WorldWideScience

Sample records for ammunition

  1. Sustainable Ammunition Safety (SAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hooijmeijer, P.; Harmelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, no national industry in the field of energetic materials / ammunition for military applications is available. The knowledge of explosives, ammunition and ammunition on the vulnerability of platforms is limited, first to Defence regarding the logistical and operational practice

  2. Armored Composite Ammunition Pressure Vessel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, William

    1999-01-01

    ...). This ammunition containment system must not only meet environmental and handling requirements but also provide armor protection against impacting threats and reduce the response of the stowed...

  3. Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelman, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Task Order No. 0001, Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition addresses issues related to toxic and environmentally harmful effects caused by the use of some of the current small arms ammunition...

  4. Analysis of Naval Ammunition Stock Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Sharp and Eric...alteration of the current Navy ammunition stock positioning system. The purpose of this project is to analyze the cost and delivery performance risk

  5. Development and Implementation of a Joint Ammunition System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... For this part of the audit, we evaluated DoD efforts to develop a new joint standardized ammunition system, the Joint Ammunition Management Standard System, to report conventional ammunition as part...

  6. Evaluation of Ammunition Data Cards (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    JMC contracts: McAlester Army Ammunitions Plant (AAP), McAlester, Oklahoma; Iowa AAP, Middletown, Iowa; and New River Energetics (NRE), Radford...essentially the same conditions and are intended to have uniform quality and characteristics within specified limits. 2 Energetic materials are a class of...relation to MIL-STD-1168B, JMC WARP User Manual Version 3.16, and the contract. We selected three ammunition plants that were producing munitions for

  7. High power microwave hazard facing smart ammunitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, J.

    1995-03-01

    The battle field of the present and even more the one in future will be characterized by the use of weapon systems with a high degree of electronics, computers, and sensors, designed and built to keep not only the man out of the loop. But the higher the technology used for smart weapon systems, the more these systems are endangered by numerous sources of hazard. One of those sources is the threat caused by induced or natural electromagnetic fields. These threat factors can be generated by natural, civil and military environment. In principle there are two main applications which must be considered in military applications: Firstly, weapon systems, that is, high power microwave sources as well as intelligent electromagnetic radiation systems to defeat ammunition on the battle field and secondly, the hardening of the own smart ammunition systems and missiles against the interference sources created by the different types of electromagnetic fields. This report will discuss the possible electromagnetic coupling effects on smart ammunition and missiles and their typical interference caused on the electronics and sensor level. Real time 6-DOF simulations show the flight mission which may be compromised depending on the coupled electromagnetic fields. The German MOD has established a research program where smart ammunitions with different seeker systems are investigated in respect of the coupling effects on smart ammunition caused by high power microwaves. This program considers all available resources and know how in Germany. The systems are investigated by analytical, numerical, and experimental methods with passive and activated missiles.

  8. Summary of Ammunition Support Studies under Information Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The informatization demand of military ammunition support was analysed. The research status of ammunition containerization, RFID technology and asset visualization were introduced. The existent problems were pointed out and the future development was predicted.

  9. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study. Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  10. Automated ammunition logistics for the Crusader program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaks, D.M.; Kring, C.T.; Lloyd, P.D.; Ray, T.L.; Jatko, W.B.

    1997-03-01

    The US Army`s next generation artillery system is called the Crusader. A self-propelled howitzer and a resupply vehicle constitute the Crusader system, which will be designed for improved mobility, increased firepower, and greater survivability than current generation vehicles. The Army`s Project Manager, Crusader, gave Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the task of developing and demonstrating a concept for the resupply vehicle. The resupply vehicle is intended to sustain the howitzer with ammunition and fuel and will significantly increase capabilities over those of current resupply vehicles. Ammunition is currently processed and transferred almost entirely by hand. ORNL identified and evaluated various concepts for automated upload, processing, storage, docking and delivery. Each of the critical technologies was then developed separately and demonstrated on discrete test platforms. An integrated technology demonstrator, incorporating each of the individual technology components to realistically simulate performance of the selected vehicle concept, was developed and successfully demonstrated for the Army.

  11. 27 CFR 479.192 - Commerce in firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in firearms and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.192 Commerce in firearms and ammunition. For provisions relating to commerce in firearms and ammunition, including the movement of destructive devices...

  12. Mitigation of ammunition effects by application of alternative packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Hooijmeijer, P.A.; Meuken, B.; Scholtes, J.H.G.; Makkus, J.C.; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2013-01-01

    A mass detonation of stored ammunition may lead to devastating injury, material damage, and asset loss. Such a scenario can be initiated by an external (fragment or bullet) impact, or the detonation of nearby ammunition articles, leading to sympathetic reaction/detonation. At a military base,

  13. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  14. Hunting with lead ammunition is not sustainable: European perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Swift, John; Stroud, David A; Lewis, Melissa

    2018-03-12

    Much evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of lead ammunition on wildlife, their habitats and human health, and confirms that the use of such ammunition has no place within sustainable hunting. We identify the provisions that define sustainable hunting according to European law and international treaties, together with their guidance documents. We accept the substantial evidence for lead's actual and potential effects on wildlife, habitats and health as persuasive and assess how these effects relate to stated provisions for sustainability and hunting. We evaluate how continued use of lead ammunition negatively affects international efforts to halt loss of biodiversity, sustain wildlife populations and conserve their habitats. We highlight the indiscriminate and avoidable health and welfare impacts for large numbers of exposed wild animals as ethically unsustainable. In societal terms, continued use of lead ammunition undermines public perceptions of hunting. Given the existence of acceptable, non-toxic alternatives for lead ammunition, we conclude that hunting with lead ammunition cannot be justified under established principles of public/international policy and is not sustainable. Changing from lead ammunition to non-toxic alternatives will bring significant nature conservation and human health gains, and from the hunter's perspective will enhance societal acceptance of hunting. Change will create opportunities for improved constructive dialogue between hunting stakeholders and others engaged with enhancing biodiversity and nature conservation objectives.

  15. Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995, NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (SJMAC-DEM) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995 NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, "Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance...

  16. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  17. Environmental Monitoring of Stored Ammunition in Kuwait, 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haas, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    ... by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to obtain temperature and humidity data of the ammunition storage conditions provided by MILVANs and above-ground magazines located in Kuwait...

  18. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: A comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9mm ammunitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, José; Almada, Sara; Rotariu, Traian; Freire, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    Increase of environmental awareness of the population has pressured research activities in the defence area to cover environment and toxicity issues, where have been considered appropriate manners to reduce the environmental and toxicological impacts of ammunition. One of the adopted approaches to achieve such goal involves the replacement of lead and other heavy metals by alternative materials. However, the consequences of using alternative materials in ammunitions manufacturing are uncertain for the other life-cycle phases and trade-offs can occur. The present paper describes the potential benefits from the replacement of lead in the primer and in the projectile of a 9mm calibre ammunition. For that purpose, it is assessed and compared the environmental and toxicological impacts associated with the life-cycle of four ammunitions: combination of two types of projectiles (steel jacket and lead core; copper and nylon composite) with two types of primers (lead primer; non-lead primer). In addition, some potential improvements for the environmental performance of small calibre ammunition are also presented. To assess the impacts two Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methods are applied: CML for six environmental categories and USEtox to three toxicity categories. Results showed that the conclusion drawn for environmental and toxicological impact categories are distinct. In fact, ammunition production phase presents higher impacts for the environmental categories, whilst the operation phase has a higher impact to the toxicity categories. The substitution of lead in the primer and in the projectile provides a suitable alternative from a toxicology perspective; however, the composite projectile still presents some environmental concerns. The conclusions drawn are important for the procurement (and design) of environmental responsible ammunitions, in order to avoid (or decrease) the impacts for their manufacture and the effects on human health (e.g. shooters) and ecosystems

  19. A Study of Ammunition Response to the Interior Ballistics Environment of Gun Launch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Stephen E; Nusca, Michael J; Horst, Albert W

    2006-01-01

    ... propellant charge during gun launch. Since material stress imposed on the ammunition could potentially damage the projectile or its payload, a detailed knowledge of the peak stress is essential in the ammunition design process...

  20. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  1. Financial Management: Naval Ammunition Logistics Center Financial Reporting of Ammunition and Other Ordnance Assets in Operating Materials and Supplies for FY 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-30

    2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Financial Management: Naval Ammunition Logistics Center Financial Reporting of...Secretary of Defense (Comptroller/Chief Financial Officer) Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense Report No. D-2003-017...October 30, 2002 Project No. D2001FJ –0179.001 Naval Ammunition Logistics Center Financial Reporting of Ammunition and Other Ordnance Assets in

  2. A Study of Slovenian Armed Forces Ammunition Forecasting Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    exceptional assistance. This thesis is dedicated to my children Nina, Ana Lisa, Miha, and Jaka for all the time that I was away from them. vi...Willam K. “A Study of Ammunition Consumption.” Master’s Thesis, Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, 2005. 65 Furlan , Branimir

  3. The Safety Analysis of Shipborne Ammunition in Fire Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junpeng; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Pengfei

    2017-12-01

    The safety of Ammunition has always been the focus of national military science and technology issues. And fire is one of the major safety threats to the ship’s ammunition storage environment, In this paper, Mk-82 shipborne aviation bomb has been taken as the study object, simulated the whole process of fire by using the FDS (Fire Detection System) software. According to the simulation results of FDS, ANSYS software was used to simulate the temperature field of Mk-82 carrier-based aviation bomb under fire environment, and the safety of aviation bomb in fire environment was analyzed. The result shows that the aviation bombs under the fire environment can occur the combustion or explosion after 70s constant cook-off, and it was a huge threat to the ship security.

  4. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination at CFAD Dundurn Resulting from Small-Arms Ammunition Incineration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiboutot, S

    2001-01-01

    .... The safety concerns associated with these pollutants are so serious that the United Kingdom requires stringent environmental licensing of ammunition incineration facilities, and several US states...

  5. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implements of war. 5.18 Section 5.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... implements of war. (a) The exportation of technical data relating to arms, ammunition, and implements of war... parts 120 through 130); the articles designated as arms, ammunitions, and implements of war are...

  6. Key questions and responses regarding the transition to use of lead-free ammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Kanstrup, Niels; Gremse, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Questions and concerns about the use of lead-free ammunition in hunting were encountered during the Oxford Lead Symposium. Many originated from commonly-held, but unsubstantiated, reports that have hindered the transition to use of lead-free ammunition in the UK and elsewhere. This paper examines...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF 3-INCH/70 CARTRIDGES FROM AMMUNITION LOT PV-4-C-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    cartridge components from the same ammunition lot , PV-4-C-57, failed to reproduce a similar preignition. It was concluded that: the cartridges from...ammunition lot PV-4-C-57 appear to be serviceable; the premature ignition, upon ramming, of a 3-in/70 cartridge probably would not be caused by solid

  8. Discharge residue from mercury fulminate-primed ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J S

    1998-01-01

    The scarcity of mercury in discharge residue particles from mercury-containing ammunition was investigated. It was found that 86% of the mercury was vaporized after discharge, mainly via the muzzle, 88% of which was not detectable by SEM. Of the 0.16% exiting via the breech, only approximately 40% was detectable by SEM. Only a small proportion of this was deposited on the firer. The recovered mercury did not make a significant contribution to the elemental composition of the discharge residue particles. The rate of loss of mercury from the spent cartridge case was also examined but was found to be of no practical value in estimating time of discharge.

  9. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  10. The use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO aggression against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaric, M.; Petkovic, S.; Devic, Z.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that DU (depleted uranium) weaponry was extensively used during the 'Desert Storm' operation in Iraq. There is no doubt that NATO used DU ammunition in Bosnia in 1994 and 1995. It is also common knowledge that many NATO armies are equipped with DU ammunition in various calibers (from 20 up to 155 mm) as a standard part of certain weapon systems. These facts, as a result of literature research, as well as Yugoslav Army (YA) intelligence data on the eve of the aggression clearly showed that NATO most probably would use DU ammunition. (author)

  11. Corrosion of ammunition dumped in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczak Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preliminary results of a research aimed at preparation for the extraction of chemical ammunition immersed after the Second World War(WWII in the waters of the Baltic Sea (BS. It has been 70 years since the first steps aiming at elimination of mainly German chemical weapons were taken, while the expected durability (tightness of metal barrels construction or other containers was estimated at 50-60 years. Consequently there is a serious risk of contamination of the Baltic Sea waters, not only with toxic warfare agents but also with the products of their decomposition. The evaluation of barrels’ and containers’ with TWA corrosion processes progress will determine the possibility of these munitions extraction to the surface in order to perform their classic utilization.

  12. Evaluation of Peroxone Oxidation Techniques for Removal of Explosives from Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    .... The main objective of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of using peroxone systems for treatment of contaminated groundwaters at the Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CAAP). The U.S...

  13. Defense Logistics: Enhanced Policy and Procedures Needed to Improve Management of Sensitive Conventional Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    making adjustments to the electronic record if necessary, tracking of SRC I ammunition by serial number, and the shipment of SRC I ammunition in the...remaining depots regarding the physical inventory process and process for adjusting the electronic record, if necessary. For five military service...Air Force to reexamine the current security policy that permits less than full inspection of vehicles, such as trash trucks, that could easily

  14. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  15. Modeling, simulation, and evaluation of HE ammunition for counter-RAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graswald, Markus; Rothe, Hendrik

    2008-04-01

    Military camps in out-of-area missions are permanently threatened by rockets, artillery projectiles, and mortar grenades (RAM) launched by terrorists. A good portion of these attacks are undertaken by mortars due to their specific advantages for the warfare of irregular forces and their worldwide distribution. The military installations can be protected by counter-RAM systems consisting of several artillery weapons, radar and electro-optical sensors, C2 and fire control computers. A system analysis has shown that the precision of the sensors is vital for defending the camp with low ammunition consumptions. Furthermore, the type of ammunition is also of great impact: 35 mm Ahead ammunition is hardly suited for this application due to its small hit density and low kinetic energy of the sub-projectiles, especially in the case of mortar grenades. Therefore, 155 mm high-explosive (HE) ammunition is investigated using experimentally determined fragment data. Russian mortar projectiles are considered as worst-case RAM targets and their ballistics are mathematically modeled by an air drag function that is also used for computing firing tables. Due to uncertainties of the target positions that are given by an elliptic cylinder for specific sensor parameters, simulations are conducted in order to determine the ammunition consumption. Penetration and detonation criteria for the terminal impact are also considered and the resulting thresholds are displayed in a 3D fragment map. The results show that HE ammunition is superior to low-caliber ammunition because of their high numbers of effective fragments reducing the number of rounds significantly from hundreds to less than ten.

  16. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  17. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’

  18. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

  19. Gunshot residue particles formed by using ammunitions that have mercury fulminate based primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, A; Levin, N; Dvorachek, M

    1992-11-01

    Ammunition having mercury fulminate-based primers are commonly manufactured by Eastern Bloc countries and used extensively in the Middle East. Gunshot residue (GSR) particles formed by firing these types of ammunition were examined. It was observed that much lower percentage of mercury-containing GSR particles were found in samples taken from a shooter as compared to the percentage of such particles in samples from cartridge cases. This fact must therefore be taken into account when interpreting case results. A plausible explanation for the results described is proposed.

  20. 27 CFR 70.444 - Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., ammunition, and implements of war. 70.444 Section 70.444 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... implements of war. Part 47 of title 27 CFR implements Executive Order 11958 and supplements the import... implements of war, (b) Import permit requirements, (c) Import certification and verification, (d) Import...

  1. 75 FR 58377 - Lead in Ammunition and Fishing Sinkers; Disposition of TSCA Section 21 Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2010-0681; FRL-8847-5] Lead in Ammunition and Fishing..., and distribution in commerce of (1) lead bullets and shot; and (2) lead fishing sinkers. On August 27... Chemicals Division (7404T), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200...

  2. Basic Study of Defective Ammunition Detection by the Combination of PGNAA (Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis) and Chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hee Jung; Song, Byoung Chul; Shin, Jae Kon; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in evaluating detection capability of defective ammunition in store for years even decades by using prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used for multielemental analysis of ammunition to check the inner elemental composition changes. At first, in this study, instead of the real experimental gamma spectrum data from PGNAA, the gamma spectrum data from MCNP transport code simulation were obtained to observe discriminant classes for defective ammunition by adding 10% moisture. For this, the collected MCNP data were applied to principal component analysis (PCA) for the effective pattern recognition

  3. Determination of OB Emission Factors Using an Unmanned Aerial System (“drone”) at ?Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A description of the emission sampling via UAV at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant including number of samples, waste composition, UAV flight data. No emissions data presented; only qualitative description.

  4. Prohibited Possessors and the Law: How Inmates in Los Angeles Jails Understand Firearm and Ammunition Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Barragan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 140 interviews with individuals detained in the Los Angeles County Jail system, this article examines what gun offenders know about gun and ammunition regulation in California. Though most respondents had a consistent, albeit general, understanding of the regulations limiting gun acquisition and possession, analysis suggests that their understanding of ammunition restrictions was more limited. Our sample’s awareness of firearms law is especially important to consider given that they are the very population targeted by firearms regulations and prohibitions at the local, state, and federal level. By examining what detained offenders know about firearms laws, we can better theorize about individual gaps in legal knowledge and the realistic expectations for how understanding of the law can affect behavior.

  5. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...... to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting...... are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead...

  6. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition by John J Ritter and Richard A Beyer Weapons and Materials Research...primer alone launches the bullet with a shower of hot particles and gases. Similar attempts with a rifled barrel resulted in just enough force being...performance with novel measurement techniques. Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion. 2013;12(4):361–370. 4. Cup, primer (No. 34

  7. Bioaccessibility of Pb from ammunition in game meat is affected by cooking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A

    2011-01-14

    The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account.

  8. Identifying Efficiencies in the Supply Chain for Training Ammunition: Methods, Models, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Research Report Identifying Efficiencies in the Supply Chain for Training Ammunition Methods , Models, and Recommendations Dwayne M. Butler...RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax- deductible charitable...reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit www.rand.org

  9. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  10. Impact of ammunition and military explosives on human health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Débora R S; Bezerra, Marcio L S; Neves, Eduardo B; Moreira, Fátima R

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature concerning the risks associated with the main xenobiotics contained in military ammunition and explosive residues and damage to human and environmental health. Using "ammunition", "military", "environmental", "health", "explosive", "metal", "TNT", "RDX", "pollution", and "contamination" as search terms, a large database, namely ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed, was searched for studies on military ammunition and explosive residues from 1989 to 2010. Other sources used to conduct the search included the library of the Toxicology Laboratory of the Center for Workers' Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH) at the National School of Public Health. In total, 15 different combinations were used with the search words above and 708 papers were found. Among them, 76 papers concerned this review. More than 12 references of interest were discovered in the library of the CESTEH. The results were organized into metals, dinitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and royal demolition explosive (RDX), showing their main uses, occurrence in the environment, the current toxic effects to human and environmental health, and remediation possibilities. Because military activities can cause the acute and chronic exposure of human beings, the public administration must aim politics towards suitable environmental management.

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  12. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  13. A Miniaturized Magnetic Induction Sensor Using Geomagnetism for Turn Count of Small-Caliber Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Soo Oh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a miniaturized magnetic induction sensor (MMIS, wheregeomagnetism and high rpm rotation of ammunition are used to detect the turn number ofthe ammunition for applications to small-caliber turn-counting fuzes. The MMIS, composedof cores and a coil, has a robust structure without moving parts to increase the shocksurvivability in a gunfire environment of ~30,000 g’s. The MMIS is designed and fabricatedon the basis of the simulation results of an electromagnetic analysis tool, Maxwell® 3D. Inthe experimental study, static MMIS test using a solenoid-coil apparatus and dynamicMMIS test (firing test have been made. The present MMIS has shown that an inductionvoltage of 6.5 mVp-p is generated at a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and a rotationalvelocity of 30,000 rpm. From the measured signal, MMIS has shown a signal-to-noise ratioof 44.0 dB, a nonlinearity of 0.59%, a frequency-normalized sensitivity of 0.256±0.010V/T·Hz and a drift of 0.27% in the temperature range of -30~ 43°C. Firing test has shownthat the MMIS can be used as a turn-counting sensor for small-caliber ammunition,verifying the shock survivability of the MMIS in a high-g environment.

  14. Technology Assessment of the DACS/MERADCOM Prestaged Ammunition Loading System (PALS) Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    AMMUNITION RESTRAINT SYSTEM (PALS) MELl IN(; MIEl ING DATE: 12 13 Mar 80 A( I[NDEE ORGANIZATION, ADDRESS, AND I II( )H G;yle T. _Zajicek Director AV 585-8751...36" PIECE WIT-l0d NAILS. LAMINATE (4 RED). A lE TO EACH EACH ADDITIONAL PIECE IN A LIKE FOUR HIGH BEAM ASSEMBLIES MANNER. W/4-12d NAILS AT EACH JOINT...ROD POUNDS I CONTINUED AT LEFT I 6d , " 721i)d 3" ) B2 11 4 12d 1 3-1/4’ ) 72 DOOR POST VERTICAL RETAINER --- 2 REOD -..--..-- 64 LES MATERIAL

  15. Radioactivity of drinking waters from regions exposed to depleted uranium ammunition bombing in 2003 end 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Vuletic, V.; Eremic Savkovic, M.; Javorina, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the military application of the depleted uranium in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity is actualized. The locations verified to be contaminated by depleted uranium ammunition were at the South part of Serbia (Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan). The soluble forms of uranium could translocated and dispersed from soils and sediments into surface waters and groundwater. The environmental presence of depleted uranium is considered as potential threat to human health. The study presents the results of radiological safety analysis of drinking water in 2003 and 2004. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. (authors)

  16. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoso, Laura [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: laurag@ebd.csic.es; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: pedalv@ugr.es; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: anava@ugr.es; Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Mateo@uclm.es; Hiraldo, Fernando [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: hiraldo@ebd.csic.es; Donazar, Jose Antonio [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: donazar@ebd.csic.es

    2009-02-15

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

  17. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangoso, Laura; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B.; Mateo, Rafael; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donazar, Jose Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 μg L -1 n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 μg L -1 n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

  18. Contractors and Manufacturers: Supplying Arms and Ammunition to the Spanish State in XVII and XVIII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín GONZÁLEZ ENCISO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of provisioning arms and ammunition by the Spanish state during the XVII and XVIII centuries according to the types of entrepreneur (the asentista or contractor involved and the characteristics of the organization developed. First, there is a formal description of the arms industrial sector (cannons, ammunition, muskets, touching such aspects as industrial organization and the technology implied. The body of the paper goes on the figure of the asentista in each subsector: who were them, if they had other business, what were the characteristics of the contracts and the real relation with the Administration, if they developed family links in their business, and so on. Up to 1760, contracting by the state was dominant, but afterwards the policy was changed in several sectors so the state became a manufacturer state, owner of his factories. The last part of the paper focuses on this period, looking at the circumstances and consequences of that change of policy on provisioning and on the entrepreneurs.

  19. Analysis of Overhead Cost for a Defined Cost Center in the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant Using Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generally, the purpose of this research paper is twofold: (1) it develops a procedure by which overhead costs can be analyzed; (2) it applies...production data. Specifically, this research paper investigates a defined cost center in the Lake City Army Ammunition Plant and: (1) determines that

  20. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, B; Axelsson, J; Borg, H; Holm, K; Bignert, A

    2009-10-15

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 microg/gd.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 microg/gd.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels 20 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  1. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Agronomy Dept.; Houser, W.P. [US Army Environmental Center, Edgewood, MD (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  2. Characterization of airborne uranium from test firing of XM774 ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.

    1979-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, to characterize the airborne depleted uranium (DU) resulting from the test firings of 105-mm, APFSDS-T XM774 ammunition. The goal was to obtain data pertinent to evaluations of human inhalation exposure to the airborne DU. Data was desired concerning the following: (1) size distribution of airborne DU; (2) quantity of airborne DU; (3) dispersion of airborne DU from the target vicinity; (4) amount of DU deposited on the ground; (5) solubility of airborne DU compounds in lung fluid; and (6) oxide forms of airborne and fallout DU. The experiments involved extensive air sampling for total airborne DU particulates and respirable DU particles both above the targets and at distances downwind. Fallout and fragments were collected around the target area. High-speed movies of the smoke generated from the impact of the penetrators were taken to estimate the cloud volumes. Results of the experiments are presented

  3. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  4. Method development for the analysis of nitrotoluenes, nitramines and other organic compounds in ammunition waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussmann, P.; Preiss, A.; Levsen, K.; Wuensch, G.

