/roles and thoughts/beliefs are independent of the medial temporal lobe and thus may represent highly conceptual types of personal semantic memory that are stored in the neocortex. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeiro-Junior, Clecio; Miranda-Alves, Maramelia Araujo de [Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery], e-mail: cleciojunior@yahoo.com.br; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto [Fleury Diagnostic Center, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a well known clinical entity characterized by anterograde memory disturbance of sudden onset that lasts 1 to 24 hours. Orientation in space and time is impaired while consciousness remains undisturbed. TGA may refer to a single expression of several physiopathological phenomena. Conceptually, cerebral ischemia, epileptic discharge, and migraine constitute the main pathogenic hypothesis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, even for small areas of acute ischemia. Consequently, this method has also been applied to TGA to gain further insights into the ischemic hypothesis of this condition. We report a patient with a typical TGA presentation and MRI findings suggestive of an ischemic insult. We further discuss the ischemic hypothesis of TGA. (author)

  5. Salvianolic acid A exerts antiamnesic effect on diazepam-induced anterograde amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Shan, S Y; Han, B; Zhang, L M; Fu, F H

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepine was known to produce amnesia. Salvianolic acid A extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza was an effective antioxidant. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid A on diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with salvianolic acid A at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg following administration with diazepam at a dose of 3 mg/kg. Morris water maze was performed to evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid A on amnesia. The antioxidative parameters in hippocampus were measured. The results showed that salvianolic acid A decreased the mean escape latency and increased the percentage of time spent in target quadrant. Salvianolic acid A reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in hippocampus. The findings demonstrated that salvianolic acid A had antiamnesic effects on diazepam-induced anterograde amnesia in mice, by augmenting the antioxidative capacity of hippocampus.

  6. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  7. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  8. A review study on medicinal plants affecting amnesia through cholinergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter modification is an important method for the treatment of memory loss or amnesia. Cholinomimetic drugs, particularly, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are the mainstream in pharmacotherapy of amnesia. Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors which are widely used in the treatment of amnesia, however, their therapeutic effects are not significant. Therefore, other possibilities including herbal medicine sources have been considered for memory loss therapy. There are some Medicinal plants with cholinomimetic property which mostly possess antioxidant activity, too. These plants may not only ameliorate amnesia but also can be a good source for drug discovery. In this paper other than introducing the medicinal plants and their components affective on cholinergic system and effective on memory loss, their probable advantages over synthetic drugs are discussed.

  9. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaële J C Huntjens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. METHODS: Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. FINDINGS: Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. CONCLUSION: The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.

  10. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.

  11. Recollection and familiarity in dense hippocampal amnesia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Bird, Chris; Good, Tina; Macmanus, David; Rudge, Peter; Shallice, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the amnesia literature, disagreement exists over whether anterograde amnesia involves recollective-based recognition processes and/or familiarity-based ones depending on whether the anatomical damage is restricted to the hippocampus or also involves adjacent areas, particularly the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. So far, few patients with well documented anatomical lesions and detailed assessment of recollective and recognition performance have been described. We report a comprehensive neuroanatomical assessment and detailed investigation of the anterograde memory functions of a previously described severe amnesic patient (VC). The results of four previously published neuroradiological investigations (resting PET, qualitative MRIs, volumetric MRI and functional MRI) together with the results of two new investigations (voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy) are presented. The consistent finding across these different qualitative and quantitative examinations of VC's brain has shown that there is primarily structural and functional abnormality located selectively in the hippocampus bilaterally. Marked impairments in both verbal and non-verbal recall and recognition standardized memory tests were documented in the context of VC's intact cognitive profile and normal semantic memory. The results of five new experimental recognition memory tests tapping recollection and familiarity using verbal, topographical (buildings and landscapes) and unknown human faces memoranda revealed striking differential effects according to the type of stimuli used. A receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that VC's recollective- and familiarity-based recognition processes were well preserved for unknown human faces. In contrast, recollective-based recognition for verbal and topographical material was at floor. Familiarity-based recognition was also impaired, significantly below controls for verbal and buildings memoranda and quite weak, although not

  12. Treadmill Exercise Ameliorates Short-Term Memory Disturbance in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Kim, Chang-Ju; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Scopolamine is a nonselective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, which induces impairment of learning ability and memory function. Exercise is known to ameliorate brain disturbance induced by brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus, using a scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice. Methods To induce amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobro...

  13. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: evidence from an amnesic artist

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impai...

  14. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, Rafaele JC; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Methods: Using a c...

  15. Transient Global Amnesia with Reversible White Matter Lesions: A Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakamizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a self-limited disease characterized by isolated amnesia, which resolves within 24 h. In contrast, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a potentially life-threatening disease that usually presents with seizures, altered mental status, headache, and visual disturbances. It is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema that predominantly involves the parieto-occipital subcortical white matter as shown by neuroimaging studies. To date, there have been no reported cases of PRES with a clinical course resembling TGA. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with isolated amnesia and headache. On admission, her blood pressure was 187/100 mmHg. She had complete anterograde amnesia and slight retrograde amnesia without other neurological findings. After the treatment of her hypertension, the amnesia resolved within 24 h. Although the initial magnetic resonance image (MRI was almost normal, the fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR images of the MRI on the next day revealed several small foci of high intensity areas in the fronto-parieto-occipital subcortical white matter, presumed to be vasogenic edema in PRES. The lesions disappeared one month later. This case suggests that PRES can mimic the clinical course of TGA. PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis for TGA.

  16. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e; Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso de

    2007-01-01

    Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sa...

  17. Disconnection between the default mode network and medial temporal lobes in post-traumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Grover, Patrick J; Jenkins, Peter O; Honeyfield, Lesley; Quest, Rebecca A; Ross, Ewan; Scott, Gregory; Wilson, Mark H; Majewska, Paulina; Waldman, Adam D; Patel, Maneesh C; Sharp, David J

    2016-12-01

    SEE BIGLER DOI101093/AWW277 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex. These structures are connected within an intrinsic connectivity network, the default mode network. Interactions within the default mode network can be assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can be acquired in confused patients unable to perform tasks in the scanner. Here we used this approach to test the hypothesis that the mnemonic symptoms of post-traumatic amnesia are caused by functional disconnection within the default mode network. We assessed whether the hippocampus and parahippocampus showed evidence of transient disconnection from cortical brain regions involved in memory processing. Nineteen patients with traumatic brain injury were classified into post-traumatic amnesia and traumatic brain injury control groups, based on their performance on a paired associates learning task. Cognitive function was also assessed with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Functional interactions between brain regions were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Together with impairments in associative memory, patients in post-traumatic amnesia demonstrated impairments in information processing speed and spatial working memory. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia showed abnormal functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The strength of this functional

  18. "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": tradução e validação "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": traducción y validación "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir e validar o Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para uso em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Esse teste foi traduzido para o português e retro-traduzido para o inglês por diferentes especialistas na língua e por fim, feita a avaliação da equivalência entre o instrumento original e a versão retro-traduzida. Sua aplicação em 73 vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico contuso e a indicação da gravidade dessa lesão, estabelecida pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitiram verificar as propriedades de medida do instrumento. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade verificada pelo Alfa de Cronbach resultou em 0,76. Houve indicação de validade convergente e discriminante do instrumento quando os resultados de aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test foram analisados perante a gravidade do trauma crânio-encefálico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados observados dão suporte para a aplicação do Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test em nosso meio como indicador do término da amnésia pós-traumática.OBJETIVO: Traducir y validar el Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para su uso en nuestro medio. MÉTODOS: El test fue traducido al portugués retrotraducido al inglés por diferentes especialistas en la lengua y por fin, realizada la evaluación de la equivalencia entre el instrumento original y la versión retrotraducida. Su aplicación en 73 víctimas de traumatismo encéfalo craneano con constusión y la indicación de la gravedad de esa lesión, establecida por la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitieron verificar las propiedades de medida del instrumento. RESULTADOS: La confiabilidad verificada por el Alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,76. Hubo indicación de validez convergente y discriminante del instrumento cuando los resultados de aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnésia Test fueron analizados frente a la gravedad del traumatismo encéfalo craneano. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados observados dan soporte para la aplicación del

  19. Social Cognition in a Case of Amnesia with Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Markowitsch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM is considered to emerge gradually in concert with the development of other cognitive abilities. Developmental studies have emphasized socio-cultural-linguistic mechanisms that may be unique to the development of EAM. Furthermore it was hypothesized that one of the main functions of EAM is the social one. In the research field, the link between EAM and social cognition remains however debated. Herein we aim to bring new insights into the relation between EAM and social information processing (including social cognition by describing a young adult patient with amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms due to perinatal complications accompanied by hypoxia. The patient was investigated medically, psychiatrically and with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Structural high resolution MRI revealed significant bilateral hippocampal atrophy as well as indices for degeneration in the amygdalae, basal ganglia and thalamus, when a less conservative threshold was applied. In addition to extensive memory investigations and testing other (non-social cognitive functions, we employed a broad range of tests that assessed social information processing (social perception, social cognition, social regulation. Our results point to both preserved (empathy, core theory of mind functions, visual affect selection and discrimination, affective prosody discrimination and impaired domains of social information processing (incongruent affective prosody processing, complex social judgments. They support proposals for a role of the hippocampal formation in processing more complex social information that likely requires multimodal relational handling.

  20. Supporting the self-concept with memory: insight from amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent to which personal semantic memory supports the self-concept in individuals with medial temporal lobe amnesia and healthy adults. Participants completed eight 'I Am' self-statements. For each of the four highest ranked self-statements, participants completed an open-ended narrative task, during which they provided supporting information indicating why the I Am statement was considered self-descriptive. Participants then completed an episodic probe task, during which they attempted to retrieve six episodic memories for each of these self-statements. Supporting information was scored as episodic, personal semantic or general semantic. In the narrative task, personal semantic memory predominated as self-supporting information in both groups. The amnesic participants generated fewer personal semantic memories than controls to support their self-statements, a deficit that was more pronounced for trait relative to role self-statements. In the episodic probe task, the controls primarily generated unique event memories, but the amnesic participants did not. These findings demonstrate that personal semantic memory, in particular autobiographical fact knowledge, plays a critical role in supporting the self-concept, regardless of the accessibility of episodic memories, and they highlight potential differences in the way traits and roles are supported by personal memory. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. For the induction of amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days. Morris water maze test for spatial learning ability was conducted. Immonofluorescence for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuri-dine (BrdU) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, scopolamine-induced amnesia mice showed deterioration of spatial learning ability. Inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of BDNF and TrkB expressions were observed in the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability and increased cell proliferation through activating of BDNF-TrkB pathway in the amnesia mice. These findings offer a possibility that treadmill exercise may provide preventive or therapeutic value for the memory loss induced by variable neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25061594

  2. Interaction of cortex and hippocampus in a model of amnesia and semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, J M

    1999-01-01

    We describe a systems-level computational model, called TraceLink, that can explain the major characteristics of the neuropsychology of amnesia and of semantic dementia, a recently discovered syndrome in which there is a progressive loss of semantic memory. It also approximates the normal forgetting curve and presents an explanation of why spaced learning is more efficient than massed learning. A central assumption is that consolidation of memory takes place, probably during dream sleep. The model consists of three systems: trace system (certain parts of the neocortex), link system (includes the hippocampus), and the modulatory system (includes certain basal forebrain nuclei). Lesioning each of these causes a characteristic form of amnesia or semantic dementia. Lesioning the modulatory system causes anterograde amnesia only. Lesioning the link system causes a correlated degree of retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia shows the characteristic Ribot curve with relative sparing of remote memories but loss of recent ones. Lesioning the trace system causes semantic dementia. We also review the main sources of constraints for the model and discuss its status and function as well as its falsifiability.

  3. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. For the induction of amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days. Morris water maze test for spatial learning ability was conducted. Immonofluorescence for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuri-dine (BrdU) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, scopolamine-induced amnesia mice showed deterioration of spatial learning ability. Inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of BDNF and TrkB expressions were observed in the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability and increased cell proliferation through activating of BDNF-TrkB pathway in the amnesia mice. These findings offer a possibility that treadmill exercise may provide preventive or therapeutic value for the memory loss induced by variable neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: Evidence from an amnesic artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eGregory

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings. Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia.

  5. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  6. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  7. Towards Solving the Riddle of Forgetting in Functional Amnesia: Recent Advances and Current Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eStaniloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remembering the past is a core feature of human beings, enabling them to maintain a sense of wholeness and identity and preparing them for the demands of the future. Forgetting operates in a dynamic neural connection with remembering, allowing the elimination of unnecessary or irrelevant information overload and decreasing interference. Stress and traumatic experiences could affect this connection, resulting in memory disturbances, such as functional amnesia. An overview of clinical, epidemiological, neuropsychological and neurobiological aspects of functional amnesia is presented, by preponderantly resorting to own data from patients with functional amnesia. Patients were investigated medically, neuropsychologically and neuroradiologically. A detailed report of a new case is included to illustrate the challenges posed by making an accurate differential diagnosis of functional amnesia, a condition that may encroach on the boundaries between psychiatry and neurology. Several mechanisms may play a role in forgetting in functional amnesia, such as retrieval impairments, consolidating defects, motivated forgetting, deficits in binding and reassembling details of the past, deficits in establishing a first person autonoetic connection with personal events and loss of information. In a substantial number of patients, we observed a synchronization abnormality between a frontal lobe system, important for autonoetic consciousness, and a temporo-amygdalar system, important for evaluation and emotions, which provides empirical support for an underlying mechanism of dissociation (a failure of integration between cognition and emotion. This observation suggests a mnestic blockade in functional amnesia that is triggered by psychological or environmental stress and is underpinned by a stress hormone mediated synchronization abnormality during retrieval between processing of affect-laden events and fact-processing.

  8. Effectiveness of lorazepam-assisted interviews in an adolescent with dissociative amnesia: A case report★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yuna; Shin, Mi-Hee; Kim, Sung-Gon; Kim, Ji-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate gathering information during a psychiatric interview, some psychiatrists advocate augmenting the interview using drugs. Rather than barbiturates, benzodiazepines have been used for drug-assisted interviews. Dissociative amnesia is one of the indications for these interviews. Herein, we present the case of a 15-year-old female who was diagnosed as having dissociative amnesia because of conflicts with her friends. She was administered a lorazepam-assisted interview to aid recovery of her memories. In this case, a small dose of lorazepam was sufficient to recover her memories without any adverse effects. PMID:25206490

  9. Disturbed memory and amnesia related to intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C; Griffiths, R D; Humphris, G

    2000-03-01

    Patients, when admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), have one thing in common: their illness is life-threatening. Patients may remain on ICU in a critical condition, needing support with their breathing, circulation, and/or kidneys for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks. During that time the patients will receive sedative and analgesic drugs to ensure compliance with artificial ventilation. Patients recovering from critical illness frequently have little or no recall of their period in ICU, or remember nightmare, hallucinations, or paranoid delusions. The nature, extent and reason for these difficulties, have been under-reported and consequently our purpose was to conduct a review of memory problems experienced by ICU patients. A systematic literature review of computer databases (Medline, PsycLit, and CINAHL) identified 25 relevant papers. In addition, other relevant articles were obtained, citation lists and associated articles retrieved. Due to lack of research on processes underlying memory problems in ICU patients all articles that introduced an insight into possible mechanisms were included in the review. There seem to be two possible processes contributing to memory problems in ICU patients. First the illness and treatment may have a general dampening effect on memory. Delirium and sleep disturbance are both common in ICU patients. Delirium can result in a profound amnesia for the period of confusion. Sleep deprivation exacerbates the confusional state. Slow wave sleep is important for the consolidation of episodic memories. Treatment administered to patients in ICU can have effects on memory. Opiates, benzodiazepines, sedative drugs such as propofol, adrenaline, and corticosteroids can all influence memory. In addition, the withdrawal of drugs, such as benzodiazepines, can cause profound withdrawal reactions, which may contribute to delirium. Second, we hypothesise that there is a process that affects memory negatively for external events but

  10. Treadmill exercise ameliorates short-term memory disturbance in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Kim, Chang-Ju; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Scopolamine is a nonselective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, which induces impairment of learning ability and memory function. Exercise is known to ameliorate brain disturbance induced by brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus, using a scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice. To induce amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 14 days. A step-down avoidance test for short-term memory was conducted. AChE histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for collagen IV, and doublecortin were performed. Short-term memory deteriorated in the mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia, concomitant with enhanced AChE expression and suppression of angiogenesis in the hippocampus. Critically, treadmill exercise ameliorated short-term memory impairment, suppressed AChE expression, and enhanced angiogenesis in the mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia. Overexpression of AChE is implicated in both brain and renal disease. The findings of our study indicate that treadmill exercise may be of therapeutic value in neurodegenerative and renal diseases by suppressing the effects of AChE expression.

  11. Missing memories of death: Dissociative amnesia in the bereaved the day after a cancer death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mayumi; Onishi, Hideki; Toyama, Hiroaki; Tsutsumi, Chizuko; Endo, Chieko; Tanahashi, Iori; Takahashi, Takao; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2015-12-01

    The death of a loved one is one of the most stressful events of life, and such stress affects the physical and psychological well-being of the bereaved. Dissociative amnesia is characterized by an inability to recall important autobiographical information. Dissociative amnesia in the bereaved who have lost a loved one to cancer has not been previously reported. We discuss herein the case of a patient who developed dissociative amnesia the day after the death of here beloved husband. A 38-year-old woman was referred for psychiatric consultation because of restlessness and abnormal behavior. Her 44-year-old husband had died of pancreatic cancer the day before the consultation. On the day of the death, she looked upset and began to hyperventilate. The next day, she behaved as if the deceased were still alive, which embarrassed her family. At her initial psychiatric consultation, she talked and behaved as if her husband was still alive and in the hospital. Her psychiatric features fulfilled the DSM-V criteria for dissociative amnesia. The death of her husband had been very traumatic for her and was considered to have been one of the causes of this dissociation. This report adds to the list of psychiatric symptoms in the bereaved who have lost a loved one to cancer. In an oncology setting, we should consider the impact of death, the concomitant defense mechanisms, and the background of the families.

  12. Childhood amnesia in the making: different distributions of autobiographical memories in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2014-04-01

    Within the memory literature, a robust finding is of childhood amnesia: a relative paucity among adults for autobiographical or personal memories from the first 3 to 4 years of life, and from the first 7 years, a smaller number of memories than would be expected based on normal forgetting. Childhood amnesia is observed in spite of strong evidence that during the period eventually obscured by the amnesia, children construct and preserve autobiographical memories. Why early memories seemingly are lost to recollection is an unanswered question. In the present research, we examined the issue by using the cue word technique to chart the distributions of autobiographical memories in samples of children ages 7 to 11 years and samples of young and middle-aged adults. Among adults, the distributions were best fit by the power function, whereas among children, the exponential function provided a better fit to the distributions of memories. The findings suggest that a major source of childhood amnesia is a constant rate of forgetting in childhood, seemingly resulting from failed consolidation, the outcome of which is a smaller pool of memories available for later retrieval.

  13. Infantile Amnesia: A Critical Period of Learning to Learn and Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberini, Cristina M; Travaglia, Alessio

    2017-06-14

    Infantile amnesia, the inability of adults to recollect early episodic memories, is associated with the rapid forgetting that occurs in childhood. It has been suggested that infantile amnesia is due to the underdevelopment of the infant brain, which would preclude memory consolidation, or to deficits in memory retrieval. Although early memories are inaccessible to adults, early-life events, such as neglect or aversive experiences, can greatly impact adult behavior and may predispose individuals to various psychopathologies. It remains unclear how a brain that rapidly forgets, or is not yet able to form long-term memories, can exert such a long-lasting and important influence. Here, with a particular focus on the hippocampal memory system, we review the literature and discuss new evidence obtained in rats that illuminates the paradox of infantile amnesia. We propose that infantile amnesia reflects a developmental critical period during which the learning system is learning how to learn and remember. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375783-13$15.00/0.

  14. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  15. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  16. A single-system model predicts recognition memory and repetition priming in amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, C.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Wester, A.J.; Shanks, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single-system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with

  17. Can We Remember Future Actions yet Forget the Last Two Minutes? Study in Transient Global Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainselin, Mathieu; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Beatrice; Martinaud, Olivier; Hannequin, Didier; de La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the abrupt onset of a massive episodic memory deficit that spares other cognitive functions. If the anterograde dimension is known to be impaired in TGA, researchers have yet to investigate prospective memory (PM)--which involves remembering to perform an intended action at…

  18. Introduction of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale and Impact on Length of Stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, C. E.; Clous, E. A.; Jaeger, M.; D'Amours, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a common presentation to Emergency Departments. Early identification of patients with cognitive deficits and provision of discharge advice are important. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale provides an early and efficient assessment of post-traumatic

  19. ‘Becoming Mozambicanised’: Nostalgic amnesia among Zimbabweans adapting to ‘disorder’ in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    -simplifications and stereotypes. It suggests that rememberings and representations of an ‘ordered’ past in Zimbabwe set in contrast to a ‘disordered’ Mozambique, are part of a nostalgic amnesia that assists these ambivalent migrants to deal with (or deny) their displacement and losses, and helps them adapt to the new and strange...

  20. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  1. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  2. Irrelevant, Incidental and Core Features in the Retrograde Amnesia Associated with Korsakoff’s Psychosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Meudell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the literature on retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome is presented. Various explanations of the phenomenon are discussed including the notions that it results from the effects of “state-dependency”, that it occurs as a result of a progressive learning problem and that it arises through a failure in contextual processing. None of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the length and temporal gradient of alcoholic amnesics retrograde amnesia. Although some evidence points towards the hypothesis that anterograde and retrograde amnesia might result from separate and independent impairments, this view is presently unproven and leaves open what causes the form and duration of Korsakoffs retrograde amnesia.

  3. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-11-01

    To identify the effect of early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in patients with traumatic brain injury, to review and critically assess evidence related to the timing of intervention and to identify the effect on outcome of a specific neurological rehabilitation in acute care. Up to 70% of patients with traumatic brain injury will experience post-traumatic amnesia. Although duration of post-traumatic amnesia is correlated negatively with outcome for patients with traumatic brain injury, there is limited evidence relating to what influence timing and effect may have on enhancing early rehabilitation patient outcomes. A critical literature review. Searches for systematic reviews were undertaken in Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, PSYC INFO and Neurotraume databases. The efficacy of intervention and timing was classified based on a hierarchy of study designs for questions about health care interventions based on soundness of design. Six reviews and 11 original studies were included and comprised the review. Many studies used weak designs and small sample size, thus limiting their ability to control confusing variables and outcomes. Few studies included papers with the information about timing and effect of early post-traumatic amnesia intervention. Only one study showed an effect of a reality orientation programme in acute care. Although there was no significant detail reported on the possibility of reducing the post-traumatic amnesia period, the study showed clinical relevance. This review highlights the limited evidence of the effect of early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia. Future research should be conducted to identify the effectiveness of early intervention. Although nurses are treating patients with post-traumatic amnesia without systematic assessment, the limited evidence available does little to direct nurses as to the best approach to start early rehabilitation of post-traumatic amnesia to promote good outcomes.

  4. Irrelevant, Incidental and Core Features in the Retrograde Amnesia Associated with Korsakoff’s Psychosis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meudell, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the literature on retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome is presented. Various explanations of the phenomenon are discussed including the notions that it results from the effects of “state-dependency”, that it occurs as a result of a progressive learning problem and that it arises through a failure in contextual processing. None of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the length and temporal gradient of alcoholic amnesics retrograde amnesia. Although some evid...

  5. The effect of hypnotic drug type on anesthetic depth and amnesia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Bispectral index (BIS index shows the depth of anesthesia. The effects of drugs on BIS and amnesia are different. This study was performed to evaluate the association between two different sedative regimens on BIS and amnesia."n"nMethods: In this clinical trial, 60 patients who needed elective orthopedic surgery under regional anesthesia with intravenous sedation were elected. Patients divided in two equal groups based on sedation protocol by block randomization method: midazolam plus fentanyl group (MF group or propofol group (P group. Dose of sedative drugs were adjusted according to clinical findings of sedation. Depth of sedation in all patients, preserved in four based on modified Ramsey Sedation Score. Patients questioned about spontaneous recall after full awakening in recovery room. Recall of any event during operation considered as failed amnesia. Correlation of BIS index with recall was measured in two different groups separately."n"nResults: The frequency of recall was 2 (6.7% in P group and 10 (33.3% in MF group (p=0.01. The mean± SD of BIS in P group was 76±5 (68-91 and in MF group was 93.4±5 (77-98 (p<0.001. The difference of BIS in patients without amnesia (p=0.019 and with amnesia (p<0

  6. Attenuating effect of bioactive coumarins from Convolvulus pluricaulis on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Convolvulaceae) has been used in Ayurveda as Medhya Rasyana (nervine tonic) to treat various mental disorders. This study was designed to isolate the bioactive compound(s) of this plant and to evaluate their effect against scopolamine-induced amnesia. Column chromatography of the chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions led to the isolation of three coumarins identified as scopoletin, ayapanin and scopolin. All the three compounds at 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced amnesia using elevated plus maze and step down paradigms. Effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in mice brain was also evaluated. Scopoletin and scopolin, in both the paradigms, significantly and dose dependently attenuated the scopolamine-induced amnesic effect. Furthermore, these compounds at 10 and 15 mg/kg exhibited activity comparable to that of standard drug, donepezil. The compounds also exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  7. Unreliable admissions to homicide. A case of misdiagnosis of amnesia and misuse of abreaction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Kopelman, M D; MacKeith, J A

    1999-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed a recognition that unsafe criminal convictions may be occasioned by unreliable confessions. To present a case which illustrates the dangers of using abreaction interview techniques in a legal context and demonstrate the relevance of the memory distrust syndrome to an unsafe confession to murder. We under took a detailed assessment of a person appealing against his original murder conviction, 'the appellant', and a careful scrutiny of all the relevant papers in the case. The appellant served 25 years in prison before his conviction was quashed as 'unsafe' on the basis of fresh psychological and psychiatric evidence. Amnesia for an offence had been misdiagnosed, and the use of repeated abreaction interviews had further confused both the appellant and the original court. At the Appeal Court, the advice was that the man had experienced a form of source amnesia which resulted in an unreliable confession.

  8. Amnesia produced by altered release of neurotransmitters after intraamygdala injections of a protein synthesis inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Amnesia produced by protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin provides major support for the prevalent view that the formation of long-lasting memories requires de novo protein synthesis. However, inhibition of protein synthesis might disrupt other neural functions to interfere with memory formation. Intraamygdala injections of anisomycin before inhibitory avoidance training impaired memory in rats tested 48 h later. Release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin, measured...

  9. Transient global amnesia following cerebral angiography with non-ionic contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamschula, R.G.; Soo, M.Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Transit global amnesia (TGA) is an uncommon syndrome of recent memory deficit and inability to learn new data, usually resolving within 24 hours. Two cases following use of non-ionic contrast media in cerebral angiography are presented. The neuroanatomy of memory is reviewed. Possible aetiologies of TGA in relation to cerebral angiography include ischemia (embolic, arterial spasm), epilepsy that may be primary or tumour-related and direct toxic effects of contrast media. 19 refs., 1 fig

  10. Anterograde Amnesia during Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Prospective Pilot-Study in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Boere

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is considered an effective treatment for major depression with melancholic features. However, neurocognitive side-effects such as anterograde amnesia still regularly occur. The present study aims to evaluate the severity and course of anterograde amnesia in severely depressed patients undergoing ECT. In a prospective naturalistic study, anterograde memory function was assessed among inpatients who underwent ECT (n = 11. Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Recruitment took place between March 2010-March 2011 and March 2012-March 2013. Controls treated with antidepressants (n = 9 were matched for age, gender and depression severity. Primary outcome measure was immediate recall; secondary outcome measures were delayed recall, recognition, and visual association. Differences were tested using repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests. Correlations with hypothesized covariates were calculated. In patients with major depressive disorder, ECT had a significant effect on delayed memory function (p<0.01 with large effect sizes. Findings on immediate recall were less consistent. Four weeks after treatment discontinuation, these memory functions had recovered. Age was identified as a very important covariate. The main limitations of our study are its naturalistic design, possibly compromising internal validity, and its small sample size. However, if these findings can be reproduced in a more comprehensive study group, then the possible induction of anterograde amnesia is not a justifiable reason for clinicians to disregard ECT as a treatment option.

  11. The Day That Went Missing: A First-Person Account of Transient Global Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Trip

    2017-03-01

    In this vivid first-person case history, political reporter Trip Gabriel describes experiencing a classic episode of transient global amnesia. He was near the average target age of 61. Although no cause has been established for the syndrome, as with many other patients his episode appears to have been triggered by contact with water: He was racing a sailboat. While remaining alert and handling complex sailing maneuvers, he suddenly developed amnesia that left him with no recollection of finishing two races, returning to shore, drinking a beer with his friends, needing help finding his car, and not knowing where he was or where he lived. When he did not arrive home on time, his wife called him and quickly recognized his disorientation. She helped him drive himself home and took him to the hospital, where he was evaluated for a stroke. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan was normal. He started to become aware again about 9 hours after the start of the attack, but was kept in the hospital until his anterograde amnesia resolved fully about 23 hours after onset. He has no memories of 12 hours (from 3 hours before the attack started through the time he regained awareness in the hospital). He was reassured to learn that a recurrence is unlikely. He finds parallels to his experience in the films Memento and Inside Out. A companion article provides expert commentary on the case report (Kirshner HS. 2017. Cogn Behav Neurol. 30:5-7).

  12. Measuring retrograde autobiographical amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy: historical perspective and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2013-06-01

    Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.

  13. A single-system model predicts recognition memory and repetition priming in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher J; Kessels, Roy P C; Wester, Arie J; Shanks, David R

    2014-08-13

    We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single-system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with amnesia categorized pictures of objects at study and then, at test, identified fragmented versions of studied (old) and nonstudied (new) objects (providing a measure of priming), and made a recognition memory judgment (old vs new) for each object. Numerous results in the amnesic patients were predicted in advance by the single-system model, as follows: (1) deficits in recognition memory and priming were evident relative to a control group; (2) items judged as old were identified at greater levels of fragmentation than items judged new, regardless of whether the items were actually old or new; and (3) the magnitude of the priming effect (the identification advantage for old vs new items) overall was greater than that of items judged new. Model evidence measures also favored the single-system model over two formal multiple-systems models. The findings support the single-system model, which explains the pattern of recognition and priming in amnesia primarily as a reduction in the strength of a single dimension of memory strength, rather than a selective explicit memory system deficit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410963-12$15.00/0.