    1994-01-01

    Gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine explosives, their by- and degradation products near the former ammunition plant Elsnig in Saxony. Enrichment procedures using liquid/liquid-and solid-phase extraction, which have already been developed, were used to investigate ground and surface water samples. Mono-, di- and trinitrotoluenes as well as aminonitro- and chlorinated nitroaromatics were identified and quantified using GC/MS, the electron capture detector (ECD) and the nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Besides, some nitrophenols were identified in ground water. Additionally, RDX, which is hardly to be determined by GC, was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Identification was performed by the UV-spectra using a photodiode array detector. (orig.) [de

  5. The influence of migration processes in gunpowder charge on the quality of mortar ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Nikola R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the results of static, physicochemical and ballistic examination of double-based gunpowder charges, in order to establish the deviations from the demanded quality of mortar ammunition. The examinations were carried out on gunpowder samples used for laboration of mortar shells 60, 82 and 120 mm caliber and consisted of periodical measurements of the gunpowder mass loss, basic ballistic parameters, and compatibility testing of gunpowder and celluloid containers as well as chemical stability determination. The estimation of the gunpowder quality was performed by comparative analysis and the suggestions for more efficient production of it were given. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172013

  6. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  7. Cardiac changes after simulated behind armor blunt trauma or impact of nonlethal kinetic projectile ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Arborelius, Ulf P; Gryth, Dan; Sonden, Anders; Gustavsson, Jenny; Wangyal, Tashi; Svensson, Leif; Rocksén, David

    2011-11-01

    Cardiac-related injuries caused by blunt chest trauma remain a severe problem. The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological changes in the heart that might arise after behind armor blunt trauma or impacts of nonlethal projectiles. Sixteen pigs were shot directly at the sternum with "Sponge Round eXact I Mpact" (nonlethal ammunition; diameter 40 mm and weight 28 g) or hard-plastic ammunition (diameter 65 mm and weight 58 g) to simulate behind armor blunt trauma. To evaluate the influence of the shot location, seven additional pigs where exposed to an oblique heart shot. Physiologic parameters, electrocardiography, echocardiogram, the biochemical marker troponin I (TnI), and myocardial injuries were analyzed. Nonlethal kinetic projectiles (101-108 m/s; 143-163 J) did not cause significant pathophysiological changes. Five of 18 pigs shot with 65-mm plastic projectiles (99-133 m/s; 284-513 J) to the front or side of the thorax died directly after the shot. No major physiologic changes could be observed in surviving animals. Animals shot with an oblique heart shot (99-106 m/s; 284-326 J) demonstrated a small, but significant decrease in saturation. Energy levels over 300 J caused increased TnI and myocardial damages in most of the pigs. This study indicates that nonlethal kinetic projectiles "eXact iMpact" does not cause heart-related damage under the examined conditions. On impact, sudden heart arrest may occur independently from the cardiac's electrical cycle. The cardiac enzyme, TnI, can be used as a reliable diagnostic marker to detect heart tissue damages after blunt chest trauma.

  8. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Annett; Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets.

  9. Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, B.; Axelsson, J.; Borg, H.; Holm, K.; Bignert, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (> 6 μg/g d.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (> 20 μg/g d.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels 20 μg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead ( 10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers.

  10. Angled shots onto body armour using 9 mm ammunition: the effect on potential blunt injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Alison; Carr, D J; Lankester, C; Malbon, C

    2017-02-01

    Some military specialists wear body armour that is more similar to police armour and provides protection from ammunition fired from pistols. During ballistic testing, these armours are mounted on a standardised type of modelling clay and the back face signature (BFS; depth of depression) formed as a result of the non-perforating impact event on to the armour is measured. This study investigated the effect of impact angle on the BFS and on the deformation of the bullet. Two commonly worn types of armour (HG1/A+KR1 and HG1+KR1) were considered that provide protection from pistol ammunition and sharp weapons. Armours were tested against two types of pistol ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket and 9 mm hollow point) at eight different impact angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 70°, 75° and 80°). Increased impact angles resulted in smaller BFSs. Impact angle also affected whether bullets were retained in the armour; as the impact angle increased, the probability of a round exiting the side of the armour increased. Bullet deformation was affected by impact angle. Understanding the deformation of bullets may assist with recreating a shooting incident and interpreting forensic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Ammunition production in the USSR in 20-30 years of 20th century and efficiency of the Red Army in the eve and during of the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Николаевич Балыш

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ammunition Industry in connection with action variation at the first part of 20th century is analyzed in the present paper. It is studied how the New Economic Policy (NEP influenced onto the development of ammunition industry and respective branches of heavy industry. For the first time several manufacturing peculiarities of ammunition main elements (by example of ammunition bodies in the eve of the Great Patriotic War are analyzed on the base of archival documents and the role of these peculiarities in fighting efficiency of the Soviet forces during the Second World War is studied.

  12. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, Laura; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro A B; Mateo, Rafael; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 microg L(-1) n=137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 microg L(-1) n=32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significatively altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant.

  13. Analysis of base fuze functioning of HESH ammunitions through high-speed photographic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, T. K.

    2007-01-01

    High-speed photography plays a major role in a Test Range where the direct access is possible through imaging in order to understand a dynamic process thoroughly and both qualitative and quantitative data are obtained thereafter through image processing and analysis. In one of the trials it was difficult to understand the performance of HESH ammunitions on rolled homogeneous armour. There was no consistency in scab formation even though all other parameters like propellant charge mass, charge temperature, impact velocity etc are maintained constant. To understand the event thoroughly high-speed photography was deployed to have a frontal view of the total process. Clear information of shell impact, embedding of HE propellant on armour and base fuze initiation are obtained. In case of scab forming rounds these three processes are clearly observed in sequence. However in non-scab ones base fuze is initiated before the completion of the embedding process resulting non-availability of threshold thrust on to the armour to cause scab. This has been revealed in two rounds where there was a failure of scab formation. As a quantitative measure, fuze delay was calculated for each round and there after premature functioning of base fuze was ascertained in case of non-scab rounds. Such potency of high-speed photography has been depicted in details in this paper.

  14. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ., of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept., of Agronomy

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  15. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  16. Environmentally friendly recycling of hexal in medium caliber ammunition in industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogle, R.; Rys, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik; Rochat, E. [Oerlikon Contraves Pyrotec AG, Zuerich (Switzerland). Chemical Dept.

    2000-06-01

    The major task in the recycling of Hexal used in air defense ammunition is the secure, environmentally friendly and cost-saving removal of the Hexal from the case. For this purpose a production plant was constructed, by which the Hexal can be extracted in one minute from four 35 mm grenades by means of drilling and application of high pressure water. The water treatment turned out to be the key step of this process. Increasingly severe environmental regulations force the industry to clean and reuse the water in the process. The diversity of the cleaning methods available is strongly limited by the explosive as material to be separated, by the broad particle size distribution, the high water throughput and the high purity request of the high-pressure pump. The implemented separation process consists of a sedimentation and a filter part. This offers the advantage that there are no moving parts in the system and therefore the maintenance is relatively simple. (orig.) [German] Beim Recycling von hexalhaltiger Flugabwehrmunition besteht die Hauptaufgabe darin, das Hexal sicher, umweltgerecht und kostensparend aus den Granatkoerpern zu entfernen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine Trennanlage erstellt, die in einer Minute das Hexal aus vier 35 mm-Granaten mittels Bohren und dem Einsatz von Hochdruckwasser herausloest. In diesem Zusammenhang hat sich gezeigt, dass der Wasseraufbereitung eine zentrale Bedeutung zukommt. Verschaerfte Umweltauflagen zwingen die Betreiber das verwendete Wasser zu reinigen und wieder im Prozess zu verwenden. Die Vielfalt der verfuegbaren Reinigungsverfahren wird allerdings stark eingeschraenkt durch den Explosivstoff als abzutrennendes Material, die breite Korngroessenverteilung, den hohen Wasserdurchsatz und die hohe Reinheitsforderung der Hochdruckpumpe. Das schlussendlich realisierte Trennverfahren besteht aus einem Sedimentations- und einem Filterteil. Es bietet den Vorteil, dass im System keine beweglichen Teile vorhanden sind und sich die

  17. Crusader Automated Docking System: Technology support for the Crusader Resupply Team. Interim report, Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Varma, V.K.; Jatko, W.B.

    1995-11-01

    The US Army and Team Crusader (United Defense, Lockheed Martin Armament Systems, etc.) are developing the next generation howitzer, the Crusader. The development program includes an advanced, self-propelled liquid propellant howitzer and a companion resupply vehicle. The resupply vehicle is intended to rendezvous with the howitzer near the battlefront and replenish ammunition, fuel, and other material. The Army has recommended that Crusader incorporate new and innovative technologies to improve performance and safety. One conceptual design proposes a robotic resupply boom on the resupply vehicle to upload supplies to the howitzer. The resupply boom would normally be retracted inside the resupply vehicle during transit. When the two vehicles are within range of the resupply boom, the boom would be extended to a receiving port on the howitzer. In order to reduce exposure to small arms fire or nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, the crew would remain inside the resupply vehicle during the resupply operation. The process of extending the boom and linking with the receiving port is called docking. A boom operator would be designated to maneuver the boom into contact with the receiving port using a mechanical joystick. The docking operation depends greatly upon the skill of the boom operator to manipulate the boom into docking position. Computer simulations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have shown that computer-assisted or autonomous docking can improve the ability of the operator to dock safely and quickly. This document describes the present status of the Crusader Autonomous Docking System (CADS) implemented at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the CADS project is to determine the feasibility and performance limitations of vision systems to satisfy the autonomous docking requirements for Crusader and conduct a demonstration under controlled conditions.

  18. Rotary Friction Welding of Weight Heavy Alloy with Wrought AlMg3 Alloy for Subcaliber Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Janusz Goroch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies concerning friction welding of Weight Heavy Alloy (WHA with AlMg3 alloy are presented. The friction welding of density 17,5 Mg/m3 with aluminum alloy showed that it is possible to reach the joints with the strength exceeding the yield strength of wrought AlMg3 alloy. This strength looks to be promising from point of view of condition which have to be fulfilled in case of armor subcaliber ammunition, where WHA rods play the role Kinetic Energy Penetrators and aluminum is used for projectile ballistic cup.

  19. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys E Green

    Full Text Available California condors (Gymnogyps californianus released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona and Zion (Utah were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah, as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  20. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  1. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case.

  2. Uranium tipped ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the uranium enrichment process required to make nuclear weapons or fuel, the concentration of the 'fissile' U-235 isotope has to be increased. What is left, depleted uranium, is about half as radioactive as natural uranium, but very dense and extremely hard. It is used in armour piercing shells. External radiation levels from depleted uranium (DU) are low. However DU is about as toxic as lead and could be harmful to the kidneys if eaten or inhaled. It is estimated that between 40 and 300 tonnes of depleted uranium were left behind by the Allied armies after the Gulf war. The biggest hazard would be from depleted uranium shells which have hit Iraqui armoured vehicles and the resulting dust inhaled. There is a possible link between depleted uranium shells and an illness known as 'Desert Storm Syndrome' occurring in some Gulf war veterans. As these shells are a toxic and radioactive hazard to health and the environment their use and testing should be stopped because of the risks to troops and those living near test firing ranges. (UK)

  3. An investigation into the factors that influence toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from semi-automatic pistols recovered from car fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collender, Mark A; Doherty, Kevin A J; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2017-01-01

    Following a shooting incident where a vehicle is used to convey the culprits to and from the scene, both the getaway car and the firearm are often deliberately burned in an attempt to destroy any forensic evidence which may be subsequently recovered. Here we investigate the factors that influence the ability to make toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from pistols recovered from such car fires. This work was carried out by conducting a number of controlled furnace tests in conjunction with real car fire tests in which three 9mm semi-automatic pistols were burned. Comparisons between pre-burn and post burn test fired ammunition discharged from these pistols were then performed to establish if identifications were still possible. The surfaces of the furnace heated samples and car fire samples were examined following heating/burning to establish what factors had influenced their surface morphology. The primary influence on the surfaces of the furnace heated and car fire samples was the formation of oxide layers. The car fire samples were altered to a greater extent than the furnace heated samples. Identifications were still possible between pre- and post-burn discharged cartridge cases, but this was not the case for the discharged bullets. It is suggested that the reason for this is a difference between the types of firearms discharge-generated toolmarks impressed onto the base of cartridge cases compared to those striated along the surfaces of bullets. It was also found that the temperatures recorded in the front foot wells were considerably less than those recorded on top of the rear seats during the car fires. These factors should be assessed by forensic firearms examiners when performing casework involving pistols recovered from car fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  5. Računarska simulacija utroška municije do prvog pogotka u iznenadnom sukobu dva tenka / Computer simulation of ammunition consumption until the first hit in a sudden two-tank conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Janković

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Predmet ovog rada je računarska simulacija utroška municije do prvog pogotka glavnih oruđa dva tenka u iznenadnom sukobu. Prvi pogodak je bitan, jer često ima presudan uticaj na krajnji ishod sukoba tenkova. Tenkovi su naoružani različitim glavnim oruđima, od kojih je jedno protivoklopna vođena raketa, a drugo top sa brzim potkalibarnim probojnim projektilima. Definisan je iznenadni sukob tenkova, date su polazne pretpostavke i prikazan je simulacioni model pomoću grafičke predstave kretanja platformi, matematičkih transformacija i algoritamskog opisa. Model je implementiran pomoću simulacionog jezika GPSS World. Analizirani su rezultati 10 eksperimenata pri različitim vrednostima početnog rastojanja tenkova u iznenadnom sukobu. / The subject of the paper is computer simulation of ammunition consumption until the first hit in a sudden two-tank conflict. The first hit is important because it is often decisive in a two-tank conflict issue. The tanks are armed with different main weapons, one of which is a guided antiarmour missile, and the other is a classic gun which fires armour piercing rounds. The sudden conflict of tanks has been defined, starting assumptions have been given and the simulation model has been presented by means of the graphic representation of the platforms moving, mathematical transforms and algorithmic description. The model has been implemented by means of the GPSS World simulation language. The results of 10 experiments have been analyzed with various initial distances of the tanks in conflict.

  6. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    C5.4.4.3.6. Anticipated personnel limits for the new or modified facility, to include a breakdown by room or bay, when appropriate...operations include, but are not limited to: power screening equipment, power rakes, and shredders . C12.5.8.3.5.1. Nonessential Personnel...present an explosive hazard. C15.8.4.2. The use of remotely operated equipment (e.g., excavators, sifters, and shredders ) or other standoff

  7. Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    the incorporation of molybdenum into xanthine ozldase. In the case of zAnthine oxidase , inactive apoprotein is synthesized when VW0* is fed (Johnson at... xanthine oxidase is very much impaired by the administration of tungsten to pregnant rats 20 days before birth of the litter. Creation of simultaneous...phosphatase inhibitors it has been suggested that the procesa of steroid recepcor activation involves a dephosphorylation of the receptor protein itself

  8. Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, Talladega County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-10

    dinitrotoluene (DNT). Activities at ALAAP included the manufacture of explosives, DNT, and the chemicals sulfuric acid ( H2S04 ), aniline, diphenylamine...surface runoff or leaching . 4.7.3 Interim remedial action for contaminated soil within study Area D was completed in November 1994. The selected... leaching . 4.9 Study Area F - Number 2 Rubble Pile and Study Area G - Henningsburg Area: During remedial activities conducted by Weston in 1988, Study

  9. Ammunition Resupply Model. Volume II. Programmers Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    of the ARM COMMON Blocks Block Name Variables EVENTS JSTAT(6), JEVOS(1024,4), IEVS(5,1024) LOG IATP(4,30), IASP (4,41), IUNIT(75,69), ITRUCK(560,7...position of 5 Table 2 (continued) J=18, - Basic amo level, ammo 1 J=19-21, - Ammo 2 J=22-24, - Ammo 3 J=25-27, - Ammo 4 J=28-30, - Amno 5 IASP ( I,J) 1-1-4...Use of Common Arrays and Variables by ARM Subroutines Routine Arrays/Variables ARM DRIVER TIME ASP IASP , 1ASPAM, IDAY, IMIX, ITRUCK ITYPE, IUNIT, LPPAR

  10. Biological Pilot Plant Study at Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    r-4 2 4) caCUx C:) C) ;. .0 (L) U) CU CU C/) C (U ) . r. C-a 4-) 0 > r= 4.) U) U - Cu to .0 4.) ) 0 ;_f Cd . U)’ W4 r-4 b 0- C >ý bcb bO r. V "-1...the or- ganic removal while the third and fourth stages polished the first stage effluent. The relationship between the soluble BOD and COD removal rate

  11. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliated with the U.S. Government traveling on official business or is a person not affiliated with the U.S. Government but traveling to Iraq under a direct authorization by the Government of Iraq and engaging in....115(d). (The latter provision specifically excludes from the definition of importation the bringing...

  12. Ammunition Reliability Information Evaluation System. ARIES Users’ Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    5 241* -150.0 242. .0 281. 1153 282* 1, 267* -15j 286* 4150 281* 1154 i i287* -150 288* 430 281* 1155 282* 13 2b7 * -150 288* 429 281* 1156 282* 14...MJI3Frg 999 td IN 4n1 99*FL G-HE9 £tIGELk ft~LR.L 9 IN 400) 999* ~ ~ ( p1t p li DCKL(U~hkE 999.99 Ine 9fl0 995* OISP VERT SI0 CUECIRAL NUNBER 999.99 IN...ijLCIFAL-tjUbLft9-(f).q999) - 1*lVl* G bKOLRGLA b 01AIP4ML X1 ,)) -- IlIkTLbl1aAAILIL 1. - _ __ loo* lIrLLbj WLAP0I. NI’-0. (1,61 lul0t± .01AU - td

  13. Insulation of Nitrocellulose Boiling Tubs at Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    control system. The amount of steam usea for the on-boil cycle with the single-sensor autocontrol averaged 647 kg/hr (1426 lb/hr) (test 1, table 2...This was a reduc- tion of 210 kg/hr (463 lb/hr) over the manually controlled uninsulated tub. Steam usage with the single sensor autocontrol and...uninsulated tub. At times durin)g the on- boil cycle of tests I and 2, the temperature of the manual sensor was different from the autocontrol sensor indicating

  14. Ammunition Resupply Model. Volume 2. Programmer’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    database for the ARM model (see volume I for the array definitions): COMMON/LOG/IATP(lO,53), IASP (lO,lIO), IUNIT(75,142), Z ITRUCK(1400,15), ITYPE(9,6), IMIX...from either the ATP or the ASP. C NASP The ASP number from the IASP array. (..6) C NATP The ATP rumber from the IATP array. (1..6) C ND ) The number of...TTLOAD C**Z2 DECREMENT AMMO AVAILABLE SO0 CONTINUE IASP (NASP9NUMAM*37+1B) = IASP (NASPYNUMAMt3+19) - MIX(MIXPNUMAM) IF7IASP(NASPiNUMAHM*3+1S).LT, 0

  15. Field Artillery Cannon Weapons Systems and Ammunition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    overhanging the platorm to warp and become unserviceable. weigni ot me tune , and prevents undue wear ox me (a) The cause of this problem is that the elevating...SHAF 1 TRAVEK ~iNG ARC TRAVERSING TýVRIGWR WORM WHE E L TVRIGWR Figure 5-11. Are and pinion. tvpe of traversing mechanism. weapon in elevation and

  16. Ventilation Study of Proposed Ammunition Plant at Lake City Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    34Principles of Ventilation," The Industrial Environment - its Evaluation & Control, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1973. 23. Natio’ial...Industrial Hyiene and Toxicolou, Intc.rs cience Publishers *inc., N.Y., 1958. 27. Sr-ericer, John, Safety Director, Lake City, Arsenal lndepene

  17. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  18. Aquatic Field Survey at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-24

    species, Spirulina laxissima and Gomphosphaeria lacustris at Stations A, B-l, C, and Y-1 Other important blue-green species were: Dscillatoria...characterize the background water quality. RetaTs, except for hardness ( calcium and magnesium), were run by flame atomic absorption...Microcoleus lynbyaccous Oscillatoria lutea Oscillatoria submembranceae Schizothrix arenaria Schizothrix calcicola Spirulina subsala X X X X X

  19. PEO Ammunition Systems Portfolio Book 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    Logistic Burden ( HOB ) accuracy • Improved Electronic Counter Measure (EMC) capability • Rapid Inductive Set Capability • Improve Combat...Effectiveness • Improved Height of Burst ( HOB ) Accuracy • Improved Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Resistance • Rapid Inductive Set Capability PM MAS...49 Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze Setter (EPIAFS) M155A1

  20. Removal of DNT from Wastewaters at Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-31

    2(6) pp. 415-418, 1987. 12. Howard, Philip H., et al, Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Nitroaromatics, (Syracuse...no. 1, pp. 69-74, 1986.UI 27. Cann, K., Cole, T., Slegeir, W., and Pettit , R., Catalytic Reduction using Carbon Monoxide and Water in Place of Hydrogen

  1. Standardizing Ammunition Distribution within the United States Navy as either a Push or Pull Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    will be consistent, so they can continue to have long production runs. Certain commonly used and mass-production items (see Figure 1) such as diapers ...introduction frequency,” which are suited best by 4 utilizing a push-based strategy, yielding supply chain efficiency and high inventory turns (Simchi...never being completely accurate, which can lead to either “lost sales, obsolete inventory, and inefficient utilization of resources” (Simchi-Levi et al

  2. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 6. Appendix L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    420996484888848 1 * 08C 0-.44( n mM nU)vV C)en I V V1 * l nf Seca 1 -4 13.04 Ma0AwaACw MNNA~mlolA~a m adkidlidm Ad A4 m~ oao m00 4a d0 4 00aaaaaaa 000 a 0 a000...00% 00% 00% 0% a 0% 0% a 0% 00% a % 0% a 00 % 00% mata 0% a%0% 0% (Aat0% 0% 0% 0% 0% a 0% 0% 0% 0% a% a% 00% at0% a% a0%m E-994w . 4 " M -4 H ..-4 M

  3. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is possible.Thus, with restrictions imposed by the control unit, application of DFPJE allows us to increase a flying range of the rocket more than by 30% in comparison with the existing domestic samples.

  4. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume II. Materiel Postprocessor Program Maintenance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    denominators nf the equation which will be used to determine the WARFRAM lo.s ratet within a posture’s stylized array. The RAM(WARF) simulation runs for -aii...ARTILLERY VULNERABILITY CATEGORIES. 19%C*****THLSE TOTALS THEN BECOME THE DENOMINATORS IN DETERMINING THE] 20%C***** WARFRAM LOSS RATES FOR rACH OF THE 22...C0****TH[ NUMBER OF 17EMS OF ruUIPMENT LOST BY CATEGORY, WHICH WILL 2N:C*****SERVE AS THE NUMERATOR IN COMPUTING THE WARFRAM LOSS RATES IN 25tC

  5. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume I. Materiel Postprocessor User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    normally includes a CEM weapon or WARFRAM Vulnerability Category (1-22) and historial (SYMWAR) class (1-36) as assigned by CAA. b. Density and Quanity... WARFRAM Model is normally operated by the Study team’s Artillery Model Analyst. Under WARRAMP, the WARFRAM eventually will be replaced by the WARRAMP...WARF Rate Method- ology. Thus, the WIMP was developed to operate with COSAGE replacing WARFRAM methodology. The COSAGE provides data to WIMP on Red

  6. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in species that might retain Cu fragments for a longer time.

  7. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 3. Appendices G Through J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    C7 PROJECT USATHAMA-B&AP SITE TYPE WELLSAPIGDT SITE ID P I(r-K l-I JOB NUMBER 6853-0 FILE NAME LOCATION PROGRAM ACTIVITY -START END WEATHER puf . 0-nr...AOTESOLV-h2 , an aquifer test analysis program by Geraghty Miller, Inc. AQTESOLVT M utilizes the Bouwer and Rice method (1976)3 for determining hydraulic...34 Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group; Reston, VA. 3Bouwer, H. and R.C. Rice , 1976. A Slug Test Method for Determining Hydraulic Conductivity of Unconfined

  8. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 7. Appendices M Through R

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    were reported in the exposed population. Deaths attributable to pancreatic carcinoma (1 case) and uremia (1 case in which the workers also had urethral...during days 6-13 of pregnacy . All mice exposed to the high concentration died within 24 hours of the beginning of exposure. o dme died in the lower...day) in the drinking water resulted in hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex and pancreatic islets (Aughey et al., 1977). No tumors were noted; however

  9. Remedial Investigation Report for Lake City Army Ammunition Plant. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Hexahydro- Meth yl-2H-Azepin- 2-one Ester ND 󈧢 ND ND NP ND Bromacil ND 80 ND 30 ND 60 C13-C15 Alkyl Benzene ND 10 ND ND ND ND Carboxylic Acid...barium carbonate dust by experimental animals has been associated with reduced sperm count, increased fetal mortality, atresia of the ovarian follicles ...doses of 3.2 mg/day developed loss of hair , loss of fingernails, dermatitis, and muscular dysfunction. By applying an uncertainty factor of 15 to the

  10. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Scranton Army Ammunition Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    DARCOM installations isrpart of a developing national acceptance of the historic Resource Protection Planning Process (RP3) (HCRS 1980). RP3 presents an...to facilitate railroad engine repair. A portion of the Bessemer Steel Rail Rolling Mill, previously stood in the location of the eastern half of...depth of several feet occurred in this area. Prior to 1907, GDA-4 was the site of the 1875 Steel Works Buildings (Hopkins 1877). Portions of the Bessemer

  11. Archeological Survey and Testing Along Boone Creek, Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Webster Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    base are postulated to have been borrowed from Mesoamerica (Neuman 1984:255); however, regional expressions of the tradi- tion, such as the Caddo, also...origin in Mesoamerica (Neuman 1984). Such traits may attest to the wide sphere of interaction participated in by the Alto Focus Caddo. Dates for the Alto

  12. Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Longterm Groundwater Monitoring Health and Safety Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    kg administered continuously to the female dunng the 17th to 19th day of gestation produced 1990 NIOSH RELs (Skin) behavioral effects on newborns TWA...ofTWA Chlrodphenl, 2% hloin ) 0. pp (1gestation produced effects on newborn (stillbirth; live birth Category III: Substances with systemic effects, onset...medical support. Note to Physicians: Dilantin improves atrio-ventricular conduction and may be useful in management of ventricular arrhythmias . Beta

  13. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L; Meteyer, Carol U; Rattner, Barnett A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18-2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in species that might retain Cu fragments for a longer time.

  14. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Text Sections 1 Through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    percent of the WES for all substances that have carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic properties and at 20 percent of the WES for all other substances...various agricultural fungicides and pesticides. However, no documentation of the use of these compounds at BAAP has been identified. Thallium (TL) was...tetrachloroethylene TCLEE thallium TL tin SN * toluene MEC6H5 total dissolved solids TDS total hardness HARD total organic carbon TOC total organic halogens TOX

  15. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    5,000 12,500 Selenium SE 0.25 3.02 10 100 Silver AG 2.5 4.6 50 2,500 Sodium NA 150.0 500 5,000 50,000 Thallium TL 31.3 81.4 5,000 40,000 Vanadium V 0.775...fibrotic peritonitis, respectively (NAS 1982). Evidence to date suggests that aluminum is not teratogenic or fetotoxic; however, rats exposed by gavage to...dermal lesions, and cardiovascular damage (EPA 1984, Tseng 1977). Arsenic is embryotoxic, fetotoxic, and teratogenic in several animal species (EPA

  16. Interaction of the stream of the striking elements with barriers and cumulative ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, A. V.; Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is aimed at working out the algorithm of multi-contact interaction of solid bodies; it studies the influence of the shape of projectile (damage agent) on its penetration capability. Steel projectiles of different shape have been considered as damage agents: sphere, regular tetrahedron, cube, cylinder and plate. The weight of projectiles has been kept the same. Antitank grenade has been used as a target. The study has been conducted by means of numerical simulation using finite element analysis. The simulation is three-dimensional. Behavior of materials has been described by elastic-plastic model taking into consideration the fracture and fragmentation of interacting bodies. The speed of interaction has been considered within the range of 800 to 2000 m/s. Research results demonstrated significant influence of the projectile shape on its penetration capability. Projectile in the shape of elongated cylinder has shown better penetration capability. Considering the weight of damage agents (except for sphere and plate) their maximum penetration capability has been reached at the speed of 1400 m/s. Increase of the speed of interaction has been followed by intensive fracture of damage agents and their penetration capability thus has worsened.

  17. 27 CFR 478.120 - Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within an exception to or has obtained a waiver from the nonimmigrant alien prohibition. (b) Nonimmigrant... United States; waiver) establishing the nonimmigrant alien falls within an exception to or has obtained a... for a nonimmigrant alien, must attach applicable documentation to the Form 6 (e.g., a hunting license...

  18. Evaluation of Ultra-High-Speed Fire Protection Systems Presently in Service at Army Ammunition Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-17

    amounts and speed) on the different propellants. 4. Initiating Explosives Explosives such as mercury fulminate , lead azide, and lead...Discharge (HID) Lamps 1.1.1 High Pressure Sodium 1.1.2 Mercury Vapor 1.1.3 Metal Halide 1.1.4 Low Pressure Sodium 1.1.5

  19. DoD Contractors’ Safety Manual for Ammunition and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    use as initiating elements in an explosive train. Examples are wet lead azide, wet lead styphnate, wet mercury fulminate , wet tetracene, and dry PETN...original shipping conLdiner or equivalent) L 1.3 Mercury Fulminate , wet A 1.I Nitrates (inorganic), except ammonium nitrate (in original shipping container...dry HMX, dry Lead azide, wet Lead styphnate, wet Mercury fulminate , wet PETN, dry Tetracene, wet GROUP B Cartridge cases, primed (w/o propellant

  20. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Gun Propellants and Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance and static fires (SF) of rocket motors were sampled in fall, 2013 at the Dundurn Depot (Saskatchewan, Canada). Emission sampling was conducted with an aerostat-lofted instrument package termed the “Fl...

  1. A Multi-Year Ammunition Procurement Model for Department of the Navy Non-Nuclear Ordnance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruggeman, John

    2003-01-01

    ... model that is then optimized to mimic perfect manual planning, introduces a metric for quantifying the capability provided by a given inventory of a munition, and introduces the Assessment and Investment Model (AIM...

  2. Ammunition for Law Enforcement. Part II. Data Obtained for Bullets Penetrating Tissue Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    120 • • • • ROUND NUMRER • PROJECTILE TY~E ·HORNADY, JH~ PROJECTILf "tAHETER CCHI • 1.0•1...PROJECTilE CIAHETER CCHI - .907 _______ ..... _ ....... _______________ ....., ___ ._,.... ___ . ___ .,.. _____________________ . ___ _ PROJECTILE...ROUkD NUMBf~ -- 310 PRDJECTIL~ TYPE --SPEfR,JSPe44 PROJECTILE DIAMETER CCHI -- 10.897 PlDJfCTILE MASS C’M) --15.552 PROJfCTILE VELOCITY

  3. Effects of Aging and Environmental Conditions on Ammunition/Explosives Storage Magazines - Paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    considerable amounts of water and subsequently expand, damaging the concrete . ASR damages concrete by the silica forming a gel in the open pore spaces and...these expansive pressures start to damage the structure it will compromise the structural integrity. Visual examinations of those concrete structures... expansion will cause cracking. Visual inspection of these structures will show map or pattern cracking and a general deterioration of the concrete

  4. Effects of Aging and Environmental Conditions on Ammunition/Explosives Storage Magazines - Paper 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    expand, damaging the concrete . ASR damages concrete by the silica forming a gel in the open pore spaces and then expanding. Over time the pore spaces...present in some aggregates. The products of the reaction may cause abnormal expansion and cracking of concrete in service. The presence of ASR was...Alkali-silica reaction ( ASR ): Some aggregates containing silica that are soluble in highly alkaline solutions may react to form a solid non- expansive

  5. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Gun Propellants and Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-07

    or for VOC CO2, CO and CH4 from the SUMMA canister) The majority of the carbon emissions were a priori assumed to be emitted as carbon dioxide ...Munitions- Emissions /WP-2153/WP-2153. Accessed 01/16/2015. 4. U.S. EPA Method 3A.Determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in... Environment 2015, 111 (0), 170-178. 21. Ottmar, R. D. Wildland fire emissions , carbon , and climate: Modeling fuel consumption. Forest Ecology and Management 2014, 317, 41-50. 66

  6. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  7. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Appendices D.2 Through F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    cig mad protective pipe: Hallo StemAugerD 41Bentonize D 3 r &n Amnslar spae Seal D 6nýV Oter 21 15. Drilling fluid used:LWow 002 Air 01 5 uarscee...micesl-ccw 01 14. rillng mstlid usd: Rtary0504. Maunmal between well cuing and protective pipe: Hallo StanAngerC3 41BeaonizzO 30 ___________3 Animla...PuectkvePipm Hallo StemAugff0 41Berause D 30 .__......___ Annular spa= seal 03 15. Duillingfluid used:Wou 1 002 Air f0 1 I DmirdlingMad 13003 Now 99 5

  8. Automatic Identification Technology: Tracking Weapons and Ammunition for the Norwegian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    multimedia/archive/00141/Fakta2010_engelsk_141161a.pdf. 72 “Financial and Economic Rata Relating to NATO Defence,” NATO, accessed January 17, 2011, http...for your service?” Int. J. Production Economics 124. 2010. 88 Financial and Economic Rata Relating to NATO Defence. NATO. Accessed January 17

  9. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that similar terminal ballistic behavior can be achieved. Furthermore, the volumetric image processing allowed superior analysis compared to methods that involve cutting of the soap blocks.

  10. Ammunition Loading and Firing Test Pretest Physical Conditioning of Female Soldier Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Gluteus maximus (extends thigh) 3. Hamstrings 4. G.;5rocnemius (calf) 5. Soleus deltoids 24... Gluteus maximus trapezins (extends thigh) 7. Biceps 8. Brachailis (relating to arm) 25 I".. Illustration 6C - Leg Press Procedure: 1. Adjust seat to...head, with arms at side, to a position parallel to the floor. Muscles Involved in Illustrations 7 and 8 (primarily): 1. Erector spinae muscle group 2. Gluteus maximus (extends thigh) 3. Hamstrings 4. Stomach muscle 27

  11. Metallographic study of non-homogenous armour impacted by armour-piercing incendiary ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balos, Sebastian; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Incendiary effect does not influence the changes in microstructure. → Impact causes plastic deformation in more ductile materials. → Impact causes shear crack instability in less ductile materials. → Crack propagation influences chipping on the inside of the perforated plate. -- Abstract: In this paper, the influence of impact and incendiary effect on the microstructure changes and crack development in non-homogenous add-on armour is studied. The main objective was to determine the parameters that may cause the yielding of the material, leading to a possible decrease in multi-hit resistance. For that purpose, patented wire fence and perforated plates made from two types of high strength steel, Hardox 450 and 50CrV4 tempered at 170 o C were tested. Various techniques were applied: high speed video camera was used, visual macroanalysis, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that incendiary effect, being of a brief nature, does not have any influence on microstructure of the add-on armour. However, impact greatly influences crack development and propagation, which occurs in 50CrV4 steel, the material with lower ductility, diminishing its multi-hit resistance. In accordance with obtained results, non-homogenous add-on armour behaviour models were devised, describing the influence of material ductility and geometry on fracture mode, stresses and deformability.

  12. Small-Caliber Ammunition Identification Guide. Volume 1. Small-Arms Cartridges Up to 15 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    the M1940 (Tokarcv) rifle; Model DP, DPM , DT. D’IM, SG-43, SCM, S(;MI3. SS(;MI’, 10P-46, and I’K seties iiiaclhinCuns; and Model 1910 Maximl...countrics that have used this cartridge, in addition: to Spain. are Brazil, Chile, Colombia , thc Domuinican Republic. Mexico, and Venezuoela. The 7x57... CoLOMBIA 13297 1)IA/DC-S1 1.1868i USDA0 ZAIRE B3352 1)IA/RDS-3A2C S;TOCK (300) 13870 USDAO CYPRUS 11363 1)IA/I)B-1IB2 13871 USDAO CZLCII0Sl.OVAVWt

  13. Process Energy Inventory at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Load Line 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    to build- ing 3-01. Warm air discharge would be blown directly into the building, with proper sound - deadening material provided as required. Warm...mobilization rate has been established. The metal parts are received at the loading line storage building and are transferred to the receiving and painting ...in the process flow at the preheat oven stage. The accepted shells are touch-up painted , weighed, and stenciled; the sup- plementary charge is

  14. Engineering Design Handbook - Military Pyrotechnics Series. Part Four. Design of Ammunition for Pyrotechnic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-15

    blackbody at the solidification temperature of molten platinum has resulted in a larger coefficient (given in Eq. 2-3) and a redefinition of the...Magnesium-Aluminum Alloy (50/50) 40% Barium Nitrate 49% Ammonium Perchlorate 10% Iron Oxide (Fe203) 2% Calcium Resinate IM-112 MOX -2B (High Explosive...voltaic cell of the reserve type. It consists of a bimetallic electrode system, a fused- salt elec- trolyte, a heat source to melt the electrolyte

  15. Lead Free Frangible Ammunition Exposure at United States Air Force Small Arms Firing Ranges, 2005 - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    2000 8 . Metals analysis (copper, lead, nickel , tungsten and zinc) was performed at both bases and toxic gases (ammonia and hydrogen cyanide) was...as allergies , and range structural characteristics. Medical visit data was obtained from the Standard Ambulatory Data Record database to identify...the survey. Question categories included: (1) Demographics (2) Potential confounders including allergies , pre-existing medical conditions

  16. Captured Enemy Ammunition in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Its Strategic Importance in Post-Conflict Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klingelhoefer, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary lessons leamed from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) is that the United Sates needs to put more emphasis on postwar security strategy and be better prepared for the complex tasks of security and nation building...

  17. Measuring Aerosols Generated Inside Armoured Vehicles Perforated by Depleted Uranium Ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), the U.S. Department of Defense initiated a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects of soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterized. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and to monitor continuously the sampler flow rates. Interior aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. These data will provide input for future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of inhaled or ingested DU aerosols. This paper briefly discusses the target vehicles, firing trajectories, aerosol samplers and instrumentation control systems, and the types of analyses conducted on the samples

  18. Measuring aerosols generated inside armoured vehicles perforated by depleted uranium ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), the US Department of Defense initiated a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects on soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterised. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and monitor continuously the sampler flow rates. The aerosol samplers selected for these tests included filter cassettes, cascade impactors, a five-stage cyclone and a moving filter. Sampler redundancy was an integral part of the sampling system to offset losses from fragment damage. Wipe surveys and deposition trays collected removable deposited particulate matter. Interior aerosols were analysed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analysed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology and dissolution in vitro. These data, currently under independent peer review, will provide input for future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of inhaled or ingested DU aerosols. This paper briefly discusses the target vehicles, firing trajectories, aerosol samplers and instrumentation control systems, and the types of analyses conducted on the samples. (author)

  19. Remedial Investigation Report for USATHAMA - RATSS Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, Independence, Missouri. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    mg is considered to be adequate for normal health and nutrition ; the minimum daily requirement is 10 Ag/kg (EPA 1985). In humans, absorption of copper...exposures to 1,2-DCA vapors result in anorexia , nausea, vomiting, fatigue, nervousness, epigastric pain, irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract...Ag/dl) have been associated in humans with altered nerve conduction, altered testicular function, renal dysfunction, and anemia. Lead exposure also

  20. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Höfle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; Nicolas de Francisco, Olga; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 μg/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  1. Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-Powered Forklifts during Operations in Ammunition Storage Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    LOCATION 0 ETEIH DE .,18 cD 0> 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 TIME(hrs) b. Hyster/Perkins forklift Figure 4. Time-concentration profiles of carbon...Camel, Jr., Eds., National Cancer Institute Monograph No. 9, p. 225, 1962. 11.6 Sawicki, E., R. C. Corey, A. E. Dooley,J. B. Gisclard, J. L. Monkman, R...tum wmammmmm ~m mamas aB-mm7 B-27 1K PEDCO INVIRONMENTAL. INC ARMY DIESEL FORKLIFT STUDY Location THREE TOt Description TEST SI Date: DECEMIER 6. 1103

  2. 40th Annual Armament Systems: Guns-Ammunition-Rockets-Missiles Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-28

    Army by 2009 GD –OTS OTI NICEVILLE, FL Warhead L3 - KDI CINCINNATI,OH FSA & HOB RAYTHEON MISSILE SYSTEMS TUCSON, AZ RAYTHEON ELECTRONICS MC KINNEY...UT Metal Parts Team Excalibur American Ordnance Middletown,IA Warhead LAP Excalibur System Description Modular Payload Inductive Fuze Setter Interface...Acceleration Loads Fin Impact Transition Loads Inductance Load Gun Lateral Loads Temperature Effects Arcing Lateral Loads Inbore Deflection Gun Disengagement

  3. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  4. Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    and accuracy of concentration estimates for a soil containing particulates of high explosives. Methods Crystals of SARM (Standard Analytical...One minute of grinding was adequate to reduce subsampling error to less than 2% RSD for HMX, RDX, and TNT in the sand spiked with SARM crystals

  5. Assessment of Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARS) for Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, Alabama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etnier, E. L

    1990-01-01

    .... Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) has asked the support of the Chemical Effects Information Task Croup in the Chemical Hazard Evaluation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL...

  6. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing of Large Caliber Ammunition Greater Than 40MM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    recorded (e.g., by using an instrumented munition, thermocouple, or pyrometer ). b. During qualification of the energetic material(s) used within... Optical microscopy is particularly applicable for gunpowders to assess crystal morphology and for potassium nitrate leeching. (b) Thermal...524 MIL-HDBK-828 Joint Services Publication 390. HSE Regulations. Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations. STANAG 3606

  7. A Prototype Decision Support System For The Selection of Ammunition Transfer Points Based on Field Artillery Role Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    II6.1.. .4 X 0 on 0AAAA- M (A M - W W 0 0.. Q0 - - -- L L 0 0 .* .. cv -m - .. W hIhihh W* :ZC CLIL ..4 00: OOZ * In= LL: - -o. M5 0 . - f-1--f- 0 -hi...1972). 18. Kariv, 0. and S. L. Hakimi, "An Algorithmic Approach to Network Loca-q tion Problems. Part 2: The p-Medians," SIAM J. App. Math ., 37, 539...and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, (1976). 20. Krarup, J. and P. Pruzan, "Selected Families of Location Problems," Ann. Discrete Math

  8. Identification of the Properties of Gum Arabic Used as a Binder in 7.62-mm Ammunition Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    0.10 N iodine solution was added. Formation of a bluish or reddish coloration would indicate starch or dextrin. Test 4.3.8 - Solubility...Moisture No more than 15.0% by weight when tested as specified in 4.3.4 3.6 Tannin-bearing gums None when tested as specified in 4.3.5 3.7 Starch and...Approach 2 Tests and Results 3 U.S. Army Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center 3 Forest Products Laboratory 15 Alliant Techsystems Inc

  9. FY95 Limited Energy Study Area B Nitric Acid Production Facilities, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of process or equipment modifications pursuant to conservation of energy and reduction of water consumption...

  10. M549A1 Projectile Delay Assembly Predictive Engineering Analysis in Support of the Ammunition Stockpile Reliability Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bixon, Eric R; Cassiello, Michael J; McEwan, Jr, John D

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on M549A1 High Explosive Rocket Assisted projectiles to evaluate the effects of thermal degradation and moisture on the delay assembly, and on the potential for premature rocket ignitions...

  11. Biopolymer as an Alternative to Petroleum-based Polymers to Control Soil Erosion: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    of the manufacturing plant. Maintaining berm height is a critical parameter to explosion containment. 1.1.2 Technology Description Rhizobium...should not be necessary. Soils with little organic matter or nutrient content, however, may need to be supplemented with compost and/or fertilizer...Table 6. Comparative cost and maintenance of an earthen berm and a biopolymer-treated berm. Cost Parameter Earthen Berm (2012 $) Biopolymer

  12. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-001 Allied Ammunition Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing Publication - Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    Environmental Test Specification. c. FR: Part of Programme d’Essais en Environnement . A.4 NATO: Environmental Test Programme. a. US...Environmental Test Project/Program. b. UK: Environmental Test Programme c. FR: Programme d’Essais en Environnement A.5 NATO...UK: Environmental Test Report. c. FR: Rapport d’Essai en Environnement . A.7 NATO: Compliance Statement. a. US: Compliance

  13. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is routinely involved in the forensic investigation of CBCs in the Netherlands. Reliable DNA profiles were frequently obtained from CBCs and used to match suspects, victims, or other crime scene-related DNA traces. In this paper, we describe the sensitive method developed by us to extract DNA from CBCs. Using PCR-based genotyping of autosomal short tandem repeats, we were able to obtain reliable and reproducible DNA profiles in 163 out of 616 criminal cases (26.5%) and in 283 out of 4,085 individual CBC items (6.9%) during the period January 2003-December 2009. We discuss practical aspects of the method and the sometimes unexpected effects of using cell lysis buffer on the subsequent investigation of striation patterns on CBCs.

  14. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of M2A1 Ammunition Box for Packing Group 2 Solid Hazardous Materials. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Plastics Applications Branch (Code 4045) DDOH /S/O/ AT9 0 300 Highway 361DOPPMUA O/N TR20 Crane, Indiana 47522-5001 Revision A 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING... TORCH 5206374 1.4G 0325 1 12.0 * MK48-2 FIR. DEV. 5619746 1.4B 0365 3 4.4 * MK51-1 FIR. DEV. 5918542 1.4B 0257 12 3.2 * DENOTES ITEMS ADDED IN REVISION

  15. Evaluation of Rhizobium tropici-derived Biopolymer for Erosion Control of Protective Berms. Field Study: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    USDA United States Department of Agriculture USPTO United States Patent and Trademark Office ERDC TR-16-5 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Background From...improve the soil’s engineering properties. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is an example of a commercial petroleum-based polymer used in agriculture to retain soil...dates. Traditional surveying techniques were performed using a robotic total station coupled with RTK (Real Time Kinematic) grade GPS (Global

  16. Intermodal Storage and Transport Frame (ISTF) MIL-STD-1660 Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... The ISTF was evaluated by the testing procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660. Stacking, vibration, edgewise rotational drop, incline impact, sling compatibility, forklifting, and disassembly testing were conducted on the ISTF units...

  17. 77 FR 5735 - Importation of Arms, Ammunition and Implements of War and Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... person importing or bringing in the firearm establishes to the satisfaction of the Director that the... adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs... United States-based companies to compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and export markets. F...

  18. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Bossier and Webster Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-06

    and miscellaneous items. Dominant hard- woods produce nuts such as acorns and hickories. Blueberries , black- berries, grapes, persimmons, plums, and...available through the Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA. 1965. Ante-Bellum Bienville Parish. Master’s thesis, Louisiana

  19. Airway Management in a Patient With Tracheal Disruption due to Penetrating Neck Trauma With Hollow Point Ammunition: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela M; Hill, James L; Zagorski, Dave J; McClain, Joseph M; Maronian, Nicole C

    2018-05-01

    Rapid sequence induction and intubation was performed for a patient in respiratory distress after a gunshot wound to the neck. Resistance was noted distal to vocal cords. With a bronchoscope unavailable, the endotracheal tube was advanced with a corkscrew maneuver. Subcutaneous emphysema had developed. The endotracheal tube was advanced into the right mainstem with adequate ventilation. Imaging illustrated tracheoesophageal injury. The patient was emergently explored. An intraluminal bullet was removed, lateral wall tracheal defect was repaired, and a tracheostomy was placed. The intubating provider should secure the airway by the method they are most comfortable, have high suspicion of airway injury, and prepare to manage airway disruption.

  20. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y.

    2002-11-01

    The rejection of the 1991 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which sought to extend the military bases agreement (MBA), paved the way for the Americans to abandon Clark Air Base in Angeles, Pampanga, which had served as an American military base since 1947. The total and immediate pullout of the Americans left the base in an ''as is'' condition and without the benefits of restoration efforts. Various studies and reports have been conducted to determine the presence of hazardous wastes in the former Clark Air Base. The issue of hazardous wastes purportedly left there by the Americans is a continuing and a growing concern particularly of citizens living within its area. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) In November of 1997 and in April of 1998, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute PNRI, upon the request of Clark Development Corporation, conducted a thorough radiological monitoring in CSEZ in order to determine the presence of radioactive contamination. Radioactive materials such as cesium-137 and tritium are considered hazardous wastes. Results of monitoring showed that radiation levels in CSEZ were within allowable standards. This means that the workers and residents at the Clark Air Base ( t he base ) are free from dangers of exposure to radiation. Despite the findings, however, reports by the media and environmental NGOs on the presence of hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, in Clark have proliferated. This action plan and project (APP) intends to address the issue of environmental radioactivity contamination (if any) within the CSEZ. The APP results are geared towards dispelling the persistent fear of the public in general, and the base stakeholders especially its residents, in particular, regarding the presence of radioactive contamination which results in untoward health effects to those exposed to such contaminants. Thus, the sectoral concern of this APP is to heighten the level of social acceptability by the base stakeholders that CSEZ is free of radioactive contamination. The APP principally utilized scientific testing in order to verify the physical presence and extent of radioactive contamination as well as the social marketing approach to generate social acceptability of the scientific findings among the various stakeholders of the base

  1. 27 CFR 478.116 - Conditional importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bringing in the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device must agree to either... imported or brought in under this part. A firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device... bringing into the United States or any possession thereof of any firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or...