  14. "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": tradução e validação "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": traducción y validación "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": translation and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva; Regina Márcia Cardoso de Sousa

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Traduzir e validar o Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para uso em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Esse teste foi traduzido para o português e retro-traduzido para o inglês por diferentes especialistas na língua e por fim, feita a avaliação da equivalência entre o instrumento original e a versão retro-traduzida. Sua aplicação em 73 vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico contuso e a indicação da gravidade dessa lesão, estabelecida pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitiram verificar as propri...

  15. Sensory-specific amnesia and hypoemotionality in humans and monkeys: gateway for developing a hodology of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D

    2008-09-01

    Amnesia is a dramatic clinical syndrome caused by diverse pathologies and lesion localizations. Although amnesia is typically screened for by clinicians using verbal stimuli, amnestic syndromes have been described that do not impair verbal memory and may be confined to a single sensory system or a dominant or highly lateralized sensory function. Thus, the functional-anatomic basis for various types of amnestic disorders is complex and, in most instances, better understood as a disconnection syndrome rather than a primary processing deficit. Using the clinical disorder of sensory-specific visual amnesia in humans as a springboard, a hodological model for understanding the various types of amnestic syndromes encountered in the clinic and those produced by discrete experimental lesions in monkeys is offered. The model is then expanded to encompass memory functions, in general, including agnostic deficits and the role of prefrontal cortex in learning and remembering.

  16. Pain and intra-operative amnesia evaluation with local anesthesia and sedation in patients subjected to rhinosseptoplasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Raimar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The local anesthesia practice and sedation to rhinoplasty and others aesthetics procedures of the face are each time more frequents. In the Brazil, the Federal Council of Medicine defines it and regulate its practice. Objective: To analyze the analgesia' effectiveness and of the intro operative amnesia through analogous visual and subjective scales in the rhinosseptoplasties performed under local anesthesia and sedation, looking for associations with the medium quantities of medication utilized. Method: A retrospective study based in reports relatives to 158 aesthetic-functional rhinoplasties. The surgeon recorded in a protocol the data relatives to the use of local anesthetics and sedatives (including concentration and quantities utilized as well as the side effects. In the first return post surgery the patient quantifies the pain that he felt in the intra operative utilizing a analogous visual scale as described by Hasen and collaborators. The Amnesia considered ideal when the patient referred to remind "nothing" or "a few of the procedure. Results: The sample constituted of 80 (73,4% women and 29 26,6% men, average of age of 29,3 ± 9,5 years. The median of the pain by the analogous visual scale was 0,05; 80% under 3,35. The amnesia was ideal in 51 (46,8% surgeries. The midazolam was utilized in all the surgeries. Fentanyl in 32 (29,4% and, pethidine in 77 (70,6%. Had not statistically significants differences between the quantities of medication utilized between the groups of patients with ideal amnesia when compared with those that do not obtained satisfactory amnesia. Conclusion: Local anesthesia and sedation in rhinoplasties are comfortable and secures in the majority of the cases, even without have a satisfactory amnesia.

  17. Amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia by phosphatidylserine and curcumin in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Teresa A; Edris, Edward M; Levinsky, Paul J; Williams, Justin M; Brouwer, Ari R; Gessay, Shawn A

    2016-09-01

    In the one-trial taste-avoidance task in day-old chicks, acetylcholine receptor activation has been shown to be important for memory formation. Injection of scopolamine produces amnesia, which appears to be very similar in type to that of Alzheimer's disease, which is correlated with low levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Traditional pharmacological treatments of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and glutamate receptor blockers, improve memory and delay the onset of impairments in memory compared with placebo controls. These agents also ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in the day-old chick trained on the one-trial taste-avoidance task. The present experiments examined the ability of two less traditional treatments for Alzheimer's disease, phosphatidylserine and curcumin, to ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in day-old chicks. The results showed that 37.9 mmol/l phosphatidylserine and 2.7 mmol/l curcumin significantly improved retention in chicks administered scopolamine, whereas lower doses were not effective. Scopolamine did not produce state-dependent learning, indicating that this paradigm in day-old chicks might be a useful one to study the effects of possible Alzheimer's treatments. In addition, chicks administered curcumin or phosphatidylserine showed little avoidance of a bead associated with water reward, indicating that these drugs did not produce response inhibition. The current results extend the findings that some nontraditional memory enhancers can ameliorate memory impairment and support the hypothesis that these treatments might be of benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Functional MRI study of diencephalic amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulo, M; Van Hecke, J; Toma, L; Ferretti, A; Tartaro, A; Colosimo, C; Romani, G L; Uncini, A

    2005-07-01

    Anterograde amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with diencephalic lesions, mainly in the anterior thalamic nuclei. Whether diencephalic and temporal lobe amnesias are distinct entities is still not clear. We investigated episodic memory for faces using functional MRI (fMRI) in eight controls and in a 34-year-old man with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and diencephalic lesions but without medial temporal lobe (MTL) involvement at MRI. fMRI was performed with a 1.5 tesla unit. Three dual-choice tasks were employed: (i) face encoding (18 faces were randomly presented three times and subjects were asked to memorize the faces); (ii) face perception (subjects indicated which of two faces matched a third face); and (iii) face recognition (subjects indicated which of two faces belonged to the group they had been asked to memorize during encoding). All activation was greater in the right hemisphere. In controls both the encoding and recognition tasks activated two hippocampal regions (anterior and posterior). The anterior hippocampal region was more activated during recognition. Activation in the prefrontal cortex was greater during recognition. In the subject with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, fMRI did not show hippocampal activation during either encoding or recognition. During recognition, although behavioural data showed defective retrieval, the prefrontal regions were activated as in controls, except for the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. fMRI activation of the visual cortices and the behavioural score on the perception task indicated that the subject with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome perceived the faces, paid attention to the task and demonstrated accurate judgement. In the subject with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, although the anatomical damage does not involve the MTL, the hippocampal memory encoding has been lost, possibly as a consequence of the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis involvement. Anterograde amnesia could therefore be the expression of

  19. Clinical and neuropsychological changes after the disappearance of seizures in a case of transient epileptic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sekimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a female patient with late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy who presented with transient amnesia as the sole ictal manifestation, an accelerated rate of forgetting daily life events, and a retrograde memory deficit. We describe the memory function of the patient both before and after the administration of antiseizure medication. After the patient's seizures were controlled with antiseizure drugs, her neuropsychological memory performance scores showed improvement. We presumed that the disappearance of seizures was associated with a decrease in the accelerated rate of forgetting medication. However, her lost memories were not recovered after the seizures were controlled by antiseizure medication.

  20. Trachyspermum ammi Seeds Supplementation Helps Reverse Scopolamine, Alprazolam and Electroshock Induced Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kapil; Parle, Milind

    2017-05-01

    The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electroshock induced amnesia was employed to describe the actions. Treatment of TASP significantly increased step down latency of PAA and significantly increased discrimination index of ORT in groups with or without amnesia when compared to respective control groups. Furthermore, TASP administration resulted in significant fall in brain AChE activity, brain MDA level and brain nitrite level with simultaneous rise in brain GSH level, thereby decreased oxidative damage. A significant decrease in serum cholesterol was also observed. Ajowan supplementation may prove a remedy for the management of cognitive disorders owing to have pro-cholinergic, antioxidant and hypo-lipidemic activities.

  1. Posthypnotic amnesia for a first romantic relationship: Forgetting the entire relationship versus forgetting selected events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2003-05-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of suggestion focus on posthypnotic amnesia (PHA) for memories of a first romantic relationship. During hypnosis, high and low hypnotisable participants recalled specific memories from this period in response to 10 cue phrases (Elicitation). They then received a PHA suggestion that targeted either the entire period or specific memories from that period. Participants' explicit memory was indexed by cued recall after PHA was administered (memories recalled to "old" and "new" cues; Recall 1) and after it was cancelled (Recall 2). A social judgement task indexed dissociations between implicit and explicit memory. PHA had the greatest impact on highs', but not lows', memory performance (in terms of memories recalled to old cues, recall latency, and qualitative memory ratings) when the suggestion targeted the entire period rather than specific events. We discuss these findings in terms of the parameters of PHA's influence on memory, its value for exploring the nature and structure of autobiographical memory, and its utility as a laboratory analogue of functional amnesia.

  2. Preserved memory in retrograde amnesia: sparing of a recently acquired skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Cohen, N J; Zouzounis, J A

    1984-01-01

    Recent work with amnesic patients has revealed a preserved capacity for acquiring and retaining new skills despite otherwise profound anterograde impairment. In addition to their anterograde impairment, amnesic patients also have retrograde memory loss for some information acquired prior to the amnesic event. The present experiment addresses for the first time the question of whether preservation of memory for skills is also a feature memory impairment. To determine the susceptibility of a recently learned skill to retrograde amnesia, we taught patients to read mirror-reversed words before and during the early part of a prescribed course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and then tested retention of the skill after the course of treatment had been completed. Patients prescribed bilateral or right unilateral ECT and depressed patients not receiving ECT acquired the mirror-reading skill at the same rate and then retained it at the same level. For the patients prescribed ECT, intact learning and retention of the skill occurred despite retrograde amnesia for the previous testing sessions and for the words that they had read previously.

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea); Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-06-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun

    2007-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  5. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

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    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  6. Recovery from Transient Global Amnesia Following Restoration of Hippocampal and Fronto–Cingulate Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caffarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who suffered a transient global amnesia (TGA attack underwent regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF SPECT imaging and neuropsychological testing in the acute phase, after one month and after one year. Neuropsychological testing in the acute phase showed a pattern of anterograde and retrograde amnesia, whereas memory was within age normal limits at follow up. SPECT data were analysed with a within subject comparison and also compared with those of a group of healthy controls. Within subject comparison between the one month follow up and the acute phase detected increases in rCBF in the hippocampus bilaterally; further rCBF increases in the right hippocampus were detected after one year. Compared to controls, significant hypoperfusion was found in the right precentral, cingulate and medial frontal gyri in the acute phase; after one month significant hypoperfusion was detected in the right precentral and cingulate gyri and the left postcentral gyrus; after one year no significant hypoperfusion appeared. The restoration of memory was paralleled by rCBF increases in the hippocampus and fronto-limbic-parietal cortex; after one year neither significant rCBF differences nor cognitive deficits were detectable. In conclusion, these data indicate that TGA had no long lasting cognitive and neural alterations in this patient.

  7. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  8. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  9. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  10. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui

    2007-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr ∼ 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1∼9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI

  11. Sexual revictimization: double betrayal and the risk associated with dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new treatment targets in order to develop more empirically informed initiatives to prevent sexual revictimization. A retrospective Web-based survey employing a mixed-methods design attracted a self-selecting sample of 481 community respondents, 183 of whom indicated a history of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy-four percent were females whose ages ranged from 16 to 69 years (mean = 31.2 years). Betrayal trauma referred to CSA committed by a trusted perpetrator (often caregivers). Disclosure experiences in childhood were reported though open-dialogue boxes. Double betrayal referred to high-betrayal trauma being combined with a negative response to a disclosure. This was associated with both higher incidences of prior psychogenic amnesia for CSA and sexual revictimization in later life. The findings have implications for educating the guardians of children about the prevalence and implications of CSA as well as the importance of early recognition and appropriate responding.

  12. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10 4 dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-μsec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10 6 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10 6 rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli

  13. Postencephalitic amnesia with long term-working memory impairment: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baldivia

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by virus, leading to focal necrosis in medial temporal lobes, hippocampal complex and basal forebrain. Cognitively, HSVE is associated to many dysfunctions which vary according to the extent of the lesion. Episodic memory impairment is the most common sequelae following HSVE episodes, although others can occur. The aim of this case report was to describe the cognitive profile of a 42 year-old man who had extensive bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobe, insular bilateral and orbitofrontal cortices due to HSVE. Severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, naming deficits, perseverative behaviors and confabulations were observed on neuropsychological assessment. We discussed the concept of long term-working memory based on this evaluation. These cognitive impairments corroborated HSVE previous findings in the literature.

  14. "Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test": tradução e validação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e; Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso de

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Traduzir e validar o Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test para uso em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Esse teste foi traduzido para o português e retro-traduzido para o inglês por diferentes especialistas na língua e por fim, feita a avaliação da equivalência entre o instrumento original e a versão retro-traduzida. Sua aplicação em 73 vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico contuso e a indicação da gravidade dessa lesão, estabelecida pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow, permitiram verificar as propri...

  15. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10/sup 4/ dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-..mu..sec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 6/ rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10/sup 6/ rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  16. [Transient topographical amnesia: a description of a series of eight cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Fernández, Cristina; Arjona, Antonio; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Guardado-Santervás, Pedro; Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Aguilera-Del Moral, Almudena

    Impaired memory, and more particularly spatial orientation, occurs in pathologies such as dementia, cerebrovascular accidents or traumatic brain injuries. Less frequently it also appears as a transient disorder in healthy people with no apparent brain damage, in which case it is known as transient topographical amnesia (TTA). The aim of this work is to report on a series of eight cases of TTA that were evaluated in a neurology unit. We study the cases of eight patients diagnosed with TTA over the period 2002-2008. Patients were considered to fulfil eligibility criteria if they had presented at least one episode of spatial disorientation, with no loss of memory or consciousness, and were able to describe the events that had taken place, without any previous cognitive impairment and with a normal neurological examination. The demographic characteristics taken into account in the study were: predominance of females (75%) and a mean age of 69.13 +/- 8.79 years. The mean number of episodes was 1.75 (range: 1-3), which lasted an average of 24.5 minutes. Three of the eight patients had associated vascular risk factors. Neuroimaging studies did not reveal any relevant findings in any of the eight patients, except one case of a bilateral frontal porencephalic area resulting from a traumatic brain injury suffered in the past. Simple single-photon emission tomography and Doppler ultrasound imaging scans of the brain, as well as an electroencephalogram, were performed on two patients, the results being normal in all cases. Follow-ups were performed on all the patients, without any kind clinical change being observed, except for one patient who developed dementia at six years after the episode of amnesia. TTA is possibly an underdiagnosed condition which we believe should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who are referred owing to suspected cognitive impairment.

  17. A Case of Bariatric Surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome with Persisting Anterograde Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-08-01

    To describe the theoretical and clinical implications of the neuropsychological evaluation of a case of bariatric surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. The patient was a 37-year old, female, bilingual, bachelor's degree educated, Mexican American public relations consultant without preexisting psychiatric, neurological, or substance abuse history. Recovery from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery for morbid obesity was complicated by intraabdominal abscess, multibacterial infection, and prolonged nausea and vomiting. About 15 weeks post-surgery she was diagnosed with Wernicke's encephalopathy. She had a positive response to thiamine supplement but was left with persisting self-reported memory problems that were confirmed by family members. Multiple neuroimaging studies were all normal. A neuropsychological evaluation at 14 months post-surgery revealed anterograde amnesia for verbal and visual-perceptual material. There was no clear period of temporally graded retrograde amnesia. Scores on tests of visual-perceptual, language, fine motor, and executive functions were unimpaired. She had awareness of her neurocognitive impairment, but did not exhibit emotional distress. Follow-up neuropsychological evaluation at 17 months showed a similar neurocognitive profile with increased emotional distress. Her preserved executive functioning is theoretically important as it supports arguments that such impairment in alcohol use-related Korsakoff syndrome derives from the toxic effects of the prolonged misuse of alcohol and not vitamin deficiency. From a clinical perspective, neuropsychological evaluation of thiamine treated, bariatric surgery-related, Wernicke's encephalopathy cases is indicated if there is suspicion of residual memory impairment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A dissociation between anterograde and retrograde amnesia after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy: a naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Margaret; Lebowitz, Brian K; Ly, Jenny; Panizzon, Matthew S; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Dey, Sangeeta; Bloomingdale, Kerry; Thall, Mark; Pearlman, Chester

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the cumulative effects of a clinically determined course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on anterograde and retrograde amnesia. In this study, mood and memory were examined in the context of a protocol driven by therapeutic response, rather than by preordained research criteria. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder and 18 nondepressed controls were taught a series of faces and names before the initiation of ECT, and their retention of this information was examined after the end of treatment. Anterograde (ie, new learning) and retrograde memory (ie, recall of information learned before ECT) were assessed. Eleven ECT patients underwent unilateral (UL) stimulation, and 11 had a combination of UL and bilateral stimulation. Major depressive disorder patients and nondepressed controls participants were matched according to baseline memory abilities. Unilateral and unilateral/bilateral (UB) ECT patients were matched according to baseline depression and memory abilities. Treatment with ECT resulted in a dissociation between anterograde and retrograde memory; after treatment, major depressive disorder patients demonstrated significant retrograde amnesia, whereas there was no change in their anterograde memory. Unilateral and UB ECT patients performed equally well on tasks of anterograde memory. Contrary to our expectation, UB ECT was not associated with greater retrograde memory loss than was UL ECT treatment. However, a trend toward a group difference was present on 1 memory measure. Results of the study suggest that a clinical course of ECT is associated with isolated impairment for information learned before treatment (ie, retrograde memory), whereas there was no effect of ECT on posttreatment learning abilities (ie, anterograde memory).

  19. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  20. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:{+-}5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8{+-}2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA.

  1. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  2. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:±5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8±2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA

  3. "Amnesia" for summer camps and high school graduation: memory work increases reports of prior periods of remembering less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J D; Lindsay, D S

    2000-01-01

    Claims regarding amnesia for childhood sexual abuse have often been based on studies of adults' responses to questions of the form, "Was there ever a period of time when you remembered less of the abuse than you do now?" In this experiment, 43 adult (mean age = 42) participants rated their current and prior memories of several nontraumatic childhood/adolescent events. Reports of prior periods of less memory were fairly common. Participants then engaged in "reminiscence" or "enhanced" retrieval activities directed toward remembering more about a selected target event. Following retrieval, 35% of the reminiscence condition participants reported prior poor memory for the target event, as did 70% of the enhanced condition. These results highlight the need for appropriate control conditions in retrospective studies of amnesia for childhood trauma.

  4. Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Karabulut, Sercan

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative amnesia (DA) among subjects with a dissociative disorder and/or borderline personality disorder (BPD) recruited from a nonclinical population was examined. The Steinberg Dissociative Amnesia Questionnaire (SDAQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 college students. A total of 80 participants who were diagnosed with BPD according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 nonborderline controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) by a psychiatrist blind to diagnosis and scale scores. Internal consistency analyses and test-retest evaluations suggested that the SDAQ is a reliable instrument for the population studied. Of the participants, 20.6% reported an SDAQ score of 20 or above and impairment by DA. Those who had both dissociative disorder and BPD (n = 78) had the highest SDAQ scores. Both disorders had significant effects on the SCID-D total and amnesia scores in the variance analysis. On SDAQ scores, however, only BPD had this effect. There was a significant interaction between the 2 disorders for the SCID-D total but not for the SDAQ or SCID-D amnesia scores. BPD represented the severity of dissociation and childhood trauma in this study group. However, in contrast to the dissociative disorders, BPD was characterized by better awareness of DA in self-report. The discrepancies between self-report and clinical interview associated with BPD and dissociative disorders are discussed in the context of betrayal theory (J. J. Freyd, 1994) of BPD and perceptual theory (D. B. Beere, 2009) of dissociative disorders.

  5. Amnesia and future thinking: Exploring the role of memory in the quantity and quality of episodic future thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Scott N; Morrison, Catriona M; Barak, Ohr; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Conway, Martin A

    2016-06-01

    To examine the impact of memory accessibility on episodic future thinking. Single-case study of neurological patient HCM and an age-matched comparison group of neurologically Healthy Controls. We administered a full battery of tests assessing general intelligence, memory, and executive functioning. To assess autobiographical memory, the Autobiographical Memory Interview (Kopelman, Wilson, & Baddeley, 1990. The Autobiographical Memory Interview. Bury St. Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company) was administered. The Past Episodic and Future Episodic sections of Dalla Barba's Confabulation Battery (Dalla Barba, 1993, Cogn. Neuropsychol., 1, 1) and a specifically tailored Mental Time Travel Questionnaire were administered to assess future thinking in HCM and age-matched controls. HCM presented with a deficit in forming new memories (anterograde amnesia) and recalling events from before the onset of neurological impairment (retrograde amnesia). HCM's autobiographical memory impairments are characterized by a paucity of memories from Recent Life. In comparison with controls, two features of his future thoughts are apparent: Reduced episodic future thinking and outdated content of his episodic future thoughts. This article suggests neuropsychologists should look beyond popular conceptualizations of the past-future relation in amnesia via focussing on reduced future thinking. Investigating both the quantity and quality of future thoughts produced by amnesic patients may lead to developments in understanding the complex nature of future thinking disorders resulting from memory impairments. We highlight the clinical importance of examining the content of future thoughts in amnesic patients, rather than only its quantitative reduction. We propose an explanation of how quantitative and qualitative aspects of future thinking could be affected by amnesia. This could provide a useful approach to understand clinical cases of impaired prospection. Systematic group investigations

  6. Using attribute amnesia to test the limits of hyper-binding and associative deficits in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick-Huhn, John M; Chen, Hui; Wyble, Bradley P; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-01

    Previous work has shown mixed evidence regarding age-related deficits for binding in working memory. The current study used the newly developed attribute amnesia effect (H. Chen & Wyble, 2015a) to test the associative-deficit hypothesis during working memory and to probe whether hyper-binding extends to include binding of de-selected information. In studies of attribute amnesia, participants use target attributes (e.g., identity, color) to demonstrate near ceiling levels of reporting of a second target attribute (e.g., location) across a series of trials (H. Chen & Wyble, 2015a, 2016). Yet, despite having just processed the target-defining attribute, they have difficulty reporting it on a surprise trial. This effect provides several predictions for associative binding in aging. The associative-deficit hypothesis predicts age-related decline on the surprise trial, whereas an extension of hyper-binding predicts age-related increase in performance in older adults. In Experiment 1, when working memory load was low, older adults demonstrated attribute amnesia equal to that found in younger adults. When load increased in Experiment 2, older adults again demonstrated attribute amnesia as well as an age deficit for reporting target attributes. In lieu of spontaneous binding, results suggest that expectancy plays a critical role in older adults' propensity to encode and bind target attributes in working memory. Results further suggest that expectancy alone is not enough for older adults to form bound representations when task demands are high. Taken together results revealed a boundary condition of hyper-binding and further provided conditional support for the associative-deficit hypothesis in working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Remembering and forgetting of semantic knowledge in amnesia: a 16-year follow-up investigation of RFR.

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    McCarthy, Rosaleen A; Kopelman, Michael D; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2005-01-01

    We report our long-term follow-up investigations of RFR, a post-encephalitic case of very grave anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We also describe the results of quantitative neuroimaging of his brain injury that showed bilateral and severe reduction in the hippocampal formation and medial temporal structures with sparing of left lateral/posterior and right posterior temporal cortex. We established that RFR had a persistent severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia for personal and public events. His personal semantic knowledge was relatively spared for the retrograde period. There was a modest and global reduction in RFR's vocabulary for words acquired in adulthood before he became amnesic but there was no evidence of any retrograde gradient. His retrograde knowledge of people was also without any gradient. Remarkably, there had been no change in the extent of his semantic knowledge across a prolonged re-test interval indicating that the loss of semantic knowledge was stable and likely to have arisen at the time of his initial lesion. RFR also showed evidence of a limited but significant ability to acquire new word meanings and a more restricted capacity for learning about new celebrities. While he was able to demonstrate face and name familiarity for newly famous people, he was unable to provide much semantic detail. RFR's amnesia can be partially explained by contemporary theories that allow for parallel cortical and hippocampal memory systems but is difficult to reconcile in detail with any extant view.

  8. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

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    Yuji Odagaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name. He lost all information about his personal identity, and his memory was wholly lost until the disaster on 11 March 2011. He was able to recall his life after the disaster, and semantic memories and social abilities were largely preserved. A medical examination performed on 1 November 2016 verified that he was awake, alert, and oriented to time, place, and person (except for himself. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no pathological findings. He also experienced some symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. No abnormalities were detected by biochemical test and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Physicians and other professionals who take care of victims of disaster should be aware of dissociative spectrum disorders, such as psychogenic amnesia.

  9. Cognitive enhancing of pineapple extract and juice in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

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    Momtazi-borojeni, Amir Abbas; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Rabbani, Mohammed; Ghannadi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing of pineapple juice and ethanolic extract in scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice. The ethanolic extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) was prepared by maceration method and its juice was obtained by a homogenizer. Object recognition task was used to evaluate the mice memory. Exploration time in the first and second trial was recorded. The differences in exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in the second trial were taken as a memory index. Animals were randomly assigned into 15 groups of 6 each including: control group (normal saline + vehicle), positive control group (scopolamine + rivastigmine), seven experimental groups (received scopolamine alone or scopolamine + ethanolic extract of pineapple in different doses), six other experimental groups were treated by ethanolic extract or juice of pineapple in different doses. Scopolamine (100 μL, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and pineapple juice or extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 40 and 30 min before starting the second trial in the experimental groups. Object discrimination was impaired after scopolamine administration. Results showed that juice and ethanolic extract of pineapple significantly restored object recognition ability in mice treated with scopolamine. These finding suggested that pineapple had a protective role against scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its ability in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:28626484

  10. The effects of live, taped, and no music on people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, F

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the effects of live, taped, and no music, on agitation and orientation levels of people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Participants (N = 22) were exposed to all 3 conditions, twice over 6 consecutive days. Songs used in the live and taped music conditions were identical and were selected based on participants' own preferred music. Pre and posttesting was conducted for each condition using the Agitated Behavior Scale (Corrigan, 1989) and the Westmead PTA Scale (Shores, Marosszeky, Sandanam, Batchelor, 1986). Participants' memory for the music used was also tested and compared with their memory for pictorial material presented in the Westmead PTA Scale. Results indicate that music significantly reduced agitation (p music was not significant (p =.7). The mean number of pictures in the Westmead PTA scale recalled was 0.84 and the mean number of music selections recalled was 1.22 but this difference was not significant (p =.7). However, the trend suggests that music selections are more easily encoded in memory and then retrieved on request, than that of pictures. Analysis of responses in a follow-up assessment questionnaire showed that 77% of participants recalled the music program while in PTA, indicating that it reached the memory threshold. Sixty-four percent recalled the live music and 55% recalled the taped music condition however this difference was not significant (p =.7). Results suggest that music therapy programs have an important role to play in the management of people in PTA.

  11. Duration of Posttraumatic Amnesia Predicts Neuropsychological and Global Outcome in Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Novack, Thomas A; Temkin, Nancy; Barber, Jason; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Ricker, Joseph; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Jallo, Jack; Hsu, Nancy H; Zafonte, Ross

    Examine the effects of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration on neuropsychological and global recovery from 1 to 6 months after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI). A total of 330 persons with cmTBI defined as Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 to 15 in emergency department, with well-defined abnormalities on neuroimaging. Enrollment within 24 hours of injury with follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, California Verbal Learning Test II, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Duration of PTA was retrospectively measured with structured interview at 30 days postinjury. Despite all having a Glasgow Coma Scale Score of 13 to 15, a quarter of the sample had a PTA duration of greater than 7 days; half had PTA duration of 1 of 7 days. Both cognitive performance and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale outcomes were strongly associated with time since injury and PTA duration, with those with PTA duration of greater than 1 week showing residual moderate disability at 6-month assessment. Findings reinforce importance of careful measurement of duration of PTA to refine outcome prediction and allocation of resources to those with cmTBI. Future research would benefit from standardization in computed tomographic criteria and use of severity indices beyond Glasgow Coma Scale to characterize cmTBI.

  12. Talker-specific learning in amnesia: Insight into mechanisms of adaptive speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrograde amnesia in rats with lesions to the hippocampus on a test of spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Caruana, Douglas A; Binns, Malcolm A

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined remote spatial memory in a test that spans several months to determine whether remote memories are spared relative to more recent ones, as predicted by models of memory consolidation. At 3, 6 or 12 months of age, groups of rats received forced-choice training as to the location of food reward in a cross maze. At 12.5 months, rats received bilateral neurotoxic lesions to the hippocampus or a control surgical procedure and 2 weeks later their memory for the spatial location was tested. Their performance was compared to that of rats with hippocampal or control lesions with no prior training on several measures of savings. The hippocampal group with no pre-training, as expected, was severely impaired in learning the location of the food reward. Compared to this group, rats with hippocampal lesions that were pre-trained consistently performed better at the shortest training-surgery interval but not at the longer ones. That is, rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited retrograde amnesia at all training-surgery intervals and a forgetting curve that paralleled that of the control groups. The results were interpreted within a framework that distinguishes between relational and associative context, and as providing evidence that the hippocampus is necessary for the retention and retrieval of memories that are bound to relational context, regardless of the age of the memory.

  14. Nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of phloretin in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumatkar, Priya J; Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Tambe, Rufi M; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Phloretin (PHL), a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in the roots and leaves of apple tree. In vitro study on GT1-7 immortalized hypothalamic neurons exposed to amyloid beta (25-35), demonstrated that PHL significantly influenced membrane fluidity and potential. PHL also significantly decreased excitotoxicity by restoring the calcium homeostasis in the same. Thus, PHL proves to be a promising therapeutic moiety which should be further screened in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic roles of PHL in the subacute scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. In this study, mice were pretreated with PHL 2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and Donepezil (DON) 1mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14days. The last 7days of treatment regimen included daily injection of SCP 1.5mg/kg to induce cognitive deficits. Mice were subjected to behavioral analysis. Biochemical estimation of the brain homogenates for acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was carried out particularly in the hippocampus. PHL was found to significantly improve the performance of mice in Morris water maze test (Pnootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic activities in SCP induced memory impaired mice and hence, is a promising therapeutic moiety in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia: A critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal speech pathology literature on communication presentation during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early recovery period after traumatic brain injury. While a body of research reports on other cognitive and behavioural functions during PTA, language and/or cognitive communication are not routinely the primary focus of current research literature. This critical synthesis provides an overview of research to date on communication during PTA to inform speech pathology assessment practice and to assist with information provision to the multidisciplinary team and family members. A search was conducted of studies reporting on language, cognition, and cognitive communication during the acute, inpatient and early recovery period after TBI. These were examined for relevance to speech pathology practice during PTA and acute confusional state. Historic and recent literature has described types of language and communication impairment during PTA and early recovery after TBI. Recently, aspects of communication impairment during PTA have been found relevant for outcome prediction. Few studies were found originating from speech pathology on communication during PTA. Communication disruption forms a key feature of PTA. Existing literature indicates that speech pathology monitoring of communication during PTA may be of benefit as part of multidisciplinary team management during early recovery.