  2. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition..., armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition feeding devices? (a)(1) Firearms. You, as a... (bases). (b) Armor piercing ammunition—(1) Marking of ammunition. Each licensed manufacturer or licensed...

  3. 155-MM Shell MK II (HOW), HS-FILLED: Serviceability of War Reserve Shell and Quantities of Ammunition Required to Produce 50% Casualties on Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-07-19

    8217between 0 &D4 100% oaaual tl•• la open to aerioua o’bjeotion eapeolall7 tor the hiper peroentagea. ID extenuation it •Y ’be aald that reliable qd...1104erateq hip T&por oonoen• trt.tioa OD the tarpt area. !he groUAd t_,.rature ftl about 20°F. hiper thaD the air t.peratltre howe’Yer, 10 that OOD’Yeo’tion

  4. Estimating the ROI on Implementation of RFID at the Ammunition Storage Warehouse and the 40th Supply Depot: KVA as a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Balanced Scorecard CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model DIS Defense Information System DoD Department of...authors can replicate the methodology for multiple projects to generate a portfolio of projects. Similar to the Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM ) or

  5. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  6. Assessment of the Accountability and Control of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (AA&E) Provided to the Security Forces of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    AMD65 weapons, 50 German P1 pistols, and 2 Smith and Wesson pistols in the inventory. Although the total quantity of weapons was listed in the arms...the arms room, the team noted 10 AMD65 weapons, 50 German P1 pistols, and 2 Smith and Wesson pistols in the inventory. We did not have sufficient

  7. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Joint United States/Republic of Korea Research and Development Study for Improved Underground Ammunition Storage Technologies Tests, Magdalena, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    the reoi. ift• van. 1.8o8 l4 mi -A Testi Activities. i.3t3k s,,. lm_.eaties. Site operations in connection with the Intermediate-Scale Tests" wi1 be... mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus). 1.3.8.2 Wildlife. Suitable habitat exists on the project area for several mammals including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus

  8. Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Operations: Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    columns to eliminate photodegradation processes). Controlled tension (vacuum) was applied equally at the bottom of each soil column across the controlled...R.J. Hemingway, W. Klein, D.B. Sharp, J.W. Vonk, and P.T. Holland. 1988. IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (24): Recommended approach to the evaluation of...the environmental behavior of pesticides . Pure & Appl. Chem. 60:901-932. 47 (10) Cabrera, M.L. and D.E. Kissel. 1988. Evaluation of a method to

  9. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art High Speed Deluge Systems Presently in Service at Various U.S. Army Ammunition Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    specifically for the process. 4. Initiating Explosives Explosives such as mercury fulminate , lead azide, lead styphinate, pose particular combustion...Categories of Possible False Alarm Sources 1. Lights 1.1 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps 1.1.1 High Pressure Sodium 1.1.2 Mercury Vapor 1.1.3 Metal...WATTAGE 1. Metal Halide Lamp MVR 1000/U 1000 Watts 2. Mercury Vapor Lamp H33HL-400/DX 400 Watts 3. High Pressure Sodium Lamp Lucalox, LU1000 1000

  10. 3Demonstration Results of Phytoremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater Using Constructed Wetlands at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Method 410.4 (Colorimetric, Automated; Manual)", Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes - Revised March 1983, (U. S.) Enviromental ...organochlorine pesticides plus PCBs exceeds 0.30 /xg/g wet weight. (For analytical methods see USEPA, 1982). 61 11.6.16.3 Artemia nauplii are obtained as

  11. The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Phytoremediate Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee. Cost and Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating explosives-contaminated groundwater...

  12. Sustaining the Single Naval Battle: Enhancing USMC Expeditionary Logistics with the Addition of the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Auxiliary Dry Cargo / Ammunition Ships (T-AKES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    Preface As a Midshipman at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy I spent a portion of my education aboard the Department ofthe Navy’s Military Sealift Command...environment can affect actions elsewhere."g In addition, the Single Naval Battle proposes a gestalt to military operations, that is, the value of...construct of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education , personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). The proposed changes, although

  13. Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater (Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Positives were identified by the presence of PCR amplification products in agarose electrophoresis gels . Dechloromonas Dechlorosoma Site...chemical oxygen demand oC degrees Celsius Dem/Val demonstrate/validate DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis DHG Dissolved hydrocarbon...Status, and Remedial Options. September 2005. http://www.itrcweb.org/Documents/PERC-1. pdf • Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Perchlorate Team

  14. Independent Auditors Report on the Examination of Existence, Completeness, and Rights of United States Air Force Operating Materials and Supplies-Ammunition and Tactical Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ( COMPTROLLER )/CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DOD ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER ...2015-164 │ 3 August 21, 2015 MEMORANDUM FOR UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ( COMPTROLLER )/CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DOD ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR...FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER ) SUBJECT: Independent Auditor’s Report on the Examination of Existence, Completeness, and Rights of

  15. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  16. Qualification Testing for Clipless Seal Used on 3/4 Banding, 40 in. x 48 in. Wood Pallet With .50 Caliber Ammunition in M2 Metal Boxes in Wire Bound Boxes IAW MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...), from Independence, Missouri. Two test units were tested with a load of 4,200 lbs. each. The tests accomplished on the test units were the stacking, vibration, drop, incline impact, forklift handling, and disassembly tests...

  17. NATO Pallet with Javelin Missiles, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted tests in accordance with MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the NATO pallet with Javelin missiles...

  18. Projectile, 155MM, XM982, Excalibur, Packed One (1) per PA179 Container, Unitized Up to Three (3) per 40 in. x 48 in. Wooden Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV), conducted tests in accordance with MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the XM982 155MM Excalibur Projectile packed one...

  19. Composite Monopack for 120mm Mortar, With Plastic Pallet Adapters on a 42" x 53" Wooden Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads", and Extreme Temperature Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2005-01-01

    ... (AMSRD-AAR-AIL-P) to conduct MIL-STD-1660 Tests to determine if the composite monopack for the 120MM mortar, with plastic pallet adapters on a 42" x 53" wooden pallet, designed by US Army ARDEC and manufactured...

  20. Metal Top Adapter ACV0000807, Manufactured by Delfasco, Inc. for Alliant Techsystems, Inc., for PA116 Containers on a 44" x 40" Wood Pallet, First Article Tests (FATs) IAW MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2008-01-01

    ...) test units were tested with a load of 2,495 lbs each. The tests accomplished on the test units were the Stacking, Repetitive Shock, Drop, Incline-Impact, Sling Compatibility, Forklifting, and Disassembly Tests...

  1. Composite Monopack for 120mm Mortar, With Plastic Pallet Adapters on a 42" x 53" Wooden Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads", and Extreme Temperature Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2005-01-01

    .... The test units were tested in accordance with the procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660. Stacking, repetitive shock, edgewise-rotational drop, incline-impact, forklifting, and disassembly testing were conducted on the test units...

  2. Environmental Studies on Open Burn/Open Detonation Disposal Sites. Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Operations: Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    report entitled Toxicity of Selected Munitions and Munition-Contaminated Soil to the Earthworm Eisenia foetida ). 7 In task 3, soil/water extracts were...Earthworm ( Eisenia Foetida ); Technical Report ERDEC-TR-037, April 1993. (8) Haley, M.V., R.T. Checkai, R.S. Wentsel. Toxicity Determination of

  3. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Procurement Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles, Ammunition and Other National Guard Equipment. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    000 13,0001 Trust fund ..... -80,000 ........... .......... -... O.0000 ....... 21,4001 Unobligated balance available, *% art ...threshold decreases (-$12,712) for various reprogramming accions . Ac.tiit S es and Repair Parts - Net increase is due to reprograt.ing action to

  4. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  5. 27 CFR 479.85 - Identification of transferee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... local law or that the transferee will use the firearm for other than lawful purposes. ...

  6. An Analysis of the Joint Modular Intermodal Distribution System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louden, Thomas; Luebbert, Brian; Winn, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    .... The operational concept of JMIDS is to provide a universal intermodal container system for automated handling, storage, and tracking of supply and ammunition shipments throughout the four Services...

  7. Defense Management Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Management College AMC Army Materiel Command AMCCOM Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command AMEC U.S. Army Management Engineering College AMOCAT Ammunition...Community. Modules include, but are not limited to, Transportation Query Processinq. Acquisition, Maintenance, Quality Assurance, Ammunition Catalog ( AMOCAT

  8. Air Force’s Combat Aircraft: A Future Holding into the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    erector launcher (TEL) giving the ability to “shoot and scoot,” and a radar that can be ready to move in only five minutes from full operation.81 In...8X8 heavy-duty wheeled chassis truck. It has two ammunition boxes each holding 500 rounds of ammunition of which one magazine typically holds armor

  9. Definition of a JA-2 equivalent propellant to be produced by continuous solventless extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, T.G.; Leone, J.; Zebregs, M.; Ramlal, D.R.; Driel, C.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to eliminate residual solvents in ammunition and to reduce the emissions of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere, the U.S. Army ARDEC has teamed with TNO in developing a new process for the production of solventless propellant for tank ammunition. To reduce the costs of solventless

  10. Chronic Lead Intoxication From Eating Wild-Harvested Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenz, Eric J; Parry, Gareth J

    2017-12-13

    The purpose of this article is to determine if conversion from eating wild game harvested with lead-based ammunition to nonlead-based ammunition results in lower blood lead levels. Supersonic injection of toxin-leeching frangible projectiles into food is intuitively bad. As much as 95% of the ~13.7 million hunters in the United States choose shrapnel-inducing lead bullets to kill game; in addition, not harvesting meat is an incarcerable crime. A lead ammunition ban on certain federal lands was recently rescinded and the National Rifle Association refutes any risk from eating lead bullet-harvested game. A patient subsisting solely on lead-shot meat was converted to non-lead ammunition and his blood lead level tracked. Concomitant with his conversion to nonlead ammunition, a controlled experiment was performed using the patient's bullets to determine his daily lead intake from lead-shot meat. While eating lead-shot meat, the patient was consuming 259.3 ± 235.6 µg of lead daily and his blood lead level was 74.7 µg/dL. Conversion to nonlead ammunition was associated with a reduced blood lead level. Unsafe blood lead levels can occur from eating game harvested with lead ammunition. Physicians should warn hunting patients of this potential risk and counsel them about the availability of nonlead ammunition alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. VULtURe snIPPets FRoM ARoUnD tHe WoRLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-03

    May 3, 2007 ... protect this incredible bird,” said Nava. AB. 821, the Ridley-Tree Condor Preservation. Act, will remove the number one threat to the survival of the endangered California. Condor, lead ammunition, by having hunters switch to a widely available, non- lead ammunition alternative when they hunt big game ...

  12. Alternate Material Pallet, 40" x 48", MIL-STD-1660, Engineering Evaluation Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted Engineering Evaluation Tests to determine if the Alternate Material Pallet manufactured by Hunter Paine Enterprise, Inc...

  13. M871A3 Tactical Trailer 22.5-Ton Payload Capacity TP-94-01, Transportability Testing Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, (SOSAC-DEV), was tasked by the Program Manager, Medium Tactical Vehicles to conduct transportability testing on the M871A3 Tactical Trailer...

  14. The Social Networks of Small Arms Proliferation: Mapping an Aviation Enabled Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curwen, Philip A

    2007-01-01

    A complex network of dealers, brokers, financiers, and traffickers continue to funnel large quantities of small arms and ammunition into African conflict zones despite the presence of United Nations arms embargoes...

  15. Deploying Electronic Roadside Vehicle Identification Technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , small and light arms. Moreover the present system is cumbersome, stressful, time consuming thus reducing the desired reliability, accuracy of roadside policing. Key Words: small arms and ammunitions, transponder, scanners. Sensors. RFID ...

  16. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  17. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... assessed with respect to the same underpayment (section 6653, I.R.C.). Application of State Laws ...

  18. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions of war of the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force of the United States Government, are...

  19. Neutron radiography with 252Cf in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Equipment and methods for neutron radiographic examination of objects in forensic science are described. Examples discussed include booby-trapped ammunition, bomb in a matchbook, gun barrel analysis, narcotics in pen, and chemicals and metals in body tissue

  20. 27 CFR 478.101 - Record of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Conduct of Business § 478.101 Record of transactions. Every licensee shall maintain firearms and armor piercing ammunition records in such form and manner as is prescribed by subpart H of this part. ...

  1. Representing Context in Simulator-based Human Performance Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stacy, Webb; Merket, Danielle C; Puglisi, Matt; Haimson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    .... How would we measure FO performance in simulator-based training for this scenario? It's not enough simply to take obvious measurements like target location error or target/ammunition combination...

  2. 32 CFR 215.9 - Providing military resources to civil authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., arms, ammunition, tank-automotive equipment, and aircraft. (ii) Group Two. Riot control agents... as Federal employees.) (b) Firefighting equipment will not be used for riot control. (c) Civil...

  3. 41 CFR 102-35.20 - What definitions apply to GSA's personal property regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determine its capitalization thresholds as discussed in Financial Accounting Standard Advisory Board (FASAB) Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards No. 6 Accounting for Property, Plant and Equipment..., ammunition, explosives, information technology equipment with memory capability, cameras, and communications...

  4. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force will soon have to contend with gun barrel erosion issues arising from the use of new low-vulnerability gun propellants, the acquisition of new ammunition and gun systems...

  5. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... obtain a determination under that provision of law shall follow the procedures prescribed in § 479.24...

  6. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... the transfer, receipt, or possession of a firearm would place the transferee in violation of law. (c...

  7. 27 CFR 479.63 - Identification of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... possession of the firearm by the maker would be in violation of State or local law or that the maker will use...

  8. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... provision of law for any device which he believes is not likely to be used as a weapon shall submit a...

  9. 27 CFR 479.62 - Application to make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... be in violation of law. If the making is taxable, a remittance in the amount of $200 shall be...

  10. Engineering Evaluation Tests of 16 Gauge vs 14 Gauge Staples IAW MIL-STD-1660, 40MM Cartridge on Wooden Pallet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2008-01-01

    ... Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" on the use of 16 gauge staples vs 14 gauge staples. The unit load tested simulated 40MM cartridges, packed 32 per PA120 metal container, and unitized 48 containers per 40" x 48" pallet...

  11. Evaluation of Six Options for Obtaining Red Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfetzing, E; Hoye, R

    1993-01-01

    .... The AEC is conducting a research and development program to select and demonstrate the best available treatment technology for red water in support of environmental compliance at Army ammunition plants (AAPs...

  12. PA171 Containers on a Wood Pallet with Metal Top Adapter, Air Pressure Tests During MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (PM-MAS) to conduct Air Pressure Tests during MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" testing on the PA171 containers on a wood pallet with metal top adapter as manufactured by Alliant Tech...

  13. 27 CFR 447.52 - Import restrictions applicable to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARMS, AMMUNITION AND IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Miscellaneous Provisions § 447.52 Import restrictions applicable..., Iraq, Libya, Mongolia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and Vietnam. This policy applies to countries or...

  14. 750 Pound M117 Bomb Transportability Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, William

    1999-01-01

    The US Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) Validation Engineering Division (SIOAC-DEV) was tasked by the US Army Pacific, Fort Shafter, HI to conduct transportability tests on modified 750 pound bombs...

  15. 32 CFR 644.529 - Supplemental agreement with owner of contaminated leased land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other... out of the existence on the premises of unexploded ammunition or chemical/biological agents. It is...

  16. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  17. The Forward Observer Personal Computer Simulator (FOPCSIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, David

    2002-01-01

    This joint thesis addresses the need for a task trainer for the artillery forward observer task, In recent years, declining budgets, limitations on artillery ammunition and encroachment into training...

  18. 27 CFR 478.2 - Relation to other provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... firearms, see Part 479 of this chapter. For statutes applicable to the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, importing or exporting arms, ammunition, or implements...

  19. Environmentally Friendly ̀Green' Propellant for the Medium Caliber Training Rounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, T. G; Thompson, D; Ellis, M; Lieb, R; Leadore, M; Colburn, J; Homan, B. E; Worrell, D. A; Moran, K. B; Ritchie, S. J

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC has teamed with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory in developing an environmentally friendly "green" propellant with improved insensitive munitions characteristics for use in medium caliber ammunition...

  20. 27 CFR 479.44 - Change in partnership or unincorporated association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Change of Ownership § 479.44 Change in...

  1. 27 CFR 479.45 - Changes in corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Change of Ownership § 479.45 Changes in corporation...

  2. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Change of Ownership § 479.43 Changes through...

  3. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Change of Ownership § 479.42 Changes through...

  4. 27 CFR 478.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... firearms and ammunition and are promulgated to implement Title I, State Firearms Control Assistance (18 U.S.C. Chapter 44), of the Gun Control Act of 1968 (82 Stat. 1213) as amended by Pub. L. 99-308 (100...

  5. Defense Technology Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    ;Contents: The Indefinit Extention of the NPT and Japan; Comprehensive Nuclear Security; CALS and JCALS; CAL Implementation on the F-22 Program; Vurtual Reality; Artilleries and its Ammunition; CLEO`95; Submarine `SEAVIEW`; and Japanese Missle.

  6. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1554

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-28

    antiaircraft and small-caliber board canons ), ammunition (infantry ammunition, 37 to 120 mm caliber grenades, hand grenades, land and tank mines), chemical...the mounting underinvestment in health service (curtailment of medical imports, medical equipment, etc;) will by the end of the 1980’s more and more...34 system. Yet the regime cannot work miracles and turn its cherished "totally subservient" scoundrels into gifted specialists as a reward for their

  7. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    G?bka, Karolina; Be?dowski, Jacek; Be?dowska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military tra...

  8. Аналіз впливу змін температур навколишнього середовища на інтенсивність виснаження порохових зарядів під час довгострокового зберігання боєприпасів

    OpenAIRE

    Бирюков, Алексей Игоревич; Бирюков, Игорь Юрьевич

    2016-01-01

    Changes in physical properties of the powder charges during their long-term storage are a negative effect on the ballistic characteristics of ammunition: the longer the ammunition storage period – the more the negative impact of this phenomenon. One of the main parameters that determine the storage of powder charges, and the most influential factor in determining the rate of molecular diffusion is the ambient temperature.We propose a method of forecasting changes in ambient temperature. The t...

  9. Cost and Performance Report: Innovative Welding Technologies Using Silicon Additives to Control Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    mobility particle sizer SOP standing operating procedure TEAD Tooele Army Depot TEM transmission electron microscopy TEOS tetraethyloxysilane TMS...Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) was selected as the test site for the field demonstration. TEAD is an active ammunition storage site responsible for shipping...significant amount of welding with stainless steel base metals. TEAD engineers and technical staff design and manufacture ammunition-peculiar equipment

  10. U.S. Army Military Police: The Force of Choice for Defense Support to Civil Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    ammunition and the proper riot control equipment, mainly a restrictive locking plate that would prevent weapons from firing in full- automatic mode, the...ammunition, and critical civil disturbance equipment to include face shields, riot batons, M-16 lock plates , and communications equipment.65 Third was the...Detention Specialist), and 31K (Military Working Dog Handler), as well as the various additional skill identifiers germane to the Military Police Soldier

  11. Firearms and Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    BOLTON-KING, Rachel; Schulze, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 7 of the book entitled 'Practical Veterinary Forensics' aims to introduce forensic veterinarians to the scientific concepts underpinning the field of firearms and ballistics. This introduction will enable practitioners to understand wound formation depending on the firearm and ammunition used. \\ud \\ud Various types of firearms, modern firing mechanisms and ammunition will be explained, together with an introduction to the physical concepts underpinning the four main constituents of th...

  12. Radiological and toxicological assessment of an external heat (burn) test of the 105MM cartridge, APFSDS-T, XM-744

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, R.L.; Parker, G.B.; Mishima, J.

    1978-03-01

    The potential radiological and toxicological hazard of depleted uranium aerosol release was investigated. This type of release might arise from accidents with XM-774 ammunition involving great heat. Twelve rounds of packaged ammunition were subjected to an external heat (burn) test. Examination of the site on the day following the test revealed that all 12 depleted uranium penetrators were completely intact. Oxidation of the penetrators was not apparent, even on the most severely burned projectile located at ground zero. Eleven of the 12 projectiles were recovered with the sabots intact; some sabots appeared charred. It was concluded that no airborne release of depleted uranium had occurred and subsequently there had been no radiological or toxicological hazard from DU during this test. However, this conclusion may not apply to the release of depleted uranium in other types of fires involving this ammunition because other factors may affect the fire. These factors include type of fuel, number of ammunition rounds, and type of structure housing the ammunition

  13. Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Singh, Navinder J; Arnemo, Jon M; Bignert, Anders; Helander, Björn; Berglund, Åsa M M; Borg, Hans; Bröjer, Caroline; Holm, Karin; Lanzone, Michael; Miller, Tricia; Nordström, Åke; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ågren, Erik; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2017-05-16

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  14. A History of the Organizational Development of the Continental Artillery during the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Books translated into English which would be of great Service but none more so than the great Marechal Saxe ―who stalks a God in war.‖ Tis he who...ammunition based on range and target. Ball shot was the primary ammunition, but he did not describe the specific range for the use of ― grape shot...fired either round shot or grape fired in this manner, casualties were often heavy. The linear formations of the 18th century allowed for round shot

  15. [Unusual suicide by gunshot wound to the head with a signal pistol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, S; Koops, E; Kleiber, M; Kulle, K J; Püschel, K

    1994-01-01

    The professional access to weapons plays a role in the choice of suicide instruments. Light and signalling ammunition is used by police forces, in the military, in sports, and professional navigation. An unusual suicide of a shipowner by means of a signal-pistol is presented. The signal cartridge was shot into the head. Penetrating the skull the cartridge entered the brain. The burning-out of the signal-set--taking about 10 seconds--initiated a flat-burning.--This case shows once more the dangerous misuse of light and signal ammunition.

  16. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region...

  17. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public without regard to sex, race, creed, color or national origin. No lessee, licensee, or..., race, creed, color or national origin in the conduct of operations under the lease, license or... fireworks. (i) The possession of loaded firearms, ammunition, projectile firing devices, bows and arrows...

  18. Energy Absorption Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composites Subjected to Dynamic Loading Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    resistant vests, to vests designed to withstand .50 caliber armor-piercing ammunition, to blast-resistance diapers for vehicle 2 personnel and...static friction coefficients defined for contact between the projectile, fibers, and matrices. The viscous dissipation utilized a default value that

  19. On park design : looking beyond the wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oneka, M.

    1996-01-01


    The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with

  20. The Significance of the Bulgarian Senior Military Leadership in World War I: A Comparative Study of the Bulgarian Army Operations at Dobro Pole and Doiran in 1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    INTRODUCTION Background Whether we support the brute and cruel military struggle or not, whether we are mild peace-lovers or adherents of power, the...was very persistent in his demands for additional clothing, supplies, and ammunition. He used every opportunity to request his superiors, even Crown

  1. A Comparison of Transparency in the Defense Procurement Processes of Turkey and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    incompetent or unethical people to important positions in organizations and leave out some capable personnel. In fact, patronage strongly depends on social...good regulations ineffective if officials are unethical . However, although detecting bad regulations and reforming them can reduce corruption...aircraft, warships, ammunition and military supplies. In this method, the procurement entity can either advertise or invite a minimum of three

  2. Fagre nye arbejdsliv? – set gennem fire fremtrædende kritisk-sociologiske samtidsdiagnoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of Arlie R. Hochschild. Finally, we have the ‘Precarization Diagnosis’ promoted by, amongst others, Guy Standing. Each of these diagnoses provides important conceptual and analytical ammunition for a scathing critique of contemporary work life. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of these diagnoses...

  3. Net Treffers tel | Otto | Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet a comparison of ammunition expenditure and casualty lists in the Second Anglo-Boer War surely give pause for thought and there seems ample evidence to bring the truth of the sharpshooting tradition into question. Such myths are indeed hazardous, for they breed complacency in the present day, where a very real ...

  4. 27 CFR 478.58 - State or other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business or activity contrary to State or other law. The holder of such a license is not by reason of the... ammunition business or activity in violation of the provisions of any State or other law. Similarly... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State or other law. 478.58...