  16. [A case of incest with dissociative amnesia and post traumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdinç, Işil Bilgin; Sengül, Ceyhan Balci; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Bozkurt, Songül

    2004-01-01

    Incest is a kind of sexual abuse that causes serious disorders during childhood and adulthood. In order to overcome the trauma, abuse victims frequently use dissociative defence mechanisms. Post traumatic stress disorder, dissociative disorders, major depression and borderline personality disorder can be seen in the victims of childhood sexual abuse. In this article we present an adolescent who was found and brought to our clinic by the Children's Police Department while she was wandering around aimlessly. She could not remember anything about her identity or personal history. She had no apparent physical disturbances, marks of beating or wounds which could be seen externally. Her physical and neurological examinations were both normal. In her laboratory tests, there was nothing abnormal. No sign of intoxication or infection was detected. EEG and CT were also normal. After the family was found, we learned about the sexual and physical abuse and the patient was diagnosed with dissociative amnesia. The psychometric evaluations also supported our diagnosis. When the dissociation began to disappear, post traumatic stress disorder symptoms became more apparent. After she described her traumatic memories, PTSD symptoms began to recede. Through this case presentation we would like to emphasize the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse and dissociative disorders.

  17. Visuospatial declarative learning despite profound verbal declarative amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-03-20

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content. The results of this study demonstrate that patients with KS have compromised declarative memory functioning on all memory indices. Performance was lowest for the encoding operation compared to the working memory and delayed recall operation. With respect to the content, visuospatial memory was relatively better preserved than verbal memory. All memory operations functioned suboptimally, although the most pronounced disturbance was found in verbal memory encoding. Based on the preserved declarative memory capacities in patients, visuospatial memory can form a more promising target for compensatory memory rehabilitation than verbal memory. It is therefore relevant to increase the number of spatial cues in memory rehabilitation for KS patients.

  18. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

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    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages.

  19. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages

  20. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

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    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  1. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

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    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  2. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

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    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65 was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.Restricciones en la aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test y los cuestionamientos sobre la relación entre conciencia y amnesia post-traumática motivaron este estudio que visa identificar, a través de la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, el periodo más adecuado para la aplicación de la prueba de amnesia, y observar la relación entre los resultados de esos dos indicadores. El estudio prospectivo y longitudinal fue realizado en un centro de referencia para traumas en São Paulo - Brasil. El número fue de 73 victimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, internadas en esta institución en el periodo de 03/01 a 03/05/2001. Con relación a la aplicabilidad, la prueba puede ser aplicada en los pacientes con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow > 12, pero el término de la amnesia post-traumática fue observado en los pacientes con puntuación > 14 en la escala. Correlación significativa (rs = 0,65 fue observada entre esas

  3. Preserved ability to recognize keywords related to remote events in the absence of retrieval of relevant knowledge: a case of postencephalitic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Miura, Rina; Ogawa, Tatsuji; Yamadori, Atsushi

    2003-02-01

    We describe a case of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pathological changes in the bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, fusiform gyri, medial temporal poles, posterior part of the cingulate gyri, and insula. The patient showed severe amnesia for autobiographical episodic memory in relation to events that had occurred throughout her life, but temporally graded amnesia for autobiographical semantic memory, and severe amnesia without a temporal gradient for public events and famous people. However, using a multiple-choice method, she showed a high level of accuracy when choosing keywords related to public or personal events, although this did not prompt her recollection of the events. An important indication of these results is that, even with severe retrograde amnesia, memories of past events are not completely lost. We propose that an event may be stored in a fragmented form, consisting of many components, and that normal recall of an event may require recombination or reconstruction of these components. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  4. Clinical characteristics and brain PET findings in 3 cases of dissociative amnesia: disproportionate retrograde deficit and posterior middle temporal gyrus hypometabolism.

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    Thomas-Antérion, C; Dubas, F; Decousus, M; Jeanguillaume, C; Guedj, E

    2014-10-01

    Precipitated by psychological stress, dissociative amnesia occurs in the absence of identifiable brain damage. Its clinical characteristics and functional neural basis are still a matter of controversy. In the present paper, we report 3 cases of retrograde autobiographical amnesia, characterized by an acute onset concomitant with emotional/neurological precipitants. We present 2 cases of dissociative amnesia with fugue (cases 1 and 2), and one case of focal dissociative amnesia after a minor head trauma (case 3). The individual case histories and neuropsychological characteristics are reported, as well as the whole-brain voxel-based 18FDG-PET metabolic findings obtained at group-level in comparison to 15 healthy subjects. All patients suffered from autobiographical memory loss, in the absence of structural lesion. They had no significant impairment of anterograde memory or of executive function. Impairment of autobiographical memory was complete for two of the three patients, with loss of personal identity (cases 1 and 2). A clinical recovery was found for the two patients in whom follow-up was available (cases 2 and 3). Voxel-based group analysis highlighted a metabolic impairment of the right posterior middle temporal gyrus. 18FDG-PET was repeated in case 3, and showed a complete functional brain recovery. The situation of dissociative amnesia with disproportionate retrograde amnesia is clinically heterogeneous between individuals. Our findings may suggest that impairment of high-level integration of visual and/or emotional information processing involving dysfunction of the right posterior middle temporal gyrus could reduce triggering of multi-modal visual memory traces, thus impeding reactivation of aversive memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. On the nose: Olfactory disturbances in patients with transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher R; Milton, Fraser; Han, Yang; Zeman, Adam Z

    2017-01-01

    While olfactory hallucinations are relatively rare in epilepsy, a high prevalence (up to 42%) has been reported in one form - Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). TEA is characterized by recurring amnestic seizures and is commonly associated with persistent interictal memory deficits. Despite reports of changes in smell, olfactory ability has not been objectively assessed in this group. The aim of this study was to measure olfactory ability in patients with TEA and explore whether olfactory symptoms relate to other clinical variables. Fifty-five participants with TEA were recruited from The Impairment of Memory in Epilepsy project database. The presence of olfactory symptoms was obtained via case notes and clinical interview. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate their olfaction and memory function subjectively. Olfactory ability was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). TEA participants' performance was compared to 50 matched healthy control participants. A subset of TEA participants (n=26) also completed a battery of memory tests including standard neuropsychological measures, and assessment of accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory. Olfactory hallucinations were reported in 55% of patients with TEA. A significant reduction in smell identification (UPSIT) was found between patients with TEA and healthy controls (polfactory hallucinations, were not predictive of olfactory ability. Patients reported ongoing memory difficulties and performed below normative values on objective tests. While no correlation was found between objective measures of memory and olfactory performance, subjective complaints of route finding difficulty was associated with UPSIT score. Impairments in odor identification are common in patients with TEA and exceed changes that occur in normal aging. Olfactory hallucinations occurs in approximately half of patients with TEA, but do not always coincide with reduced sense of

  6. Between Truth and Amnesia: State Terrorism, Human Rights Violations and Transitional Justice in Brazil

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    Iasmin Goes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The military rule in Brazil between 1964 and 1985 employed less violence than similar authoritarian regimes in neighbouring countries, and attempted to maintain a façade of legitimacy by allowing for a consented opposition. Nevertheless, Brazil was the last Latin American nation to establish a truth commission. Ever since the Amnesty Law was passed in 1979, authorities and citizens have both struggled to come to terms with the human rights violations committed in the past. The Brazilian government went as far as offering material reparations to the presumed victims without disclosing official information to establish what the reparations were being paid for. Is it better to remember or forget? This Exploration discusses transitional justice strategies, and documents recent developments in Brazil's political history.Resumen: Entre la verdad y la amnesia. Terrorismo de Estado, violaciones de derechos humanos y justicia transicional en BrasilEntre 1964 y 1985, el régimen militar en Brasil empleó menos violencia que regímenes autoritarios de países vecinos, e intentó mantener una fachada de legitimidad. Sin embargo, Brasil fue el último país latinoamericano en establecer una comisión de la verdad. Desde la aprobación de la Ley de Amnistía en 1979, tanto las autoridades como los ciudadanos luchan para hacer justicia a las violaciones de derechos humanos cometidas en el pasado. El gobierno brasileño llegó al extremo de ofrecer reparaciones materiales a las presuntas víctimas, sin revelar informaciones oficiales para establecer por qué las estaba pagando. ¿Es mejor recordar u olvidar? Esta Exploración analiza las estrategias de justicia transicional y documenta evoluciones recientes en la política histórica brasileña.

  7. A Computational Model of Perceptual and Mnemonic Deficits in Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadil, Patrick S; Cowell, Rosemary A

    2017-06-01

    Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances. One recent study of visual discrimination behavior revealed a surprising antiperceptual learning effect in MTL-damaged individuals: With exposure to a set of visual stimuli, discrimination performance worsened rather than improved [Barense, M. D., Groen, I. I. A., Lee, A. C. H., Yeung, L. K., Brady, S. M., Gregori, M., et al. Intact memory for irrelevant information impairs perception in amnesia. Neuron, 75, 157-167, 2012]. We extend the representational-hierarchical account to explain this paradox by assuming that difficult visual discriminations are performed by comparing the relative "representational tunedness"-or familiarity-of the to-be-discriminated items. Exposure to a set of highly similar stimuli entails repeated presentation of simple visual features, eventually rendering all feature representations maximally and, thus, equally familiar; hence, they are inutile for solving the task. Discrimination performance in patients with MTL lesions is therefore impaired by stimulus exposure. Because the unique conjunctions represented in MTL do not occur repeatedly, healthy individuals are shielded from this perceptual interference. We simulate this mechanism with a neural network previously used to explain recognition memory, thereby providing a model that accounts for both mnemonic and perceptual deficits caused by MTL damage with a unified architecture and mechanism.

  8. Comprehensive Ultrasound Assessment of the Craniocervical Circulation in Transient Global Amnesia.

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    Jovanovic, Zagorka B; Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Vujisic Tesic, Bosiljka P; Pekmezovic, Tatjana P; Kostic Boricic, Marija V; Cvitan, Edita Z; Covickovic Sternic, Nadezda M

    2018-02-01

    Structural changes and metabolic stress have been reported on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the cornu ammonis 1 area of the hippocampus in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), but a consensus on pathogenesis is still lacking. The aim of our study was to perform a comprehensive ultrasound analysis of the cerebrovascular circulation in our population of patients with TGA. One hundred patients with TGA and 50 age- and sex-matched control participants underwent ultrasound examinations of the cervicocranial circulation. The most significant risk factor for TGA was arterial hypertension (P  .05). Rarely detected microembolic signals or a right-left cardiopulmonary shunt excluded an emboligenic mechanism of TGA (P > .05). The internal jugular vein valves were incompetent in 54% of patients with TGA, and this condition was associated with an increased risk of TGA (odds ratio, 4.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-9.04). The mean values of the breath holding index and pulsatility index, as parameters of small-vessel function, were within normal ranges and without differences between the TGA and control groups (P > .05). Our ultrasound examination did not detect significant structural atherosclerotic changes of cervicocranial arteries, and an emboligenic mechanism was excluded. Only a significant rise of blood pressure in TGA and significant valvular insufficiency of the internal jugular vein were established. New research should clarify whether these simultaneous functional circulatory changes have relevance for metabolic stress in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Transient Global Amnesia Deteriorates the Network Efficiency of the Theta Band.

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    Young Ho Park

    Full Text Available Acute perturbation of the hippocampus, one of the connector hubs in the brain, is a key step in the pathophysiological cascade of transient global amnesia (TGA. We tested the hypothesis that network efficiency, meaning the efficiency of information exchange over a network, is impaired during the acute stage of TGA. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state EEG data collected from 21 patients with TGA. The EEG data were obtained twice, once during the acute stage ( 2 months after symptom onset of TGA. Characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients of functional networks constructed using phase-locking values were computed and normalized as a function of the degree in the delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma frequency bands of the EEG. We investigated whether the normalized characteristic path length (nCPL and normalized clustering coefficients (nCC differed significantly between the acute and resolved stages of TGA at each frequency band using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For networks where the nCPL or nCC differed significantly between the two stages, we also evaluated changes in the connections of the brain networks. During the acute stage of TGA, the nCPL of the theta band networks with mean degrees of 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 significantly increased (P < 0.05. During the acute stage, the lost edges for these networks were mostly found between the anterior (frontal and anterior temporal and posterior (parieto-occipital and posterior temporal brain regions, whereas newly developed edges were primarily found between the left and right frontotemporal regions. The nCC of the theta band with a mean degree of 5.5 significantly decreased during the acute stage (P < 0.05. Our results indicate that TGA deteriorates the network efficiency of the theta frequency band. This effect might be related to the desynchronization between the anterior and posterior brain areas.

  10. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

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    Takeuchi, Ryo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kohjidai 5-7-1, 651-2273, Nishi-ku, Kobe-City, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Katsunori [Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Katsunori; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ( 99m Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, 99m Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  12. Neuroprotective Effect and Molecular Mechanism of [6]-Gingerol against Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia in C57BL/6 Mice

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    Chang-Yul Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the neuroprotective and memory enhancing effect of [6]-gingerol (GIN, a pungent ingredient of ginger, using an animal model of amnesia. To determine the neuroprotective effect of GIN on cognitive dysfunction, scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into C57BL/6 mice, and a series of behavioral tests were conducted. SCO-induced behavior changes and memory impairments, such as decreased alteration (% in Y-maze test, increased mean escape latency in water maze test, diminished step-through latency in passive avoidance test, and shortened freezing time in fear condition test, were significantly prevented and restored by the oral administration of GIN (10 or 25 mg/kg/day. To further verify the neuroprotective mechanism of GIN, we have focused on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The administration of GIN elevated the protein expression of BDNF, which was mediated via the activation of protein kinase B/Akt- and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB signaling pathway. These results suggest that GIN may have preventive and/or therapeutic potentials in the management of memory deficit and cognitive impairment in mice with amnesia.

  13. The role of nondeclarative memory in the skill for language: Evidence from syntactic priming in patients with amnesia.

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    Heyselaar, Evelien; Segaert, Katrien; Walvoort, Serge J W; Kessels, Roy P C; Hagoort, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome display deficits in all subdomains of declarative memory, yet their nondeclarative memory remains intact, making them an ideal patient group to determine which memory system supports syntactic priming. In line with the hypothesis that syntactic priming relies on nondeclarative memory, the patient group shows strong priming tendencies (12.6% passive structure repetition). Our healthy control group did not show a priming tendency, presumably due to cognitive interference between declarative and nondeclarative memory. We discuss the results in relation to amnesia, aging, and compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Improving Effects by Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium crymbosum L.) Vinegar on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Mice Model.

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    Hong, Seong Min; Soe, Kyong Hee; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Young Min; Lim, Beong Ou

    2018-01-10

    The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed. The BV group showed significantly restored cognitive function in the behavioral tests. BV facilitated cholinergic activity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, BV was found to be rehabilitated in the cornu ammonis 1 neurons of hippocampus. In our study, we demonstrated that the memory protection conferred by BV was linked to activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/serine-threonine kinase (AKT) signaling.

  15. What, if anything, can monkeys tell us about human amnesia when they can’t say anything at all?

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    Murray, Elisabeth A.; Wise, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a half century of development, the orthodox monkey model of human amnesia needs improvement, in part because of two problems inherent in animal models of advanced human cognition. First, animal models are perforce comparative, but the principles of comparative and evolutionary biology have not featured prominently in developing the orthodox model. Second, no one understands the relationship between human consciousness and cognition in other animals, but the orthodox model implicitly assumes a close correspondence. If we treat these two difficulties with the deference they deserve, monkeys can tell us a lot about human amnesia and memory. Three future contributions seem most likely: (1) an improved monkey model, one refocused on the hippocampus rather than on the medial temporal lobe as a whole; (2) a better understanding of cortical areas unique to primates, especially the granular prefrontal cortex; and (3), taking the two together, insight into prefrontal-hippocampal interactions. We propose that interactions among the granular prefrontal areas create the kind of cross-domain, analogical and self-referential knowledge that underlies advanced cognition in modern humans. When these products of frontal-lobe function interact with the hippocampus, and its ancestral function in navigation, what emerges is the human ability to embed ourselves in scenarios — real and imagined, self-generated and received — thereby creating a coherent, conscious life experience. PMID:20097215

  16. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang Alleviates Memory Deficits and Loss of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Scopolamine-induced Amnesia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Heeeun; Park, Hwayong; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-03-04

    We investigated the anti-amnesic effects of SJ and fermented SJ (FSJ) on scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia mouse model. Mice were orally co-treated with SJ or FSJ (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and SCO (1 mg/kg), which was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. SCO decreased the step-through latency and prolonged latency time to find the hidden platform in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test, respectively, and both SCO effects were ameliorated by FSJ treatment. FSJ was discovered to promote hippocampal neurogenesis during SCO treatment by increasing proliferation and survival of BrdU-positive cells, immature/mature neurons. In the hippocampus of SCO, oxidative stress and the activity of acetylcholinesterase were elevated, whereas the levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase were diminished; however, all of these alterations were attenuated by FSJ-treatment. The alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, and phosphorylated Akt that occurred following SCO treatment were protected by FSJ administration. Therefore, our findings are the first to suggest that FSJ may be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of amnesia and aging-related or neurodegenerative disease-related memory impairment. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism by which FSJ exerts its effects may involve modulation of the cholinergic system and BDNF/CREB/Akt pathway.

  17. Human amnesia and the medial temporal lobe illuminated by neuropsychological and neurohistological findings for patient E.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Ricardo; Annese, Jacopo; Amaral, David G.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    We present neurohistological information for a case of bilateral, symmetrical damage to the medial temporal lobe and well-documented memory impairment. E.P. developed profound memory impairment at age 70 y and then was studied for 14 y He had no capacity for learning facts and events and had retrograde amnesia covering several decades. He also had a modest impairment of semantic knowledge. Neurohistological analysis revealed bilaterally symmetrical lesions of the medial temporal lobe that eliminated the temporal pole, the amygdala, the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, the perirhinal cortex, and rostral parahippocampal cortex. The lesion also extended laterally to involve the fusiform gyrus substantially. Last, the superior, inferior, and middle temporal gyri were atrophic, and subjacent white matter was gliotic. Several considerations indicate that E.P.’s severe memory impairment was caused by his medial temporal lesions, whereas his impaired semantic knowledge was caused by lateral temporal damage. His lateral temporal damage also may have contributed to his extensive retrograde amnesia. The findings illuminate the anatomical relationship between memory, perception, and semantic knowledge. PMID:23620517

  18. Human herpes virus-6 encephalitis causing severe anterograde amnesia associated with rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone combination therapy for dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Thomas; Fry, Charlie; Luppe, Sebastian; Gunawardena, Harsha; Sieradzan, Kasia

    2017-06-01

    Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is a well-recognised complication following haematological stem cell transplantation, but it is novel in the context of combination immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune disease. We report a case of severe anterograde amnesia caused by HHV-6 encephalitis in a young female patient on rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone for dermatomyositis (DM). The use of targeted biologic treatments for systemic autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is increasing, particularly when refractory to conventional management. The anti-CD20 B cell depleting monoclonal antibody, rituximab is now increasingly used, often in combination with conventional immunomodulatory treatments, in certain autoimmune neurological conditions and systemic CTDs including DM. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of HHV-6 in those who develop encephalitis while CD20 B cell deplete, especially in the presence of additional immunomodulatory therapies. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of HHV-6 encephalitis with evidence-based anti-viral therapy may help reduce the extent of irreversible morbidity such as amnesia.

  19. Implicit Learning in Transient Global Amnesia and the Role of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Frauke; Griebe, Martin; Ebert, Anne; Ruttorf, Michaela; Gerber, Benjamin; Wolf, Oliver T; Schad, Lothar R; Gass, Achim; Szabo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired. To test the hypothesis that impairment of implicit learning in TGA is present and related to stress, we determined the effect of experimental exposure to stress on hippocampal activation patterns during an implicit learning paradigm in patients who suffered a recent TGA and healthy matched control subjects. We used a hippocampus-dependent aversive learning procedure (context conditioning with the phases habituation, acquisition, and extinction) during functional MRI following experimental stress exposure (socially evaluated cold pressor test). After a control procedure, controls showed successful learning during the acquisition phase, indicated by increased valence, arousal and contingency ratings to the paired (CON+) vs. the non-paired (CON-) conditioned stimulus, and successful extinction of the conditioned responses. Following stress, acquisition was still successful, however extinction was impaired with persistently increased contingency ratings. In contrast, TGA patients showed impairment of conditioned responses and insufficient extinction after the control procedure, indicated by a lack of significant differences between CON+ and CON- for valence and arousal ratings after the acquisition phase and by significantly increased contingency ratings after the extinction. After stress, aversive learning was not successful with non

  20. Implicit learning in transient global amnesia and the role of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Nees

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning – the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired. To test the hypothesis that impairment of implicit learning in TGA is present and related to stress, we determined the effect of experimental exposure to stress on hippocampal activation patterns during an implicit learning paradigm in patients who suffered a recent TGA and healthy matched control subjects. We used a hippocampus-dependent aversive learning procedure (context conditioning with the phases habituation, acquisition, and extinction during functional MRI following experimental stress exposure (socially evaluated cold pressor test. After a control procedure, controls showed successful learning during the acquisition phase, indicated by increased valence, arousal and contingency ratings to the paired (CON+ versus the non-paired (CON- conditioned stimulus, and successful extinction of the conditioned responses. Following stress, acquisition was still successful, however extinction was impaired with persistently increased contingency ratings. In contrast, TGA patients showed impairment of conditioned responses and insufficient extinction after the control procedure, indicated by a lack of significant differences between CON+ and CON- for valence and arousal ratings after the acquisition phase and by significantly increased contingency ratings after the extinction. After stress, aversive learning was not successful

  1. Amnésia retrógrada funcional grave: relato de caso Severe functional retrograde amnesia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maila de Castro L. Neves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Uma síndrome amnésica clássica caracteriza-se por evidente prejuízo da memória anterógrada, variável e temporária amnésia retrógrada, sendo as formas não-declarativas da memória poupadas. Entretanto, publicações recentes relataram casos de prejuízo desproporcional da memória retrógrada em relação à anterógrada. OBJETIVOS: Relatar o caso de um paciente de 26 anos de idade com um quadro grave de amnésia retrógrada, aparentemente sem fatores desencadeantes. MÉTODOS: Entrevista psiquiátrica e avaliação neuropsicológica. RESULTADOS: A perda de memória do paciente se estendia por toda sua vida, mas ele era capaz de adquirir e reter novas informações. Ele também apresentava prejuízos na produção e na compreensão de palavras, assim como no reconhecimento e no uso de objetos. CONCLUSÃO: A formulação diagnóstica final do caso é difícil, apontando possivelmente o contínuo existente entre a amnésia retrógrada psicogênica e a orgânica.BACKGROUND: A classic amnestic syndrome is characterized by a significant impairment of the anterograde memory, a variable and transitory retrograde amnesia with preserved non-declarative memory. However, case reports of patients with disproportionate compromise of the retrograde memory have been described in the recent literature. OBJECTIVES: To report a 26-year-old patient with a severe global retrograde amnesia with no evident triggering factor. METHODS: Psychiatric interview and neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS: His memory loss compromised all domains of his life, although he could acquire and retain new information. He also exhibited prominent deficits in production and comprehension of common words as well as in recognition and use of objects. DISCUSSION: The final diagnostic formulation of the present case is difficult possibly indicating a continuum between psychogenic and organic retrograde amnesia.

  2. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: casual parameters and duration of memory loss. Final report for November 84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron-beam exposure was investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task for 10, 1, and 0.1 microsecond pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 1,000,000 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (1,000,000 rad/s) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory system activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  3. Social Cognition Deficits: The Key to Discriminate Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Regardless of Amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoux, Maxime; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; O'Callaghan, Claire; Greve, Andrea; Sarazin, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Relative sparing of episodic memory is a diagnostic criterion of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, increasing evidence suggests that bvFTD patients can show episodic memory deficits at a similar level as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Social cognition tasks have been proposed to distinguish bvFTD, but no study to date has explored the utility of such tasks for the diagnosis of amnestic bvFTD. Here, we contrasted social cognition performance of amnestic and non-amnestic bvFTD from AD, with a subgroup having confirmed in vivo pathology markers. Ninety-six participants (38 bvFTD and 28 AD patients as well as 30 controls) performed the short Social-cognition and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). BvFTD patients were divided into amnestic versus non-amnestic presentation using the validated Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) assessing episodic memory. As expected, the accuracy of the FCSRT to distinguish the overall bvFTD group from AD was low (69.7% ) with ∼50% of bvFTD patients being amnestic. By contrast, the diagnostic accuracy of the mini-SEA was high (87.9% ). When bvFTD patients were split on the level of amnesia, mini-SEA diagnostic accuracy remained high (85.1% ) for amnestic bvFTD versus AD and increased to very high (93.9% ) for non-amnestic bvFTD versus AD. Social cognition deficits can distinguish bvFTD and AD regardless of amnesia to a high degree and provide a simple way to distinguish both diseases at presentation. These findings have clear implications for the diagnostic criteria of bvFTD. They suggest that the emphasis should be on social cognition deficits with episodic memory deficits not being a helpful diagnostic criterion in bvFTD.

  4. Comparison of the serial position effect in very mild Alzheimer's disease, mild Alzheimer's disease, and amnesia associated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, P J; Salmon, D P; Bondi, M W; Bui, B K; Olichney, J; Delis, D C; Thomas, R G; Thal, L J

    2000-03-01

    Individuals given a series of words to memorize normally show better immediate recall for items from the beginning and end of the list than for mid-list items. This phenomenon, known as the serial position effect, is thought to reflect the concurrent contributions of secondary and primary memory, respectively, to recall performance. The present study compared the serial position effects produced on Trial 1 of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 20.0) and very mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 25.5) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age- and education-matched normal control (NC) participants (N = 50). In addition, the serial position effects of the very mildly demented AD patients were compared to those of patients with a transient, circumscribed amnesia arising from a prescribed series of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments for the relief of depressive illness (N = 11). While the NC group exhibited the typical serial position effect, AD patients recalled significantly fewer words than NC participants overall, and exhibited a significantly reduced primacy effect (i.e., recall of the first 2 list items) with a normal recency effect (i.e., recall of the last 2 list items). Patients with circumscribed amnesia due to ECT were as impaired as the very mildly demented AD patients on most standard CVLT measures of learning and memory, but exhibited primacy and recency effects, which were within normal limits. These results suggest that a reduction in the primacy effect, but not the recency effect, is an early and ubiquitous feature of the memory impairment of AD. It is not, however, a necessary feature of all causes of memory impairment.

  5. The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: a prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of early-life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The present research was an examination of the onset of childhood amnesia and how it relates to maternal narrative style, an important determinant of autobiographical memory development. Children and their mothers discussed unique events when the children were 3 years of age. Different subgroups of children were tested for recall of the events at ages 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. At the later session they were interviewed by an experimenter about the events discussed 2 to 6 years previously with their mothers (early-life events). Children aged 5, 6, and 7 remembered 60% or more of the early-life events. In contrast, children aged 8 and 9 years remembered fewer than 40% of the early-life events. Overall maternal narrative style predicted children's contributions to mother-child conversations at age 3 years; it did not have cross-lagged relations to memory for early-life events at ages 5 to 9 years. Maternal deflections of the conversational turn to the child predicted the amount of information children later reported about the early-life events. The findings have implications for our understanding of the onset of childhood amnesia and the achievement of an adult-like distribution of memories in the school years. They highlight the importance of forgetting processes in explanations of the amnesia.

  6. Language and cognitive communication disorder during post-traumatic amnesia: Profiles of recovery after TBI from three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited empirical speech-language pathology (SLP) study of language and cognitive communication during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and the early stages after TBI. The purpose of the current research was to explore the potential means and utility of assessing cognitive communication during PTA and the post-acute recovery period. This research used a longitudinal mixed methods design to describe language and cognitive communication assessment and recovery profiles of three patients with TBI. Cognitive communication was assessed with repeated standardised and non-standardised methods during PTA (rated with Westmead PTA Scale) and at follow-up 3 months after PTA emergence. All participants demonstrated a profile of language and cognitive communication strengths and weaknesses during PTA and the post-acute period, also evident at follow-up. Improvement occurred gradually throughout PTA, although with individual fluctuation across test occasions. There was no marked change in communication function immediately before and after PTA emergence, indicating that cognitive communication ability and those functions measured on the Westmead PTA Scale (memory and orientation) did not recover at the same rate. It was feasible to assess language and cognitive communication throughout PTA and the post-acute period, and early assessment results were relevant to the patient's ongoing communicative function. It is suggested that early and repeated SLP assessment may contribute to the prediction of persisting cognitive communication issues.

  7. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  8. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  9. Performance benefits and costs in forced choice perceptual identification in amnesia: Effects of prior exposure and word frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Margaret M; Martin, Elizabeth; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-07-01

    Accuracy in identifying a perceptually degraded word (e.g., stake) can be either enhanced by recent exposure to the same stimulus or reduced by recent exposure to a similar stimulus (e.g., stare). In the present study, we explored the mechanisms underlying these benefits and costs by examining the performance of amnesic and control groups in a forced choice perceptual identification (FCPI) task in which briefly flashed words (that were identical to studied words, similar to studied words, or new) had to be identified, and two response choices were provided that differed from each other by one letter. Control participants showed a performance benefit and cost in FCPI with both high- and low-frequency words. Amnesic participants showed a benefit (but no cost) with high-frequency words and a benefit and a cost with low-frequency words. The benefit/cost pattern with low-frequency words in amnesia was obtained even when the to-be-identified stimulus in the FCPI task was eliminated (Experiment 2), suggesting that this effect was driven by processes operating at the level of the response choices. Our findings suggest that implicit memory effects in FCPI reflect the operation of multiple mechanisms, the relative contributions of which may vary with the frequency of the test stimuli. The results also highlight the need for caution in interpreting results from normal participants in the FCPI task, since those findings may reflect a contribution of explicit memory processes.

  10. The influence of the hippocampus and declarative memory on word use: Patients with amnesia use less imageable words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverman, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner; Duff, Melissa C

    2017-11-01

    Hippocampal functioning contributes to our ability to generate multifaceted, imagistic event representations. Patients with hippocampal damage produce event narratives that contain fewer details and fewer imagistic features. We hypothesized that impoverished memory representations would influence language at the word level, yielding words lower in imageability and concreteness. We tested this by examining language produced by patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment, and brain-damaged and healthy comparison groups. Participants described events from the real past, imagined past, imagined present, and imagined future. We analyzed the imageability and concreteness of words used. Patients with amnesia used words that were less imageable than those of comparison groups across time periods, even when accounting for the amount of episodic detail in narratives. Moreover, all participants used words that were relatively more imageable when discussing real past events than other time periods. Taken together, these findings suggest that the memory that we have for an event affects how we talk about that event, and this extends all the way to the individual words that we use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The value of the identification of predisposing factors for post-traumatic amnesia in management of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakopoulos, George; Makris, Demosthenes; Tsianaka, Eleni; Kotlia, Polikceni; Karakitsios, Paulos; Gatos, Charalabos; Tzannis, Alkiviadis; Fountas, Kostas

    2018-02-05

    To identify the risk factors for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and to document the incidence of PTA after mild traumatic brain injuries. This was a prospective study, affecting mild TBI (mTBI) (Glasgow Coma Scale 14-15) cases attending to the Emergency Department between January 2009 and April 2012 (40 months duration). Patients were divided into two groups (Group A: without PTA, and Group B: with PTA, and they were assessed according to the risk factors. A total of 1762 patients (males: 1002, 56.8%) were meeting study inclusion criteria [Group A: n = 1678 (83.8%), Group B: n = 84 (4.2%)]. Age, CT findings: (traumatic focal HCs in the frontal and temporal lobes or more diffuse punctate HCs, and skull base fractures), anticoagulation therapy and seizures were independent factors of PTA. There was no statistically significant correlation between PTA and sex, convexity fractures, stroke event, mechanism of mTBI (fall +/or beating), hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic smokers and diabetes (p > 0.005). CT findings: (traumatic focal HCs in the frontal and temporal lobes or more diffuse punctate HCs and skull base fractures), age, seizures and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy, were independent factors of PTA and could be used as predictive factors after mTBI.

  12. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeonah; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of intracranial venous reflux flow due to jugular venous reflux (JVR) on time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) is thought to be highly associated with transient global amnesia (TGA) - evidence that supports the venous congestion theory of TGA pathophysiology. However, recent studies indicate that intracranial JVR on TOF MRA is occasionally observed in normal elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA in patients with TGA and two control groups. Three age- and sex-matched groups of subjects that received MRI and MRA were enrolled. The groups comprised 167 patients with TGA, 167 visitors to the emergency room (ER) and 167 visitors to a health promotion centre (HPC). Intracranial JVR was defined as abnormal venous signals in the inferior petrosal, sigmoid and/or transverse sinuses on TOF MRA. The prevalence of intracranial JVR was assessed across the three groups. Intracranial JVR was seen in seven (4.2 %) TGA patients, eight (4.8 %) ER visitors and three (1.8 %) HPC visitors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups. TGA patients showed a low prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA, and no statistical differences were found in comparison with control groups. (orig.)

  13. Time of flight MR angiography assessment casts doubt on the association between transient global amnesia and intracranial jugular venous reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeonah; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hoon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Evidence of intracranial venous reflux flow due to jugular venous reflux (JVR) on time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) is thought to be highly associated with transient global amnesia (TGA) - evidence that supports the venous congestion theory of TGA pathophysiology. However, recent studies indicate that intracranial JVR on TOF MRA is occasionally observed in normal elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA in patients with TGA and two control groups. Three age- and sex-matched groups of subjects that received MRI and MRA were enrolled. The groups comprised 167 patients with TGA, 167 visitors to the emergency room (ER) and 167 visitors to a health promotion centre (HPC). Intracranial JVR was defined as abnormal venous signals in the inferior petrosal, sigmoid and/or transverse sinuses on TOF MRA. The prevalence of intracranial JVR was assessed across the three groups. Intracranial JVR was seen in seven (4.2 %) TGA patients, eight (4.8 %) ER visitors and three (1.8 %) HPC visitors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups. TGA patients showed a low prevalence of intracranial JVR on TOF MRA, and no statistical differences were found in comparison with control groups. (orig.)

  14. Prospective comparison of acute confusion severity with duration of post-traumatic amnesia in predicting employment outcome after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase-Richardson, Risa; Yablon, Stuart A; Sherer, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Measurement of the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is common practice, serving as an important index of the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a predictor of functional outcome. However, controversy exists regarding the nature of PTA; some studies indicate that it is a confusional state with symptoms that extend beyond disorientation and amnesia. To evaluate the contribution of the severity of acute confusion 1 month after TBI to prediction of employment at 1 year after injury, comparing it with PTA duration. Prospective study involving 171 participants with complete data, who met the study criteria, from 228 consecutive TBI Model System admissions. Outcome measures included weekly administration of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DelRS-R98) to measure the severity of acute confusion. Evaluations closest to 1 month after injury were used for study purposes. Duration of PTA was defined as the interval from injury until two consecutive Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test scores of > or = 76 were obtained within a period of 24-72 h. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to predict employment status at 1 year after injury. Age, education and DelRS-R98 were significant predictors accounting for 34% of outcome variance. Individuals with greater confusion severity at 1 month after injury, older age and lower levels of education were less likely to be employed at 1 year after injury. Severity of confusion was more strongly associated with employment outcome (r(s) = -0.39) than was PTA duration (r(s) = -0.34). In addition to demographic indices, severity of acute confusion makes a unique contribution to predicting late outcome after TBI.

  15. Amnésia Global Transitória: Relato de Caso/ Transitory Global Amnesia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Antônio Cornehl da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A amnésia global transitória (AGT consiste na ocorrência de sintomas como perda da memória e perda da orientação temporal e/ou espacial, de caráter temporário, e cuja causa não está associada às condições neurológicas mais comuns e clássicas, como epilepsia ou acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. Os maiores fatores de risco conhecidos para a AGT são a idade, geralmente ocorrendo em maiores de 50 anos, a ocorrência de episódios de estresse ou esforço físico antes do evento, sendo comum ocorrer em pessoas com antecedentes de enxaqueca. Casuística: Neste trabalho foi relatado o caso de um paciente de 61 anos, do sexo masculino, com história de amnésia com duração de um período de 5 horas. O mesmo foi submetido ao exame de ressonância magnética no dia seguinte que não evidenciou alterações; devido à suspeita de AGT, um novo exame de RM foi realizado três dias depois, demonstrando pequena área de alteração de sinal no hipocampo direito. Discussão: Os testes diagnósticos a serem realizados incluem exames para investigar um possível AVC ou episódio epiléptico. Além disso, é importante a investigação de fatores psicossomáticos e pesquisa de transtornos psiquiátricos associados, bastante relacionados à ocorrência de AGT. Conclusão: Atualmente, ainda há estudos sobre esta patologia, principalmente em relação a sua causa subjacente, levantando-se a hipótese de que seja um sintoma comum a diversas doenças e não uma patologia em si, tornando de suma importância os exames complementares de imagem no seu diagnóstico. Introduction: Transient global amnesia (TGA is the occurrence of symptoms such as loss of memory and orientation to time and/or space, with a temporary character, and whose cause is not linked to the most common classic and neurological conditions, such as epilepsy or stroke. The major known risk factors for TGA are age, usually occurring in greater than 50 year-old people the

  16. Accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Sander, Angelle M; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Nick, Todd G; Li, Jingyun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate factors that affect self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Prospective cohort study. Specialized rehabilitation center with inpatient and outpatient programs. Persons (N=242) with medically verified TBI who were identified from a registry of persons who had previously participated in TBI-related research. Not applicable. Self-reported length of coma and self-reported PTA duration. Review of medical records revealed that the mean medically documented length of coma and PTA duration was 6.9±12 and 19.2±22 days, respectively, and the mean self-reported length of coma and PTA duration was 16.7±22 and 106±194 days, respectively. The average discrepancy between self-report and medical record for length of coma and PTA duration was 8.2±21 and 64±176 days, respectively. Multivariable regression models revealed that time since injury, performance on cognitive tests, and medical record values were associated with self-reported values for both length of coma and PTA duration. In this investigation, persons with medically verified TBI showed poor accuracy in their self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Discrepancies were large enough to affect injury severity classification. Caution should be exercised when considering self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Telling the truth: Don DeLillo in an age of amnesia and redressDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n59p176

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni Gauthier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The December 2006 Iran Holocaust denial Conference and the international excoriation of it reveal a paradox of two cultural strands that are emblematic of the legacy of the twentieth century: official denial and historical amnesia on the one hand; and (international attempts at truth telling and historical redress on the other. Massive violence–and associative denial—punctuate the entire twentieth century. Yet coordinated tenacious efforts at public acknowledgment of “what really happened”–a recurrent and insistent emphasis in this context of trials, reparations, and above all, truth commissions—and concomitant historical redress for state-sanctioned crimes is a particularly recent phenomenon, unique, in fact, to the 1990s. But it is not only political readers who address what Priscilla B. Hayner, in her exhaustive study of truth commissions calls, “unspeakable truths.” This essay addresses the incongruity between the recent global concern with truth telling, official apology, memory and historical redress on the one hand–an obsession that certainly includes the US—and American amnesia on the other. It is in the interstices of these two apposite late twentieth century phenomena–amnesia and truth telling; “history” distinct from “the truth of the past”; “official” opposed to “vernacular” memory — that, I argue, a new genre of historical novel develops and performs a vital cultural work: telling the truth in an age of amnesia and redress. Such novels engage the recalcitrant materials of historical experience to assert truth claims that in turn challenge nationalist histories and revise traditional mythologies. Among the foremost authors of this new “truth-telling” historical novel is Don DeLillo. Americana, the vital precursor to Libra and especially to Underworld, is the definitive harbinger of DeLillo’s third century of work that writes both within and against postmodernism. In these Cold-War era

  18. Standardized extract of Lactuca sativa Linn. and its fractions abrogates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice: A possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Kaur, Jagpreet; Choudhary, Sunayna

    2017-02-28

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine- induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and {sup 1}H-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru [Dokkyo Univ., Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Toshihiko

    1997-06-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using {sup 1}H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of {sup 1}H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  20. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L.; Croisile, B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using 133 Xe et 99m Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the 133 Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 ± 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the 133 Xe calibration. (authors)

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Sato, Toshihiko.

    1997-01-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using 1 H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of 1 H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  2. The dual effect of CA1 NMDA receptor modulation on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Amin-Yavari, Samaneh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-04-01

    It is well documented that cannabinoids play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes in rodents. On the other hand, N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory processes which take place in the hippocampus. Such insights prompted us to investigate the influence of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) NMDA receptor agents on amnesia induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) in male mice. One-trial step-down passive avoidance and hole-board apparatuses were used to examine the memory retrieval and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Based on our findings, pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.01mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of NMDA (0.001, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.2µg/mouse), d-AP7 (0.5 and 1µg/mouse) or AM251 (50ng/mouse) impaired the memory acquisition. Meanwhile, NMDA-treated animals at the doses of 0.0005, 0.05 and 0.1µg/mouse acquired memory formation. In addition, intra-CA1 microinjection of NMDA (0.0005) plus different doses of ACPA potentiated the ACPA response, while NMDA (0.1) plus the lower or the higher dose of ACPA potentiated or restored the ACPA response, respectively. Further investigation revealed that a subthreshold dose of d-AP7 could potentiate the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. Moreover, the subthreshold dose of AM251 did not alter the ACPA response, while the effective dose of the drug restored the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. According to these results, we concluded that activation of the NMDA receptors in the CA1 mediates a dual effect on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    Full Text Available Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9 cfu/kg body weight (BW, LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC, or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC. Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE, myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  4. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Li, Shuyi; Sui, Yong; Wu, Qian; Li, Xiaopeng; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Mingwei; Sun, Zhida

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC) have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC) enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9) cfu/kg body weight (BW)), LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC) and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC)), or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC). Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  5. Fatores associados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração Fatores asociados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración Factors associated with long-term post-traumatic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores relacionados à amnésia pós-traumática de longa duração. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, longitudinal, com 187 vítimas de trauma cranioencefálico contuso, idade >14 anos, atendidos em hospital de referência para trauma. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, sexo, gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, local e tipo de lesão, número de lesões encefálicas e uso de medicação com atividade em sistema nervoso central ou corticoides. RESULTADO: O modelo de regressão logística múltipla ajustado pela variável área de lesão (intra/extra axial evidenciou: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 e uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 ou ambas as drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do Midazolan e da Fenitoína, além da gravidade do trauma cranioencefálico, destacaram-se como fatores relacionados à amnésia de longa duração.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores relacionados a la amnesia post-traumática de larga duración. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, realizado con 187 víctimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, edad >14 años, atendidos en un hospital de referencia para trauma. Las variables independientes fueron: edad, sexo, gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, local y tipo de lesión, número de lesiones encefálicas y uso de medicación con actividad en el sistema nervioso central o corticoides. RESULTADO: El modelo de regresión logística múltiple ajustado por la variable área de lesión (intra/extra axial evidenció: Escala de Coma de Glasgow inicial 3 (OR=2,80 y uso de Fenitoína (OR=2,60, Midazolan (OR=2,83 o ambas drogas (OR=3,83. CONCLUSIÓN: El uso del Midazolan y de Fenitoína, además de la gravedad del trauma craneoencefálico, se destacaron como factores relacionados a la amnesia de larga duración.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to post-traumatic amnesia of long duration. METHOD: A prospective, longitudinal study, with 187 victims of blunt head trauma

  6. Effect of an integrated reality orientation programme in acute care on post-traumatic amnesia in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, E; Leblanc, J; Feyz, M; Thomas, H; Gosselin, N

    2005-04-01

    To assess the effect of an integrated reality orientation programme (North Star Project) in acute care on the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that those patients having participated in this programme would show a shorter PTA than those patients that did not. Duration of PTA for 12 patients with TBI who were part of the North Star Project was compared with that of 26 patients matched for initial GCS and age for whom this approach was not available (control group). Length of PTA was shorter by 5 days for the North Star patients. This result was not statistically significant (p = 0.19) but is clinically relevant. No between-group difference was found for Glasgow Coma Scale. Consequences of shorter PTA would include increased and more appropriate patient interaction and earlier transfer to rehabilitation. The North Star project also allows the family to become more actively involved in the treatment of their loved one. Further study is required to evaluate this intervention strategy to improve orientation for the patient with TBI.

  7. Evidence of dissociative amnesia in science and literature: culture-bound approaches to trauma in Pope, Poliakoff, Parker, Boynes, and Hudson (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Cheit, Ross E; Wood, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    The current culture of traumatic stress studies includes research that identifies the ways in which stress and trauma impair learning and memory in both humans and animals. Yet it also contains health professionals who argue that individuals cannot forget traumatic events. Many accounts present differences among these positions as a legitimate debate despite the substantial forensic, survey, and neurological evidence that both demonstrates the capacity for people to exhibit impaired memory for trauma and highlights specific mechanisms. In a recent article, H. G. Pope, M. B. Poliakoff, M. P. Parker, M. Boynes, and J. I. Hudson (2007) hypothesized that if individuals could forget trauma, the phenomenon would appear in world literature prior to 1800. They conducted a contest to generate submissions of examples and determined that dissociative amnesia is a culture-bound syndrome. Their report fails to provide a thorough account of all submissions and the process through which they were all rejected, offers highly questionable literary analyses, and includes several misrepresentations of the state of the science regarding memory for trauma. This response addresses methodological problems with the contest, explores examples of forgetting trauma from literature written before 1800, examines social and historical aspects of the issue, and summarizes the extensive cognitive and neurological data that Pope et al. did not consider. The present article conceptualizes the premise of the contest and the authors' conclusion as symptomatic of a culture affected by biases that include the denial of trauma and its effects.

  8. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale and Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool: Data from amateur sports players in live-match conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Christopher; Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is a growing public health concern. A short, simple sideline assessment tool is essential for evaluation of concussion at an amateur participation level. The current study examined responses to sideline assessment measures in a sample of amateur Australian Rules Football players competing in real-time live matches who had not sustained a concussion on the day of testing. Participants (N = 127) completed the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) and the Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool (Pocket CRT), which contains the Maddocks Questions (assessing orientation and recent memory) and the Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The study showed 98.4% of participants passed the A-WPTAS, while 81.9% passed the Maddocks Questions. Participants endorsed a mean of 4.16 (SD = 4.02) symptoms on the PCSS, with 86.6% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a mild level or greater and 40.2% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a moderate or severe level. The current results suggest the Maddocks Questions may not be sufficient for use in an amateur sports context. To reduce the risk for a false positive diagnosis of concussion, it is recommended that the Pocket CRT be complemented with the A-WPTAS for use in an amateur sports context.

  9. Possible involvement of CA1 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Jamshidi-Mehr, Mehdi; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effects of the serotonergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, CP94253 (5 ng/mouse), 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (0.05 and 0.5 ng/mouse), 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist, α-methyl 5-HT (0.5 ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinancerine (0.5 ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition, but did not affect locomotor activity and tail flick. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold dose of CP94253 (0.05 ng/mouse) or GR127935 (0.005 ng/mouse) reversed impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.). However, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of subthreshold dose of α-methyl 5-HT (0.005 ng/mouse) or cinancerine (0.005 ng/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) heighten impairment of memory acquisition. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 serotonergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The life stories of adults with amnesia: Insights into the contribution of the medial temporal lobes to the organization of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Wank, Aubrey A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2018-02-01

    Autobiographical memories are not stored in isolation but rather are organized into life chapters, higher-order knowledge structures that represent major themes conveying the arc of one's life. Neuropsychological studies have revealed that both episodic memory and some aspects of personal semantic memory are impaired in adults with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage. However, whether such impairment compromises the retrieval and formation of life chapters is unknown. Therefore, we had 10 adults with MTL amnesia and 20 control participants narrate their life stories, and we extracted life chapters from these narratives using a novel scoring protocol. For the retrograde and anterograde time period separately, we evaluated the number of life chapters and assessed their quality, as indexed by measures of complexity and richness. Additionally, to investigate the idea that formation of life chapters occurs on a protracted time scale, we separated the amnesic participants into an early-life and a later-life onset subgroup. Results revealed that early-onset, but not later-onset, amnesic participants generated fewer retrograde life chapters than controls. The higher-order temporal relation among retrograde chapters, but not their thematic relation or the richness of individual life chapters, was impaired in both amnesic subgroups. The amnesic participants also generated fewer anterograde life chapters than controls, and the richness of their anterograde chapters was reduced in terms of content, but not self-reflection. Findings suggest that the organization of autobiographical content into life chapters is a protracted process that depends on the MTL, as does retrieval of higher order temporal relations among life chapters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cultural Amnesia and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viðar Hreinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few of the main concepts of cultural memory are investigated in this paper, in order to extend the idea of cultural memory to include the diversity of past cultures and cultural products. It is claimed that understanding of diversity, in a dialogue with the past, enhances cultural understanding for the benefit of sustainable development.

  13. The temporal dynamics model of emotional memory processing: a synthesis on the neurobiological basis of stress-induced amnesia, flashbulb and traumatic memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, David M; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Halonen, Joshua; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2007-01-01

    We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our "temporal dynamics" model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a "configural/cognitive map" mode to a "flashbulb memory" mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  14. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Diamond

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics” model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a “configural/cognitive map” mode to a “flashbulb memory” mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  15. Utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia DA and dissociative motor disorders DMD (previously termed as hysteria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of Brain SPECT 99 mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia (DA) and dissociative motor disorders (DMD) (previously termed as Hysteria). Materials and Methods: 20 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 26 years, 08 of them suffering from DA and 12 from DMDs. A consultant psychiatrist on the basis of ICD-10 criteria made the diagnosis. Patients were divided into two categories according to the duration of their illness. Category A; included 10 patients having less than six months duration of illness. Category B; included 10 patients having duration of illness more than six months. Ten normal controls having no signs and symptoms of any psychiatric disorder were also included in the study. Brain SPECT study was carried out using 99 mTc-HMPAO. Semiquantitative analysis was done by calculating cortical and cerebellar ratios in normals and comparing the same in the patients. Results: By comparing regional cerebral blood flow ratios of both the categories with normal group, patients suffering from DA showed hypoperfusion in bilateral temporal lobes, in both frontal association areas and both orbito frontal regions and patients suffering for more than 06 months showed a slightly more exaggerated pattern of hypoperfusion in the same cortical areas. On the other hand in DMD only the patients suffering for more than 06 months showed altered cerebral blood perfusion like hypoperfusion in both of the frontal motor areas, hypoperfusion in both temporal lobes and marked hyperperfusion in both orbito frontal areas. Conclusion: Patients of DA show abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern whether in acute or chronic stage while only chronic DMD states precipitate altered cerebral perfusion patterns and these can be visualized on a Brain SPECT study. (author)

  16. [Group memory therapy in neurologic amnesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, M; Hibert, O; Serclerat, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of our approach was to improve the memory of head injured memory impaired people without associated intellectual deterioration. Subjects participated in group each weekday during ten weeks. The aim of strategies was to help the patient of recovery learning strategies. Exercises can be repeated to produce the use of learning strategies in the real life. 19 patients (11 subjects with a traumatic brain injury and 8 subjects with a cerebral vascular accident) completed the treatment are measured before and after the rehabilitation. In a clinic study our memory therapy was more satisfactory on visual memory than verbal memory on a French standardised memory test (the Signoret memory battery). But there is no change in the evaluation of everyday memory measured with the AMQ of Van Der Linden. The comparison of the two sub groups has given to show which pathology will benefit the more the method. These first findings suggested that it was useful to reinforce everyday memory and to include the family members more. It will also be interesting to modify the program for the reeducation of the verbal memory. A control study was necessary to evaluate the validity of our approach.

  17. Combatting Amnesia: Weyward Macbeth | Newfield | Shakespeare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEWSTOCK, SCOTT L. and THOMPSON, AYANNA (eds). Weyward Macbeth: Intersections of Race and Performance. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2010. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sisa.v23i1.12 · AJOL African Journals ...

  18. Tracelink: A model of consolidation and amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A connectionist model is presented, the TraceLink model, that implements an autonomous "off-line" consolidation process. The model consists of three subsystems: (1) a trace system(neocortex), (2) a link system (hippocampus and adjacent regions), and (3) a modulatory system (basal forebrain and other

  19. Meperidine-induced reversible retrograde amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge; Eroglu, Serkan; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analog that is frequently prescribed for acute pain management. Normeperidine, the only active metabolite of meperidine, is neurotoxic and can cause significant central nervous system adverse events.

  20. Retrograde amnesia in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Eijsackers, E; Mulder, J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on two retrograde memory tests, one based on public events, and the other querying autobiographical memory. On both tests, patients showed strong decrements as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  1. Interidentity amnesia in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John

    2017-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. In the main study, following Huntjens et al., for three patients, two alters were taught different sets of nouns. The following week, one of the alters was given a recognition memory test including both sets plus distractor words. The patients in the Huntjens experiment responded in the same way to words in both sets. In the present experiemnt, two of the patients tested had pairs of alters where there was no interference from the material which was presented to the other alter. In one of these cases, there was breakthrough with one pairing of alters, a pattern matched in a subsidiary experiment. The population of individuals with DID are not homogeneous with respect to the depth of the blocking of episodic material from one alter to another.

  2. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients; Evolution des debits sanguins cerebraux entre la phase aigue et un mois apres un ictus amnesique: etude chez 18 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, 69 - Lyon (France); Croisile, B. [Hopital Neuro Cardiologique, Lab. de Neuropsychologie, Fonctions Cognitives, Langage et Memoire, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2001-03-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using {sup 133}Xe et {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the {sup 133}Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 {+-} 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the{sup 133}Xe calibration. (authors)

  3. Eternal memory or holy amnesia? Preservation of, and access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records and archives are important to any institution regardless of its size or whether it is a public or a private entity. However, many non-governmental organisations in South Africa such as churches, particularly African Independent Churches (AICs) think of records and archives management as a complex activity pursued ...

  4. Recession Amnesia: Prospects for New England Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are organized to assume uninterrupted growth in enrollments and endowments, steady public funding, an annual ability to inflict tuition hikes on students and their families, everlasting degree programs, vast building operations and permanent commitments to a senior professoriate. Lacking an agile and responsive governance structure,…

  5. The amnesias: a clinical textbook of memory disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Billingsley-Marshall, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    ... and Neurosurgery, Clinical Pediatrics, Cognitive Neuropsychology, Cortex, Digital Anatomist Project/University of Washington, International Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Neuropsychologia, Philosoph...

  6. Retrograde Amnesia in Rats, Produced by Electron Beam Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    professionals at: the Primate Research Center (Holloman AFB), for animal care and general support; and the Veterinary Sciences Division and Systems...sacrificed (halothane) and necropsy was performed by personnel in the Veterinary Sciences Division (VSP), to determine the number and size of stomach

  7. Visual complexity accentuates picture-description deficit in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Neroni, Maria Adriana; Zeman, Adam; Beschin, Nicoletta; Della Sala, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    A recent study indicated that amnesic patients have difficulties not only in describing past and imagined scenarios, but also in describing pictures that are in full view. This finding suggests that impaired memory hampers descriptions of scenarios more broadly. However, no such impairment in picture description in amnesic patients was observed in a related study. One key methodological difference between these studies was the complexity of the pictures to be described, hinting that group differences might be marked only if pictures are sufficiently complex to tax aspects of memory. To test this complexity hypothesis, we examined whether differences in picture description between amnesic patients and controls increase with increasing picture complexity. As in previous studies, we also assessed our participants' ability to describe imagined scenarios. Amnesic patients reported significantly fewer elements than did controls when describing pictures and imagined scenarios. The group difference in picture description was significantly larger for complex than for simple pictures. Although variations in lesion sites might have accounted for the aforementioned cross-study differences in picture description in amnesic patients, our results suggest that, at least in amnesic patients with extramedial temporal lobe lesions, the complexity of pictures can determine whether or not a (substantial) picture-description deficit is observed. We interpret these findings in terms of a narrative-construction deficit. We hypothesize that, whereas brief narrative can be constructed via nonmemory cognitive processes, the construction of more detailed narrative depends upon intact functioning of a temporary memory system, such as the episodic buffer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Wester, Arie J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  9. Using Chemistry Simulations: Attention Capture, Selective Amnesia and Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-one convenience sample student volunteers aged between 14-15 years worked in pairs (and one group of three) with two randomly allocated high quality conceptual (molecular level) and operational (mimicking wet labs) simulations. The volunteers were told they had five minutes to play, repeat, review, restart or stop the simulation, which in…

  10. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  11. "Puerto Rican and Proud, Boyee!": Rap, Roots and Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Juan

    1993-01-01

    The recent history of Puerto Ricans as a community can be tracked by their participation in the rise of the hip hop culture, specifically in rap. The present identity of Latino rap is connected with the original placement of Latinos in rap and affirms the multicultural nature of popular culture. (SLD)

  12. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, S.Aa.; Neppe, V.; Hoffman, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.)

  13. Archetypes of memory and amnesia in South African soap opera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has only recently celebrated ten years of democracy and the past still affects the lives of its inhabitants. The country has undergone far-reaching shifts in its political, economic and cultural paradigms. These also manifest in the production of meaning in popular visual culture, and more particularly, in soap opera.

  14. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  15. TraceLink: A model of amnesia and consolidation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A connectionist model is presented, the TraceLink model, that implements an autonomous "off-line" consolidation process. The model consists of three subsystems: (1) a trace system (neocortex), (2) a link system (hippocampus and adjacent regions), and (3) a modulatory system (basal forebrain and

  16. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  17. Gongjin-Dan Enhances Hippocampal Memory in a Mouse Model of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Hong, Sung-Shin; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Lee, Sam-Keun; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of Gongjin-Dan (GJD) on the memory impairment caused by scopolamine injection. BALB/c mice were orally treated with GJD (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, daily) or tacrine (THA, 10 mg/kg) for 10 days, and scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. The radial arm maze and passive avoidance tests were performed to evaluate the animal's learning and memory. Scopolamine increased the task completing time, the number of total errors (reference and working memory error) in the radial arm maze task, and the latency time in the passive avoidance test, which were significantly ameliorated by treatment with GJD. The GJD treatment also attenuated the scopolamine-induced hyperactivation of acetylcholinesterase activity, and suppression of the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and their receptors in the hippocampus. These effects of GJD were supported by both the doublecortin (DCX)-positive staining and Nissl staining, which were used to measure hippocampal neurogenesis and atrophy, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that GJD exerts a potent anti-amnesic effect, and its underlying mechanism might involve the modulation of cholinergic activity.

  18. Gongjin-Dan Enhances Hippocampal Memory in a Mouse Model of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Lee

    Full Text Available We evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of Gongjin-Dan (GJD on the memory impairment caused by scopolamine injection. BALB/c mice were orally treated with GJD (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, daily or tacrine (THA, 10 mg/kg for 10 days, and scopolamine (2 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally. The radial arm maze and passive avoidance tests were performed to evaluate the animal's learning and memory. Scopolamine increased the task completing time, the number of total errors (reference and working memory error in the radial arm maze task, and the latency time in the passive avoidance test, which were significantly ameliorated by treatment with GJD. The GJD treatment also attenuated the scopolamine-induced hyperactivation of acetylcholinesterase activity, and suppression of the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF and their receptors in the hippocampus. These effects of GJD were supported by both the doublecortin (DCX-positive staining and Nissl staining, which were used to measure hippocampal neurogenesis and atrophy, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that GJD exerts a potent anti-amnesic effect, and its underlying mechanism might involve the modulation of cholinergic activity.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Cubebin: A dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Gauresh S; Nahire, Mruniya S; Parikh, Aakash D; Mulik, Mandar B; Ghumatkar, Priya J; Laddha, Kirti S; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2017-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors represent a major class of drugs which provide symptomatic relief and improvement in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, cubebin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, was isolated from Piper cubeba and investigated for its AChE inhibitory activity in an attempt to explore its potential for memory-enhancing activities in mice. Molecular docking of cubebin was carried out followed by in vitro AChE activity. Mice were treated with cubebin (25 & 50 mg/kg; i.p.), for three days and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic function were estimated in brain. Molecular docking study revealed that cubebin was well bound within the binding site of the AChE enzyme showing interactions such as π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding with residues present therein. Cubebin inhibited AChE enzyme in an in vitro assay with IC50value of 992 μM. Scopolamine administration caused a significant impairment of learning and memory in mice, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and oxidative stress in mice brain. Pre-treatment of cubebin (25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly prevented scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and oxidative stress level. Cubebin showed promising protective activity in scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. This could be attributed to its brain AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of Cubebin: A dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauresh S Somani

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Cubebin showed promising protective activity in scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. This could be attributed to its brain AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity.

  1. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  2. Exploraciones de la amnesia colectiva en torno a la violencia de Estado en 2666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Blejer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Bolaño utiliza el desarrollo literario de la novela policial para conformar los principios de su poética. En la reelaboración del género se aproxima a sus normas, pero también las desacata porque si bien está interesado en la capacidad del género de mostrar el reflejo de la sociedad, su pregunta fundamental es literaria. El presente texto discute el doble movimiento en 2666 como mecanismo para problematizar la diseminación de la violencia sistémica pero también para replantear los debates del siglo XX en torno al arte.

  3. Serial position effect and selective amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Yanagisawa, N

    2000-02-01

    Mice were trained to run through a maze with six gates, each consisting of three doors--two locked and one unlocked. They learned to choose a correct (unlocked) door at the gates close to the beginning and end better than in the middle, showing the primacy and recency effects of serial learning. A low dose of scopolamine unexpectedly enhanced the primacy effect, while a high dose impaired learning in general. The enhancement of the primacy effect can be explained in terms of reduction of retroactive interference.