  5. Explosives safety research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Wees, R.M.M. van; Dongen. P. van

    2013-01-01

    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transhipment may result in severe injury and material damage. TNO has developed a number of tools to quantify the consequences and risks of accidental

  6. Compatibility testing of energetic materials at TNO-PML and MIAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Miszczak, M.; Szymanowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compatibility is an important property for energetic materials and their additives such as a casing material or a binder. If these substances are incompatible an extra risk is introduced in handling and storage of ammunition and explosives. As part of a co-operation program between the Dutch TNO-PML

  7. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. ...

  8. 27 CFR 479.182 - Forfeitures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... revenue laws: Provided, however, That the disposition of forfeited firearms shall be in conformance with..., shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture under the Customs laws, as provided by the act of August 9...

  9. 27 CFR 479.52 - State regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Application of State Laws § 479.52 State regulations. Special tax stamps are merely receipts for the tax. Payment of tax under Federal law confers no privilege...

  10. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ting. It is used in industrial floorings, ship decks, railway passenger coach floorings, hospital floors, ammunition factory floors, missile silos and underground armament factories and bunkers. Recently, concrete of high compres- sive and tensile strength prepared with magnesium oxy- chloride cement and recycled rubber ...

  11. Have Third-World Arms Industries Reduced Arms Imports?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Current Research on Peace and Violence, no. 1, 1989. Refereed Journal Article In 1945 only Argentina, Brazil, India and South Africa in the Third World possessed domestic arms industries which produced weapons systems other than small arms and ammunition (SIPRI, 1987, 76).

  12. 27 CFR 53.184 - Refund to exporter or shipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund to exporter or shipper. 53.184 Section 53.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AMMUNITION Refunds and Other Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.184...

  13. from Ikpoba Reservoir, Benin City, Nigeria. *1WANGBOJE, O.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: This study determined the concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr in. Synodontis clarias (Linnaeus, 1766) and ... concentrations of Cu and Zn in water, were significantly different (P<0.05) between stations. Manganese was ..... can be found in batteries, rust inhibitors, ammunition, solder, alloys and plastic.

  14. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    operations in remote, isolated, and coastal communities of Canada2 3. CR are comprised of approximately 4111 Inuit , First Nations, Métis, and non...the higher heat and pressure generated by its ammunition, which was state of the art at the time of its development10. Over the years the Lee

  15. 48 CFR 223.370-2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 223.370-2..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY... Safety Data 223.370-2 Definition. Ammunition and explosives, as used in this section, is defined in the...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSPB 2010. The Egyptian Vulture – What's going on in Afrika? Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds. Downloaded from http://www.bspb.org on 2/3/2010. Cade, T.J. 2007. Exposure of California Condors to lead from spent ammunition. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2125–2133. Cuthbert, R., Green, R.E., Ranade ...

  17. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakata, Hokuto; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Hayashi, Terutake; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning is widespread among raptors and water birds. In Japan, fragments of Pb ammunition are still found in endangered eagles although more than 10 years have passed since legislation regarding use of Pb ammunition was introduced. This study was performed to investigate Pb exposure in raptors from various locations in Japan. We measured hepatic and renal Pb concentrations and hepatic Pb isotope ratios of Steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and 13 other species (total 177 individuals) that were found dead, as well as blood samples from three eagles found in a weakened state during 1993-2015 from Hokkaido (northern part), Honshu (the main island), and Shikoku (a southern island) of Japan. In the present study in Hokkaido, one quarter of the sea eagles showed a high Pb concentration, suggesting exposure to abnormally high Pb levels and Pb poisoning. Pb isotope ratios indicated that endangered Steller's sea eagle and white-tailed sea eagle were poisoned by Pb ammunition that was used illegally in Hokkaido. In other areas of Japan, both surveillance and regulations were less extensive than in Hokkaido, but Pb poisoning in raptors was also noted. Therefore, Pb poisoning is still a serious problem in raptors in various areas of Japan due to accidental ingestion of materials containing Pb, especially Pb ammunition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 1 (2012) - Articles Deploying Electronic Roadside Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads Abstract PDF · Vol ... Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 1 (2014) - Articles Biometric Authentication Systems Attacks: Liveness Detection to the Rescue Abstract PDF ...

  19. Pyro-Terrorism -- The Threat of Arson Induced Forest Fires as a Future Terrorist Weapon of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    endorsed direct action targets as, “forest destruction, new developments, SUVs, gmo (sic)[genetically modified] crops and research, police and military...of ammunition, rice, and petroleum products …100-200 Vietcong were killed or incapacitated while either fighting the fire or by rocket ships and air

  20. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    U.S. Government Printing Office. History of U.S. Army weapons. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 May 2015 from http://www.military.com/army- birthday /history-of...Assembly. (1999, June). Report of the group of experts on the problem of ammunition and explosives, Chapter II material addressed in the present report

  1. 75 FR 79022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Firearms and Ammunition by Nonimmigrant Aliens. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Nonimmigrant Aliens. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department of Justice... respondents, who will complete the form within approximately 30 minutes. (6) An estimate of the total burden...

  2. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  3. Explosion mitigation by water mist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Cargill, S.; Longbottom, A.; Rhijnsburger, M.P.M.; Erkel, A.G. van

    2010-01-01

    The internal explosion of an anti-ship missile or stored ammunition is a potentially catastrophic threat for a navy vessel. These events generally cause heavy blast loading and fragments to perforate the ship structure. As a solution to reduce the blast loading, the compartment can be filled with

  4. Mass Shootings in the United States: Common Characteristics and Predictive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    to buy bullets at a local Wal-Mart. Undeterred, he bought the ammunition at a nearby Super Wal-Mart 20 minutes later (Gillum 2011). Reports indicate...intervene effectively before the incident. Each shooter held a strong compulsion and three 57 of four told someone else what they planned to do. Three

  5. PORTUGAL AND SOUTH AFRICA: CLOSE ALLIES OR UNWILLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois

    construction of the railway line that linked Lourenço Marques to the mining towns in the Transvaal.10 Another factor that ..... service and the supply of aircraft ammunition by South Africa. 42 NARS, BTS, Box 74/29 (F1), .... forces while Portuguese aircraft provided protection for the South African aircraft operating in Angola.

  6. Accommodating Adolescent Sleep-Wake Patterns: The Effects of Shifting the Timing of Sleep on Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    assessed based on “record fire” scores. During a BCT record fire, trainees were given an M16/ M4 series rifle and 40 rounds of ammunition and presented...AS, Lagerquist O, Ley AL, Collins, DF. Chronotype influences diurnal variations in the excitability of the human motor cortex and the ability to

  7. A Discourse on Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Basic Combat Training record fire, Soldiers are given an M16/ M4 series rifle and 40 rounds of ammunition and presented with 40 timed target exposures...O., Ley, A. L., & Collins, D. F. (2009). Chronotype influences diurnal variations in the excitability of the human motor cortex and the ability to

  8. Effects of Sleep on Training Effectiveness in Soldiers at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    M16/ M4 series rifle and 40 rounds of ammunition and presented with 40 timed target exposures at ranges from 50 to 300 meters. Twenty targets are...Lagerquist, O., Ley, A. L., & Collins, D. F. (2009). Chronotype influences diurnal variations in the excitability of the human motor cortex and the ability

  9. Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Tanzania: A Review | Koleleni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been a tradition to perceive that Nuclear/Atomic radiations are only related to Nuclear/Atomic bombs, heavy ammunitions and consequently applications for human and non-peaceful destructions. In this paper the questions on how the Nuclear/Atomic radiations may be used for peaceful applications and specifically to ...

  10. Darrell Hall Covos-Day Books, Weltevreden Park, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personally of the 14th and 66th Batteries and the six naval guns; Long's place was with Buller, from where he could have exercised overall control of the artillery. That way he could have dealt effectively with the ammunition problem. According to Hall, Buller apparently did not know the difference between withdrawing the ...

  11. 27 CFR 479.23 - Restrictive use of required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE... 26 U.S.C. Chapter 53, or this part or section 207 of the Gun Control Act of 1968 shall be used... violation of law occurring prior to or concurrently with the filing of the application or registration, or...

  12. 28 CFR 0.133 - Transition and continuity of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ammunition), and part 179 (Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other Firearms) as in effect on... terms until amended, modified, superseded, terminated, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law. (2... in accordance with law, unless the application of such regulations would be inconsistent with...

  13. 27 CFR 479.26 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous...) The alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law and will not result in... provisions of law. Variations from requirements granted under this paragraph are conditioned on compliance...

  14. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... of a firearm would place the transferee in violation of law. In addition to any other records checks... place the transferee in violation of law, the Director shall contact the National Instant Criminal...

  15. Ion bombardment targeting neoplasms. The particle accelerator substituting the surgical knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.

    1997-01-01

    The particle accelerator can do the work of the surgical knife. Protons, neutrons, and heavy ions are of interest not only to physicists. The doctors are increasingly using the atomic ammunition from the large accelerators as a weapon for combatting neoplasms. (Orig./CB) [de

  16. A statistical description of explosion produced debris dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transshipment may result in severe injury and material damage. Dispersion of structural debris is one of the main hazards resulting from detonations inside

  17. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active duty...

  18. Ageing of gun propellants in munition articles or in glass bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Meer, B.J. van der; Steen, A.C. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of the seventies TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNOPML) investigates the thermal stability of all stored land-force gunpropellants by isothermal microcalorimetry. The investigations are performed with IST (Isothermal Storage Test) at a temperature of 85 °C (358 K). Ammunition

  19. Get the lead out: Wildlife advocates file suit to replace toxic ammo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Get the lead out: Wildlife advocates file suit to replace toxic ammo with safer alternatives. Simple, practical ... who eats game, which often contains shot or small metal fragments. Lead is an extremely toxic ... eating meat from animals taken with lead ammunition often have unhealthy lead levels in their own ...

  20. Director, Operational Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    chassis with a mounted Mission Module containing the gun mount, cannon, aiming, and ammunition handling systems...specialized variants of the Stryker family of vehicles. The NBCRV uses a modified Infantry Carrier Vehicle chassis . • Chemical, biological, and...weapon system, a retractable aerial refueling probe, and a personnel hoist. Mission • Squadrons equipped with the MV-22 will provide medium lift

  1. 27 CFR 53.20 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrator. 53.20 Section 53.20 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 53.20 Delegations of the Administrator. The regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in this part are delegated to appropriate TTB officers...

  2. Recent developments of the KG software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Radtke, F.K.F.; Amelsfort, R.J.M. van; Khoe, Y.S.; Stacke, I.; Voss, M.; Häring, I.

    2010-01-01

    Explosive loading of a reinforced concrete ammunition magazine may result in break-up and launch of debris. Since debris throw is one of the major hazards in case of an accidental explosion, it is of high importance within risk assessment tools. Within the Klotz Group this phenomenon has been

  3. Army-Navy Integration and the Pivot to the West: A New Joint Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    16 Similarly, John P. Kotter argues there are challenges within these intercultural ... communicates a vision of future force operations, expanding upon direction by the Secretary of Defense. One key idea within the CCJO is the concept of...vital sea line of communication for both the North and the South. This maritime highway carried war supplies, weapons, cannons, ammunition, cargo

  4. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    23). New York: Springer. 100 Jung, B. M., & Baek, D. H. (2009). Estimating the ROI on implementation of RFID at the ammunition storage warehouse ...ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION ( RFID ) IMPLEMENTATION AT THE DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS ACTIVITY (DMEA) by James B. Gerber December...Identification ( RFID ) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James B. Gerber 7

  5. 75 FR 70705 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... safety characteristics of stockpiled ammunition. 15. Department of Defense, Joint Staff (N1-218-10-3, 2... information on the positions and characteristics of vessels near a reported distress. 24. Department of...). Records associated with a Web site and television channel that broadcast content about the Department of...

  6. 2 A~TI- T4~K REGI~E~Tf SAA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The departure of the enemy armour from the vicinity of Capuzzo on the 27th and 28th left. 23 and 28 New Zealand Battalions of 5 New. Zealand Brigade still in possession of this vital area. These units were now desperately short of food and ammunition however, and suc- cour had been promised by 4 Indian Division. 49-.

  7. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    of military high technology that the Americans had prom- ised. CAMBIO 16 has seen an "internal memo" of the Empresa Nacional Santa Barbara de...where there was comment that if "we can’t even produce the ammunition, they’re hardly going to let us have the advanced software pro- grams that are

  8. Deploying Electronic Roadside Vehicle Identification Technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenges to handle in order to liberate her citizens from the bondage of insecurity of lives and property ... light armour and helicopters”. Though .... These problems and more can be avoided if automated road side vehicle identification system is deployed at the road sides. This will track down any arms or ammunition being.

  9. Millimeter Wave Technology for Armament Applications .

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Bains; Deepak Singh; R. P. Dixit

    1997-01-01

    Use of millimeter wave (MMW) technology in armament systems imposes many restrictions on the size, volume and compactness of these systems in addition to ruggedness and reliable functioning in battlefield environment. This paper discusses the related design and technological issues, particularly in, the context of the sensors developed for smart ammunition and active armour protection systems.

  10. Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C) System Crew Shock Loading, Evaluation of Potential Head and Neck Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaFiandra, Michael E; Zywiol, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The Future Combat Systems (FCS) non-line of sight cannon (NLOS-C) is an artillery weapon that will use a 155-mm cannon that will be capable of automatically firing and reloading ammunition, as many as six rounds per minute...

  11. GENERAL BOTHA()

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the system of the training and education of the boys during the two years' .... percussion firing and its safety arrangements, recoil and run out. Stripping Q.F. blocks and explanation of locks, strikers, box slides and probable causes of miss- fire. Explanation of B.L. block gun drill and loader; ammunition and explosives,.

  12. Evolution of a Radio Communication Relay System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    food, or ammunition to the Warfighter at the front line. A marsupial robotics capability has been demonstrated by deploying a magnetic- wheel micro...achieved by focusing the radiation pattern. In the case of an omnidirectional antenna, the radiation pattern “donut” is flattened. This causes

  13. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-18

    Jun 18, 2006 ... near San Lucas, but the marksmen didn't use non-lead ammunition. Condors eat only carrion – dead carcasses – and are highly susceptible to lead poisoning if they ingest lead bullet ... came in and started eating everything,”. Petersen said. News of the ... And yet the state refuses to act.” Earlier this.

  14. 2008 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-10

    TEMP) • Standards assessment and/or development by S&T • Grant program development by DHS customer • New Product Development ( NPD ) process...needed to carry out the mission of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.’ What we buy: Food and Beverage Items, Body Armor, Ammunition, Uniform Rental

  15. 27 CFR 478.56 - Right of succession by certain persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... right provided by this section, the person or persons continuing the business shall furnish the license for that business for endorsement of such succession to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center... secure the right to carry on the same firearms or ammunition business at the same address shown on, and...

  16. Reusable "Clip Lok" Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Quinn

    1997-01-01

    ... by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct M(L-SIT)-l660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, tests on the reusable Clip-Lok pallet produced by Clip-Lok SimPak USA, Inc...

  17. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  18. Intercultural Education Series. The Americas and Self-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.

    This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…

  19. 27 CFR 479.34 - Special tax registration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES... special tax to which the taxpayer is subject. (6) Ownership and control information: That is, the name... more of its stock, if the taxpayer is a corporation. However, the ownership and control information...

  20. A Cultural Resources Testing Program, Holbrook, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Colorado Chiquito (Granger 1960:244), a name which was in common use until at least 1877 (Hinton 1970). Eventually the anglicized form, Little Colorado...century, but one company was still advertising rifles and ammunition in the 1930s (Barnes 1965:115). Bullets Eight bullets representing three different

  1. 22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an assembled article ready for its intended use. Only ammunition, fuel or another energy source is...-item without which the end-item is inoperable. (Example: Airframes, tail sections, transmissions, tank..., operating systems and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis and repair. A...

  2. 77 FR 38777 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Tank is the compartmentalization of fuel and ammunition. Compartmentalization is the positive... and refurbishment of 200 M1A1 Abrams tanks, provided as part of a grant Excess Defense Article (EDA... Launchers, support equipment, spare and repair parts, personnel training and training equipment...

  3. 27 CFR 70.450 - Seizure and forfeiture of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ammunition seized under Title I of the Gun Control Act of 1968, as amended. For disposal of firearms under... I of the Gun Control Act of 1968, see 18 U.S.C. 924(d). For disposal of explosives under Title XI of Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, see 18 U.S.C. 844(c). Possessions ...

  4. 32 CFR 552.127 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous... shotgun. (2) Sawed-off rifle. (3) Machine gun and automatic weapons. (4) Silencers. (5) Dangerous... electrical current of sufficient wattage to deliver a shock to a person, such as cattle prods, stun guns...

  5. 27 CFR 479.101 - Registration of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period established under section 207 of the Gun Control Act of 1968 (82 Stat. 1235). (c) A person shown... the possessors thereof under the provisions of section 207 of the Gun Control Act of 1968. (e) A..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 2007 Joint Services Small Arms Systems Annual Symposium, Exhibition and Firing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-10

    Location & Capabilities System Approach • ISO 9001/2000 •List X 4 © System Design Evaluation 2007 Major Project Support/Partnerships FIST – Thales...Timberwolf PGW (Canada) Remington M24A3 SIG Blaser LRS2 (Switzerland) Many Others Ammunition: Lapua Norma RUAG Black Hills Countries: Australia

  7. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application of Path Sharing To Routing For Mobile Sinks In Wireless Sensor Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Deploying Electronic Roadside Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Vulnerability of fighter–aircraft for new threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerten, E. van

    2002-01-01

    Technical developments in modern fighter aircraft design will contribute to aircraft survivability by influencing either the aircraft’s susceptibility or its vulnerability. On the other hand, technical developments in missile warhead and ammunition design will result in a lethality increase against

  9. Operational Art and Munitions Supply: An Analysis of Munitions and Their Influence on Operational Art Practiced by the American Expeditionary Forces During World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    the direction to immediately extend and connect the existing French light rail system to the captured German light rail system. The execution of this...ammunition. The engineer annex gave specific instruction to repair and extend both light rail and highways. The order specified the light rail repair and

  10. 27 CFR 478.103 - Posting of signs and written notification to purchasers of handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the juvenile's parent or legal guardian and at the direction of an adult who is not prohibited by... guest. (4) A handgun or ammunition, the possession of which is transferred to a juvenile in... parent or legal guardian at all proceedings. (B) The court may use the contempt power to enforce...

  11. Unleaded shooting: hunters like copper bullets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Ammunition, Bismuth Cartridge Co. and Barnes Bullets to let hunters see if they worked. They did. Shot groups fired with the Barnes copper hollow point. Triple Shock X-Bullet were generally tighter than with conventional softpoint bullets. A test firing of the two types of bullets into plastic bins filled with wet.

  12. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within 30...

  13. Investigation of the use of luminescent markers as gunshot residue indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Marcella A M; Ordoñez, Carlos; Weber, Ingrid T; Torre, Mercedes; García-Ruiz, Carmen; López-López, María

    2017-11-01

    The addition of luminescent markers into ammunition cartridges is an appealing proposal to achieve a greater individual identification of the ammunition. The lanthanide elements present in these luminescent materials act as characteristic chemical markers that, also, offer the great benefit of making gunshot residues (GSR) collection easier. Although the use of luminescent markers offers numerous advantages, and can be a reliable future option in the cartridge ammunition market, little or nothing is known about the interaction of the marker with the ammunition compounds after the shot. For the forensic laboratories, it is of utmost importance to anticipate the commercialization of tagged luminescent ammunition by knowing the type of particles produced after the discharge. That is, to investigate if markers merge with GSR to form single particles or, on the contrary, they form individual particles that travel separately from the GSR particles. In this work, conventional ammunition cartridges tagged with two types of luminescent markers were shot. Then, the particles produced were visualized under UV light on the floor, clothing targets and the shooter. The luminescent particles spread over the floor determined the shooter position and the bullet trajectory. The illumination of the shot targets allows the visualization of the GSR patterns only using a portable UV lamp, avoiding the use of colorimetric test. The GSR particles were collected and subjected to SEM-EDX and Raman spectroscopy analysis to get information about their inorganic and organic composition. The results indicated that part of the marker and the GSR merge and travel together. With this, particles composed by the marker and propellant organic compounds can be identified by Raman spectroscopy, and the unequivocal identification of the GSR and the marker can be achieved by SEM-EDX. Consequently, the luminescent particles detected under UV light improve the evidence collection and offer information

  14. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  15. The Relationship Between the Surface Morphology and Chemical Composition of Gunshot Residue Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ilker; Lisesivdin, Sefer Bora; Kasap, Mehmet; Er, Elif; Uzek, Ugur

    2015-07-01

    In this study, chemical composition and morphology of gunshot residue (GSR) of 9 × 19 mm Parabellum-type MKE (Turkey)-brand ammunition were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. GSR samples were collected by "swab" technique from the shooter's right hand immediately after shooting. According to general principles of thermodynamics, it is likely that the structures will have a more regular (homogeneous) spherical form to minimize their surface area due to very high temperatures and pressures that occur during explosion. Studied samples were collected under the same conditions with the same original ammunition, from the same firearm and a single shooter. This is because many other variables may affect size, structure, and composition in addition to the concentrations of elements of the structure. Results indicated that the chemical compositions are effective in the formation of GSR morphological structures. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  17. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  18. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  19. Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-10-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

  20. Proceedings of the Annual US Army Operations Research Symposium (AORS) (28th) Held in Fort Lee, Virginia on 10-12 October 1989. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-07

    23 Tank Ammunition Combined Arms Resupply Model (Collier, McCandless & Allen-Peters) . . . . . . . ........ 24 Inventory Manager’s...RESUPPLY MODEL MAJ K. STEVEN COLLIER MAJ RON McCANDLESS MS JACQUELINE M. ALLEN-PETERS DIRECTORATE OF COMBAT DEVELOPMENTS US ARMY ARMOR SCHOOL, PT. KNOX...I I / ) ~1/1, 96) COMPARISON OF PARAMETRIC VERSUS NONPARAMETRIC EVALUATION UPON NON-HOMOGENEOUS FIELD DATA Mr. Christopher J. N’.ubert U. S. Army

  1. Pulmonary Oxygen Toxicity with Exercise: Single MK 25 Rebreather Dives or Split 6-Hour Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    pressure (PO2) adds possible local effects of oxygen on lung tissue and systemic toxic effects throughout the body. Previous work at Navy Experimental Diving...and may include elastic and additional hydrostatic loading. The MK 25 (Draeger LAR V) 100% oxygen rebreather has a chest-mounted rebreathing bag...ammunition. Compressed air release simulated recoil . A pseudorandom sequence of reflective targets was presented to the subject over two minutes, and

  2. The Strategic Direction for Army Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    up on 1 Oct 2012, and is projected to yield $109M in annual cost avoidance. 2012 ASB Summer Study Science and Technology Report The Strategic...performed in-house in Army Ammunition Plants . The top figure below shows that in BA 2 approximately 52% of the funds are spent in-house and most of...energy source to current technologies. A goal of this work is to mimic photosynthesis through the fabrication of photocatalytic biohybrid system of

  3. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax, captured during the moose (Alces alces hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus, golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  4. Cannae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1931-01-01

    the imaginings of a mind which saw everything through black glasses : the three German armies might have been easily assembled at that time between...whose service the battery commander and the only surviving officer had to combine. When the ammunition boxes of the limbers had been emp- tied, the...pursued by weak detachments of the Germans. The 66th Regiment was followed from Behe Tour to Beaumont by the 26th, and the latter by the 14th Brigade

  5. Evaluation of SW846 Method 8330 for Characterization of Sites Contaminated with Residues of High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the transformation pathways of some explosives have Method 8330 is the sum of the TNB and TNBA initially been studied in cell cultures , composting...soil. Talanta, 39:419-428. products in soils and plant tissues by high-performance Jenkins, T.F., P.H. Miyares, K.F. Myers, E.F. McCor- liquid... hydroponic plants. Environmental Toxicology and (1976)Aquaticfield survey at Iowa, Radford, and Joliet Chemistry, 10: 845-855. Armn Ammunition Plants

  6. Predicting Ranger Assessment and Selection Program 1 Success and Optimizing Class Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Euphytica, 213: 100. Lyle DS (2003) Essays Using Military–Induced Variation to Study Social Interactions, Human Capital Development, and Labor Markets ...barracks and food ). We encourage detailed exploration of our underlying assumptions and continued use of the ILP. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 75th...reduction could save hundreds of man hours and significantly reduce training resource requirements (e.g., ammunition, land use, barracks and food