  4. Sobre la memoria y la amnesia de la niñez

    OpenAIRE

    Schachtiel, Ernest G.; Tafur Villalobos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La mitología Griega celebra a Mnemosina, diosa de la memoria, como la madre de todas las artes. Ella dio a luz las nueve musas de Júpiter. Siglos después del origen de este mito, Platón excluyó a la poesía, hija de la memoria, de su estado ideal por considerarla inútil y seductiva. Mientras que legisladores, generales e inventores eran útiles para el bien común, el hecho de que Homero no fuera sino un trovador ambulante, sin hogar y sin seguidores, probaba cuan inútil era. En la Odisea las vo...

  5. Selective Amnesia and Racial Transcendence in News Coverage of President Obama's Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerl, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The mainstream press frequently characterized the election of President Barack Obama, the first African American US President, as the realization of Martin Luther King's dream, thus crafting a postracial narrative of national transcendence. I argue that this routine characterization of Obama's election functions as a site for the production of…

  6. On Borges' Amnesia and Talmudic Understanding: Reviving Ancient Traditions in Re-search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Neuman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigmatic bases, which sustain traditional western psychological interpretative efforts, need not be just a footnote to Plato. In this paper we introduce the Talmudic interpretative perspective, which we use to point at some weaknesses we identify in contemporary research imaginings. While the empiricist approach may be traced to Plato and the interpretative and the critical approaches may be traced to Heraclitus, we argue that the Talmudic approach is a differentiated and unique perspective that, because of its non-epistemic nature, its dialogical character, and its recognition of two intermingled levels of interpretation, can make an important contribution to new ways of thinking about understanding and meaning in research.

  7. Retrograde amnesia and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Slater, P C; Miller, P L

    1981-01-01

    Memory for past events was assessed in 43 patients who had been prescribed bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for relief of depressive illness. Four memory tests of personal or public events were administered before ECT, shortly after the fifth treatment, one week after completion of treatment, and about seven months later. The results indicated that ECT can initially disrupt recall of events that occurred many years previously, but recovery of these memories was virtually complete by seven months after treatment. It was also clear that persisting memory loss for information acquired only a few days before treatment can occur. For information acquired one to two years prior to treatment, recovery was substantial, but the results suggested that some memory problems might persist for events that occurred during this time period.

  8. Studies on cellular changes and amnesia in a rat model of electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment for severe depressive disorder, but its clinical use has been limited by concerns about side effects such as memory disturbances. Despite over 70 years in clinical use, the exact mechanisms of action behind the therapeutic or adverse effects are not fully understood. Enhanced brain plasticity, including neurogenesis, angiogenesis and synaptic reorganization, has been suggested to underlie the therapeutic effects of ECT. In the cu...

  9. The use of definite references signals declarative memory: evidence from patients with hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Melissa C; Gupta, Rupa; Hengst, Julie A; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2011-05-01

    Language function in patients with impaired declarative memory presents a compelling opportunity to investigate the inter-dependence of memory and language in referential communication. We examined amnesic patients' use of definite references during a referential communication task. Discursively, definite references can be used to mark a referent as situationally unique (e.g., "the game," as in the case of a recently publicized game) or as shared information (e.g., "the game," as in one discussed previously). We found that despite showing normal collaborative learning after repeated referring-as indexed by consistent and increasingly efficient descriptive labels for previously unfamiliar tangram figures-amnesic patients did not consistently use definite references in referring to those figures. The use of definite references seems to be critically dependent on declarative memory, and the engagement of such memory is signaled by language.

  10. Neuropharmacology of cognition and memory: a unifying theory of neuromodulator imbalance in psychiatry and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2006-01-01

    The case of HM, a man with intractable epilepsy who became amnesic following bilateral medial temporal lobe surgery nearly half a century ago has instigated ongoing research and theoretical speculation on the nature of memory and the role of the hippocampus. Neuropsychological testing showed that although HM had extensive anterograde memory loss he could still acquire motor and cognitive skills implicitly, but could not remember the context of this learning. This has lead to declarative and procedural descriptions of the memory process. Cholinergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems have also been implicated in the memory process and anticholinergic drugs traditionally have been associated with impairment of declarative memory. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease is a classic example of an application of these neuropharmacological findings. In schizophrenia, preattentive deficits have been amply demonstrated by unconscious priming studies. Memory processes are also impaired in these patients. Dopamine, glutamate and even cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated in the clinical picture of schizophrenia. The present paper will attempt to bring together both the anatomical and pharmacological data from these disparate fields of research under a cohesive theory of cognition and memory. A hypothesis is presented for an inverse relationship between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in the modulation of implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious) cognitive processes. It is postulated that muscarinic cholinergic receptors and monoaminergic systems facilitate unconscious and conscious processes, respectively, and they disfacilitate conscious and unconscious processes, respectively (the purported inverse relationship). In fact, the muscarinic and monoaminergic modulations of a neural network are proposed to be finely balanced such that, if, the activity of one receptor system is modified then this by necessity has effects on the other system. It takes into account receptor subtypes and their effects mediated through excitatory and inhibitory G-protein complexes. For example, m1/D2 and D1/m4 paired receptor subtypes, colocalized on separate neurons would have opposing functional effects. A theory is then presented that the critical underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia involves a hypofunctional muscarinic cholinergic system, which induces abnormal facilitation of monoaminergic subsystems such as dopamine (e.g., a decrease in m1R function would potentiate D2R function). This extends the idea of an inverted U function for optimal monoaminergic concentrations. Not only would this impair unconscious preattentive processes, but according to the hypothesis, explicit cognition as well including memory deficits and would underlie the mechanism of psychosis. Contrary to current thinking a different view is also presented for the role of the hippocampus in the memory process. It is postulated that long-term explicit memory traces in the neocortex are laid down by phasic coactivation of forebrain projecting monoaminergic systems above some basal firing rate, such as the rostral serotonergic raphe, which projects diffusely to the cortex and according to a modified Hebbian principle. This is the proposed principal function of the hippocampal theta rhythm. The phasic activation of the cholinergic basal forebrain is mediated by projections from a separate cortical structure, possibly the lateral prefrontal cortex. Phasic muscarinic receptor activation is proposed to strengthen implicit memory traces (at a synaptic level) in the neocortex. Thus, the latter are spared by medial temporal surgery explaining the dissociation of explicit from implicit memory.

  11. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and

  12. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and

  13. Forget This Article: On Scholarly Oblivion, Institutional Amnesia, and Erasure of Research History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeli, Mary

    2009-01-01

    "Eternal return" is a condition that characterizes the world of art education and its scholarship, though it seems that the phenomenon goes largely unnoticed by many writing in the field today. The failure to name our work as part of an existing family of ideas, with themes that may date back to the years 1950-1970 or earlier, has implications not…

  14. Transient partial amnesia complicating cardiac and peripheral arteriography with nonionic contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, A.; Yencilek, E.; Apaydin, F.D.; Duce, M.N.; Oezer, C.; Atalay, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case of disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the coronary and lower extremity angiographies with radiological and clinical findings. This condition was secondary to intraarterial use of a nonionic, monomeric contrast medium. A total of 450 cc contrast media was used. Computed tomography examination showed contrast enhancement of the right occipital and frontoparietal cortical regions, which returned to normal one day after. The patient also fully recovered from the neurological symptoms within 24 h. We discussed the possible mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption in this case. (orig.)

  15. Transient partial amnesia complicating cardiac and peripheral arteriography with nonionic contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A.; Yencilek, E.; Apaydin, F.D.; Duce, M.N.; Oezer, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey); Atalay, A. [Dept. of Cardiology, Mersin Ueniv. Tip Fakueltesi Sokak Mersin (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case of disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the coronary and lower extremity angiographies with radiological and clinical findings. This condition was secondary to intraarterial use of a nonionic, monomeric contrast medium. A total of 450 cc contrast media was used. Computed tomography examination showed contrast enhancement of the right occipital and frontoparietal cortical regions, which returned to normal one day after. The patient also fully recovered from the neurological symptoms within 24 h. We discussed the possible mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption in this case. (orig.)

  16. Patterns of preserved and impaired spatial memory in a case of developmental amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shayna eRosenbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is believed to have evolved to support allocentric spatial representations of environments as well as the details of personal episodes that occur within them, whereas other brain structures are believed to support complementary egocentric spatial representations. Studies of patients with adult-onset lesions lend support to these distinctions for newly encountered places but suggest that with time and/or experience, schematic aspects of environments can exist independent of the hippocampus. Less clear is the quality of spatial memories acquired in individuals with impaired episodic memory in the context of a hippocampal system that did not develop normally. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the integrity of spatial representations of environments navigated repeatedly over many years in the rare case of H.C., a person with congenital absence of the mammillary bodies and abnormal hippocampal and fornix development. H.C. and controls who had extensive experience navigating the residential and downtown areas known to H.C. were tested on mental navigation tasks that assess the identity, location, and spatial relations among landmarks, and the ability to represent routes. H.C. was able to represent distances and directions between familiar landmarks and provide accurate, though inefficient, route descriptions. However, difficulties producing detailed spatial features on maps and accurately ordering more than two landmarks that are in close proximity to one another along a route suggest a spatial representation that includes only coarse, schematic information that lacks coherence and that cannot be used flexibly. This pattern of performance is considered in the context of other areas of preservation and impairment exhibited by H.C. and suggests that the allocentric-egocentric dichotomy with respect to hippocampal and extended hippocampal system function may need to be reconsidered.

  17. Amnesia in Frontotemporal Dementia with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Masquerading Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamanami-Irioka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD later developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, which was confirmed at autopsy at age 72 years. Because neuronal loss and AD-type pathologies (Braak stage II for neurofibrillary tangles were scant, TDP-43-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions in hippocampal dentate granular cells and in neurons in the subiculum and amygdala, even though small in amount, may represent the earliest lesions of ALS-related dementia and could be the cause of dementia in this patient. Although the persistent elevation of creatine kinase from the onset could be a pointer to the presence of motor involvement, more accurate characterization of dementia, which may differentiate ALS-related dementia and AD, is necessary.

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy, hypertensive surge, blood-brain barrier breach, and amnesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical evidence show that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced intraictal surge in blood pressure may result in a small, transient breach in the blood-brain barrier, leading to mild cerebral edema and a possible leach of noxious substances from blood into brain tissues. These...

  19. Russia’s Double Historical Amnesia: Constructing the Shakhidki as ‘Black Widows’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    In a constructed malestream military, women in combat arms are inherently irregular as they take on a twofold irregularity as female fighters and irregular combatants.......In a constructed malestream military, women in combat arms are inherently irregular as they take on a twofold irregularity as female fighters and irregular combatants....

  20. Amnesia and the DRM Paradigm: How Encoding Factors (Do Not Affect Lure Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Damme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the DRM paradigm, participants are presented with, and their memory is tested for, lists of words that are associatively related to a non-presented lure word. Recent studies have revealed that amnesic patients show heightened immediate, but diminished delayed false recognition of such related lure words as compared to healthy controls. These findings may reflect deficient encoding, retrieval, or both. In two experiments, the importance of encoding factors was evaluated by investigating whether story contexts would increase delayed lure recognition, and whether personally-relevant content would decrease immediate lure recognition in Korsakoff patients. With delayed testing, patients' lure recognition was consistently lower than controls'. With immediate testing, lure recognition was less frequent for personally-relevant than for neutral materials. However, as opposed to controls, Korsakoff patients did not show a difference in source memory, but merely a change in response bias. Results point to the conclusion that deficient explicit recollection is the main factor determining the difference in false recognition between amnesic patients and controls.

  1. Implicit false memory in the DRM paradigm: effects of amnesia, encoding instructions, and encoding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Géry

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (Deese 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm have revealed that amnesic patients do not only show impaired veridical memory, but also diminished false memory for semantically related lure words. Due to the typically used explicit retrieval instructions, however, this finding may reflect problems at encoding, at recollection, or both. Therefore, the present experiments examined implicit as well as explicit false memory in patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome and controls. In Experiment 1, encoding instructions either focused on remembering individual list words, or on discovering semantic relationships among the words. In Experiment 2, different presentation durations were used. Results emphasize the distinction between automatic and intentional retrieval: Korsakoff patients' veridical and false memory scores were diminished when explicit recollection was required, but not when memory was tested implicitly. Encoding manipulations only significantly affected veridical memory: Priming was reduced with thematic encoding, and explicit retrieval was facilitated when given more study time.

  2. Drug-induced amnesia is a separate phenomenon from sedation: electrophysiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, R A; Reinsel, R A; Feshchenko, V A

    2001-10-01

    Sedative-hypnotic drugs not only increase sedation, but also impair memory as serum concentration increases. These drugs also produce profound changes in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). The ability of various ERP components to predict changes in sedation and memory produced by various drugs was tested. Sixty-five healthy volunteers randomly received intravenous placebo, midazolam, propofol, thiopental, fentanyl with ondansetron, or ondansetron alone at five different stable target concentrations (three increasing, two decreasing) using a computer-controlled infusion pump to produce varying degrees of sedation without loss of consciousness. ERPs were recorded while volunteer participants detected a deviant auditory stimulus and made a button-press response to a target tone (standard oddball paradigm, 80:20 ratio, to elicit a P3 response). At each target concentration, volunteers learned a list of 16 words. The predictive probabilities (Pk) of various ERP components were determined for word recognition at the end of the day (memory) and log reaction time to the deviant stimulus (sedation). The N2 latency of the ERP consistently predicted log reaction time in all groups (Pk +/- SE from 0.58 +/- 0.04 to 0.71 +/- 0.04). The N2P3 amplitude of the ERP was the best predictor of memory performance for midazolam (Pk, 0.63 +/- 0.04), propofol (Pk, 0.62 +/- 0.05), and thiopental (Pk, 0.66 +/- 0.04). There was a differential ability to predict memory performance from sedation for midazolam and propofol. Midazolam and propofol affect memory differentially from their sedative effects, and these are indexed by specific components of the auditory ERP. These components of the ERP are associated with specific, but not necessarily unique, neuroanatomic structures. Thus, these drugs act by additional mechanisms beyond general central nervous system depression to produce the effects of sedation and memory impairment.

  3. Debt amnesia : Homeowners' discourses on the financial costs and gains of homebuying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soaita, A.M.; Searle, Beverley A.

    2016-01-01

    In Anglo-Saxon societies, homeowners expect to create synergies between the owned house seen as a space of shelter, a place of home, a store of wealth and increasingly, an investment vehicle (and an object of debt). Drawing on interviews with owner-occupiers and on historic house value and mortgage

  4. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshitzky, Yosefa

    1995-01-01

    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  5. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, B.; Foster, J.K.; Schmand, B.; Bolan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. In all 3 experiments a total of 91 Ss (aged 17-66 yrs) participated. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared

  6. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, Barbara; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben; Bolan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared favourably with the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and appeared better

  7. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain.

  8. Performance benefits and costs in forced choice perceptual identification in amnesia: Effects of prior exposure and word frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Margaret M.; Martin, Elizabeth; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy in identifying a perceptually degraded word (e.g., stake) can be either enhanced by recent exposure to the same stimulus or reduced by recent exposure to a similar stimulus (e.g., stare). In the present study, we explored the mechanisms underlying these benefits and costs by examining the performance of amnesic and control groups in a forced choice perceptual identification (FCPI) task in which briefly flashed words (that were identical to studied words, similar to studied words, or ...

  9. Amnesia International - varajane arvutikunst ja liikumine Tendencies / Darko Fritz ; tõlk. Rael Artel ja Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fritz, Darko

    2001-01-01

    1960. ja 1970. aastate arvutikunstist Tendenciese liikumise põhjal. Zagrebi Kaasaegse Kunsti Galerii näitused "The Tendencies" aastatel 1961-1973. Darko Fritzi ja netikunstnik Vuk Cosici kirjavahetusest 2000. aastal

  10. Lithium and brain plasticity - studies on glial cell changes and electroconvulsive treatment-induced amnesia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Orre, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Depression and bipolar disorder, collectively known as mood disorders, are devastating, common and often chronic illnesses. Imaging studies of patients with mood disorders have demonstrated structural changes in several brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Furthermore, bipolar disorder is associated with white matter abnormalities and post mortem analysis of brain tissue from patients with mood disorders have shown glial cell pathology. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and pharmacologi...

  11. La memoria resiliente y la amnesia criptográfica: el caso de la juventud empobrecida latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Klein

    Full Text Available Resumen ¿Cómo es posible que se ejerza tal grado de violencia social sobre jóvenes, existiendo al mismo tiempo desempleo estructural y preocupantes tasas de deserción estudiantil? ¿Y cómo inciden estos factores en la construcción del tejido social? Este trabajo intenta responder a algunas de estas interrogantes. Se introduce el concepto de memoria criptográfica para dar a entender el proceso de resquebrajamiento del contrato social tradicional que otorgaba un lugar sustancial a los jóvenes como parte de la memoria y la transmisión generacional. Se opone al mismo el concepto de memoria resiliente por el que se reinstauran imaginarios fraternales esenciales a lo social y que la violencia neoliberal y el terrorismo de Estado intentan debilitar o anular.

  12. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hadley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC, H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun “her” to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c H.M.’s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information.

  13. Disconnection Syndrome and Verbal, Spatial and Tactile Amnesia following a Tumor of the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scarpa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with a severe amnesic syndrome following a glioma of the splenium of the corpus callosum is reported. The long-term memory deficit involved anterograde as well as retrograde events dating back to 40 years and causing topographical disorientation. Short-term memory test performance was in the normal range, with the exception of tactile memory which was severely impaired. The patient also showed disconnection symptoms, due to severing of occipito-parietal and parieto-temporal connections, while parieto-parietal connections were undamaged.

  14. Remembering the Past in Researching for the Future: Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Amnesia in the Educational Technology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszowski, Alexander; Rushby, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The theme of this article is that educational technologists are particularly bad at remembering the lessons from the past. We fail to remember what went before--whether the projects were successes or failures. This article explores why this might be, why in particular we fail to profit from failures, and what steps we might take to help…

  15. Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang, a Traditional Korean Multiple Herbal Formulae, Improves Hippocampal Memory on Scopolamine Injection-Induced Amnesia Model of C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Lim Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated neuropharmacological properties of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT against scopolamine injection-induced memory impairment mice model. Mice were orally administered with YJT (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg or tacrine (TAC, 12.5 mg/kg for 10 days. At the first day of Morris water maze task, scopolamine (2 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected before 30 min of it. The hippocampal memory function was determined by the Morris water maze task for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine drastically increased escape latency and decreased time spent in target quadrant. Pretreatment YJT properly improved them. Regarding the redox status, YJT significantly reduced the oxidative stress and it also exerted much effort to improve both superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hippocampal gene expression and protein levels. These effects were well coincided with immunohistochemical analysis of 4-hydroxyneal-positive signals in hippocampal areas. Additionally, acetylcholine esterase activities and brain-derived neurotrophic factor abnormalities in the hippocampal protein levels were significantly normalized by YJT, and their related molecules were also improved. The neuronal proliferation in hippocampal regions was markedly inhibited by scopolamine, whereas YJT notably recovered them. Collectively, YJT exerts much effort to enhance memorial functions through improving redox status homeostasis and partially regulates acetylcholine esterase activities as well as neuronal cell proliferation.

  16. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in an animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Hisao; Uwano, Teruko; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Ono, Taketoshi

    2004-06-01

    Ameliorating effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits due to hippocampal lesions and aging were reviewed; the performance of young rats with selective hippocampal lesions with or without red ginseng (p.o.), and aged rats with or without red ginseng (p.o.) in the spatial learning tasks was compared with that of sham-operated or intact young rats. Each rat was tested with 3 types of spatial learning tasks (distance movement task, DMT; random reward place search task, RRPST; and place learning task, PLT) in a circular open field using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as reward. The results in the DMT and RRPST indicated that motivational and motor activity of young rats with hippocampal lesions with and without ginseng and aged rats with and without ginseng were not significantly different from that of control young rats. However, young rats with hippocampal lesions without ginseng and aged rats without ginseng displayed significant deficits in the PLT. Treatment with red ginseng significantly ameliorated place-navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions in the PLT. Similarly, red ginseng improved performance of aged rats in the PLT. The results, along with previous studies showing significant effects of red ginseng on the central nervous system, suggest that red ginseng ameliorates learning and memory deficits through effects on the central nervous system, partly through effects on the hippocampal formation. However, its mechanisms are still unclear, and further studies are required.

  17. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, David M.; Campbell, Adam M.; Park, Collin R.; Halonen, Joshua; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2007-01-01

    We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics†model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced ...

  18. The protective effect of fermented Curcuma longa L. on memory dysfunction in oxidative stress-induced C6 gliomal cells, proinflammatory-activated BV2 microglial cells, and scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Cheong-Su; Lim, Jong-Soon; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sam-Pin; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2017-07-17

    Curcuma longa L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of fermented C. longa (FCL) has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the effectiveness of FCL for the regulation of memory dysfunction was investigated in two brain cell lines (rat glioma C6 and murine microglia BV2) and scopolamine-treated mice. C. longa powder was fermented by 5% Lactobacillus plantarum K154 containing 2% (w/v) yeast extract at 30 °C for 72 h followed by sterilization at 121 °C for 15 min. The protective effects of fermented C. longa (FCL) on oxidative stress induced cell death were analyzed by MTT assay in C6 cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of FCL were investigated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as well as the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The step-through passive avoidance test, Morris water maze test, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were employed to determine the effects of FCL on scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. The contents of curcuminoids were analyzed through LC/MS. Pretreatment with FCL effectively prevented the cell death induced by oxidative stress in C6 cells. Moreover, FCL inhibited the production NO and PGE 2 via the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in BV2 cells. FCL significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and prevented scopolamine-induced AChE activity in the hippocampus. Additionally, FCL reversed the reduction of CREB and BDNF expression. The curcuminoids content in FCL was 1.44%. FCL pretreatment could alleviate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in C6 and BV2 cells, respectively. Thus, FCL might be a useful material for preventing impairment of learning and memory.

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opara, PI. Vol 3, No 2 (2009) - Articles Pattern of endocrine diseases in children at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Abstract · Vol 5, No 2 (2010) - Articles Earlier childhood memories and childhood amnesia amnesia among medical students on surgery rotation at the University of Port Harcourt Abstract.

  20. Port Harcourt Medical Journal - Vol 5, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earlier childhood memories and childhood amnesia amnesia among medical students on surgery rotation at the University of Port Harcourt · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PE Okoro, NP Wichendu, PI Opara, AC Okoro. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/phmedj.v5i2.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 400 ... Vol 5, No 2 (2010), Earlier childhood memories and childhood amnesia amnesia among medical students on surgery rotation at the University of Port Harcourt, Abstract. PE Okoro, NP Wichendu, PI Opara, AC Okoro. Vol 1, No 3 (2007), Early experience with intraocular lens implication surgery in ...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tom

    Archetypes of memory and amnesia in. South African soap opera. This essay investigates the relationship between memory, or rather amnesia, in the South African context and soap opera. South. Africa has only recently celebrated ten years of democracy and the past still affects the lives of its inhabitants. The country has.

  3. Recall of Remote Episodic Memories Can Appear Deficient because of a Gist-Based Retrieval Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoy, John D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Determining whether patients with amnesia can succeed in remembering their distant past has pivotal implications for theories of memory storage. However, various factors influence recall. We speculated that some patients with anterograde amnesia adopt a gist-based retrieval orientation for memories from all time periods, thereby exaggerating…

  4. Studies of retrograde memory: A long-term view

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, Elizabeth K.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia are reviewed. First, the issues of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia are discussed. Second, the question of the anatomical substrates of this syndrome are considered. Finally, some evidence for fractionation of different classes of memoranda within the retrograde time period are presented.

  5. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This ... longer (called the post-ictal state) Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

  6. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... memory. Symptoms include amnesia, tremor, coma, disorientation, and vision problems, The disorder's main features are problems in acquiring new information or establishing new memories, and in retrieving previous memories. Although Wernicke's and ...

  7. Benzodiazepines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with amnesia, hostility, irritability, and vivid or disturbing dreams. Affect on body Benzodiazepines slow down the central nervous system and may cause sleepiness. Drugs causing similar effects Alcohol, barbiturates, sleeping pills, and GHB Overdose effects ...

  8. Short Communication: Preservation of Photographs and Audiovisual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Colonialism, and both the colonial and post colonial power and political systems are identified as the major proponents of the current collective amnesia. It is argued that the audiovisual heritage which has remained largely untapped or is ...

  9. Gclust Server: 179383 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 179383 DME_CG11937_24643417 Cluster Sequences - 180 amn: amnesiac CG11937-PA 1 1.00... sequences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 180 Representative annotation amn: amnesia

  10. Patients with the most severe traumatic brain injury benefit from rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Norup, Anne; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    -acute inpatient rehabilitation during a 12-year period followed an intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Severity of injury was defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on rehabilitation admission and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Patients were routinely measured...

  11. Hydrocephalus during rehabilitation following severe TBI. Relation to recovery, outcome, and length of stay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemann, Mia; Tibæk, Maiken; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    rehabilitation. METHODS: We studied 417 patients with severe TBI admitted consecutively to a single hospital - based neurorehabilitation department serving Eastern Denmark between 2000 and 2010. Demographics (age and gender) and clinical characteristics (length of acute treatment, post traumatic amnesia (PTA...

  12. Amnestic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.; Cautin, R.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished:

  13. Comparative study between dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine and midazolam/nalbuphine in monitored anesthesia care during ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that the combination of dexmedetomidine/nalbuphine is a better alternative to midazolam/nalbuphine in MAC since it provides analgesia, amnesia and sedation with better intraoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction with better surgical field exposure.

  14. Research Reports: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... At moderate to high doses, ketamine can cause sedation, immobility, and amnesia. At high doses, ketamine users ... long-term PCP use include persistent speech difficulties, memory loss, depression, suicidal thoughts, anxiety, and social withdrawal ...

  15. 78 FR 62500 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Perampanel into Schedule III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... including somnolence/sedation, dizziness, ataxia, confusion, amnesia and memory impairment, euphoria... mg doses of perampanel reported measures of ``sedation,'' ``slowed down,'' ``confused,'' ``clear... channels of GABA A receptors, perampanel would be expected to cause sedation, muscle relaxation, impairment...

  16. Autobiographical Memory and ECT: Don’t Throw Out the Baby

    OpenAIRE

    Sackeim, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information is the most critical side effect of ECT. Much, if not most, modern research demonstrating long-term autobiographical amnesia following ECT has used either the Columbia University Autobiographical Memory Interview (CUAMI) or the short form of this scale (CUAMI-SF). Semkovska and McLoughlin claimed that studies using these instruments should be dismissed and the findings ignored due to a lack of normative data, as well as concerns about the re...

  17. Orchestrated Regulation of Nogo Receptors, Lotus, AMPA Receptors and BDNF in an ECT Model Suggests Opening and Closure of a Window of Synaptic Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Max; Karlsson, Tobias; Svensson, Maria; Koczy, Josefin; Josephson, Anna; Olson, Lars; Tingstroem, Anders; Brene, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an efficient and relatively fast acting treatment for depression. However, one severe side effect of the treatment is retrograde amnesia, which in certain cases can be long-term. The mechanisms behind the antidepressant effect and the amnesia are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECT causes transient downregulation of key molecules needed to stabilize synaptic structure and to prevent Ca2+ influx, and a simultaneous increase in neurotrophic factors, ...

  18. 塩酸デクスメデトミジンによる静脈内鎮静法が聴覚性記憶に及ぼす影響

    OpenAIRE

    村上, 加奈; ムラカミ, カナ; Kana, MURAKAMI

    2010-01-01

    The amnesia effect by intravenous sedation produces an elimination of unpleasant memory in dental treatment that becomes profits for a patient. In this research, the memory was investigated after auditory memory loads in order to understand the amnesia effect and recovery in the intravenous sedation by Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (DEX). Moreover, the relations between memory and clinical sedation levels (OAA/S Scale) or BIS values were investigated to judge the recovery of memory. Thirty-fi...

  19. Two Routes to Losing One’s Past Life: A Brain Trauma, an Emotional Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ouellet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and psychogenic retrograde amnesia have long been considered as distinct entities and as such, studied separately. However, patterns of neuropsychological impairments in organic and psychogenic amnesia can bear interesting resemblances despite different aetiologies. In this paper, two cases with profound, selective and permanent retrograde amnesia are presented, one of an apparent organic origin and the other with an apparent psychogenic cause. The first case, DD, lost his memory after focal brain injury from a nail gun to the right temporal lobe. The second case, AC, lost her memory in the context of intense psychological suffering. In both cases, pre-morbid autobiographical memory for people, places and events was lost, and no feeling of familiarity was experienced during relearning. In addition, they both lost some semantic knowledge acquired prior to the onset of the amnesia. This contrasts with the preservation of complex motor skills without any awareness of having learned them. Both DD and AC showed mild deficits on memory tests but neither presented any anterograde amnesia. The paradox of these cases–opposite causes yet similar clinical profile–exemplifies the hypothesis that organic and psychogenic amnesia may be two expressions of the same faulty mechanism in the neural circuitry.

  20. Interidentity memory transfer in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lauren L; Allen, John J B; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2008-08-01

    Controversy surrounding dissociative identity disorder (DID) has focused on conflicting findings regarding the validity and nature of interidentity amnesia, illustrating the need for objective methods of examining amnesia that can discriminate between explicit and implicit memory transfer. In the present study, the authors used a cross-modal manipulation designed to mitigate implicit memory effects. Explicit memory transfer between identities was examined in 7 DID participants and 34 matched control participants. After words were presented to one identity auditorily, the authors tested another identity for memory of those words in the visual modality using an exclusion paradigm. Despite self-reported interidentity amnesia, memory for experimental stimuli transferred between identities. DID patients showed no superior ability to compartmentalize information, as would be expected with interidentity amnesia. The cross-modal nature of the test makes it unlikely that memory transfer was implicit. These findings demonstrate that subjective reports of interidentity amnesia are not necessarily corroborated by objective tests of explicit memory transfer. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Effect of midazolam on memory during fiberoptic gastroscopy under conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun Jeong; Jang, Eun Hye; Hwang, Jihye; Roh, Jee Hoon; Kwon, Miseon; Lee, Don; Lee, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    As the fiberoptic gastroscopy using midazolam is being in widespread use, the exact nature of midazolam on memory should be clarified. We intended to examine whether midazolam causes selective anterograde amnesia and what impact it has on other aspects of memory and general cognitive function. We recruited healthy subjects undergoing fiberoptic gastroscopy under conscious sedation. At baseline, history taking for retrograde amnesia and the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment were performed. A man's name and address were given immediately after intravenous midazolam administration. After gastroscopy, the subjects were asked to recall those items. By the time they had fully recovered consciousness, the same test was repeated along with the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and a test for retrograde amnesia. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Subjects with high-dose midazolam showed lower scores in the immediate and delayed recall of "a man's name and address" compared with those with low-dose midazolam. The midazolam dose was inversely correlated with the delayed recall scores of "a man's name and address." On full recovery of consciousness, the subjects did not exhibit any of anterograde or retrograde amnesia. These findings suggest that midazolam causes transient selective anterograde amnesia in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. Recovery from amnesic confabulatory syndrome after right fornix lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Massimiliano; Sabatini, Umberto

    2008-01-01

    Reports of amnesia due to bilateral fornix lesions are rare. A unilateral right fornix lesion is not known to cause an amnestic confabulatory syndrome. To investigate the role of right fornix lesion in amnesia, the association of confabulation with executive disorders, and to evaluate the long-term recovery of memory and executive functions after surgical removal of a pilocytic astrocytoma in the right orbitofrontal region extending to the right fornix. Neuropsychological testing was performed 3 and 17 months after surgery. Severe anterograde global amnesia, mild retrograde amnesia, momentary and spontaneous confabulation, and mild executive deficits were found initially and mostly recovered by 17 months. The authors hypothesize that the lesion of the right fornix was sufficient to cause amnesia by disconnecting the hippocampal formations from the anterior thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies and interrupting the cholinergic efferents to the hippocampus from the medial septum, according to the extended hippocampal system framework. Sparing of the left fornix may be sufficient to ensure a good recovery of memory. Confabulation is strongly associated with the improvement of executive functions, specifically the ability to suppress irrelevant memory traces.