  7. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Analysis of Microbial Consortia on Wastewater Treatment Processes for High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    scale granulated activated carbon- fluidized bed reactor (GAC-FBR) treating TNT, RDX, and TNB. Bacterial profiles were derived by cloning and...the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) granulated activated carbon, fluidized bed , bioreactor (GAC-FBR) treating 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT...scale granulated activated carbon- fluidized bed reactor (GAC-FBR) treating hexahydro-1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB

  9. Study of influence of an experiment scale on cylinder test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar A. Trzciński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work, influence of a scale of experiment on the results of cylindrical test used todetermine the acceleration capabilities of explosives was analyzed. Explosives used in ammunition(TNT, hexogen and explosives for civil purpose (ammonals were selected for testing. Copper tubeswith different diameters and wall thickness were used. Conclusions are drawn regarding the advisabilityof increasing or decreasing the scale of the cylinder test.[b]Keywords[/b]: explosives, acceleration ability, cylinder test

  10. Multi-Role Aviation Weapon System (MRAWS) Background & Advanced 30mm Combat Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-11

    Industry owns some patents No corrections for environ effects Very accurate above Mach 1+ 1st order independent of velocity Moderate power Demonstrated...technology Turns Requires commo w/system FC Needs velocity measurement device Industry owned patents No corrections for environ effects Accurate...Presentations Flow • MRAWS Program History • Advanced 30MM Combat Round (A30CR) • Precision Electric Turret ( PET )/M230 Gun System – A30CR Ammunition Fuzing

  11. All Those Who Remained: The American-Led Guerillas in the Philippines, 1942-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    by the lush Cagayan valley dominate the northern region of Luzon. Dense tropical rainforests and rough mountainous terrain made this area both...culverts, and defiles between Laoag, Ilocos Norte and Tagudin, Ilocos Sur and between Baquio and Bontoc. Their next priority would be the destruction of...lines of communication along the Balete Pass, including the destruction of wire communication lines, fuel and ammunition sites, supply depots, and

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 78, Number 1, January-February 1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-02-01

    fixed round of ammunition (See Figure 5) con- sists of an empty 3" antiaircraft artillery cartridge case, wooden projectile, and real 21 -second fuze... psychoanalysis or detailed character study, but an endeavor to get an estimate of each man more dependable than that of any single individual. To...station. Every wounded man asked for water, though most of the men had empty canteens. We had had no opportunity to refill canteens since leaving Missy the

  13. NRHP Eligibility of the Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Elevated Water Tank (Facility 49001) and Reservoir (Facility 22020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    water tanks were built near rail lines to replenish the water needed for steam locomotives. In urban areas, water tanks provide needed reservoirs for...place with wrought- iron tie rods (Figure 7). Another type is the circular tank using steel plates welded together to cover the full depth of the...Water Towers of Welded Steel.” May 1949, 129-130. Becher, Hilla, and Bernd Becher. “Ammunition and Explosive Storage for the Navy (1939- 1989) and

  14. Collaborative Point Paper on Active Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    support for the Chameleon ECM CIED System. Under the teaming agreement, MES, Plexus Corp. Neenah, WI and Applied Marine Technology, Inc. Hanahan, SC...power mode is used at the general direction of the threat, in a search pattern designed to locate the target’s optics. Once locked on a target, the... locking onto target 7.8- 10.06m from tank; after processing data computer selects countermunition (CM)- protective ammunition housed in 20 silos around

  15. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    that fell on floors, collected in concrete pores, settled or condensed onto pipes, beams and equipment during production of ammunition ( Plexus ...be containerized by the sampling personnel in approved Department of Transportation (DOT) drums that can be sealed, locked and transported to a...Kit saran wrap buckets Fire Exinguisher waste disposal (ie.drums) flow through cell/beakers HASP zip lock bags field filters LEL meter blue ice waste

  16. An Approach to the Application of Life Cycle Cost Concept in Weapon Systems Acquisition for the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    1010 Venezuela S.A. 9. Jefatura de Logistics 4 * Comandancia Gereral de la 1arina Caracas 1010 Venezuela S.A. 10. Jefatura de Educacion 2 * Comandancia...consideration being given to 0&S costs that are not going to be en - countered until the system is included in the inventory. Realistically, there is very...element 303.3. 69 307.3 Training Expendable Stores: The cost of the expendable ordnance, ammunition, pyrotechniques, missiles, ballis- tic weapons

  17. Civil Wars in Britain, 1640-1646 Military Revolution on Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    to ship nearly a dozen field pieces and 2,000 muskets with quantities of ammunition during the summer of 1638 alone.28 Christian IV of Denmark had...Scotland and England had been regally united in 1603 under King James I). Charles attempted to impose this Anglican liturgy upon Scotland by means of the...Scottish Book of Common Prayer in 1637. However, in 1638 the Scots signed the National Covenant that committed the Scottish kirk to its own liturgy

  18. Medical Department, United States Army. Wound Ballistics for World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    tooth , both premolars, and the first molar were avulsed . A penetrating wound, 2.5 x 3.5 cm., entered the posterior left side of the chest through a...expla- nation for this unusual condition was that aircraft ammunition may have been salvaged from grounded planes and air force depots and used when... avulsion of the leg. A tourniquet was applied to the leg, 350 WOUND BALLISTICS plasma was given, and the patient was removed from the lines within an

  19. Risked a lot and won a lot more; Viel gewagt, mehr gewonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2013-07-05

    What do 7,300 inhabitants with a 90 hectare great ammunition depot of the Bundeswehr? They build a bioenergy park. This courageous decision not only attracts hordes of visitors to Saerbeck, it also provides for regular incomes. [German] Was fangen 7.300 Einwohner mit einem 90 ha grossen Munitionsdepot der Bundeswehr an? Sie bauen einen Bioenergiepark. Die mutige Entscheidung lockt nicht nur Heerscharen von Besuchern nach Saerbeck, sie sorgt auch fuer regelmaessige Einnahmen.

  20. AH-64E Apache New Build (AH-64E New Build)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    force. It is a twin engine, four-bladed, tandem seat, attack helicopter with 30-millimeter ammunition, 2.75- inch rockets, laser and radio frequency...64E is linked to Joint and Combined Arms Air/Ground Maneuver Teams via Enhanced Digital Communications, Unmanned Aircraft Systems Data Links and...AH-64E is fully network-centric capable with current digitized forces and FMF-equipped forces. This enables interoperability with current and future

  1. Rear for the Frontline: History of Mine Plant in Chekist Poselok (Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, using Ministry of Internal Affairs’ archive data highlights the little-known page in the Great Patriotic War history – People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs’ participation in ammunition manufacture on the example of Mine Plant in Chekist Poselok (Settlement, located to the north of Tomsk and established on the grounds of the former Juvenile Prison No.1. Plant resource base has become the core of construction of atomic manufacture and the city of Seversk.

  2. Forensic chemistry: perspective of new analytical methods applied to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Romão, Wanderson; Schwab, Nicolas V; Bueno, Maria Izabel M. S; Sparrapan, Regina; Eberlin, Marcos N; Martiny, Andrea; Sabino, Bruno D; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2011-01-01

    In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing ''lead-free'' or ''nontoxic'' handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are be...

  3. The One-on-One Stochastic Duel. Parts I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-15

    1977. 6. THONPSCNj, D. See, Tl in Research Papers,. PP. 573-576. -38- S t APPMIXfl SOME USEM •ULTS 1N TM THM OY OF CHMCERMISTIC FUCTIONS 0. Introduction...transforms FD S1B-34 I * KW&B1. KWON , T.Y., and BAI, D.S., "Stochastic Duals With Multiple Hits and Limited Ammunition Supply," Korea Advanced

  4. Denying the Dangerous: Preventing Firearms from Entering the Hands of the Dangerously Mentally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive Disorder PDD Pervasive Development Disorder POC Point of Contact SAFE New York Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act SHES...the Newtown, Connecticut shooting to ensure that all individuals who should be prohibited from buying a firearm are listed in the NICS.48 It passed in...legally should be prohibited from buying firearms essentially fall through the cracks and obtain them anyway. C. STATE PARTICIPATION IN NICS Each state

  5. Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (4th), Held in Jerusalem, Israel on September 7-10, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    them in a vice. The crushing of the nearly 3 grams of mercury fulminate and RDX present in these Russian detonators is a procedure which not...Science Laboratory’, Journal of Energetic Materials 4, 169-186. GSR PARTICLES FORMED BY USING AMMUNITION THAT HAVE MERCURY FULMINATE BASED PRIMERS... mercury fulminate based primers ,re commonly manufactured by Eastern [Bloc countries and extensively used in the Middle East. GSR particles formed by

  6. A reconnaissance-scale GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis to support sustainable biochar use: Poland as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Peake, Lewis; Baxter, Helen; Cornelissen, Gerard; Grotkiewicz, Katarzyna; Hale, Sarah; Królczyk, Jolanta B; Kubon, Maciej; Łopatka, Artur; Medynska-Juraszek, Agnieszka; Reid, Brian J; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Sohi, Saran; Spiak, Zofia; Strassburg, Bernardo BN

    2017-01-01

    extensively used for over 100 years, and this persistent toxic organic compound has resulted in soil contamination and environmental problems at manyformer explosives and ammunition plants, as well as military areas (Stenuit, Agathos 2010). TNT has been reported to have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential in studies with several organisms, including bacteria (Lachance et al. 1999), which has led environmental agencies to declare a high priority for its removal from soils (van Dillewijn et al...

  7. Following the Flag: An Air Force Officer Provides an Eyewitness View of Major Events and Policies during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    as they crossed the Mediterranean . Unable to supply ammunition, tanks, fuel, and troop reinforcements, Hitler sacrificed his stranded African forces...Truman knew the first nuclear explosion at Al- amogordo, New Mexico , on 6 July 945 had been successful the day after he arrived at Potsdam and...from bends, breathing 100 percent oxygen for at least one-half hour before the flight and eating a low-residue diet can signifi- cantly reduce the

  8. Demonstration Report for Geonics EM-63 Cued-Interrogation Data Collection, Processing and Archiving at Camp Sibert, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the unit to track orientation accurately through dynamic maneuvers and will automatically adjust for changing dynamic conditions without any external...Discrimination Study Demonstration Site is located within the confines of Site #18, Japanese Pillbox Area No. 2, of the former Camp Sibert FUDS...Simulated pillbox fortifications were attacked first with WP ammunition in the 4.2-inch chemical mortars followed by troop advance and another volley of

  9. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  10. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  11. Phytoremediation of explosives contaminated ground waters by plant enzyme systems in constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.P. Jr. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A plant enzyme system has successfully degraded the explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX to environmentally acceptable products during laboratory studies. The process has been further studied in the field in batch systems. The field results have been consistent with the laboratory findings. An artificial wetlands will be constructed to remediate explosives contaminated ground water at an Army ammunition plant. An overview of the phytoremediation program will be presented.

  12. Reference Book on NATO Rationalization, Standardization and Interoperability (RSI). Volume 1. Public Laws and Reports, Memoranda of Understanding, Secretary of Defense Annual Report to Congress, Intellectual Property Rights Transfer Guidelines, History, Definitions, Bibliography, Points of Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    natural heat radiation of targets in spite of darkness. They suffer only limited degradation from smoke, haze, dust and fog. A Memorandum of...of German design using a fin-stabilized family of ammunition composed of kinetic energy and HEAT -MP service rounds and two companion training rounds...Sorkedalsvelen 148) Postboks 8126 Dep Oslo 1 Norway Major General J.M.S. da Costa Alvares Estado-Maior General das Forcas Armadas EMGFA- Ilha

  13. Design of Ablation Test Device for Brick Coating of Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    shirui, YAO; yongcai, CHEN; fei, WANG; jianxin, ZHAO

    2018-03-01

    As a result of the live ammunition test conditions, the barrel resistance of the barrel coating has high cost, time consuming, low efficiency and high test site requirements. This article designed a simple, convenient and efficient test device. Through the internal trajectory calculation by Matlab, the ablation environment produced by the ablation test device has achieved the expected effect, which is consistent with the working condition of the tube in the launching state, which can better reflect the ablation of the coating.

  14. Controle de armas de fogo no Brasil, criminalidade e autodefesa / Gun control in Brazil, criminality and self-defense

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Sérgio Ferreira de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Discuss the firearms control in Brazil, highlighting the State’s inefficiency to deter the access of criminals to weapons and reduce the increase of crimes, especially homicides, leaving citizens unprotected, at their own fate, without any mechanism at their disposal. Methodology/approach/design – Analysis of the literature and standards on firearms and ammunition control in Brazil, on violent deaths by firearms indexes, on the legal self-defense issue, on crime rates after the ...

  15. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Elshenawy; Salah Soliman; Ahmed Hawass

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Operations, Upgrades, and Consolidation at the Western Command Site, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SO2 sulfur dioxide SOx sulfur oxides STA Secure Transportation Asset SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan tpy tons per year USAF United...products recycled 60 gallons of spent solvents 440 gallons of solvent contaminated solids Small-Arms Ammunition Waste None 10 pounds lead...compounds and nitrogen oxides are considered to be precursor emissions responsible for the formation of ozone in the atmosphere . The Proposed

  17. Individual Combatant’s Weapons Firing Algorithm Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    furniture, sandbags, helmets, and protective vests (flak jackets ). The M203 dual-purpose weapon has the inherent accuracy to place grenades into windows at...are almost impossible to damage further. A large structure can take 24 to 48 hours to bum out and become cool enough for people to enter. j. The...protection, a protective vest , and a helmet should be worn. UNCLASSIFIED 177 Final Report Appendix B - Page 69 (2) Ball ammunition and arnor-piercing

  18. Realistic Safe-Separation Distance Determination for Mass Fire Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Division 1.2 Ammunition,” Australian Safety Seminar, 12-14 November 1997, Canberra, Australia . Parari Paper 31, 1997. Paper UNCLASSIFIED...Approximately 660 households were affected and over 3,000 people were homeless after losing their housing. The Customs Market, the second largest...International Red Cross launched an appeal to care for more than 20,000 Tanzanians made homeless by the explosions. The cause of the explosion remains

  19. A Women-Only Comparison of the U.S. Air Force Fitness Test and the Marine Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    strength characterizes a muscle’s ability to exert force against a resistance. High weight, low repetition dumbbell training and barbell lifting are...and Butler, 2010:15). An example of an endurance training exercise includes low weight, high repetition dumbbell training. Flexibility training...The first amendment incorporates the following changes to the protocol: (1) using 30 lb. ammunition cans instead of 30 lb. dumbbells , (2) allowing

  20. 42nd Annual Armament Systems: Gun and Missile Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-26

    Propellant condition/degradation • Karl Fischer – Moisture content of propellant and primer mix • Differential Scanning Microscopy – Degradation in primer...PURPOSE (cont’d) • Investigate the impact of compromised seals on 20mm ammunition performance • Determine if performance impacts could potentially...until seals were compromised (75- 80%), as determined through vacuum/water leak tests. • Rounds completing each phase of cycling were inspected for

  1. Estimating Weight and Moments for Ship Control Design Technical Assessment Team Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    repair parts and stores); full supply of provisions and stores for the periods specified in the design characteristics; fuel and lube oil tanks are 95...full or in case of compensating tanks 95% fuel and 5% water, potable and reserve feed water tanks are 100% full; anti-roll tank to operating levels...all other liquids in tanks to required capacity in accordance and characteristics and exiting liquid loading instructions. The ammunition, stores

  2. Neutralising ordnance with non-extending elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Golodyaev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of neutralising ordnance by rinsing explosive materials with a solution enables significant cost saving while reducing the risk pyrotechnic personnel is exposed to, especially during ammunition transport to recycling sites.  Costs for necessary special equipment are minimal. The technology is easy to be automated using an electronic and remotely controlled drilling process which reduces the risk of explosion to the minimum. This demining method will prove effective especially for operations against guerrilla mine warfare.

  3. The effect of autopilot configuration on missile response.

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerham, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center and School (USA DACS), Evaluation Division (SMCAC-DEV), has been tasked by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Rock Island, IL, to test unitization procedures for shipping GEMSS mine containers in a configuration of 3-wide by 2-high. The methods and results of MIL-STD-1660 testing of the unitization procedures developed by the Storage and Outloading Divisi...

  4. A Cause for Concern The Spread of Militant Islam in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    ownership is yet another destabilizing factor used to incite violence along the coast and the MRC has used this topic around Mombasa to attract supporters...can be found in other areas of Kenya. Grievances associated with land ownership , unemployment, and perceived political underrepresentation are fairly...undisclosed amount of guns and ammunition. The perpetrators were apprehended eight days later. This was not the first such attack, and at least four

  5. Security Sector Reform’s Utility in Conflict Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    dealt with long nights of reading, typing, and editing instead of planning for our upcoming wedding . v TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS...weapons.50 The Tuareg-Arab rebellion finally ended in 1996 with the Flame of Peace Ceremony in Timbuktu. About 2,400 ex-combatants joined the Malian...Flames of Peace Ceremony . Not all weapons and ammunition were destroyed in the ceremony and arms smuggling across the Sahel continued as a source of

  6. Utah Bat Conservation Plan, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Williams and Washington County, Deseret Chemical Depot (DCD), and Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ). This group of Defense Department land managers has coordinated...generation of conservation and management initiatives covering much of the State, but specifically emphasizing DPG, HAFB, TEAD , DCD, and UNG testing...testing center under the Reliance Program . TEAD (23,610 acres) provides America’s joint fighting forces with munitions and ammunition equipment in

  7. Cost and Performance Report: Introduction and Validation of Chromium-Free Consumables for Welding Stainless Steels. Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Si silicone SMAW shielded metal arc welding viii Sr strontium TEAD Tooele Army Depot Ti titanium TWA time-weighted average UHR ultra-high...fabrication of stainless steel. This demonstration was performed at the Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ), Ammunition Equipment Division (AED), Tooele, UT...3 – milligrams per cubic meters 7 Site/Platform Description 4.0 4.1 Test Platforms/Facilities The TEAD , AED was selected as the test site for

  8. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    renovation. ARMS* program Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) Tooele, Utah GOCO CITE* for Ammunition Peculiar Equipment, shipping, receiving, storage, renovation...displayed in the table, the primary function of the three Army depots is management, demilitarization, and distribution. Only TEAD receives, stores...locations were identified as CITE: TEAD , CAAA, PBA, and RIA. The MCAAP is the only facility currently receiving the benefits of the Arsenal Support

  9. Evolving the Army’s Government-Owned Contractor-Operated (GOCO) Facilities Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    two are GOGOs, Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) and Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), and the other two are GOCO‟s, Hawthorne Army Ammunition (HWAAD) and Holston...Making-the-Military-More-Efficient. (accessed January 27, 2011) 15 Kathy Anderson, “ TEAD Participates in Special Installation Pilot Study”, May 26...2010 http://www.army.mil/-news/2010/05/26/39847- tead -participates-in-special-installation-pilot-study/ (accessed February, 27 2011) 16 Ibid. 21

  10. Infantry Weapons Test Methodology Study. Volume 3. Light Machine Gun Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    in a quasi -tactical environment. The determination of factors influencing the evaluation of machine guns in a realistic combat environment was...reduced. For example, the type small arms ammunition being considered for use in new weapons is now being handmade today at $1.70 per round. If a test...Tactical Application 23-15 Browning Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30, M1918A2 * 23-16 Change 1, Automatic Rifle Marksmanship 23-23 Change I, Antipersonnel Mine

  11. Advanced Technology for Naval Gun Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Principal Engineer, Materials Technology, TRW Eo.uipment Group, TRW, Inc., 23555 Euclid Avenue. Cleve- land. Ohio 44117, Mr, Karl H, Meyer , Ordnance...barrels by the Army during World War II. The centri- fugal casting technique requires special facilities that are useful for no other purpose. Many...laboratory tests as well as scale - model gun-ammunition systems to permit, at reasonable cost, a correlation of the factors as well as the

  12. Munitions Executive Summit 2010 Held in San Diego, California on February 8-10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    MC Mr. Harrell Hignight Cdr Rep Chief of Staff COL Mark Klingelhoefer Sergeant Major CSM David Puig BRAC Closures Munitions and Logistics Readiness...Ammunition Activity CSM David Puig, JMC, Command Sergeant Major Mr. Bill Sanville, Deputy PM, PM MAS The Customers Perspective Bottom Line Up Front...RAMS - TD -SYDET - RWBK - GDS Networked Munitions/ Demolitions Networked Munitions/ Demolitions PM Countermine & EOD PM Countermine & EOD Project

  13. Tools and benefits of „Partnership for Peace” program for the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ŢÂU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the tools and mechanisms of the „Partnership for Peace” Program and its benefits for our country. Among the main benefits, the authors mention: reforming the defense and security sector, ensuring the interoperability of its own forces with those of the allied and partner countries with regard to participate in NATO PfP multinational exercises and operations, protecting the environment by destroying and neutralizing expired ammunition stocks, neutralization and disposal of pesticide and chemical stocks.

  14. North American Technology and Industrial Base Organization. 2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Bionic Power, a company that has developed the Bionic Energy Harvester, a wearable technology that unobtrusively generates electricity from the...ultraminiaturize the teclmology for incorporation into a small arm weapon sight in combination with electronic ignition for small arms . Canada has been...reduced to near zero. This work is complementary (and not duplicated) to U.S . work on small arms , therefore there should be ample "ammunition" to

  15. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, S.; Otto, M.; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M.; Bro¿żek-Mucha, Z.; Biegstraaten, J.; Horváth, R.

    2007-09-01

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification.

  16. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, S.; Otto, M.; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M.; Brozek-Mucha, Z.; Biegstraaten, J.; Horvath, R.

    2007-01-01

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification

  17. The evaluation of a new technology for gunshot residue (GSR) analysis in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Andersen, Danielle; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There continues to be a need for improved technology to be used in theater to quickly and accurately identify the person who shot any weapon during a terrorist attack as well as to link a suspect to the actual weapon fired during a crime. Beyond this, in areas of conflict it would be desirable to have the capability to establish the source country for weaponry and ammunition. Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a reasonably well-studied technology area. Recent scientific publications have reported that the residues have a rich composition of both organic and inorganic compounds. For the purposes of identifying the manufacturer or country of origin for the ammunition, the inorganic components of GSR appear to be especially promising since their presence in the propellant and primer formulations are either specific to a given chemical formula, or they represent impurities in the manufacturing process that can be unique to a manufacturer or the source country for the chemicals used for propellants and primers. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology has already demonstrated considerable capability for elemental fingerprinting, especially for inorganic/metallic components. A number of reports have demonstrated LIBS capability in forensics for matching materials such as inks, fabrics, paper, glass, and paint. This work describes the encouraging results of an initial study to assess a new commercial field-portable (battery operated) LIBS system for GSR analysis with gunshot residues having been collected from inside cartridge casings from 3 different ammunition manufacturers.

  18. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California.

  19. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, S. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TU BAF), Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Leipziger Str. 29, D - 09599 Freiberg (Germany)], E-mail: matthias.otto@chemie.tu-freiberg.de; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Brozek-Mucha, Z. [Instytut Ekspertyz Sadowych (IES), Westerplatte St. 9, PL - 31-033 Krakow (Poland); Biegstraaten, J. [Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI), Fysische Technologie, Laan van Ypenburg 6, NL-2497 GB Den Haag (Netherlands); Horvath, R. [Kriminalisticky a Expertizny Ustav (KEU PZ), Institute of Forensic Science, Sklabinska 1, SK - 812 72 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-09-15

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification.