  3. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in amnesics who eat multiple meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Williamson, Amy C; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2008-07-01

    What is the relationship between memory and appetite? We explored this question by examining preferences for recently consumed food in patients with amnesia. Although the patients were unable to remember having eaten, and were inclined to eat multiple meals, we found that sensory-specific satiety was intact in these patients. The data suggest that sensory-specific satiety can occur in the absence of explicit memory for having eaten and that impaired sensory-specific satiety does not underlie the phenomenon of multiple-meal eating in amnesia. Overeating in amnesia may be due to disruption of learned control by physiological aftereffects of a recent meal or to problems utilizing internal cues relating to nutritional state.

  4. Your earliest memory may be earlier than you think: prospective studies of children's dating of earliest childhood memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-06-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually results in childhood amnesia. These assumptions were examined in 2 prospective studies, in which children recalled and dated their earliest memories at an initial interview and did it again 1 year (Study 1) and 2 years later (Study 2). Systematic telescoping errors emerged: Children substantially postdated their memories for the same events at the follow-up interview, particularly for memories initially dated from earlier ages. These findings have critical methodological and theoretical implications for research on childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors.

  6. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut.

  7. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-old children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people’s age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications.

  8. The "when" and the "where" of single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance in young children: Insights into the development of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3.5 to 7 years of age, during the typical period of childhood amnesia. Second, we show that large individual variation exists in children's performance at this age. Third, and most importantly, we show that improvements in single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance are due to an increasing ability to spatially and temporally separate locations and events. Such improvements in spatial and temporal processing abilities may contribute to the gradual offset of childhood amnesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Outstanding memories: the positive and negative effects of nudes on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R

    2002-03-01

    A picture of a nude isolated in a series of pictures of clothed models was quite memorable, but when compared with a clothed picture, the nude impaired memory for background picture derails as well as pictures immediately following the nude (anterograde amnesia). Recall of details given picture-gist recall, as well as recognition of person details, were equivalent in the clothed and nude conditions. A clothed picture isolated in a series of nudes did not hurt memory for background information, nor did it produce anterograde amnesia. Apparently, distinctiveness supports good memory for the gist of the nude or clothed pictures. However, distinctiveness is not responsible for the anterograde amnesia and poor memory for background details found with nudes.

  10. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-olds children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people's age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications.

  11. Rapidly measuring the speed of unconscious learning: amnesics learn quickly and happy people slowly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltan; Baddeley, Roland J; Jansari, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for quickly determining the rate of implicit learning. The task involves making a binary prediction for a probabilistic sequence over 10 minutes; from this it is possible to determine the influence of events of a different number of trials in the past on the current decision. This profile directly reflects the learning rate parameter of a large class of learning algorithms including the delta and Rescorla-Wagner rules. To illustrate the use of the method, we compare a person with amnesia with normal controls and we compare people with induced happy and sad moods. Learning on the task is likely both associative and implicit. We argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that both amnesia and also transient negative moods can be associated with an especially large learning rate: People with amnesia can learn quickly and happy people slowly.

  12. [Alexia without agraphia in the Arabic language. Neurolinguistic and and MRI study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Alaoui-Faris, M; Benbelaid, F; Alaoui, C; Tahiri, L; Jiddane, M; Amarti, A; Chkili, T

    1994-11-01

    A 33 year-old woman developed an alexia without agraphia, a color anomia, a right hemianopia, an aphasic amnesia and a verbal amnesia. The brain MRI showed the lesions in the left splenium of corpus callosum, forceps major, optic radiations and anterieur temporal lobe. The fact that she measured writing comprehension and had complete recovery of reading impairment despite the persistence of anatomic lesions plead in favour of an active participation of the right hemisphere (RH) on reading; this capacity of the RH may be due to the linguistic particularities of arabic writing.

  13. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  14. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  15. Cognitive activity limitations one year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    -acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... of consciousness during the first year post-trauma. At follow-up 33-58% of patients had achieved functional independence within the cognitive domains on the Cog-FIM. Socio-economic status, duration of acute care and post-traumatic amnesia were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Substantial recovery...

  16. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Uehara

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1; the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2; and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3. As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3-4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10 to 3 years; 4 months (3;4 was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0 and 3 (3;5 to 4;4. Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia.

  17. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  18. Dexmedetomidine in premedication to attenuate the acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric disorders such as severe depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. All ECTs are performed under general anaesthesia with neuromuscular blockade. The goals during general anaesthesia for ECT are to produce an unconscious patient with muscle paralysis and amnesia.1 ECT is associated.

  19. Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment : cases and questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, AH; ten Duis, HJ; Minderhoud, JM; Sipma, M

    Objective-To objectify neuropsychological impairments in survivors of lightning stroke with lasting complaints about poor concentration and inability to divide their attention. Design-A series of six cases of lightning stroke were studied. All patients had lost consciousness and reported amnesia of

  20. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Manish Kumar; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Anand, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi) is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. The fronto-temporal component in mild and moderately severe head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, JM; vanZomeren, AH; vanderNaalt, J

    The history of the identification of the so-called (fronto-)temporal lobe contusion is reviewed. Treatment of minor head injuries actually starts with the right diagnosis. Injuries of the temporal lobe, characterized by a comparatively long period of post-traumatic amnesia should be distinguished

  2. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  3. Independence of First- and Second-Order Memories in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Languille, Solene; Joly, Virginie; Schaal, Benoist; Hars, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The mammary pheromone promotes the acquisition of novel odorants (CS1) in newborn rabbits. Here, experiments pinpoint that CS1 becomes able to support neonatal learning of other odorants (CS2). We therefore evaluated whether these first- and second-order memories remained dependent after reactivation. Amnesia induced after CS2 recall selectively…

  4. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  5. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  6. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disorder and/or agoraphobia 9413Anxiety disorder, not otherwise specified Dissociative Disorders 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder...-mental disorders. 4.130 Section 4.130 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  7. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  8. Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  9. Memory for Recently Accessed Visual Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…

  10. View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    0-5 years were mainly accidental. Medicinal drug related poisoning as a result of overdose or allergic reactions were common in children aged. 0-5 years. Commuter cases refer to poisoning cases encountered while travelling, whereby patients presented with sedation and temporal amnesia. This was most likely intentional ...

  11. Absence seizure in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... attack was followed by amnesia for the event; however, posture was maintained during attacks, and there was no associated convulsion or automatism. One week earlier, he was admitted to a private hospital on account of frequent and transient lapses in consciousness. In the hospital, he had an episode.

  12. Efavirenz as a cause of ataxia in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regimen for children >3 years of age and >10 kg in weight.[7]. CNS symptoms are the most frequently reported side-effects in. HIV-positive patients on efavirenz, including dizziness, headache, confusion, stupor, impaired concentration, agitation, amnesia, depersonalisation, hallucinations, insomnia and abnormal dreams.

  13. EDITORIAL NOTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    amnesia that is around spirituality. Social workers in Zimbabwe are, therefore, encouraged to research on spirituality and social work. Similarly, academics are encouraged to incorporate topics on spirituality in the social work curriculum. The last paper came from. Mugumbate and Nyanguru. Mugumbate is based at the ...

  14. Tracheotomy as a surgical access for removal of bullet in the trachea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shankar Ramasundram

    no history of loss of consciousness or retrograde amnesia in this gentleman. There was a small superficial wound measuring. 0.2 cm x 0.4 cm over the anterior aspect of the neck. There was no active bleeding and no evidence of surgical emphysema. The trachea was palpable and centrally located. Flexible bronchoscope.

  15. Computed Tomography: Ocular Manifestations In Acute Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    post-traumatic amnesia, neurologic signs of brain. 3 injury or skull fractures. The Glasgow coma score and the Revised trauma scores (RTS) are commonly used in grading the severity of head injury into mild, moderate, and severe. The RTS is a triage tool and the score is inferred from physiologic derangement on initial.

  16. The effects of intrathecal midazolam on the duration of analgesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midazolam has been shown to prolong the duration of analgesia when used as an adjuvant, providing the added advantages of mild sedation and amnesia, while being devoid of neurotoxicity, and the adverse effects of opioids. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2 mg preservative-free intrathecal midazolam ...

  17. Introduction of the Canadian CT Head Rule Reduces CT Scan Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amnesia or witnessed disorientation in a patient with a GCS score of 13–15 who has suffered a traumatic event, the evaluation of minor head injury using. Computerized Axial Tomography Scan of the Head. (CT-head) has remained controversial.(1,3). CT–head is expensive, time consuming, strenuous to human resource ...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    loss of consciousness, amnesia and headache was reported but the patient complained of severe waist pain. There was no clinical evidence of abdominal, chest or head injuries. The patient had a soft and tender lower abdominal mass, about the size of a 16 weeks pregnancy and was moderately pale. Pelvic compression ...

  19. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included the sociodemographic characteristics, type of injury, durations of unconsciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), psychiatric and psychoactive substance use history. Psychiatric diagnosis was based on the criteria of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases ...

  20. Misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean percentages of misconceptions about TBIs were calculated and the amnesia (mean 49.7%) and unconsciousness (mean 46.1%) categories were identified as the categories about which the respondents had the most misconceptions, while the mean percentages of misconceptions were lower for the categories of ...

  1. Between Civil Rights and Property Rights: Debating the Selective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is framed as political contestation today is a culmination of abuses of human rights, including political, civil, social and economic rights. Using a historical analysis, this article points out that there has been selective amnesia in Zimbabwe's human rights discourse, and argues for the equal treatment of civil and political ...

  2. in vivo antitrypanosomal evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    day when treatment commenced in the treatment groups. All the rats in the infected group showed clinical signs of pale nauseous membrane, amnesia, weakness and emancipation. Four rats in the infected M. morindoides treated group (F) died due to the infection on the 12th day post infection. The remaining rats in this ...

  3. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population | Mume | Libyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children ...

  4. Short Communication Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    enhances memory and protects against amnesia in rodent models. Brain and Cognition 74: 1-9. Hayes, P.Y., Jahidin, A.H., Lehmann, R., Penman, K.,. William kitching., James J. De Voss. (2008). Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Phytochemistry 69: 796-804. Thakur, M., Connellan, P., Deseo, M.A., ...

  5. Safe sedation in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anxiolysis, amnesia, sedation or pain control? ∙ What will the effect of the drugs be on the airway, spontaneous breathing and cardiovascular system? The patient. As more procedures are performed OOR, the operator has retained the opportunity to evaluate patients pre-operatively. However, the sedation provider usually ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akussah, H. Vol 30 (2011) - Articles Managing and Preserving Records and Archives that Guard Against Collective Amnesia Abstract. ISSN: 0376-4753. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  7. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, A.C.; Kindt, M.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid

  8. Acquisition of a novel vocabulary in an amnesic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, M; Cornil, V; Meulemans, T; Ivanoiu, A; Salmon, E; Coyette, F

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the ability of a severe amnesic patient (AC) to acquire new vocabulary words. We compared AC's knowledge of words entered into the French lexicon during three different periods: before 1920, between 1965 and 1985, and after 1986 (i.e. after the onset of his amnesia). AC's knowledge was assessed by asking him to give, for each word, its definition (word-definition task), the general domain to which the word belonged ("domain" task), and to generate a sentence containing the word (sentence-generation task). Finally, we administered a recognition task in which AC had to select, for each word, its correct definition amongst four definitions. For all of these tasks, the results showed that AC's performance was similar to that of four control subjects matched for age, education, and profession. In particular, there was no difference with regard to AC's knowledge of words entered into the language after the onset of his amnesia. Therefore, these results indicate that, despite his profound amnesia, AC was able to learn normally new vocabulary words. More generally, they confirm that, at least is some cases, semantic learning can be spared in amnesia.

  9. Treatment of Anomia Using Errorless Versus Errorful Learning: Are Frontal Executive Skills and Feedback Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Joanne; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew Lambon

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies from the amnesia literature suggest that errorless learning can produce superior results to errorful learning. However, it was found in a previous investigation by the present authors that errorless and errorful therapy produced equivalent results for patients with aphasic word-finding difficulties. A study in the academic…

  10. Zingiber officinale : evaulation of its Nootropic effect in mice | Joshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, it also reversed aging induced amnesia due to natural aging of mice. Z. officinale significantly increased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase inhibition activity. Hence, Z. officinale might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of its ...

  11. Office-based anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 14% incidence of excitatory phenomena is seen. Amnesia is not pronounced. Its anti-emetic effects are very advantageous, especially where opiates are used concomitantly. There is usually dose-related cardiovascular depression ... TCI employs a variety of algorithms and assumptions to construct a variable-rate infusion ...

  12. Motor aphasia in the first week of enteric fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as Parkinson's syndrome, motor neuron disease, transient amnesia, symmetrical sensory-motor neuropathy, schizophreniform psychosis and cerebellar involvement, have also been reported in various journals.5. Aphasia as a complication of enteric fever has been described in 2 - 7.4% of studies in an adult population3 but ...

  13. 02 Barendse 03 WEB.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Historical amnesia leads to an anti-utopia,2 which, along with nostalgia, creates the assumption that the past was a better time (Baccolini 119). Memory is central to the processes of change, action and empowerment, since the reconstruction of the past shapes the present and the future (Baccolini 119; see Geoghegan 54).

  14. The Influence of Verapamil and Nicardipine on the Rate of Metabolism of Midazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    premedicant and for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Midazolam produces anxiolysis, amnesia, hypnosis , skeletal muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant...metabolizing properties. The results of competition can involve toxic and or ineffective dosages of the competing drugs (Hardman et al., 1996). Hepatic

  15. CONCUSSION IN SPORT: PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    concussed player correctly. A player cannot return to sport while the symptoms of concussion are present. The only symptoms of concussion that have been sci- entifically validated in prospective studies are: loss of consciousness, headache, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, attention deficit and amnesia.2. Headaches.

  16. How Memory Is Tested Influences What Is Measured: Reply to Wyble and Chen (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2017-01-01

    In this response to Wyble and Chen's (2017) commentary on attribute amnesia, we hope to achieve several goals. First, we clarify how our view diverges from that described by Wyble and Chen. We argue that because the surprise memory test is disruptive, it is an insensitive tool for measuring the persistence of recently attended target attributes in…

  17. Memory Consolidation of Attended Information Is Optional: Comment on Jiang et al. (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Attribute amnesia is a phenomenon in which information about a stimulus that was just recently used to perform a task is poorly remembered in a surprise test (Chen & Wyble, 2015a). In a recent article by Jiang, Shupe, Swallow, and Tan (2016), this effect was replicated but with an additional priming measure that revealed some carryover memory…

  18. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.C.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  19. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.; Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  20. The Intentional Archivist: What Jonathan Taught Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always seeking the meaning behind her educational practice with children, colleagues, and the institution in which she works on a daily basis. Dr. Jonathon Silin's thinking around loss, collective memory and social amnesia resonate strongly with her (Silin, 2011). In this article, the possibilities of intentionally…

  1. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  2. Anterograde episodic memory in Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.

  3. Medicinal herbs in Iranian traditional medicine for learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The scientific evidences of the plant efficacy were searched in electronic databases including Pub Med, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords like memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The finding of this study confirmed ...

  4. Korsakoff's syndrome: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, N.J.M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we present a survey on Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a residual syndrome in patients who suffered from a Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) that is predominantly characterized by global amnesia, and in more severe cases also by cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. We describe the history of

  5. Do Amnesic Patients with Korsakoff's Syndrome Use Feedback when Making Decisions under Risky Conditions? An Experimental Investigation with the Game of Dice Task with and without Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Labudda, Kirsten; Laier, Christian; von Rothkirch, Nadine; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of feedback processing in decision making under risk conditions in 50 patients with amnesia in the course of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). Half of the patients were administered the Game of Dice Task (GDT) and the remaining 25 patients were examined with a modified version of the GDT in which no feedback was…

  6. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1); the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2); and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3). As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3-4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10) to 3 years; 4 months (3;4)) was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0) and 3 (3;5 to 4;4). Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia.

  7. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  8. The Illusion of Freedom: Tyranny, Whiteness, and the State of US Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Newlove, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite boasting its self-characterization as the "land of the free," US American "freedom" is, at times, tainted with historical amnesia, hypocrisy, and inhumanity. This article examines today's socio-political climate by drawing from de Tocqueville's (2003) prediction that American democracy is a tyranny of the majority.…

  9. Recent memory for socially transmitted food preferences in rats does not depend on the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajat; Sparks, Fraser T; Hanif, Wahab; Gulbrandsen, Tine; Sutherland, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    The standard model of systems consolidation holds that the hippocampus (HPC) is involved only in the initial storage and retrieval of a memory. With time hippocampal-neocortical interactions slowly strengthen the neocortical memory, ultimately enabling retrieval of the memory without the HPC. Key support for this idea comes from experiments measuring memory recall in the socially-transmitted food preference (STFP) task in rats. HPC damage within a day or two of STFP learning can abolish recall, but similar damage five or more days after learning has no effect. We hypothesize that disruption of cellular consolidation outside the HPC could contribute to the amnesia with recent memories, perhaps playing a more important role than the loss of HPC. This view predicts that intraHPC infusion of Tetrodotoxin (TTX), which can block conduction of action potentials from the lesion sites, will block the retrograde amnesia in the STFP task. Here we confirm the previously reported retrograde amnesia with neurotoxic HPC damage within the first day after learning, but show that co-administration of TTX with the neurotoxin blocks the retrograde amnesia despite very extensive HPC damage. These results indicate that HPC damage disrupts cellular consolidation of the recent memory elsewhere; STFP memory may not ever depend on the HPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 45, No 1 (2008), Arabic-Afrikaans Literature at the Cape, Abstract PDF. S E Dangor. Vol 41, No 2 (2004), Archetypes of memory and amnesia in South African soap opera, Abstract PDF. Hannelie Marx. Vol 52, No 1 (2015), Art and healing: ethical imperatives in Julien Kilanga Musinde's Jardin secret, Abstract PDF.

  11. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Manifestaciones neuro-psiquiátricas en una paciente con traumatismo encéfalo-craneano.

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos-Montes, Nataly; Contreras-Toledo, Débora; Lozano-Vargas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 18 años de edad quien luego de sufrir un traumatismo encéfalo-craneanosevero exacerba sus rasgos impulsivos de personalidad y desarrolla desinhibición sexual, agresividad, perseveración,delusiones, amnesia, síndrome depresivo y maniforme.

  13. Behavioral and Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anterograde Autobiographical Memory in Isolated Retrograde Amnesic Patient M. L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Brian; Svoboda, Eva; Turner, Gary R.; Mandic, Marina; Mackey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Patient M. L. [Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R., Sinden, M., Mcintosh, A. R., Toth, J. P., et al. (1998). "Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia." "Brain", "121", 1951-1973], lost memory for events occurring before his severe traumatic brain injury, yet his anterograde (post-injury) learning and memory appeared…

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Zhen Tian Wan on Pial strip-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    A variety of deficits in learning and memory function have been demonstrated in the brain of animals after injury ... memory in Pial Strip (lesion) –induced amnesia in rat using the Morris water maze. The neuroprotective ..... Hippocampectomy disrupts auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning in the rat.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of cutamesine in rats using NONMEM, 11C-SA4503, and microPET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, N.K.; Pilla Reddy, V.; Proost, J.H.; Nyakas, C.J.; Kwizera, C.; Sijbesma, J.W.A.; Elsinga, P.H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Van Waarde, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cutamesine (SA4503) is a selective sigma-1 receptor agonist, currently in Phase II clinical trials for depression and post stroke neurological disturbances. Cutamesine has been found to be effective in several rodent models of amnesia and depression. We used data obtained with carbon-11-labeled

  16. The Life I Once Remembered: The Waxing and Waning of Early Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Adults experience a paucity of memories from infancy and early childhood. This childhood amnesia contributed to the impression that infants and young children lacked the ability to remember the experiences of their lives. The development of nonverbal tests of memory led to a revision of this perspective and a wealth of evidence that young children…

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy as a treatment for protracted refractory delirium in the intensive care unit--five cases and a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R M; Olsen, K S; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg

    2014-01-01

    of stress, and able to cooperate with the ventilator but remained in a state of posttraumatic amnesia after a head trauma. CONCLUSION: Although controversial, ECT is nevertheless recognized as an efficient and safe treatment for various psychiatric illnesses including delirium. Considering the significantly...

  18. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data...

  19. Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.S.; Engberg, Anders; Larsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients age 16 to 65 years (N=173) with severe TBI (posttraumatic amnesia from 7d to >6 mo) admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously...

  20. Web-tutorials in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Pors, Niels Ole

    2012-01-01

    the tutorials as part of the requirements. Further, examples of organizational amnesia are discussed, pointing to the necessity for leadership support and systematic knowledge sharing. System Usability Scores are analysed in relation to solution of tasks and interesting relations are analysed. The perceptions...

  1. The extent and application of patient diaries in Danish ICUs in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Schwartz-Nielsen, Kathrine Hvid; Hansen, Glennie Marie

    2007-01-01

    -ICU amnesia. There was no systematic follow-up after the ICU stay. The study showed a number of legal and ethical issues that still need to be resolved. Patient diaries are ambiguous documents that are neither the property of the hospital nor the patient. The diaries have been implemented at Danish ICUs...

  2. Oxiracetam prevented the scopolamine but not the diazepam induced memory deficits in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 2 (2002), s. 395-399 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * oxiracetam * scopolamine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Totsuka, Shiro; Shinohara, Masao; Koyama, Hideki; Sagawa, Katsuo; Morinobu, Shigeru; Oiji, Arata; Komatani, Akio

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined, using SPECT by Xe-133 inhalation, in patients with primary degenerative dementia who were subgrouped according to predominant symptoms with respect to amnesia, apraxia, agnosia, aphasia, and personality changes. Also the effect of sex and age at dementia onset on the rCBF patterns was assessed. (author). 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  4. Rehabilitering af svaer traumatisk hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbo, Annette M; Jakobsen, Johannes K

    2007-01-01

    of the level of consciousness. Patients were assessed using established rating-scales. Local social authorities were involved at discharge. RESULTS: Of 77 consecutive patients, 5 died before follow-up and 6 patients were not seen at follow up. 79% of the remaining group had post-traumatic amnesia lasting more...

  5. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    . On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  6. Kynurenic acid prevented social recognition deficits induced by MK-801 in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2003), s. 805-808 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * kynurenic acid * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  7. Memory as social glue: Close interpersonal relationships in amnesic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S.R. Davidson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia. All three patients were less involved than demographically-matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A. cases’ close relationships were with family members, and they had made few new close friends in the decades since the onset of their amnesia. On the other hand, the patient with developmental amnesia (H.C. had forged a couple of close relationships, including one with her fiancé. Social networks appear to be winnowed, but not obliterated, by amnesia. The obvious explanation for the patients’ reduced social functioning stems from their memory impairment, but we discuss other potentially important factors for future study.

  8. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction...

  9. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    in the prospective study, six died, and 92 (1.27 per 100,000 population per year) survived after a post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) period of at least 28 days. All 19 patients with PTA 7-27 days and 48% of survivors with PTA at least 4 weeks were discharged directly home. The incidence of patients vegetative at 1 month...

  10. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Of sports and politics: Predicting category-specific retention of news events from demographic variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Ochtman, D.J.C.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of retrograde amnesia consist of questions on news events. It is therefore important to know how such questions are answered by normal adults. We analysed the retention of news events in a sample of 12,913 participants, who provided basic demographic information and subsequently answered

  12. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how

  13. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental

  14. Postcolonial Memory, Masculinity, and Film: Alain Resnais’s Absent Muriel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinan, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    This essay analyses Muriel (1963), the third feature-length film from Alain Resnais, which attempts to make sense of a fragmented past and present that have been torn apart by international wars and domestic conflicts. The film highlights the multitude of silences and amnesias surrounding the

  15. A Genetic Analysis of Individual Differences in Dissociative Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Eley, Thalia; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Stevenson, Jim; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dissociation--a pattern of general disruption in memory and consciousness--has been found to be an important cognitive component of children's and adults' coping with severe trauma. Dissociative experiences include amnesia, identity disturbance, age regression, difficulty with concentration, and trance states. Stable individual…

  16. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  17. the internment of japanese americans during world war ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    components such as estrangement, detachment, eating disorders, amnesia, psychological numbness .... received from both the news media and from interactions among citizens. Deep levels of sadness, fear, and ... media reports circulated, assumptions about the likelihood of an invasion, or the course of the war, remained ...

  18. Hippocampal nicotinic receptors have a modulatory role for ethanol and MDMA interaction in memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Sharifi, Khadijeh Alsadat

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol reversed pre-training ethanol-induced amnesia, suggesting ethanol state-dependent learning. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of different doses of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25g/kg, i.p.) also induced amnesia. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) potentiated ethanol state-dependent learning. On the other hand, the activation of the dorsal hippocampal nAChRs by pre-test microinjection of nicotine (0.1-1µg/mouse, intra-CA1) improved amnesia induced by the co-administration of MDMD and ethanol. It is important to note that intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of MDMA or nicotine could not affect memory formation by itself. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.9µg/mouse) could not reverse amnesia induced by pre-training administration of ethanol while this treatment enhanced MDMA response on ethanol state-dependent learning. Thus, it can be concluded that there may be functional interactions among ethanol, MDMA and nicotine via the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mechanism in memory retrieval and drug state-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What is the level of evidence for the amnestic effects of sedatives in pediatric patients? A systematic review and meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Karolline Alves; Daher, Anelise

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that benzodiazepines are amnestic drug par excellence, but when taken together, what level of evidence do they generate? Are other sedatives as amnestic as benzodiazepines? The aim of this study was to assess the level of scientific evidence for the amnestic effect of sedatives in pediatric patients who undergo health procedures. Methods The literature was searched to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated anterograde and retrograde amnesia in 1-19-year-olds who received sedative drugs during health procedures. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library besides clinical trial registries and grey literature were searched. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool. The meta-analyses were performed by calculating relative risk (RR) to 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results Fifty-four studies were included (4,168 participants). A higher occurrence of anterograde amnesia was observed when benzodiazepines, the most well-studied sedatives (n = 47), were used than when placebo was used (n = 12) (RR = 3.10; 95% CI: 2.30–4.19, P<0.001; I2 = 14%), with a moderate level of evidence. Higher doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine/dexmedetomidine) produced more anterograde amnesia than lower doses (n = 2) (RR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03–3.25; P = 0.038; I2 = 0%), with a low level of evidence; benzodiazepines’ amnestic effects were not dose-dependent (n = 3) (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96–2.49; P = 0.07; I2 = 12%) but the evidence was low. A qualitative analysis showed that retrograde amnesia did not occur in 8 out of 10 studies. Conclusions In children, moderate evidence support that benzodiazepines induce anterograde amnesia, whereas the evidence for other sedatives is weak and based on isolated and small

  20. What is the level of evidence for the amnestic effects of sedatives in pediatric patients? A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolline Alves Viana

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that benzodiazepines are amnestic drug par excellence, but when taken together, what level of evidence do they generate? Are other sedatives as amnestic as benzodiazepines? The aim of this study was to assess the level of scientific evidence for the amnestic effect of sedatives in pediatric patients who undergo health procedures.The literature was searched to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated anterograde and retrograde amnesia in 1-19-year-olds who received sedative drugs during health procedures. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library besides clinical trial registries and grey literature were searched. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool. The meta-analyses were performed by calculating relative risk (RR to 95% confidence intervals (CI. The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.Fifty-four studies were included (4,168 participants. A higher occurrence of anterograde amnesia was observed when benzodiazepines, the most well-studied sedatives (n = 47, were used than when placebo was used (n = 12 (RR = 3.10; 95% CI: 2.30-4.19, P<0.001; I2 = 14%, with a moderate level of evidence. Higher doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine/dexmedetomidine produced more anterograde amnesia than lower doses (n = 2 (RR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.25; P = 0.038; I2 = 0%, with a low level of evidence; benzodiazepines' amnestic effects were not dose-dependent (n = 3 (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96-2.49; P = 0.07; I2 = 12% but the evidence was low. A qualitative analysis showed that retrograde amnesia did not occur in 8 out of 10 studies.In children, moderate evidence support that benzodiazepines induce anterograde amnesia, whereas the evidence for other sedatives is weak and based on isolated and small studies. Further clinical trials focused

  1. Rehabilitation in severe memory deficit: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariana Mattos Figueiredo Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The term amnesia refers to a pathological state of mind in which memory and learning are affected to a greater extent than other cognitive functions in a patient without altered level of consciousness. The aim of the current study was to describe a case of severe amnesia in a patient during neurological rehabilitation and to report the importance of preserved cognitive functions to compensate for the mnemonic deficit. VJA presented a clinical condition suggestive of encephalopathy due to caloric-protein malnutrition following several abdominal surgical procedures for complicated choledocholithiasis. A descriptive analysis of the results was carried out to outline the goals attained and the factors limiting implementation of memory aids. After the intervention program, consisting of individual and group activities, VJA showed improvement in level of recall with repetition of tasks, but still required constant external monitoring. Longitudinal follow-up is necessary to obtain more consistent results.