  20. Laminated safety glass as an intermediate target: a wound ballistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Zinka, Bettina M; Fieseler, Sybille; Graw, Matthias; Peschel, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    Various 9-mm ammunitions (A1, A4, A5, ST, GS, GSb, P.E.P., SeCa, HP, PTP/s, VM, McVG, DM41, PTP, SX2, PT, and MEN frangible) were tested regarding their velocity, energy, angle of impact, and potential wound channel after penetrating a car window at 30° and 90°. Test materials were gelatine, soap, and pig cadavers. The velocities of the projectiles were between c. 288 and 430 m/ses, the energy spread between 394 and 564 J. Handgun bullets fired through vehicular side window glass lose substantial energy reducing the effectiveness of the ammunition. This effect is greater when fired at an angle of 30° compared to 90°. At a shooting angle of 90°, none of the different projectiles showed remarkable differences considering its wound ballistic features. Accuracy is maintained at a 90° angle but seriously impaired at 30°. None of the examined ammunition complied with the demanded wound channel effectiveness of 30-60 J/cm. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A; Riedy, Christine; Dowd, M Denise; Villaveces, Andres; Prodzinski, Janice; Nakagawara, Jon; Howard, John; Thiersch, Norman; Harruff, Richard

    2005-02-09

    Household firearms are associated with an elevated risk of firearm death to occupants in the home. Many organizations and health authorities advocate locking firearms and ammunition to prevent access to guns by children and adolescents. The association of these firearm storage practices with the reduction of firearm injury risk is unclear. To measure the association of specific household firearm storage practices (locking guns, locking ammunition, keeping guns unloaded) and the risk of unintentional and self-inflicted firearm injuries. Case-control study of firearms in events identified by medical examiner and coroner offices from 37 counties in Washington, Oregon, and Missouri, and 5 trauma centers in Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, Wash, and Kansas City, Mo. CASES AND CONTROLS: Case firearms were identified by involvement in an incident in which a child or adolescent younger than 20 years gained access to a firearm and shot himself/herself intentionally or unintentionally or shot another individual unintentionally. Firearm assaults and homicides were excluded. We used records from hospitals and medical examiners to ascertain these incidents. Using random-digit dial telephone sampling, control firearms were identified by identification of eligible households with at least 1 firearm and children living or visiting in the home. Controls were frequency matched by age group and county. The key exposures of interest in this study were: (1) whether the subject firearm was stored in a locked location or with an extrinsic lock; (2) whether the firearm was stored unloaded; (3) whether the firearm was stored both unloaded in a locked location; (4) whether the ammunition for the firearm was stored separately; and (5) whether the ammunition was stored in a locked location. Data regarding the storage status of case and control guns were collected by interview with respondents from the households of case and control firearms. We interviewed 106 respondents with case firearms and

  2. Tip Deflection Determination of a Barrel for the Effect of an Accelerating Projectile Before Firing Using Finite Element and Artificial Neural Network Combined Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Koç

    Full Text Available Abstract For realistic applications, design and control engineers have limited modelling options in dealing with some vibration problems that hold many nonlinearity such as non-uniform geometry, variable velocity loadings, indefinite damping cases, etc. For these reasons numerous time consuming experimental studies at high costs must be done for determining the actual behaviour such nonlinear systems. However, using advantages of multiple computational methods like Finite Element Method (FEM together with an Artificial Intelligence (ANN, many complicated engineering problems can be handled and solved to some extent. This study, proposes a new collective method to deal with the nonlinear vibrations of the barrels in order to fulfil accurate shooting expectancy. Using known analytical methods, in practical, to determine dynamic behaviour of the barrel beam is not possible for all conditions of firing that include numerous varieties of ammunition for different purposes, and each projectile of different ammunition has different mass and exit velocity. In order to cover all cases this study proposes a new method that combines a precise FEM with ANN, and can be used for determining the exact dynamic behaviour of a barrel for some cases and then for precisely predicting the behaviour for all other possible cases of firing. In this study, the whole nonlinear behaviour of an antiaircraft barrel were obtained with 3.5% accuracy errors by ANN trained by FEM using calculated analysis results of ammunitions for a particular range. The proposed FEM-ANN combined method can be very useful for design and control engineers in design and control of barrels in order to compensate the effect of nonlinear vibrations of a barrel for achieving a higher shooting accuracy; and can reduce high-cost experimental works.

  3. Excerpts from the introductory statement. IAEA Board of Governors. Vienna, 19 March 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2000-01-01

    In his introductory statement to the IAEA Board of Governors, the IAEA Director General gave an overview of the Agency's activities regarding technological issues in nuclear power and non-power applications; safety issues related to nuclear power plants and research reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities; safety of radiation sources; and marine transport of radioactive materials. Further in the document he gives a brief description of the Agency's activities in the field of nuclear verification; Agency's participation in a field mission to Kosovo on environmental assessment of the consequences of the use of depleted uranium in ammunition; safety standards discussions with ICAO

  4. Design of an autonomous exterior security robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 18, Number 07, July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for...bearing (e.g., body armor, helmet , water, rations, weapon, ammunition, other supplies/ equipment) and extreme neck and back stresses during...9 Ja nu ar y 20 10 Ap ril 2 01 0 Ju ly 20 10 O ct ob er 2 01 0 Ja nu ar y 20 11 Ap ril 2 01 1 No . o f h os pi ta liz at io ns Motorcycle

  6. Christians and Jews in the Twelfth-Century Werewolf Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyovitz, David I

    2014-10-01

    In the late twelfth century, northern European Jewish mystics engaged in a sustained, unprecedented effort to explore the theological meaning of werewolves. This article seeks to anchor this surprising preoccupation in contemporary European religious culture, arguing that medieval Jews and Christians found werewolves "good to think with" in exploring the spiritual status of the (mutable, unstable) human body. Discourses of monstrosity were used as polemical ammunition in Jewish-Christian debates, but monstrous creatures were simultaneously held to be theologically resonant by both communities-a fact that sheds light upon the broader intellectual and cultural setting in which they were joint participants.

  7. The pearl of the 'Pro-Life' movement? Reflections on the Kermit Gosnell controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greasley, Kate

    2014-06-01

    The paper comments briefly on the recent controversy surrounding the criminal prosecution and conviction of rogue abortion doctor Kermit Gosnell in the USA, for, among other things, the murder of infants born alive. Without contesting the disturbing nature of the crimes committed by Gosnell and his colleagues, it critiques a few ways in which opponents of abortion have sought to use the case as ammunition against the legal provision of abortion and against the morality of all abortion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary values, the response of the projectile, flywheel and other components can be determined continuously for firing and in-flight conditions.

  9. Fired missile projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Gieszl, R.; Keller, P.J.; Drayer, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports ferromagnetic properties of fired missile projectiles (bullets, BBs, etc) investigated. Projectile samples were obtained from manufactures, police, and commercial sources. Deflection measurements at the portal of a 1.5-T magnetic field were performed for 47 projectiles. Sixteen bullets were examined in gelatin phantoms for rotation-translation movements as well. Ferromagnetic bullets displayed considerable deflection forces in the presence of the magnetic field and could be rotated to 80 degrees from their previous alignments when introduced perpendicular to the magnetic field in our gelatin phantom experiments. Military bullet calibers appear to pose the greatest ferromagnetic risk. Commercial sporting ammunition is generally nonferromagnetic

  10. Tumor risk and nephrotoxicity in case of uranium exposure; Tumorrisiko und Nephrotoxizitaet bei Uranexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammler, Leonhard

    2017-05-18

    The thesis was focused on the health hazards of chronic uranium exposure with respect to tumor evolution and nephritic lesions. Mortality rates and incidence rates were determined for different tumor types by meta-analysis of existing studies including uranium mine workers, soldiers exposed to uranium ammunition and exposure due to uranium containing drinking water. The results did not show a significant increase of mortality or incidence rates. Possible errors or deficiencies of the evaluated studies are discussed. Increased beta-2-microglobulin values might indicate the possibility of nephritic lesions.

  11. Fear and Courage in Tim O’Brien’s if I Die in a Combat Zone, Going After Cacciato, and the Things They Carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-07

    example, in addition to the extra ammunition hauled by Ted Lavender , an unusually scared soldier, he also lugs the "unweighed fear" that creates a greater...is immediate: "It was a bad time. Billy Boy Watkins was dead, and so was Frenchie Tucker. Billy Boy had died of fright, scared to death on the...the area of operations in which Paul’s unit will be fighting. He tells the men, "’I don’t wanna scare the bejeesus out of you . . . but, shit, you

  12. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  13. Naval War College Review. Volume 64, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    developed. The “cushion” for the flexible deck was composed of a series of inflated, sausage - shaped flexible cylinders. On top of the cylinders was a...mention this year: “The Zumwalt-Class Destroyer: A Technol- ogy ‘Bridge’ Shaping the Navy after Next,” by George Galdorisi and Scott Truver (Summer 2010...support in the shape of forward-located depots of fuel and ammunition. For instance, the SACLANT fuel depot in Namsen, in central Norway, which had been

  14. Amended Ballistic Sand Studies to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Range Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    investigators have demon- strated that lead ammunition exposed to the elements in surface soil will eventually oxidize to a soluble ionic form (Manninen and...TCLP) is 5.0 mg/L and the universal treatment standard (UTS) for lead is 0.75 mg/L (ITRC 2003). Lead is an amphoteric metal that exhibits its greatest...solubility in acidic (pH < 4) and alkaline (pH > 11) solutions. Under acidic conditions, ele- mental lead will oxidize , releasing a hydrated cation

  15. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  16. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    ammunition and ordnance and are known to be deleterious to human and animal health. Such metals are, therefore, of concern to the military, both at... animals . When contaminants are present within the soil matrix, this further complicates an already very heterogeneous material. 5.2 Discrete...7130 2470 24,100 21,800 20.5 Manganese 716 652 715 707 703 507 555 645 1100 Nickel 12.7 18.2 10.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.9 14.7 9.9 Thallium 10 11 14 14

  17. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    ammunition and ordnance and are known to be deleterious to human and animal health. Such metals are, therefore, of concern to the military, both at... animals . When contaminants are present within the soil matrix, this further complicates an already very heterogeneous material. 5.2 Discrete...7130 2470 24,100 21,800 20.5 Manganese 716 652 715 707 703 507 555 645 1100 Nickel 12.7 18.2 10.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.9 14.7 9.9 Thallium 10 11 14 14

  18. Lead pollution of soil and groundwater in clay-pigeon shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the exemplary investigation of soil and groundwater pollution with lead on clay-pigeon shooting ranges, three facilities were sampled. The analyses for depth distribution in the main area of the ammunition deposition showed that the dissolved lead amounts are as a rule smaller than the limiting value of the Sewage Sludge Regulation (100 mg/kg). In two groundwater samples, no lead could be found. Considerable amounts of small lead balls are found on the soil surface, but only a very small part appears to be washed out and adsorbed by the soil matrix. (orig.) [de

  19. How to evaluate student motivation & engagement in e-learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Geir; Hole, Siren Frøytlog

    2016-01-01

    In last year’s I/ITSEC paper, we provided specific insights into practical applications of motivational design principles from John Keller’s ARCS-V model, by showing how this is done in several Norwegian Defense Forces e-learning courses. This paper continues the work on motivation in e-learning, and asks whether the effects of motivational design may be measured. We answer the question by way of a trial, where a small segment of the target group of an ammunition safety e-learning course is a...

  20. Do air-gaps behind soft body armour affect protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsley, Lee; Carr, D J; Lankester, C; Malbon, C

    2018-02-01

    Body armour typically comprises a fabric garment covering the torso combined with hard armour (ceramic/composite). Some users wear only soft armour which provides protection from sharp weapons and pistol ammunition. It is usually recommended that body armour is worn against the body with no air-gaps being present between the wearer and the armour. However, air-gaps can occur in certain situations such as females around the breasts, in badly fitting armour and where manufacturers have incorporated an air-gap claiming improvements in thermophysiological burden. The effect of an air-gap on the ballistic protection and the back face signature (BFS) as a result of a non-perforating ballistic impact was determined. Armour panels representative of typical police armour (400x400 mm) were mounted on calibrated Roma Plastilina No 1 and impacted with 9 mm Luger FMJ (9×19 mm; full metal jacket; Dynamit Nobel DM11A1B2) ammunition at 365±10 m/s with a range of air-gaps (0-15 mm). Whether or not the ammunition perforated the armour was noted, the BFS was measured and the incidence of pencilling (a severe, deep and narrow BFS) was identified. For 0° impacts, a critical air-gap size of 10 mm is detrimental to armour performance for the armour/ammunition combination assessed in this work. Specifically, the incidences of pencilling were more common with a 10 mm air-gap and resulted in BFS depth:volume ratios ≥1.0. For impacts at 30° the armour was susceptible to perforation irrespective of air-gap. This work suggested that an air-gap behind police body armour might result in an increased likelihood of injury. It is recommended that body armour is worn with no air-gap underneath. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Army Logistician. Volume 40, Issue 4, July-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    commercialization process. In 2006, DAC issued a contract through the Army Corps of Engineers, Honolu- lu District, that brought the talents of Pika ...and the handing-off of kit and supplies at the receiving installation. In 2006 and 2007, personnel from Pika International and Pelatron led a...DeGree in aMerican poLiticS froM the u.S. MiLitary acaDeMy. She iS a GraD- uate of the tranSportation officer baSic courSe. Ammunition transfer and

  2. Command History 1970. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    TSS 16 Angkor Wat Cultural Monun-ents, VI 72 Protection, TSS 2b An Quang Buddhists NVN Propaganda Targets, III Z1 ANZAC, IV 33 AP Dave Mason/George...Routes, VI 74 Ah-47, TSS 54-57 Ammunition Support, TSS 36, 56, 57 Angkor Wat Protection, TSS 26 Army, III 230 (See FAN1) BLUE EAGLE I, TSS 64, 65...in over four years. 0 The Cambodian Parliment asks the United Nations to send forces to protect the Angkor temples. The appeal states the Communist

  3. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. March - April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Other than that, the rounds are like U.S. ammunition. They may have “donut” or “ cheese ” charges, and these charges are “cut” just like U.S. mortar...it is essential that we approach the challenge informed by our experiences in Iraq, not dominated by them, and that we craft a pragmatic strategy...members, marginalizes the Taliban and captures the aspirations and hopes of the people. An individual code of behavior should also be crafted that can

  4. Required Operational Capability (ROC) Number INS 211.3.1 for the Medium Assault/Antitank Weapon (MAAW) M47 Dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-14

    dolar : :YDP ( 87 Gov’t furn/added eaoc (in T-OU-SNDS): .098 -Yoe -f dollar: -YDP 57 Other direct system costs (in ’KUSP3D): 3..3 Tyce of dolar : FYDP...consumotion cer year Der system (i, DOLLARS): 0 Type of dollar: FYD 37 7 Trainina ammunition conslmtion (in DOLARS ): t’ T.ce of dollar: FYOP ( 87 No energy...3 years. Ava mat. cost aer int. repair action (in DOLLARS): SC-0 Type of c.l:ar: FY..P ( 37 Other int. maint. costs (in DOLL;RS): 3 Tyve of dolar

  5. Hunting shot – evolution of manufacturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bochyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hunting shot are 1.2–10 mm diameter balls, usually made of lead alloys, forming a cluster projectile used in smoothbore hunting shotguns. Shot may also be used in pistol and revolver ammunition, in which it can constitute structural element of the projectile. Shot pellets may also be made of other materials and have other shapes. The aim of this paper is to aggregate information on the topic available from a number of different sources. It is hoped that such information will be useful for forensic ballistics experts. Historical development of pellets and their manufacturing technology from the 15th century is presented.

  6. Actinide analysis of a depleted uranium penetrator from a 1999 target site in southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon Vintro, L.; Smith, K.J.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2003-01-01

    Following the detection of 236 U in depleted uranium (DU) ammunition used during the Balkans conflict in the 1990s, concern has been expressed about the possibility that other nuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle and, in particular, transuranium nuclides, might be present in this type of ammunition. In this paper, we report the results of uranium and plutonium analyses carried out on a depleted uranium penetrator recovered from a target site in southern Serbia. Our data show the depleted nature of the uranium and confirm the presence of trace amounts of plutonium in the penetrator. The activity concentration of 239+240 Pu, at 45.4±0.7 Bq kg -1 , is the highest reported to date for any penetrator recovered from the Balkans. This concentration, however, is comparable to that expected to be present naturally in uranium ores and, from a radiological perspective, would only give rise to a very small increase in dose to exposed persons compared to that from the DU itself

  7. The German Army and its management of hazards and hazardous substances. Report of the working group Dr. Sommer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report primarily deals with three issues: the health consequences of the use of ammunition with depleted uranium cores; the health damage that radar staff may have suffered through stray X-radiation; and the way hazardous materials such as asbestos are handled in the German army. As regards uranium ammunition, the present findings suggest that there is neither reason for concern nor blame on anyone. The 31,000 American DU rounds that were fired over Kosovo in 1999 neither pose a health hazard to soldiers nor to the civil population. All that remains is a minimal risk of future groundwater contamination. The radar equipment currently in use in the German army poses no danger to operators, inspectors, service personnel or instructors provided that the relevant safety rules are observed. However, this cannot be said with the same degree of certainty with regard to the equipment used in the 1960s and 1970s. It is quite possible that X-radiation was emitted and radar staff suffered health damage from this. When the health hazards of asbestos became known the German army reacted more promptly than the German federation, Laender or municipalities did. In the meantime this hazardous material has been removed and replaced completely with few exceptions

  8. Optoelectronics applications in multimedia shooting training systems: SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  10. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors.

  11. Trace element concentrations in livers of Common Buzzards Buteo buteo from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wiącek, Dariusz; Sujak, Agnieszka; Pitucha, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    In this study, our aim was to determine the common sources of origin of 18 elements in the livers of Common Buzzards collected during the breeding season in an extensive agricultural landscape in south-east Poland with respect to age (adults and immatures) and sex (males and females). In all 34 specimens collected, the element concentrations followed the pattern of S > Na > Fe > Mg > Zn > Si > Cu > Mn > Ba > Se > B > Pb > Hg > Cd > Cr > Ni > Sr > V. Among the heavy metals examined, only the concentration of Pb was relatively high. Given the prevalence of farmland in the studied area (and the wide use of fertilizers), common use of lead-hunting ammunition and moderate concentration of Pb in fertilizers, the indirect influence of hunting ammunition ingested with food or as gastroliths was apparently responsible for the elevated levels of Pb in the livers of Common Buzzards. In our study, no significant sex-related differences were detected in the hepatic concentrations of any element. However, a significant age effect was observed for three elements, which had elevated levels in adults (Hg) and immature birds (B, Pb), and a significant age x sex interaction was found for S and Fe. These results might be explained by the importance of these elements in bone growth in immature birds (B), variable strategies of foraging between adults and immature birds (Pb), and possible intersex differences in the immature cohort in response to the presence of lead (S, Fe).

  12. Controle de armas de fogo no Brasil, criminalidade e autodefesa / Gun control in Brazil, criminality and self-defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sérgio Ferreira de Moura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Discuss the firearms control in Brazil, highlighting the State’s inefficiency to deter the access of criminals to weapons and reduce the increase of crimes, especially homicides, leaving citizens unprotected, at their own fate, without any mechanism at their disposal. Methodology/approach/design – Analysis of the literature and standards on firearms and ammunition control in Brazil, on violent deaths by firearms indexes, on the legal self-defense issue, on crime rates after the Disarmament Statute. Findings – The firearm control adopted in Brazil has been ineffective in fighting criminality and reducing violence, particularly homicides. This model solely prioritizes the restriction and difficult on the acquisition of guns and ammunitions by citizens, since it neither have mechanisms to effectively disarm criminals and restrain the firearms black market, nor prevent its illegal entrance across our borders. Despite the guarantee of self-defense in our legal system for life protection, the Brazilian State has not brought any means to guarantee this provision or has made it difficult enough for those who have a need or choose to exercise it. Practical implications – This paper demonstrates the ineffectiveness of firearms control in Brazil and all the barriers for self-defense, facing the rising criminality rates and the State’s impotence in maintaining public peace.

  13. The effect of subsurface military detonations on vadose zone hydraulic conductivity, contaminant transport and aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Burman, Jan; Edlund, Christina; Simonsson, Louise; Berglind, Rune; Leffler, Per; Qvarfort, Ulf; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Meuken, Denise; Duvalois, Willem; Martel, Richard; Sjöström, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Live fire military training involves the detonation of explosive warheads on training ranges. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the hydrogeological changes to the vadose zone caused by military training with high explosive ammunition. In particular, this study investigates artillery ammunition which penetrates underground prior to exploding, either by design or by defective fuze mechanisms. A 105 mm artillery round was detonated 2.6 m underground, and hydraulic conductivity measurements were taken before and after the explosion. A total of 114 hydraulic conductivity measurements were obtained within a radius of 3m from the detonation point, at four different depths and at three different time periods separated by 18months. This data was used to produce a three dimensional numerical model of the soil affected by the exploding artillery round. This model was then used to investigate potential changes to aquifer recharge and contaminant transport caused by the detonating round. The results indicate that an exploding artillery round can strongly affect the hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone, increasing it locally by over an order of magnitude. These variations, however, appear to cause relatively small changes to both local groundwater recharge and contaminant transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Depleted uranium in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Post-conflict environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition was used in 1994-95 during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This third DU field study from the Balkans, following UNEP's earlier DU studies in Kosovo (2001) and Serbia and Montenegro (2002), increases the scientific knowledge of the behaviour of DU in the environment. The mission investigated 14 sites. DU could be easily found at three of these sites more than seven years after the conflict and was confirmed by the physical presence of penetrators and jackets, as well as by soil, bio-indicator, water and air samples. For the first time in UNEP's DU studies in the Balkans, DU was found in drinking water samples, albeit at extremely low levels. DU was also measured in air samples, both outside as well as inside certain buildings currently in use. The report recommends precautionary steps in the form of decontamination and clean-up. Given the remaining scientific uncertainties on the long-term behaviour of DU in the natural environment, UNEP recommends further studies to be done in other regions where DU ammunition has been used. (author)

  15. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo heavily shelled with depleted uranium rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Luigi A.; Frati, Luisa; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specific differences, mainly due to differences in the exposed surface area of the lichens. The uranium concentrations in lichen samples were rather similar at a site heavily shelled with DU ammunition and at a control site. Unexpectedly, the highest uranium concentrations were found at the control site. The observed U distribution can be explained by contamination of lichen thalli by soil particles. The soil geochemistry was similar at the two sampling sites. The 235U/ 238U ratios in the soil samples suggested a modest DU contribution only at the heavily shelled site. Measurements of U isotopes in lichens did not reveal DU pollution at the control site. The U isotopic ratios in lichens at the shelled site showed variable figures; only two samples were clearly contaminated by DU. There were no signs of contamination by other trace elements.

  16. Forensic reconstruction of two military combat related shooting incidents using an anatomically correct synthetic skull with a surrogate skin/soft tissue layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Peter; Carr, Debra; Harrison, Karl; McGuire, Ruth; Hepper, Alan; Flynn, Daniel; Delaney, Russ J; Gibb, Iain

    2018-03-07

    Six synthetic head models wearing ballistic protective helmets were used to recreate two military combat-related shooting incidents (three per incident, designated 'Incident 1' and 'Incident 2'). Data on the events including engagement distances, weapon and ammunition types was collated by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The models were shot with 7.62 × 39 mm ammunition downloaded to mean impact velocities of 581 m/s (SD 3.5 m/s) and 418 m/s (SD 8 m/s), respectively, to simulate the engagement distances. The damage to the models was assessed using CT imaging and dissection by a forensic pathologist experienced in reviewing military gunshot wounds. The helmets were examined by an MoD engineer experienced in ballistic incident analysis. Damage to the helmets was consistent with that seen in real incidents. Fracture patterns and CT imaging on two of the models for Incident 1 (a frontal impact) were congruent with the actual incident being modelled. The results for Incident 2 (a temporoparietal impact) produced realistic simulations of tangential gunshot injury but were less representative of the scenario being modelled. Other aspects of the wounds produced also exhibited differences. Further work is ongoing to develop the models for greater ballistic injury fidelity.

  17. Assessing the threat of firearms: new threat formula, resources, and ontological linking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of an ongoing larger project.2, 3, 11, 12 The goal of this project is to develop a system capable of automatic threat assessment for instances of firearms use in public places. The main components of the system are: an ontology of firearms;1, 14 algorithms to create the visual footprint of the firearms,1, 14 to compare visual information,2, 3, 11, 12 to facilitate search in the ontology, and to generate the links between the conceptual and visual ontologies; as well as a formula to calculate the threat of individual firearms, firearms classes, and ammunition types in different environments. One part of the dual-level ontology for the properties of the firearms captures key visual features used to identify their type or class in images, while the other part captures their threat-relevant conceptual properties. The visual ontology is the result of image segmentation and matching methods, while the conceptual ontology is designed using knowledge-engineering principles and populated semi-automatically from Web resources. The focus of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we will report on an update of the initial threat formula, based on the substantially increased population of the firearm ontology, including ammunition types and comparisons to actual incidents, and allowing for an overall more accurate assessment. On the other hand, the linking algorithms between the visual and conceptual ontologies are elaborated for faster transfer of information leading to an improvement in accuracy of the threat assessment.