  2. Memories of unethical actions become obfuscated over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Gino, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Despite our optimistic belief that we would behave honestly when facing the temptation to act unethically, we often cross ethical boundaries. This paper explores one possibility of why people engage in unethical behavior over time by suggesting that their memory for their past unethical actions is impaired. We propose that, after engaging in unethical behavior, individuals’ memories of their actions become more obfuscated over time because of the psychological distress and discomfort such misdeeds cause. In nine studies (n = 2,109), we show that engaging in unethical behavior produces changes in memory so that memories of unethical actions gradually become less clear and vivid than memories of ethical actions or other types of actions that are either positive or negative in valence. We term this memory obfuscation of one’s unethical acts over time “unethical amnesia.” Because of unethical amnesia, people are more likely to act dishonestly repeatedly over time. PMID:27185941

  3. Stimulus attributes of reactivated memory: alleviation of ontogenetic forgetting in rats is context specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R; Riccio, D C; McKenney, M

    1988-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that ontogenetic forgetting (infantile amensia) can be alleviated by a number of different types of reminder treatment. The present study extends the information about the alleviation of infantile amnesia by examining the "content" of the reactivated memory. Toward this purpose, one attribute of memory (environmental context) was examined in rats tested either shortly after training (preamnesic) or after 1-week retention interval. For the latter, a reactivation treatment was used to reverse infantile amnesia. At both intervals, a context shift resulted in impaired performance of a conditioned fear response. These findings demonstrate that environment context is an important component of the originally encoded memory as well as the reactivated amnestic memory. The implications of these results for both the reactivation of memory and general memory processes are discussed.

  4. [Application of nootropic agents in complex treatment of patients with concussion of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    65 patients with a mild craniocereberal trauma have been observed. Medical examination included among general clinical methods the following methods: KT (MRT) of the brain, oculist examination including the observation of eye fundus. For objectification of a patient' complaints the authors used orientation and Galvestona's amnesia tests, feeling scale (psychological test), the table to determine the level of memory. Tests have been carried out on the first, tenth and thirty day of the treatment. Patients of the first group received in a complex treatment -pramistar, patients of the second group - piracetam. Patients of both groups noted considerable improvement during a complex treatment (disappearance of headache, dizziness and nausea) and at the same time patients receiving pramistar had better restoration of orientation and feeling. Pramistar was also more effective in patients with amnesia.

  5. Case Report : A Relieved Family with the Diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kokurcan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS is a diagnosis formed from Wernicke ensephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome together. WKS is usually a chronic syndrome beginning acutely. Wernicke%u2019s encephalopathy is an acute syndrome composed of the triad of oculomotor signs; ataxia and confusion. B vitamines especially tiamine are considered to cause the syndrome. Korsakoff syndrome is a syndrome presenting with amnesia and amnesia is permanent in many cases. While Korsakoff syndrome is a continuation form of Wernicke; the syndromes are admitted as the acute and chronic conditions of the same pathophysiology. WKS syndrome means despair for many psychiatrists and the family unless treatment is initiated in the acute phase and irreversible cognitive impairment is prevented. We will discuss a case of WKS pleasing his family as nervousness has improved with cognitive impairment.

  6. When Rey-Osterrieth’s Complex Figure Becomes a Church: Prevalence and Correlates of Graphic Confabulations in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Pelati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Verbal confabulation (VC has been described in several pathological conditions characterized by amnesia and has been defined as ‘statements that involve distortion of memories’. Here we describe another kind of confabulation (graphic confabulation, GC, evident at the recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF. In a retrospective study of 267 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia, 14 patients (4.9 % recalled the abstract ROCF as drawings with recognizable semantic meaning. VC was evident at the story recall test in 19.8% of the study participants. VC and GC were homogeneously distributed among the different types of dementia. VC has been proposed to originate from complex interactions of amnesia, motivational deficit and dysfunction of monitoring systems. On the contrary, GC seems to be the result of a deficit in visual memory replaced by the semantic translation of isolated parts of the ROCF along with a source monitoring deficit.

  7. Involvement of Mζ-Like Protein Kinase in the Mechanisms of Conditioned Food Aversion Memory Reconsolidation in the Helix lucorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2015-06-01

    We studied the involvement of Mζ-like protein kinase (PKMζ) into mechanisms of conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation in Helix lucorum. Injections PKMζ inhibitor ZIP in a dose of 5 mg/kg on day 2 or 10 after learning led to memory impairment and amnesia development. Injections of the inhibitor in doses of 1.5 or 2.5 mg/kg had no effect. Repeated training on day 11 after induction of amnesia resulted in the formation of memory on the same type of food aversion similar to first training. The number of combinations of conditional (food) and reinforcing (electrical shock) stimuli was similar during initial and repeated training. We hypothesize that the inhibition of Mζ-like protein kinase erases the memory trace and a new memory is formed during repeated training.

  8. Adults' reports of their earliest memories: consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults' earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2-4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adults’ reports of their earliest memories: Consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults’ earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2 to 4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. PMID:24836979

  10. Bilateral Hippocampal Infarction as Etiology of Sudden and Prolonged Memory Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marinkovic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden memory loss, with prolonged cognitive deterioration, clinically initially resembling a transitory global amnesia (TGA-like episode, might be caused by ischemic stroke in the hippocampal regions. We report a patient with TGA-type sudden anterograde amnesia and normal head CT. Examinations revealed that the patient had several vascular risk factors and 3 tesla (T head MRI showed ischemic lesions in diffusion-weighted images (DWI in both hippocampi. Neuropsychological assessment revealed sustained moderate verbal memory deterioration and abnormal executive functions. We suggest that small ischemic strokes in hippocampal regions might remain unrecognized and underdiagnosed if follow-up of TGA-type episodes is not adequate and if head CT remains the only method of brain imaging.

  11. A disproportionate role for the fornix and mammillary bodies in recall versus recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivilis, Dimitris; Vann, Seralynne D; Denby, Christine; Roberts, Neil; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela; Aggleton, John P

    2008-07-01

    Uncovering the functional relationship between temporal lobe amnesia and diencephalic amnesia depends on determining the role of the fornix, the major interlinking fiber tract. In this study relating fornix volume with memory, we made magnetic resonance imaging-based volume estimates of 13 brain structures in 38 individuals with surgically removed colloid cysts. Fornix status was assessed directly by overall volume and indirectly by mammillary body volume (which atrophies after fornix damage). Mammillary body volume significantly correlated with 13 out of 14 tests of episodic memory recall, but correlated poorly with recognition memory. Furthermore, as the volumes of the left fornix and the left mammillary bodies decreased, the difference between recall and recognition scores increased. No other structure was consistently associated with memory. These findings support models of diencephalic memory mechanisms that require hippocampal inputs for recall, but not for key elements of recognition.

  12. Is anterior communicating artery syndrome related to fornix lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Ivana; Cavaliere, Carlo; Salvatore, Elena; Quarantelli, Mario; Colucci, Luisa; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) syndrome, which may occur after rupture of ACoA aneurysms, consists of anterograde memory problems, executive dysfunctions, confabulations, and personality changes. Recently, the employment of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) has related ACoA to microstructural lesions in the cingulum and the fornix, but an accurate characterization of these subjects should be provided. We report the clinical and neuropsychological findings of a patient who developed a severe and persistent amnesia together with significant behavioral changes, as well as her imaging results, where the sole evidence of brain damage was that of the fornix demonstrated by DTT. The four-year neuropsychological follow-up of the subject allows exclusion of other causes. This case demonstrates that microstructural lesions of fornix may lead to persistent amnesia, executive impairments, and behavioral changes and contributes to the knowledge of its role in cognition.

  13. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the a...

  14. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf, Manish Kumar; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Anand, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi) is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objecti...

  15. The Effects of Loranthus parasiticus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to evaluate cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect of Loranthus parasiticus. Cognitive enhancing effect of Loranthus parasiticus was investigated on scopolamine-induced amnesia model in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. We also examined the neuroprotective effect on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells by MTT assay. These results of Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test indicated that 10 and 50 mg/kg of Loranthus paras...

  16. Proceedings: Army Medical Department Service Psychology Symposium Held at El Paso, Texas on 13-17 November 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    examination, an exploration of the possible symbolic meaning of the amnesia, and should rule out psychosis, severe depression, or suicidal ideation . 5, The...well in the 1970’s. We have increased our field grade strength considerably and : 11 .,7 at a percentage which exceeds the average for the Medical...staff membes play roles such as "the hostile client" or "the schizophrenic client", in an iffort to expose the students to a wide variety of client

  17. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  18. Observations on Working Psychoanalytically with a Profoundly Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Moore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature – a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference. However, psychoanalytic work in the presence of profound amnesia might also require important technical modifications. In the first report of its kind, we describe observations from a long term psychoanalytic process (72 sessions with an individual (JL who has profound amnesia after an anoxic episode. The nature of therapy was shaped by JL’s impairment in connecting elements that belong to distant (and even relatively close moments in the therapeutic process. However, we were also able to document areas of preservation, in what appears to be a functioning therapeutic alliance. As regards transference, the relationship between JL and his analyst can be viewed as the evolution of a narcissistic transference, and case material is provided that maps this into three phases: (i rejecting; (ii starting to take in; and (iii full use of the analytic space – where each phase exhibits differing degrees of permeability between JL and the analyst. This investigation appears to have important theoretical implications for psychoanalytic practice, and for psychotherapy in general – and not only with regard to brain injured populations. We especially note that it raises questions concerning the mechanism of therapeutic action in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and the apparent unimportance of episodic memory for many elements of therapeutic change.

  19. On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael W; Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; McKeag, Douglas B; Norwig, John; Maroon, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    Investigate the relationship between on-field markers of concussion severity and postinjury neuropsychological and symptom presentation in an athlete-specific population. Case control study. Multicenter analysis of high school and college athletes. A total of 78 athletes sustaining sports-related concussion were selected from a larger sample of 139 concussed athletes. ASSESSMENT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES: On-field presence of disorientation, posttraumatic amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and loss of consciousness. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological test battery, was administered pre-season and, on average, 2 days postinjury. Good postinjury presentation (n = 44) was defined as no measurable change, relative to baseline, in terms of both ImPACT memory and symptom composite scores. Poor presentation (n = 34) was defined as a 10-point increase in symptom reporting and 10-point decrease in memory functioning (exceeding the 80% confidence interval for measurement error on ImPACT). Athletes failing to meet good or poor selection criteria (n = 61) were not included in the analysis. Odds ratios revealed that athletes demonstrating poor presentation at 2 days postinjury were over 10 times more likely (P presentation. Similarly, athletes with poor presentation were over 4 times more likely (P poor presentation groups in terms of on-field loss of consciousness. The presence of amnesia, not loss of consciousness, appears predictive of symptom and neurocognitive deficits following concussion in athletes. Athletes presenting with on-field amnesia should undergo comprehensive and individualized assessment prior to returning to sport participation. Continued refinement of sports concussion grading scales is warranted in lieu of consistent findings that brief loss of consciousness is not predictive of concussion injury severity.

  20. A thalamacortical feedback model to explain EEG during anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi , Meysam; Hutt , Axel

    2014-01-01

    General anaesthesia (GA) is a medical procedure which aims to achieve analgesia, amnesia, immobility and skeletal muscle relaxation. Although GA is commonly used in medical care for patients undergoing surgery, its precise underlying mechanisms and the molecular action of anaesthetic agents (AA) remain to be elucidated. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anaesthetic practice and it has been observed that for many AAs, during the transition from consciousness to unconscious- ness, the ...

  1. Neurological Effects of Exposure to Non-Hypoxic Hypobaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-16

    equilibrium and coordination, large sensory and motor tract dysfunction, amnesia, aphasia, hallucinations, tremor, and headaches [2]. Variable degrees of...Aviat Space Environ Med 1996; 67(3):199-206. 2. Balldin UI, Pilmanis AA, Webb JT. Central nervous system decompression sickness and venous gas emboli...Pantoni L, Filippi M, Frisoni GB. White matter lesions in the elderly : pathophysiological hypothesis on the effect on brain plasticity and reserve. J

  2. Pantomime Terror\\ud Diasporic Music in a Time of War

    OpenAIRE

    Hutnyk, John

    2007-01-01

    I find it increasingly problematic to write analytically about ‘diaspora and music’ at a time of war. It seems inconsequential; the culture industry is not much more than a distraction; a fairytale diversion to make us forget a more sinister amnesia behind the stories we tell. This article nonetheless takes up debates about cultural expression in the field of diasporic musics in Britain. It examines instances of creative engagement with, and destabilization of, music genres by Fundamental and...

  3. Defendants are clueless the 30-day psychiatric observation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Claimed amnesia. 0. 5 (5.7). Substance abuse. 0. 2 (2.3). Was sexually abused in childhood. 0. 1 (1.1). Mental retardation. 0. 1 (1.1). Lawyer could not understand client. 0. 1 (1.1). Table 11. Reasons for the referral. (17.0%). Defence counsel requests accounted for 18.2%, family 14.8%, the prosecutor 8.0%, the police officer ...

  4. Effects of ginseol k-g3, an Rg3-enriched fraction, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and learning deficit in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike dela Peña

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The effects of ginseol k-g3 in ameliorating scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests indicate its specific influence on reference or long-term memory. The mechanism underlying the reversal of scopolamine-induced amnesia by ginseol k-g3 is not yet known, but is not related to anticholinesterase-like activity.

  5. Interactive effects of morphine and nicotine on memory function depend on the central amygdala cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirgar, Fatemeh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima

    2018-03-02

    The present study investigated the possible involvement of the central amygdala (CeA) cannabinoid receptors type-1 (CB1Rs) in the interactive effects of morphine and nicotine on memory formation in a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that systemic administration of morphine (3 and 6mg/kg, s.c.) immediately after training phase impaired memory consolidation and induced amnesia. Administration of nicotine (0.3 and 0.6mg/kg, s.c.) before testing phase significantly restored morphine-induced amnesia, suggesting a cross state-dependent learning between morphine and nicotine. The results showed that while the administration of the lower dose of nicotine (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) per se did not induce a significant effect on morphine-induced amnesia, intra-CeA injection of arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (3 and 4ng/rat), significantly potentiated the nicotine response. Furthermore, the blockade of the CeA cannabinoid CB1 receptors by the injection of AM251 (0.75 and 1ng/rat) reversed the potentiative effect of nicotine (0.6mg/kg, s.c.) on morphine-induced amnesia. It should be considered that bilateral injection of the same doses of ACPA or AM251 (0.5-1ng/rat) into the CeA by itself had no effect on morphine response in a passive avoidance learning task. Confirmed by the cubic interpolation planes, the dose-response data revealed a cross-state-dependent learning between morphine and nicotine which may be mediated by the CeA endocannabinoid system via CB1 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. General Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery: A Review of Drugs and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Alwardt, Cory M.; Redford, Daniel; Larson, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    General anesthesia is defined as complete anesthesia affecting the entire body with loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation. There is a wide spectrum of agents able to partially or completely induce general anesthesia. Presently, there is not a single universally accepted technique for anesthetic management during cardiac surgery. Instead, the drugs and combinations of drugs used are derived from the pathophysiologic state of the patient and individual preference and ...

  7. Cerebral haemorrhage as the presenting feature of myeloproliferative disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondlapudi, Jyothi; O’Connor, Rory J; Mawer, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders predispose individuals to bleeding and thrombosis, often with devastating consequences. We report a 41-year-old man who presented with headache, amnesia and dysphagia due to cerebral haemorrhage. Extensive investigation revealed the cause of the neurological syndrome as an underlying essential thrombocytosis. The patient made a full recovery following extensive inpatient and community rehabilitation, returning to work after 6 months. We discuss the diagnosis and m...

  8. Cardiovascular Assessment of Falls in Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Maw Pin; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2006-01-01

    Falls in older people can be caused by underlying cardiovascular disorders, either because of balance instability in persons with background gait and balance disorders, or because of amnesia for loss of consciousness during unwitnessed syncope. Pertinent investigations include a detailed history, 12-lead electrocardiography, lying and standing blood pressure, carotid sinus massage (CSM), head-up tilt, cardiac electrophysiological tests, and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring,...

  9. Supplementation of Convolvulus pluricaulis attenuates scopolamine-induced increased tau and Amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) expression in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Singh, Avninder Pal; Tiwari, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Scopolamine is known to produce amnesia due to blockade of the cholinergic neurotransmission. The present study investigated the potential of Convolvulus pluricaulis (CP) to attenuate scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p) induced increased protein and mRNA levels of tau, amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), amyloid β (Aβ) levels and histopathological changes in rat cerebral cortex. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) divided into four groups of eight anim...

  10. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  11. I’m shocked: informed consent in ECT and the phenomenological-self

    OpenAIRE

    Seniuk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that phenomenological insights regarding selfhood are relevant to the informed consent process in the treatment of depression using electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). One of the most significant side-effects associated with ECT is retrograde amnesia. Unfortunately, the current informed consent model does not adequately appreciate the full extent in which memory loss disturbs lived-experience. Through the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty, it is possible to appreciate the way in whi...

  12. Shock treatment, brain damage, and memory loss: a neurological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, J

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews reports of neuropathology resulting from electroconvulsive therapy in experimental animals and humans. Although findings of petechial hemorrhage, gliosis, and neuronal loss were well established in the decade following the introduction of ECT, they have been generally ignored since then. ECT produces characteristic EEG changes and severe retrograde amnesia, as well as other more subtle effects on memory and learning. The author concludes that ECT results in brain disease and questions whether doctors should offer brain damage to their patients.

  13. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...

  14. Investigations of musical memory in a professional cellist with an amnesic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Esfahani-Bayerl, Nazli

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory of music involves a multitude of perceptual, motor, affective, and autobiographical memory processes. Patient and imaging studies suggest, that musical memory may involve distinct neural substrates. However, the degree of independence from other memory domains is controversial. We have investigated a 68-year-old professional cellist, patient PM, who developed severe amnesia following encephalitis. Repeated imaging studies demonstrated extensive bilateral lesions of the tem...

  15. Re-examination of the Controversial Coexistence of Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Misdiagnosis and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Robert J.; Ruff, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The coexistence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a controversial issue in the literature. To address this controversy, we focused primarily on the civilian-related literature of TBI and PTSD. Some investigators have argued that individuals who had been rendered unconscious or suffered amnesia due to a TBI are unable to develop PTSD because they would be unable to consciously experience the symptoms of fear, helplessness, and horror associated wi...

  16. Forgetting, reminding, and remembering: the retrieval of lost spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Livia de Hoz; Stephen J Martin; Richard G M Morris

    2004-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia can occur after brain damage because this disrupts sites of storage, interrupts memory consolidation, or interferes with memory retrieval. While the retrieval failure account has been considered in several animal studies, recent work has focused mainly on memory consolidation, and the neural mechanisms responsible for reactivating memory from stored traces remain poorly understood. We now describe a new retrieval phenomenon in which rats' memory for a spatial location in a ...

  17. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  18. Kognitive forstyrrelser ved svaer traumatisk hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Christina Malling; Siert, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) very often has extensive effects of cognitive character such as changes in recognition, thought, memory, language and perception. The purpose of this paper is to give a short status of cognitive impairment after severe traumatic brain injury and to illustrate that cog...... that cognitive impairment varies according to levels of consciousness. The article shortly describes typical observed behaviour in the patient when waking up after severe TBI, including post-traumatic amnesia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-15...

  19. Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, O.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Varlet, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Anatomopathology, Paris (France); Page, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

  20. Suppression of neurotoxic lesion-induced seizure activity: evidence for a permanent role for the hippocampus in contextual memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser T Sparks

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus (HPC using the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA can cause retrograde amnesia for contextual fear memory. This amnesia is typically attributed to loss of cells in the HPC. However, NMDA is also known to cause intense neuronal discharge (seizure activity during the hours that follow its injection. These seizures may have detrimental effects on retrieval of memories. Here we evaluate the possibility that retrograde amnesia is due to NMDA-induced seizure activity or cell damage per se. To assess the effects of NMDA induced activity on contextual memory, we developed a lesion technique that utilizes the neurotoxic effects of NMDA while at the same time suppressing possible associated seizure activity. NMDA and tetrodotoxin (TTX, a sodium channel blocker, are simultaneously infused into the rat HPC, resulting in extensive bilateral damage to the HPC. TTX, co-infused with NMDA, suppresses propagation of seizure activity. Rats received pairings of a novel context with foot shock, after which they received NMDA-induced, TTX+NMDA-induced, or no damage to the HPC at a recent (24 hours or remote (5 weeks time point. After recovery, the rats were placed into the shock context and freezing was scored as an index of fear memory. Rats with an intact HPC exhibited robust memory for the aversive context at both time points, whereas rats that received NMDA or NMDA+TTX lesions showed a significant reduction in learned fear of equal magnitude at both the recent and remote time points. Therefore, it is unlikely that observed retrograde amnesia in contextual fear conditioning are due to disruption of non-HPC networks by propagated seizure activity. Moreover, the memory deficit observed at both time points offers additional evidence supporting the proposition that the HPC has a continuing role in maintaining contextual memories.

  1. Investigation of the possible role of Shankapushpi in the attenuation of ECT induced amnestic deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Monteiro, Ingrid; Hegde, Ravi Prabhakar; Chandra, J. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Shankapushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides and others) has received mention in traditional Indian writings as a potential enhancer of cognitive functioning. This study used an animal model to examine whether Shankapushpi improves learning and memory and attenuates anterograde and retrograde amnesia associated with electroconvulsive shocks (ECS). Materials and Methods: Adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats (n=64) were treated with an aqueous extract of Shankapushpi or vehicle all through the ...

  2. Problems in the acquisition of imagery mnemonics: three brain-damaged cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovitz, H F; Harvey, M T; Horn, R W

    1979-06-01

    The literature provides little direction on how to overcome difficulties which some brain-damaged patients have in acquiring imagery mnemonics as a memory aid during the period of anterograde amnesia. For those interested in the therepeutic usefulness of imagery mediation, we provide a detailed account of the acquisition of some mnemonic skill in three brain-damaged patients who initially failed in using visual imagery mediators to recall words lists.

  3. Postconcussive Symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans Presenting to a Polytrauma Clinic with a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    outcome in patients with TBI ( Jennett & Bond, 1975; Teasdale & Jennett , 1974) . MTBI may also include posttraumatic amnesia (PTA; loss of memory of...discriminating between anxious and non-anxious diagnostic groups; however, the BAI has a strong correlation with BDI scores, r = .48. PCL- C . The...questionnaire are directly parallel DSM- IV symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. The PCL- C displays high internal consistency through the

  4. Water-soluble derivative of propolis mitigates scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Long, Yuan; Han, Min; Wang, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2008-09-01

    The water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) was prepared from fresh Chinese propolis. Its major constituents were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. It has been reported that propolis possessed a broad spectrum of biological activities but including few studies on learning and memory by now. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of WSDP on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice. WSDP (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) was given by intragastric administration (i.g.) 40 min prior to the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The effect on amnesia was investigated with both hidden-platform acquisition training and probe trial testing in Morris water maze test. The results from 100 mg/kg WSDP group showed significant mitigation scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Furthermore, WSDP's effect on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was also assayed. As a result, WSDP (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampus of scopolamine-treated mice. These results indicated that WSDP may mitigate amnesia in vivo through inhibition of AChE activity in the hippocampus, which suggested propolis may have potential as a pharmaceutical of brain protection with elderly population for preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Neurological Outcomes Following Suicidal Hanging: A Prospective Study of 101 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Mohammed Turab; Amalnath, S Deepak; Subrahmanyam, D K S

    2017-01-01

    Survivors of suicidal hanging can have variable neurological outcomes - from complete recovery to irreversible brain damage. Literature on the neurological outcomes in these patients is confined to retrospective studies and case series. Hence, this prospective study was carried out. The aim is to study the neurological outcomes in suicidal hanging. This was a prospective observational study carried out from July 2014 to July 2016. Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and medicine wards were included in the study. Details of the clinical and radiological findings, course in hospital and at 1 month postdischarge were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS advanced statistics 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square test for significance and Odd's ratio was calculated. Of the 101 patients, 6 died and 4 had residual neuro deficits. Cervical spine injury was seen in 3 patients. Interestingly, 39 patients could not remember the act of hanging (retrograde amnesia). Hypotension, pulmonary edema, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score <8 at admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and cerebral edema on plain computed tomography were more in those with amnesia as compared to those with normal memory and these findings were statistically significant. Majority of patients recovered without any sequelae. Routine imaging of cervical spine may not be warranted in all patients, even in those with poor GCS. Retrograde amnesia might be more common than previously believed and further studies are needed to analyze this peculiar feature.

  6. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  7. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly. PMID:16550227

  8. Interactions between oxiracetam, aniracetam and scopolamine on behavior and brain acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignoli, G; Pepeu, G

    1987-07-01

    The effect of cognition-enhancing agents oxiracetam and aniracetam on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine decrease was investigated in the rat. Acetylcholine levels were measured by means of a gas-chromatographic method. Scopolamine (0.63 mg/kg IP 60 min before training) prevented the acquisition of a passive avoidance conditioned response ("step through": retest 30 min after training) and brought about a 64, 56 and 42% decrease in acetylcholine level in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum respectively. Oxiracetam (50 and 100 mg/kg IP) administered 30 min before scopolamine reduced the scopolamine-induced amnesic effect and decrease in acetylcholine level in the cortex and hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Lower and higher doses of oxiracetam were ineffective. Aniracetam (100 mg/kg PO) also prevented scopolamine-induced amnesia but attenuated acetylcholine decrease in the hippocampus only. Aniracetam (300 mg PO) reduced acetylcholine decrease in the hippocampus but did not prevent scopolamine-amnesia. In conclusion, oxiracetam and aniracetam exert a stimulatory effect on specific central cholinergic pathways. However, a direct relationship between cognition-enhancing properties and cholinergic activation needs further confirmation.

  9. Should consciousness describe seizures and what terms should be applied? Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    From May to September 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions on whether consciousness should be used in describing focal and generalized seizures, and what terms should be applied to describe focal seizures with loss of awareness and amnesia. This study reports the findings of that survey. Two questions asked if consciousness should be used to classify seizures and what terms should be applied. Another four questions addressed demographic information. Of 209 individuals that started the poll, 147 (70.3%) completing it, and most that completed it were epileptologists (66%) from Europe (41%) and North America (27%). A majority (64%) indicated that the presence or absence of consciousness should be used to describe focal and generalized seizures, whereas 23% said it should not be used. When asked what term should be used to describe focal seizures with altered awareness and amnesia, 36% said focal impaired consciousness seizures (FICS), 30% selected complex partial seizures (CPS), and 16% answered focal dyscognitive seizures. This survey indicates that most responders prefer that consciousness be considered in the description of focal and generalized seizures, despite the difficulty in determining awareness clinically. Furthermore, responders could not agree on a single term that could be used to define focal seizures with loss of awareness and amnesia. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild closed head injury in war veterans: Endocrinological and psychological profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirić Željko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the degree of psychological and endocrinological changes in war veterans with the diagnosis of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD regarding presence/absence of comorbid mild closed head injury (mCHI caused by explosive devices. Methods. Two groups of PTSD inpatients, with (n = 37, and without (n = 86 sustained blast trauma followed by mCHI were formed during the psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed by experienced clinicians who used the PTSD Interview (PTSD-I. In addition, patients completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Serum levels of ten hormones were assessed: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and insulin, by radioimmunoassays and hydrocortisone, growth hormone and testosterone by fluoroimmunoassays. Results. Veterans with comorbid mCHI and PTSD showed significantly higher level of amnesia for traumatic event as well as of somatization on the SCL-90-R. Significant differences of hormone levels were not found. Conclusion. The results didn't support the hypothesis on specific PTSD subgroup characterized by history of mCHI and consecutive postconcussion syndrome. The absence of differences in levels of hormones indicated the dominant role of psychogenic trauma in the etiology of hormone disbalance in chronic PTSD. Amnesia for traumatic event in war veterans with comorbid PTSD and mCHI was easily explained by neurogenic peritraumatic amnesia due to the blast trauma, but it did not affect either quality of intensity or posttraumatic symptoms as well as endocrinological parameters.

  11. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o. was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p. was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p. and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.

  12. Spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze after electroconvulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria; Hallin, Thord; Broms, Jonas; Ekstrand, Joakim; Tingström, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS. We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment. A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM. The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.

  13. Long-term phase reorganization of conditioned food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S A; Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

    2014-08-01

    The specific features of memory reconsolidation in edible snails were studied over 30 days after learning of conditioned food aversion. Injections of a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in combination with the conditioned food stimulus (reminder) on day 2 after learning were followed by the development of amnesia. Repeated training on day 10 after the induction of amnesia did not result in skill formation. Injections of MK-801 or cycloheximide and reminder by the 10th day after training had no effect on memory retention. Injections of MK-801 or cycloheximide and reminder by the 30th day after training were followed by the development of amnesia. In these experiments, memory was recovered after repeated training. Our results indicate that a complex phase reorganization of memory occurs over 30 days after learning. This process includes memory consolidation over the first days after training, stabilization and resistance to adverse factors after 10 days, and newly acquired ability for reconsolidation by the 30th day after training.

  14. [Inhibitor influence on conditional food aversion long-term memory retention and reconsolidation in snail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2014-08-01

    In snails trained for conditional food aversion, the effect of ZIP-protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) inhibitor on mechanisms of memory retention and reconsolidation was studied. It was shown that two days after ZIP injections the dose of 1.25 mg/kg, which were not combined with a reminding procedure, there was no effects, but in dose of 2.5 mg/kg a transient memory impairment after 1 day after the injection with its spontaneous recovery on day 10 was disclosed. ZIP injection in a dose of 5 mg/kg without reminding procedure caused memory impairment and the development of persistent amnesia. During animal repeating training after 11 days after amnesia induction caused by ZIP in dose 5 mg/kg, the number of combined food and reinforcing stimulus needed for memory formation was similar to that seen in the initial training. ZIP in doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg combined with a reminding procedure caused the development of amnesia, however, repeating training after 11 days resulted in a dose-dependent and more rapid formation of memory than in the initial training. It was proposed that in snails trained to conditional food aversion without reminding procedure, inhibition of PKMzeta-like enzyme might cause "erase the memory trace" and in repeating training a new memory was formed. PKMzeta apparently not directly involved in the processes of memory reconsolidation, however, a reminding decreased amnesic effect of ZIP.

  15. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  16. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2000-11-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  17. Effects of a single 1200-mg preoperative dose of gabapentin on anxiety and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, F; Bordenave, L; Sessler, D I; Chauvin, M

    2012-10-01

    Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic and potential anxiolytic effects. We therefore evaluated the effects of gabapentin premedication on anxiety, amnesia, and sedation. We tested the primary hypothesis that 1200mg of oral gabapentin 2 to 3h before surgery reduces preoperative anxiety. Our secondary hypothesis was that gabapentin administration is sedative without causing preoperative amnesia. Prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. Surgical patients having general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to either 1200mg oral gabapentin (n=32) or an identical-looking placebo (n=32) 2 to 3h before anaesthesia. Anxiety, sedation, and amnesia were quantified before premedication, 2h thereafter, and postoperatively. Preoperative anxiety was measured using the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI state) and the visual analogue scale anxiety (VAS). Memory was assessed with the picture recall test of Snodgrass and Vanderwart. Results were compared with t, Mann-Whitney U, or Chi(2) tests as appropriate, Psedation scores. Gabapentin premedication, 1200mg, provided preoperative anxiolysis without causing sedation or impairing preoperative memory. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased prognostic accuracy of TBI when a brain electrical activity biomarker is added to loss of consciousness (LOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Dallas; Huff, J Stephen; Curley, Kenneth; Naunheim, Roseanne; Ghosh Dastidar, Samanwoy; Prichep, Leslie S

    2017-07-01

    Extremely high accuracy for predicting CT+ traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a quantitative EEG (QEEG) based multivariate classification algorithm was demonstrated in an independent validation trial, in Emergency Department (ED) patients, using an easy to use handheld device. This study compares the predictive power using that algorithm (which includes LOC and amnesia), to the predictive power of LOC alone or LOC plus traumatic amnesia. ED patients 18-85years presenting within 72h of closed head injury, with GSC 12-15, were study candidates. 680 patients with known absence or presence of LOC were enrolled (145 CT+ and 535 CT- patients). 5-10min of eyes closed EEG was acquired using the Ahead 300 handheld device, from frontal and frontotemporal regions. The same classification algorithm methodology was used for both the EEG based and the LOC based algorithms. Predictive power was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and odds ratios. The QEEG based classification algorithm demonstrated significant improvement in predictive power compared with LOC alone, both in improved AUC (83% improvement) and odds ratio (increase from 4.65 to 16.22). Adding RGA and/or PTA to LOC was not improved over LOC alone. Rapid triage of TBI relies on strong initial predictors. Addition of an electrophysiological based marker was shown to outperform report of LOC alone or LOC plus amnesia, in determining risk of an intracranial bleed. In addition, ease of use at point-of-care, non-invasive, and rapid result using such technology suggests significant value added to standard clinical prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypoxia/reoxygenation impairs memory formation via adenosine-dependent activation of caspase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Gabriel S; Chatterjee, Diptaman; Darmody, Patrick T; Walsh, John P; Meling, Daryl D; Johnson, Rodney W; Freund, Gregory G

    2012-10-03

    After hypoxia, a critical adverse outcome is the inability to create new memories. How anterograde amnesia develops or resolves remains elusive, but a link to brain-based IL-1 is suggested due to the vital role of IL-1 in both learning and brain injury. We examined memory formation in mice exposed to acute hypoxia. After reoxygenation, memory recall recovered faster than memory formation, impacting novel object recognition and cued fear conditioning but not spatially cued Y-maze performance. The ability of mice to form new memories after hypoxia/reoxygenation was accelerated in IL-1 receptor 1 knockout (IL-1R1 KO) mice, in mice receiving IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and in mice given the caspase 1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK. Mechanistically, hypoxia/reoxygenation more than doubled caspase 1 activity in the brain, which was localized to the amygdala compared to the hippocampus. This reoxygenation-dependent activation of caspase 1 was prevented by broad-spectrum adenosine receptor (AR) antagonism with caffeine and by targeted A1/A2A AR antagonism with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine plus 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine. Additionally, perfusion of adenosine activated caspase 1 in the brain, while caffeine blocked this action by adenosine. Finally, resolution of anterograde amnesia was improved by both caffeine and by targeted A1/A2A AR antagonism. These findings indicate that amygdala-based anterograde amnesia after hypoxia/reoxygenation is sustained by IL-1β generated through adenosine-dependent activation of caspase 1 after reoxygenation.

  20. The role of an endogenous amnesic mechanism mediated by brain beta-endorphin in memory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, I

    1982-07-01

    1. Post-training administration of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone facilitates the memory consolidation of a wide variety of tasks by rats. 2. Post-training administration of subanalgesic doses of beta-endorphin causes retrograde amnesia. This effect is shared by other opiates and opioids and is competitively antagonized by naloxone. These other opiates and opioids probably act by the release of endogenous beta-endorphin. 3. During various forms of aversive and non-aversive training beta-endorphin (but not Met-enkephalin) is released in the rat brain in amounts compatible with amnestic doses of this substance. 4. A number of treatments that cause naloxone-reversible retrograde amnesia, i.e. high doses of ACTH or adrenaline, low doses of morphine or of opioids, electroconvulsive shock, release massive amounts of beta-endorphin and Met-enkephalin in the rat brain. 5. These findings point to the existence of a physiological amnesic mechanism mediated by beta-endorphin, and perhaps other opioids as well, that normally prevents memory from being as good as it could be, and when operating at an exaggerated level may cause complete amnesia. 6. This mechanism interacts with other systems that influence memory consolidation (central dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways, ACTH, peripheral adrenaline) and is a powerful modulator of their activity. 7. One possible role of the amnesic mechanism during training is to cause the rapid forgetting of adventitious learning that may interfere with acquisition of the main tasks for which animals are being trained. 8. Either through this action, or by some direct effect, beta-endorphin facilitates retrieval of a variety of behaviors in the rat when given before a test session.

  1. Indications for brain computed tomography scan after minor head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Chardoli, Mojtaba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2011-10-01

    Minor head injury (MHI) is a common injury seen in Emergency Departments (ED). Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain is a good method of investigation to diagnose intracranial lesions, but there is a disagreement about indications in MHI patients. We surveyed the post-traumatic symptoms, signs or past historical matters that can be used for the indication of brain CT scan. All patients with MHI who were older than 2 years, had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≥13 and were referred to the ED, underwent brain CT scan. Data on age, headache, vomiting, loss of consciousness (LOC) or amnesia, post-traumatic seizure, physical evidence of trauma above the clavicles, alcohol intoxication, and anticoagulant usage were collected. The main outcome measure was the presence of lesions related to the trauma in brain CT scan. For categorical variables, Chi-square test was used. Six hundred and forty-two patients were examined by brain CT scan after MHI, and 388 patients (60.4%) did not have any risk indicator. Twenty patients (3.1%) had abnormal brain CT scans. The logistic regression model showed that headache (P=0.006), LOC or amnesia (P=0.024) and alcohol (P=0.036) were associated with abnormal brain CT. WE SUGGESTED THAT ABNORMAL BRAIN CT SCAN RELATED TO THE TRAUMA AFTER MHI CAN BE PREDICTED BY THE PRESENCE OF ONE OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWING RISK INDICATORS: Headache, vomiting, LOC or amnesia, and alcohol intoxication. Thus, if any patient has these indicators following MHI, he must be considered as a high-risk MHI.

  2. [Neuronal mechanisms of associative food aversion conditioning reconsolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2009-06-01

    We have previously showed that reactivation of long-term memory during protin synthesis inhibitor application initiated disruption of memory recalling in snails Helix lucorum with food aversion conditioning reflex. In present work cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in snail LP11 and RP11 command neurons of defense behavior. In first trial experiments mechanisms of amnesia induction were investigated in semiintact preparations 24 hours after aversion conditioning with single type of food. It was found that application of conditioned food stimulus on snail lip during CNS perfusion with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) initiated depression of synaptic response evoked by conditioned stimulus 2.5 hours after reminding. In second tria experiments neuronal mechanisms of amnesia development were studied. Snails were conditioned with two types of food. Cycloheximide was injected into mantle cavity and conditioned stimulus of one type of food was presented 24 hours after snail learning. Semiintact preparations were prepared 1,3, 7 and 15 days after cycloheximide injection + reminding procedure. It was found that neural responses evoked by conditioned food stimulus which was used as reminding stimulus gradually decreased during 1, 3 and 7 days. Neural responses evoked by the conditioned stimulus at 7 and 15 days were not significantly differed from control differentiated food stimulus and were significantly weaker then neural responses evoked by second conditioned food stimulus which was not used as a reminding stimulus. It was suggested that specific and protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic connections effectiveness in LP11 and RP11 neurons is one of the cellular mechanisms of amnesia obtained after disruption of long-term memory reconsolidation in snail.

  3. Midazolam versus diazepam for combined esophogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, D E; Leventhal, R; Kumar, S; Berman, D; Kajani, M; Yoo, Y K; Carra, J; Tarter, R; Van Thiel, D H

    1989-08-01

    This study compares the effects of two different benzodiazepines used for conscious sedation during combined upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy. Subjects were assessed for their degree of analgesia and amnesia for the procedure, prior experience with endoscopy, and willingness to undergo another similar procedure should such be necessary. The patients were randomized single blind to receive either midazolam or diazepam for their preprocedure sedation. The amount of preprocedure sedation utilized was determined by titration of the dose to achieve slurring of speech. Prior to receiving either agent, the subjects were shown a standard card containing pictures of 10 common objects, were asked to name and remember them, and were told they would be "quizzed" (at 30 min and 24 hr) after being sedated for their recollection as to the objects pictured on the card. Each subject filled out a questionnaire addressing their perceived discomfort during the endoscopic procedure and their memory of the procedure 24 hr after the procedure. Sixty-three percent of the midazolam-sedated subjects reported total amnesia for their colonoscopy vs 20% of diazepam-sedated patients (P less than 0.001). Fifty-three percent of midazolam-sedated patients reported total amnesia of their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vs only 23% of diazepam-sedated subjects (P less than 0.05). The midazolam-sedated subjects reported experiencing less pain with both upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (P less than 0.05) and colonoscopy (P less than 0.001) than did the diazepam-sedated group. Most importantly, the midazolam group was more willing to undergo another similar endoscopic procedure should they be asked to do so by their physician (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Prospective study of validity of neurologic signs in predicting positive cranial computed tomography following minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Yassir S; Al Den, Ahmed Sami S; Maull, Kimball I

    2010-01-01

    The ability to discriminate among a large number of patients with mild head injury to detect those most likely to have an intracranial abnormality may offer an advantage in mass-casualty situations and when clinical needs exceed diagnostic capabilities. In patients with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score = 13-15), the likelihood of intracranial abnormality, as defined by cranial computed tomography (CT), varies according to presenting neurologic signs and symptoms. This prospective study consisted of 152 patients with blunt head trauma and one or more of the following: initial loss of consciousness (LOC), headache, vomiting, convulsions, or amnesia. All underwent cranial CT within one hour of presentation. Positive CT findings were defined as cerebral contusion, extra-axial hematoma, intra-ventricular or subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain edema, and skull fracture. Clinical findings were tabulated and compared with CT findings. The most common symptoms were headache (61%) followed by followed by LOC (45%), vomiting (39%), amnesia (29%), and convulsions (4%). Convulsions were the most predictive of a CT positive finding (80%); history of LOC was least predictive (29%). The presence of two or more clinical findings tended to increase the likelihood of intracranial abnormality, but the association was neither consistent nor additive. Convulsions occurring in a patient with mild head injury are highly predictive of a positive intracranial finding on CT. Headache, amnesia, and vomiting are each likely to show positive findings in approximately 40-45% of cases. Although the least predictive of the neurologic findings studied, loss of consciousness still correlates with a positive cranial CT in 29% of cases. More than one sign or symptom increases the likelihood of concurrent brain injury.

  5. Effect of propofol on the medial temporal lobe emotional memory system: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, K O; Root, J C; Mehta, M; Stern, E; Pan, H; Veselis, R A; Silbersweig, D A

    2015-07-01

    Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection models. Propofol had no effect on the stereotypical amygdalar response to emotional arousal, but caused marked suppression of the hippocampal response. Propofol caused memory performance to become uncoupled from amygdalar activation, but it remained correlated with activation in the posterior hippocampus, which decreased in proportion to amnesia. Propofol is relatively ineffective at suppressing amygdalar activation at sedative doses, but abolishes emotional modulation and causes amnesia via mechanisms that commonly involve hyporesponsiveness of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibility that amygdala-dependent fear systems may remain intact even when a patient has diminished memory of events. This may be of clinical importance in the perioperative development of fear-based psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. NCT00504894. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of the basolateral amygdala NMDA and muscarinic receptors in rat's memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Efat; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima

    2017-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in memory retrieval. Also, the possible relationship between the BLA muscarinic cholinergic and the NMDA receptor systems was evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated into the BLAs and memory retrieval was measured in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance apparatus. Intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (0.5-1μg/rat, intra-BLA), 5min before the testing phase dose-dependently induced amnesia. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of NMDA (0.005-0.05μg/rat) reversed scopolamine-induced amnesia and improved memory retrieval. In addition, different doses of a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (0.001-0.005μg/rat, intra-BLA) potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5μg/rat) to inhibit memory retrieval. It should be considered that pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of NMDA or D-AP5 by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. Similar to ANOVA analysis, our cubic interpolation analysis also predicted that the activation or inactivation of the NMDA receptors by different doses of drugs can affect the scopolamine response. On the other hand, pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of D-AP5 inhibited the reversal effect of NMDA on scopolamine-induced amnesia. It can be concluded that the BLA cholinergic system, via muscarinic receptors, has a critical role in memory retrieval. Our results also suggest that a cooperative interaction between the BLA NMDA and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulates memory formation of inhibitory avoidance task in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autobiographical Memory Performance in Alzheimer's Disease Depends on Retrieval Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas

    2016-04-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.

  9. A Case-control Study Examining the Characteristics of Patients who Fall in an Inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Duncan; Fisher, Murray J; Pryor, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients who fall in the inpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation setting. Specialized inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit. Fifty-four patients with history of falls and 55 nonequivalent patients without history of falls. Retrospective nonequivalent case-control study. The Functional Independence Measure, Glasgow Coma Scale, Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale, demographic and functional characteristics, and behavior and medication variables. No significant difference between patients with and without history of falls for age, sex, medication class or total number of medications administered on admission, and median admission Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale score was observed. Patients with history of falls had a significantly longer duration of post-traumatic amnesia, rehabilitation length of stay, and lower mean total admission Functional Independence Measure score and median Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of injury. Patients with history of falls were more than 10 times more likely than patients without history of falls to require assistance on admission for activities of daily living, transfers, and continence/toileting. Neurobehaviors including noncompliance and anosognosia were significantly associated with patients with history of falls. A patient in the rehabilitation setting with a more severe TBI characterized by multisystem impairments is at an increased risk of falling, whereas some traditional fall risk factors were not associated with patients who fall. Rehabilitation settings should consider cohort-specific fall risk profiling. The Ontario STRATIFY Falls Risk Screening Tool is perhaps not the best tool to screen for falls in this inpatient population.

  10. Neurological outcomes following suicidal hanging: A prospective study of 101 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Turab Jawaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Survivors of suicidal hanging can have variable neurological outcomes – from complete recovery to irreversible brain damage. Literature on the neurological outcomes in these patients is confined to retrospective studies and case series. Hence, this prospective study was carried out. Aims: The aim is to study the neurological outcomes in suicidal hanging. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study carried out from July 2014 to July 2016. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and medicine wards were included in the study. Details of the clinical and radiological findings, course in hospital and at 1 month postdischarge were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS advanced statistics 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. Univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square test for significance and Odd's ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 101 patients, 6 died and 4 had residual neuro deficits. Cervical spine injury was seen in 3 patients. Interestingly, 39 patients could not remember the act of hanging (retrograde amnesia. Hypotension, pulmonary edema, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score <8 at admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and cerebral edema on plain computed tomography were more in those with amnesia as compared to those with normal memory and these findings were statistically significant. Conclusions: Majority of patients recovered without any sequelae. Routine imaging of cervical spine may not be warranted in all patients, even in those with poor GCS. Retrograde amnesia might be more common than previously believed and further studies are needed to analyze this peculiar feature.

  11. Síndrome de ingesta nocturna como efecto colateral del zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Valiensi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El zolpidem es una droga hipnótica utilizada para el tratamiento del insomnio. Disminuye la latencia del sueño, el número total de despertares y aumenta el tiempo total del sueño respetando en general su arquitectura. Se cree que aumenta la fase 3 del sueño lento profundo. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar 8 casos de síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño y conductas automáticas complejas asociadas a sonambulismo como efecto colateral del zolpidem. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 8 pacientes tratados con zolpidem que referían ingesta nocturna de alimentos con amnesia total o parcial del episodio. Se presentan 6 mujeres y 2 hombres, entre 32 y 72 años (media: 58 años, 7 tratados con zolpidem 10 mg/noche y 1 con zolpidem 12.5 mg/noche de liberación prolongada. El tiempo de exposición previo al desarrollo de eventos fue de 1 a 180 días (media de 39.8. El número de episodios relatados era de 1 a 8/noche (media 2.5 asociado con amnesia. Los episodios desaparecieron por completo en el 100% de los casos al suspender la medicación. El síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño es una parasomnia de sueño lento profundo que consiste en episodios de ingesta de alimento o bebida durante la noche, con amnesia parcial o completa del episodio. El zolpidem podría inducir el síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño en aproximadamente el 1% de pacientes, aunque creemos que es un efecto adverso que está subdiagnosticado. Se resuelve simplemente suspendiendo la medicación.

  12. Signos cercanos y distantes en el documental canadiense Le peuple invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Andacht, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    El documental canadiense Le peuple invisible (2007) es un ejercicio de la memoria colectiva. En él Desjardins y Monderie buscan contrarrestar una amnesia generalizada sobre un episodio trágico en la historia de Canadá: la opresión sistemática de los Algonquin, aborígenes que habitaba gran parte del territorio actual de Quebec. Su mirada humanista nos hace testigos del implacable despojo territorial y del experimento de asimilación forzada del grupo mediante la prohibición de usar su propio le...

  13. La representación del porrajmos en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Dawidiuk, Carlos Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Esa asimetría, que ha relegado al Porrajmos al olvido, tiene su correlato en el cine. Es decir, que si bien podemos notar que existe claramente en el imaginario colectivo una memoria del Holocausto/Shoah tejida, no sólo por los testimonios de los supervivientes, sino también por las imágenes creadas por los medios de comunicación y el arte de las últimas décadas, con respecto al genocidio gitano es evidente una amnesia casi total. Y, en este sentido, no deja de ser significativo que las escas...

  14. Dissociative disorder due to Graves' hyperthyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kaoru; Nishimura, Katsuji; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old Japanese woman with no psychiatric history with apparent dissociative symptoms. These consisted of amnesia for episodes of shoplifting behaviors and a suicide attempt, developing together with an exacerbation of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease frequently manifest various psychiatric disorders; however, very few reports have described dissociative disorder due to this disease. Along with other possible causes, for example, encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, clinicians should be aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory as Social Glue: Close Interpersonal Relationships in Amnesic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Drouin, Héloïse; Kwan, Donna; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

    2012-01-01

    Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases) and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia). All three patients were less involved than demographically matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A.) cas...

  16. [Characteristics of the formation, course and treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Petrosian, T R; Kuznetsov, A G; Gurevich, G L; Shuvalov, S A

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of clinical features of the development and course of alcohol dependence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in comparison with alcohol-dependent patients without PTSD. The highly progressive course, continuous alcohol consumption, high alcohol tolerance, rapidly emerged altered forms of alcohol intoxication, alcohol amnesias, alcohol withdrawal with the prevalence of psychopathological component, and more pronounced social and somatic consequences of alcohol abuse were characteristic of the PTSD group. At the same time, the alcohol-dependent patients with PTSD had the best outcome to the end of 12-month treatment with intramuscular injections of vivitrol.

  17. Pick 'n' mix: neuropatholgical detection of peri-tumour taupathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin

    2013-11-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat recurrent oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 tumours. Potential morbitities include steroid-responsive radiation necrosis and radiation leucoencephalopathy, characterised pathologically by reactive astrogliosis, focal necrosis, demyelination, axonal loss, and clinically by progressive subcortical deficits (ataxia, amnesia, incontinence, cognitive decline), with relative sparing of cortical function. Although subcortical features may overlap with neurodegenerative conditions (eg frontotemporal dementia), focal cortical atrophy of FTD causes loss of language function in addition to memory, and specific histopathological features characterise FTD subtypes (eg Pick disease). Association between mitotic disease and tauopathy has not been reported widely, but co-existence is possible. Diagnostic accuracy may guide management.

  18. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abayomi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.)

  19. Dementia mimicking a sudden cognitive and behavioral change induced by left globus pallidus infarction: review of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun; Park, Kee Hyung; Sung, Young Hee; Lee, Yeoung Bae; Park, Hyun Mi; Shin, Dong Jin

    2008-09-15

    Recently there has been increasing interest in the non-motor functions of the globus pallidus, and especially its role in cognitive processing. We experienced two patients with acute cognitive and behavior changes after globus pallidus infarctions. Examination of both revealed inattention, decreased verbal fluency, emotional blunting, and amnesia. There were no other sensory or motor symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed focal acute cerebral infarction in the left globus pallidus. Neuropsychological assessment revealed decreased frontal executive function, with verbal memory disturbance. These cases suggest that strategic infarction dementia can result from a single globus pallidus lesion.

  20. The relationship between the First World War and neurology: 100 years of "Shell Shock".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, José Luiz; Linden, Stefanie C; Barsottini, Orlando G; Maranhão, Péricles; Lees, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    The First World War was a global war, beginning on 28 July 1914, until 11 November 1918. Soon after the beginning of the war, there was an "epidemic" of neurological conversion symptoms. Soldiers on both sides started to present in large numbers with neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, tremor, paraplegia, tinnitus, amnesia, weakness, headache and mutism of psychosomatic origin. This condition was known as shell shock, or "war neurosis". Because medically unexplained symptoms remain a major challenge, and considering the close relationship of symptoms described in shell shock with clinical neurology, we should study their history in order to improve future care.

  1. Effect of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) on awareness during anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyannwo, O A; Elegbe, E O; Odugbesan, C O

    1988-03-01

    The incidence of awareness was compared in three groups of patients undergoing elective or emergency Caesarean section, using pethidine alone or pethidine plus flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), as adjuvants to nitrous oxide: oxygen, muscle relaxant technique of general anaesthesia. The use of 0.03 mg/kg body weight of flunitrazepam was associated with a low incidence (4%) of awareness, cardiovascular stability, postoperative sedation and anterograde amnesia. The reduced incidence of awareness is probably due to increased depth of anaesthesia and anterograde amnesic effect produced by the drug.

  2. Substituted piperazines as nootropic agents: 2- or 3-phenyl derivatives structurally related to the cognition-enhancer DM235.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Luca; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Melani, Fabrizio; Malik, Ruchi; Dei, Silvia; Floriddia, Elisa; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2015-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl- or 3-phenyl piperazines, structurally related to DM235 and DM232, two potent nootropic agents, have been prepared and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test, to assess their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia. Although the newly synthesized molecules were less potent than the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained from structure-activity relationships. A small but significant enantioselectivity has been found for the most potent compound 5a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,7-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-ones as potential nootropic and analgesic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Bertucci, Carlo; Dei, Silvia; Ghelardini, Carla; Guandalini, Luca; Manetti, Dina; Scapecchi, Serena; Teodori, Elisabetta; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2011-04-14

    A series of cis and trans 3,7-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-ones has been synthesized and tested for their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia in the mouse passive-avoidance test. The racemates of the most potent compounds 4 and 7 were separated and tested, but no enantioselectivity was found for the nootropic activity. Compounds 4 and 7 and their enantiomers displayed interesting antihyperalgesic activity in two models of neuropathic pain (streptozotocin-induced and oxalilplatin-induced neuropathy) in comparison with pregabalin.

  4. Música, Experiência e Mediação: a canção popular como dispositivo de memória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDONÇA, Carlos Magno Maco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some authors define contemporary society as a culture image, whose consequences would lead to an impoverishment of experience and to the technical production of a general amnesia. In opposition to this perspective, we would rather approach the images within mediatization - thought as an interactive reference process, incomplete and faulty. We believe it is necessary to inspect the places where life is played with images and beyond them. From the Greek cosmogony, we associate memory to the aesthetic experience arguing that music can be a privileged memory device still nowadays. To test our hypothesis, we rehearsed the analysis of the song Triste Bahia, by Caetano Veloso.

  5. Noxious gas exposure in the outback: two cases of hydrogen sulfide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, B; Wong, R

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of toxicity from industrial exposure to hydrogen sulfide are presented. Both patients had neurological effects with loss of consciousness and amnesia along with respiratory symptoms and signs. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in addition to standard resuscitative techniques with rapid improvement. Sodium nitrite and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are suggested specific treatments. The literature and the two case reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of acute hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has also been reported to have a role in the prevention of both short- and long-term neurological toxicity.

  6. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175

  7. How the brain goes out of its mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Dreaming is characterized by formal visual imagery (akin to hallucination), by inconstancy of time, place and person (akin to disorientation), by a scenario-like knitting together of disparate elements (akin to confabulation) and by an inability to recall (akin to amnesia). Taken together, these four dream features are similar to the delirium of organic brain disease. By studying the brain during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep--the phase of sleep in which most dreaming occurs--we can begin to understand its basis in the altered neurophysiology of REM.

  8. Involvement of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic receptors in the effect of morphine on memory retrieval in passive avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehpour, Lotfollah; Rezayof, Ameneh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2008-04-28

    The present study evaluated the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus on morphine-induced amnesia and morphine state-dependent memory in adult male Wistar rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulas in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampi, trained in a step-through type passive avoidance task, and tested 24 h after training to measure step-through latency. Results indicate that post-training subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of morphine (2.5-7.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the step-through latency, showing an amnestic response. Post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5-1 microg/rat) decreased significantly the amnesia induced by post-training morphine (7.5 mg/kg). Moreover, co-treatment of mecamylamine (0.5 and 1 microg/rat, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg), immediately after training, caused inhibition of memory retrieval. On the other hand, amnesia produced by post-training morphine (7.5 mg/kg) was reversed by pre-test administration of the opioid that is due to a state-dependent effect. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.25 and 0.5 microg/rat) improved post-training morphine (7.5 mg/kg)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, pre-test administration of the same doses of nicotine in combination with a lower dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg), which had no effects alone, synergistically improved memory performance impaired by post-training morphine. Pre-test injection of mecamylamine (0.5-2 microg/rat) prevented the restoration of memory by pre-test morphine. It is important to note that post-training or pre-test intra-CA1 administration of the same doses of nicotine or mecamylamine, alone did not affect memory retrieval. These results suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in morphine-induced amnesia and morphine state-dependent memory.

  9. Homo Citans and Carbon Allotropes: For an Ethics of Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Roald; Kabanov, Artyom A; Golov, Andrey A; Proserpio, Davide M

    2016-09-05

    Cite we must, cite we do. We cite because we are links in a chain, using properties and methods validated by others. We also cite to negotiate the anxiety of influence. And to be fair. After outlining the reasons for citation, we use two case studies of citation amnesia in the field of hypothetical carbon allotropes to present a computer-age search tool (SACADA) in that subsubfield. Finally, we advise on good search practice, including what to do if you miss a citation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A cognitive chameleon: lessons from a novel MAPT mutation case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuying; Gordon, Elizabeth; Rohrer, Jonathan; Downey, Laura; de Silva, Rohan; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Nicholas, Jennifer; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Mahoney, Colin; Warren, Jason; Rossor, Martin; Fox, Nick; Caine, Diana

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of frontotemporal dementia caused by a novel MAPT mutation (Q351R) with a remarkably long amnestic presentation mimicking familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal clinical, neuropsychological and imaging data provide convergent evidence for predominantly bilateral anterior medial temporal lobe involvement consistent with previously established neuroanatomical signatures of MAPT mutations. This case supports the notion that the neural network affected in MAPT mutations is determined to a large extent by the underlying molecular pathology. We discuss the diagnostic significance of anomia in the context of atypical amnesia and the impact of impaired episodic and semantic memory systems on autobiographical memory.

  11. Report on the Okinawa Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-01

    narcosynthasis. or hypnosis for mental catharisisj ’livin’ĝ through of battle expuricncGs, and recovery,; fxJpri amnesia*- The patients will be kept at...n<f-uj,-v..« .. ..". V •/ v_-- .*• •«*• •<’•*<-’ ’ "-"* handlers do not hav6 sufficient infantry training.. The climate -is bad on the dogs...of bad weather delayed unloading considerably. e. Comments — Roquircments.’. . - ’ • . ; ’ • (1) Nobody here ever heard of rocoilless weapons, and

  12. Sedación y analgesia en el politraumatismo pediátrico Sedation and analgesics in pediatric polytraumatism

    OpenAIRE

    A. Concha Torre; C. Rey Galán; S. Suárez Saavedra

    2009-01-01

    La analgesia y sedación correctas forman parte del tratamiento integral del paciente politraumatizado y contribuyen a disminuir la morbimortalidad del mismo.
    El objetivo final será lograr la ansiolisis, producir amnesia, evitar el dolor y facilitar las maniobras diagnóstico-terapéuticas. Para ello es preciso saber valorar el dolor y el nivel de sedación, así como conocer los diferentes fármacos sedantes, analgésicos y relajantes...

  13. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyomasu, Teruo; Nakashima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomie; Shida, Kenshiro

    1982-01-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis. (author)

  14. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  15. Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Keun; Na, Hyoung Il; Yu, Hyeon; Byun, Jun Soo; Youn, Young Chul; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Gi Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases

  16. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  17. Limbic Encephalitis Driven by a Pleural Mesothelioma: A Paraneoplastic Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Day

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes have only been described with pleural mesothelioma in five cases. We have described a 72-year-old man who developed anterograde amnesia 27 months after diagnosis of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma. Investigations revealed a limbic encephalitis with no alternative causes identified. Limbic encephalitis is a classical paraneoplastic syndrome and presentation within five years of a cancer with no other causes identified is sufficient to diagnose a paraneoplastic etiology. This is the first case of isolated paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis driven by a pleural mesothelioma.

  18. Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Keun; Na, Hyoung Il; Yu, Hyeon; Byun, Jun Soo; Youn, Young Chul; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Gi Hyeon [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases.

  19. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  20. Influence of isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M Bunting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcription of several memory-associated immediate-early genes (IEGs correlated with amnesia; we also assessed whether it stops transcription initiated prior to anesthetic administration.Methods: Using a Tone Fear Conditioning paradigm, rats were trained to associate a tone with foot-shock. Animals received either no anesthesia, anesthesia immediately after training, or anesthesia before, during, and after training. Animals were either sacrificed after training or tested 24 hours later for memory. Using Cellular Compartment Analysis of Temporal Activity by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (catFISH, we examined the percentage of neurons expressing the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Zif268/Egr1/Ngfi-A/Krox-24 in the dorsal hippocampus, primary somatosensory cortex, and primary auditory cortex.Results: On a cellular level, isoflurane administered at high doses (general anesthesia prevented initiation of transcription, but did not stop transcription of Arc and Zif268 mRNA initiated prior to anesthesia. On a behavioral level, the same level of isoflurane anesthesia produced anterograde amnesia for fear conditioning when administered before and during training, but did not produce retrograde amnesia when administered immediately after training. Conclusions: General anesthesia with isoflurane prevents initiation of learning-related transcription but does not stop ongoing transcription of two plasticity-related IEGs, Arc and Zif268, a pattern of disruption that parallels the