  18. Depleted uranium. Protecting against all possible sources of ionizing radiation through the development and application of state-of-the-art safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Under its Statute the IAEA has the specific mandate to establish, in consultation and collaboration with other United Nations and specialized agencies concerned, standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources and to provide for the application of these standards. With respect to potential radiation hazards, the Agency has jointly developed the International Basic Safety Standards with the World Health Organization, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. These standards, known as the BSS, cover a wide range of situations that give rise or could give rise to exposure to radiation, such as the radiation hazard posed by depleted uranium (DU). Based on the information currently available, DU ammunitions do not appear to present a significant risk to health from a radiological point of view. Since only limited studies have been undertaken in post-conflict areas where DU ammunitions were used, further assessment and studies of DU in such areas would increase the confidence in this observation. In addition to radiological assessment, the IAEA is also developing a training course to assist Member States in analytical methods and techniques that could be used to detect and measure DU in post-conflict areas

  19. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  20. A simple method for detection of gunshot residue particles from hands, hair, face, and clothing using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, S; Kudo, K; Kaizoji, A; Ryumoto, J; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, N

    2001-07-01

    We devised a simple and rapid method for detection of gunshot residue (GSR) particles, using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX) analysis. Experiments were done on samples containing GSR particles obtained from hands, hair, face, and clothing, using double-sided adhesive coated aluminum stubs (tape-lift method). SEM/WDX analyses for GSR were carried out in three steps: the first step was map analysis for barium (Ba) to search for GSR particles from lead styphnate primed ammunition, or tin (Sn) to search for GSR particles from mercury fulminate primed ammunition. The second step was determination of the location of GSR particles by X-ray imaging of Ba or Sn at a magnification of x 1000-2000 in the SEM, using data of map analysis, and the third step was identification of GSR particles, using WDX spectrometers. Analysis of samples from each primer of a stub took about 3 h. Practical applications were shown for utility of this method.

  1. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  2. Is behind armour blunt trauma a real threat to users of body armour? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra J; Horsfall, I; Malbon, C

    2016-02-01

    Behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) has been defined as a non-penetrating injury caused by the rapid deformation of body armour. There has been an increasing awareness of BABT as an injury mechanism in both the military and civilian worlds; whether BABT results in serious injuries is debatable. A systematic review of the openly accessible literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method to investigate those injuries classified as BABT and their severity. 50 sources were identified that included pertinent information relevant to this systematic review on BABT injuries. Typical injuries reported included skin contusion, laceration and penetration, rib fracture and contusions to lungs, kidneys, spleen and (rarely) the heart. No evidence of fatal injuries due to BABT was identified. Whether BABT can lead to life-threatening injuries when small-arms ammunition impacts body armour components designed to stop that ammunition is debatable. It should be emphasised that other data may be available in government reports that are not openly available. Further research should be considered that investigates developments in body armour, including initiatives that involve reducing burden, and how they affect BABT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The effects of military body armour on trunk and hip kinematics during performance of manual handling tasks (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Gavin; Aisbett, Brad; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Carvajal, Alvaro; Netto, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are reported as burdening the military. An identified risk factor for injury is carrying heavy loads; however, soldiers are also required to wear their load as body armour. To investigate the effects of body armour on trunk and hip kinematics during military-specific manual handling tasks, 16 males completed 3 tasks while wearing each of 4 body armour conditions plus a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis captured and quantified all kinematic data. Average trunk flexion for the weightiest armour type was higher compared with control during the carry component of the ammunition box lift (p armour types compared with control during the ammunition box place component (p armour occurred independent of armour design. In order to optimise armour design, manufacturers need to work with end-users to explore how armour configurations interact with range of personal and situational factors in operationally relevant environments. Practitioner Summary: Musculoskeletal injuries are reported as burdening the military and may relate to body armour wear. Body armour increased trunk flexion and reduced trunk rotation during military-specific lifting and carrying tasks. The altered kinematics may contribute to injury risk, but more research is required.

  4. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  5. Evaluation of the performance of three elastomers for non-lethal projectile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thota N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Less lethal kinetic ammunitions with soft noses such as eXact iMpact 1006, National Sports Spartan and B&T have been commonly used by military and law enforcement officers in the situations where lethal force is not warranted. In order to explore new materials to be used as nose in such ammunitions, a scholastic study using finite element simulations has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two rubber like elastomers and a polyolefinic foam (low density, highly compressible, stiff and closed cell type of thermos plastic elastomer. State-of-the art thorax surrogate MTHOTA has been employed for the evaluation of blunt thoracic trauma. Force-rigid wall method was employed for the evaluation of head damage curves for each material. XM 1006 has been used as the benchmark projectile for the purpose of comparison. Both blunt thoracic trauma and head damage criterion point of view, both rubbers (R1 and R2 have yielded high values of VCmax and peak impact force. Polyolefinic foam (F1 considered in the study has yielded very promising VCmax values and very less peak impact force when compared with those of bench mark projectile XM 1006.

  6. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L.M.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm 2 . For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm 2 . The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer

  7. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  8. The use of gelatine in wound ballistics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; Stevenson, T; Mahoney, P F

    2018-04-25

    Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability. Research areas that use gelatine blocks are diverse and include ammunition designers, the medical and forensics communities and designers of ballistic protective equipment (including body armour). This paper aims to provide an overarching review of the use of gelatine for wound ballistics studies; it is not intended to provide an extensive review of wound ballistics as that already exists, e.g. Legal Med 23:21-29, 2016. Key messages are that test variables, projectile type (bullet, fragmentation), impact site on the body and intermediate layers (e.g. clothing, personal protective equipment (PPE)) can affect the resulting wound profiles.

  9. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  10. Synthesis of [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] and its potential as gunshot residue marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo Lucena, Marcella A.; Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Gatto, Claudia C.; Talhavini, Marcio; Maldaner, Adriano O.; Alves, Severino; Weber, Ingrid T.

    2016-01-01

    The 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] (where H 2 DPA=dipicolinic acid) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and exhibited a whitish yellow color (CIE coordinates: 0.362, 0.416) when excited at 365 nm. This color arises from the simultaneous blue ( 4 F 9/2 – 6 H 15/2 ), yellow ( 4 F 9/2 – 6 H 13/2 ) and red ( 4 F 9/2 – 6 H 11/2 ) transitions of Dy 3+ . This MOF exhibited a high potential for use as a luminescent marker for gunshot residue (GSR) and in the ammunition encoding process because it was possible to observe visually the luminescent gunshot residue (LGSR) on the shooter’s hands, both on the firearm and at the firing range, using an UV lamp. These particles were easily collected and characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and SEM–EDS. The particles exhibited a typical morphology and a composition, making them easy to differentiate from particles of occupational or environmental origin. - Highlights: • First example of a luminescent GSR marker based on Dy 3+ luminescence. • New luminescent marker which can be used for ammunition encoding process. • Thermal and chemically stable MOF which can be used to visually identify GSR.

  11. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] and its potential as gunshot residue marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Lucena, Marcella A. [PGMTR - CCEN, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Gatto, Claudia C. [LIMA, Chemistry Institute, University of Brasília-UNB, P.O. Box 04478, 70904-970 Brasília (Brazil); Talhavini, Marcio; Maldaner, Adriano O. [National Institute of Criminalistics, Brazilian Federal Police, SAIS Quadra 07, Lote 23, 70610-200 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Alves, Severino [Fundamental Chemistry Department-DQF, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Weber, Ingrid T., E-mail: ingrid@ufpe.br [PGMTR - CCEN, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); LIMA, Chemistry Institute, University of Brasília-UNB, P.O. Box 04478, 70904-970 Brasília (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] (where H{sub 2}DPA=dipicolinic acid) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and exhibited a whitish yellow color (CIE coordinates: 0.362, 0.416) when excited at 365 nm. This color arises from the simultaneous blue ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}), yellow ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}) and red ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 11/2}) transitions of Dy{sup 3+}. This MOF exhibited a high potential for use as a luminescent marker for gunshot residue (GSR) and in the ammunition encoding process because it was possible to observe visually the luminescent gunshot residue (LGSR) on the shooter’s hands, both on the firearm and at the firing range, using an UV lamp. These particles were easily collected and characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and SEM–EDS. The particles exhibited a typical morphology and a composition, making them easy to differentiate from particles of occupational or environmental origin. - Highlights: • First example of a luminescent GSR marker based on Dy{sup 3+} luminescence. • New luminescent marker which can be used for ammunition encoding process. • Thermal and chemically stable MOF which can be used to visually identify GSR.

  13. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian

    2017-11-08

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  14. Infrasound Calibration Experiment at Sayarim, Israel: preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, A.; Garces, M.; Bowman, J. R.; Fee, D.; Israelsson, H.

    2009-12-01

    We are establishing a Ground Truth (GT0) infrasound dataset for Middle East/Mediterranean region, through conducting a series of surface explosions at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev desert, which culminated with an 82-ton explosion in August 2009. The dataset will be used to characterize the infrasonic propagation in the region, depending on source features and atmosphere conditions, and thus to improve monitoring capabilities of International Monitoring System (IMS). Test explosions of broad yield range and various designs were conducted on the first stage, in different days and seasons, thus providing a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The goals were to: 1) test charge design and assembling, and train procedures of logistics and coordination, for preparation and conducting of the main explosion; 2) analyze atmospheric effects on infrasound propagation in different azimuths based on collected meteo-data. In June-July 2008, we conducted a series of 13 detonations of outdated ammunition (in the range 0.2-10 ton) and two experimental shots of 1 ton of different explosives (TNT and Composition B). The two shots were placed close to an ammunition explosion and 10 min afterwards to help estimate ammunition actual yield (TNT). Some of these explosions were observed at IMS station I48TN (Tunisia) at ~2500 km, using array processing and analysis. Two test explosions of 1 ton and 5 tons of different recuperated HE explosives were conducted at SMR in December 2008. High-pressures in air-shock waves at close distances (150-250 m) were measured and speed video recording was done. The data obtained from the test series provided estimation of the explosion yield, that showed approximate TNT equivalency. We analyzed signals from the tests, recorded on seismic and acoustic channels at near-source and local distances. We compared energy generation for different explosives, including cratering conditions, and investigated the influence of wind direction on infrasound

  15. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Janssens, K.; Jaroszewicz, J.; De Nolf, W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques ({mu}-XRF, {mu}-XANES, {mu}-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.25H{sub 2}O), dehydrated schoepite (UO{sub 3}.0.75H{sub 2}O) and metaschoepite (UO{sub 3}.2.0H{sub 2}O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 {+-} 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO{sub 2}, UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO{sub 2,34} phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles

  16. Firearm legislation and firearm mortality in the USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Mobily, Matthew E; Keiser, Olivia; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-30

    In an effort to reduce firearm mortality rates in the USA, US states have enacted a range of firearm laws to either strengthen or deregulate the existing main federal gun control law, the Brady Law. We set out to determine the independent association of different firearm laws with overall firearm mortality, homicide firearm mortality, and suicide firearm mortality across all US states. We also projected the potential reduction of firearm mortality if the three most strongly associated firearm laws were enacted at the federal level. We constructed a cross-sectional, state-level dataset from Nov 1, 2014, to May 15, 2015, using counts of firearm-related deaths in each US state for the years 2008-10 (stratified by intent [homicide and suicide]) from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, data about 25 firearm state laws implemented in 2009, and state-specific characteristics such as firearm ownership for 2013, firearm export rates, and non-firearm homicide rates for 2009, and unemployment rates for 2010. Our primary outcome measure was overall firearm-related mortality per 100,000 people in the USA in 2010. We used Poisson regression with robust variances to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. 31,672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010 in the USA (10·1 per 100,000 people; mean state-specific count 631·5 [SD 629·1]). Of 25 firearm laws, nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality, nine were associated with increased firearm mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the three state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable IRR 0·39 [95% CI 0·23-0·67]; p=0·001), ammunition background checks (0·18 [0·09-0·36]; pfirearms (0·16 [0·09-0·29]; pfirearm purchase could reduce national firearm mortality from 10·35 to 4·46

  17. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating caused by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash

  18. Expect the unexpected: two cases of penetrating head and neck trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debjeet; Demma, Andrew; Stulz, Dean; Hsue, Gunther

    2009-09-01

    The protocol for treating penetrating head and neck trauma in a war zone differs from the standard protocol. Rather than first securing an airway, as is standard in civilian trauma cases, the primary emphasis is on assessing and controlling hemorrhage because it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in a battlefield setting. Once that has been addressed, we shift to standard advanced-trauma life-support protocols. We describe two cases we encountered at our combined medical clinic in Western Baghdad--one involving a 4-year old Iraqi child with an ammunition round lodged in her neck and one involving a 38-year-old female U.S. soldier with a round lodged in her right superolateral orbit. Both cases were transferred to combat support hospitals for further treatment after our initial assessment and treatment, and both had successful outcomes.

  19. Robot Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  20. Comparison of mass spectra of different types of matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slusna, L.; Halaszova, S.; Prochazka, M.; Velic, D.

    2014-01-01

    With secondary ion mass spectrometry it is possible to analyze the surface of the inorganic, organic samples and samples which are combinations of organic and inorganic compounds. Each of these types of samples has a different way of formation secondary ions - ionization mechanism. This paper deals with comparison of second cluster ions on an inorganic gold substrate with iron deposition, fragmentation and formation of organic molecules ions of cholesterol and a combination of different mechanisms for analyzing fingerprints with gunshot fumes. The spectra of gold (Au) were demonstrated preference ionization clusters with an odd number of atoms. In the spectra of cholesterol have been identified peaks arising deprotonation, cationization and loss of small functional groups. Such methods of ionization were applied in the analysis of fingerprints of gunpowder, where it was possible to detect species of ammunition even at low concentrations (authors)

  1. The growth of sport shooting participation: What does this trend mean for conservation revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Mark D.; Beppler, Tom; Organ, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Enacted in 1937, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act – more commonly known as the Pittman-Robertson Act – is one of the oldest and most reliable sources of funding for wildlife conservation in the United States. The result of organized support form sportsmen, fish and wildlife agencies, firearms manufacturers, conservation organizations, and even garden clubs, the PR Act created an excise tax on so-called “long guns” and ammunition used by hunters, thereby establishing the first sustainable source of revenue dedicated to conservation and land management efforts throughout the country. Later, legislators amended the PR Act to include an excise tax on pistols, revolvers, bows, arrows, and other archery equipment.

  2. Detection of gunshot primer residue on bone in an experimental setting-an unexpected finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Hugh E; Kutyla, Alicja K; Russell Davis, J

    2010-03-01

    Pork ribs with intact muscle tissue were used in an experimental attempt to identify bullet wipe on bone at distances from 1 to 6 feet with 0.45 caliber, full metal jacket ammunition. This resulted in the unexpected finding of primer-derived gunshot residue (GSR) deep within the wound tract. Of significance is the fact that the GSR was deposited on the bone, under the periosteum, after the bullet passed through a Ziploc bag and c. 1 inch of muscle tissue. It is also important to note that the GSR persisted on the bone after the periosteum was forcibly removed. The presence of primer-derived GSR on bone provides the potential to differentiate gunshot trauma from blunt trauma when the bone presents an atypical gunshot wound. In this study, the presence of gunshot primer residue at a distance of 6 feet demonstrates the potential for establishing maximum gun-to-target distance for remote shootings.

  3. Impact into the earth's ocean floor - Preliminary experiments, a planetary model, and possibilities for detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Impact processes and plate tectonics are invoked in an experimental study of craters larger than 100 km in diameter on the ocean floor. Although the results obtained from 22-caliber (383 m/sec) ammunition experiments using dense, saturated sand as a target medium cannot be directly scaled to large events, the phenomenology exhibited is that expected of actual craters on the ocean floor: steep, mixed ejecta plume, gravitational adjustment of the crater to form a shallow basin, and extensive reworking of the ejecta, rim, and floor materials by violent collapse of the transient water cavity. Excavation into the mantle is predicted, although asthenospheric influence on outer ring formation is not. The clearest geophysical signature of such a crater is not topography; detection should instead be based on gravity and geoid anomalies due to uplift of the Moho, magnetic anomalies, and seismic resolution of the Moho uplift and crater formation fault planes.

  4. Biotransformation of RDX and HMX by Anaerobic Granular Sludge with Enriched Sulfate and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chunjiang; Shi, Yarong; He, Yanling; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Yonghong; Yang, Shucheng

    2017-05-01

      RDX and HMX are widely used energetic materials and they are recognized as environmental contaminants at numerous locations. The present study investigated the biotransformation of RDX and HMX by anaerobic granular sludge under sulfate- and nitrate-enriched conditions. The results showed that RDX and HMX could be transformed by anaerobic granular sludge when nitrate was present. However, the biotransformation of RDX and HMX was negatively influenced, especially with high nitrate concentrations. Sulfate-enriched conditions were more favorable for the removal of ammunition compounds by anaerobic granular sludge than nitrate-enriched conditions. The removal of RDX and HMX under both nitrate- and sulfate-enriched conditions was facilitated by the use of glucose as additional substrate. This knowledge may help identify factors required for rapid removal of RDX and HMX in high-rate bioreactors. These results can also be applied to devise an appropriate and practical biological treatment strategy for explosive contaminated wastewater.

  5. From musket to metallic cartridge a practical history of black powder firearms

    CERN Document Server

    Flatnes, Oyvind

    2013-01-01

    From Musket to Metallic Cartridge is an historical introduction to the use of black powder firearms, from the primitive smooth-bore musket to breech-loading cartridge guns, as well as a primer on their practical use for today's black powder shooters. Drawing on his experience of countless hours on the shooting range, backed up by meticulous research, Oyvind Flatnes relates over 500 years of development and covers the huge range of different ignition systems, models and patents. He describes the use of antique firearms and replicas, discussing their historical and safe modern use. The book is profusely illustrated throughout, with both photographs and diagrams, showing a range of guns and their ammunition, with some live firing shots showing them in action. Aimed at shooters, collectors and general gun and weapons enthusiasts, this book will inspire the reader to learn more about how firearms work, and to take them onto the range too. Superbly illustrated with 265 colour photographs and diagrams.

  6. Visualizing Armed Groups: The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s M23 in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nangini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23 rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing relationships in a multi-dimensional dataset. We draw exclusively from the findings the UN Group of Governmental Experts report S/2012/843 documenting the procurement of weapons and ammunition by the M23 network. The visualization was built using a hierarchical edge bundling algorithm (Holten 2006 implemented in Data-Driven Documents (d3 (Bostock 2011, an open-source JavaScript-based library for interactive web visualizations. We contend that such visualizations can provide improved understanding of complex social networks both within and beyond the confines of war.

  7. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars.

  8. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi. (Let's start discussing the next crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.JEL: E44, G1, G18, G28  

  9. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO TONVERONACHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.

  10. Characterization and identification of unknown explosives; Michi kayakurui shiryo no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, J. [National Research Inst. of Police Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-30

    How to deal with unknown explosive specimens and how to analyze them are described item by item, including: matters to be attended to when handling explosive, that is, hazard (handling of the minimum quantity required, hazard identification test, harmfulness), storage of specimen and laboratory/tool, handling of detonator, initiator, pyrotechnic, dumping of specimens after analysis; various methods of inspection and analysis, that is, physical inspection (visual inspection, heating and combustion test, dissolution test), qualitative analysis (color identification test, thin layer chromatography), instrumental analysis (fluorescent X-rays, X-ray microanalyzer, X-ray diffraction, ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography); methods of isolation and identification of components of various explosives (dynamite, emulsion explosive, smokeless powder, ammunition, black powder, chlorate explosive, fireworks). 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The continuous development on the field of electro-optics has certainly a big influence on the field of military vehicles. The same way it increases the own visual and thereby the operational range, it also increases the danger of detection by enemy forces. This conflict between the enhancement of sensor performance on one side and the minimization of vehicle signature by design on the other side is the major issue in the field of battlefield reconnaissance. The understanding of the interaction between the theoretical sensor performance, its limitation caused by atmospheric effects and the constructive limitations in the vehicle's signature minimization is mandatory for a realistic assessment of sensor systems. This paper describes the tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance at the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD 91) in Meppen (DEU).

  12. Cambodian airlift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1977-05-01

    To reduce the presence of U.S. military personnel in Cambodia, the Air Force, in September, 1974, completed negotiations with a civilian contractor to continue the emergency airlift of supplies and ammunition to that country. As the Khmer Rouge threat increased on the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, the airlift was expanded and the supply sorties increased. Because fatigue was a potential medical problem for the crews--they were required to fly excessive hours with little time off between 13 Jan. and 13 March, 1975--a flight surgeon was assigned to the company. The flight surgeon monitored the men by subjective evaluation, several physiological and hematological measurements, and anonymous questionnaires. Although none of the factors correlated with subjective fatigue or performance decrement, recommendations for aircrewmen flying emergency airlift operations in the future were made based upon this unique experience.

  13. Química forense: perspectivas sobre novos métodos analíticos aplicados à documentoscopia, balística e drogas de abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Romão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing ''lead-free'' or ''nontoxic'' handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are being presented. For drugs analysis, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS is shown to provide a relatively simple and selective screening tool to distinguish m-CPP and amphetamines (MDMA tablets, cocaine and LSD.

  14. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, K.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR) [de

  15. Challenges of laser beam propagation near/within marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur, Tariq; Katz, Richard A.; Olson, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Marine atmospheric condition plays a critical role on imaging, laser beam propagation, and optical communication of the commercial and military platform. In Military platforms, ships and sailors must be able to defend and communicate with other maritime platform in sometimes volatile and hostile regions around the globe. Naval combatants need defensive and offensive capabilities against a variety of potential threats - many coming at low altitude, UAV, USV etc. High energy lasers (HELs) are currently in development, which have sufficient power levels (~100 kW) to destroy/disable most types of threats. Though target engagement and energy delivery are challenging, a HEL weapon can engage targets at the speed of light, does not require physical ammunition, and is able to run for hours at a time.

  16. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  18. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  19. Influence of yawing force frequency on angular motion and ballistic characteristics of a dual-spin projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A roll-decoupled course correction fuze with canards can improve the hit accuracy of conventional unguided ammunitions. The fuze increases accuracy by reducing the effect of angular and translational motion produced by the cyclical yawing forces applied on the projectile. In order to investigate the influence of yawing forces on angular motion, a theoretical solution of the total yaw angle function with the cyclical yawing forces is deduced utilizing the 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF model designed for this calculation. Furthermore, a detailed simulation is carried out to determine the influence rules of yawing force on angular motion. The calculated results illustrate that, when the rotational speed of the forward part is close to the initial turning rate, the total yaw angle increases and the flight range decreases sharply. Moreover, a yawing force at an appropriate frequency is able to correct the gun azimuth and elevation perturbation to some extent.

  20. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  1. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  2. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario; Pavic, Ivica; Kollar, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of "hot spots", which might interfere with threat material identification.

  3. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  4. From the American treasury to the Manhattan project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.

    2011-01-01

    During the early steps of the Manhattan project, the aim of which was to produce the first nuclear bomb, one of the problems was to find means to produce sufficient quantities of enriched uranium 235. Mass spectrometry was considered as a very promising technique. But the researchers very quickly realised that they would need huge quantities of copper to build magnet windings. As copper was, in this war time, used for ammunition production, they decided to use silver: 78.000 tons, i.e. 400.000 ingots, were provided by the ministry of Finance and secretly transferred to Oak Ridge. While reminding this story, the author recalls the different technological evolutions regarding the different apparatuses from the late 1930's, and the works which had to be performed for the construction of the uranium enrichment units

  5. Performance and development considerations for a new generation of land vehicle displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Lorimer, S.; Shepherd, A.

    2011-06-01

    Combat Land vehicles are small relative to the systems that they carry, yet these systems are increasing rapidly in complexity to provide needed improvements to situational awareness, vehicle management and weapons systems. Processing loads have increased rapidly driven by vehicle health, weapons and selfprotection requirements and there are more display functions than ever. All must be accommodated in a limited space where electronics competes with weapons, ammunition and crew comfort. In this paper we will examine a unique system solution for vehicle computing and associated data display that provides system level advantages from a compact COTS base at a cost that is compatible with Army vehicles. We will examine the packaging, operational environment, processing, operator interface and display design options with a special focus on the trade-offs. Finally, we project current solutions into a future with expanded applications that exploits new display, materials and processing technologies into a new, more flexible vehicle display.

  6. The botulinum toxin legend of Reinhard Heydrich's death: The end of "Himmler's brain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Jost, Wolfgang; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2017-07-04

    The high-ranking German Nazi Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) was one of the main organizers of the mass murder of Jews during the Second World War. He died on June 4, 1942, in Prague after having been wounded in Operation Anthropoid planned by the British intelligence services. Since the 1970s and 1980s, Heydrich's death has been frequently presented in British, American, and French literature as the consequence of a bacteriologic attack. Botulinum toxin would have been used in the grenades or ammunition. We discuss the botulinum toxin hypothesis using the now declassified British archives of Operation Anthropoid and of the chemical and bacteriologic warfare centers to assess this hypothesis. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Watershed inventory, Ravenna Training and Logistics Site, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostheimer, Chad J.; Tertuliani, John S.

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG) conducts training activities on the lands it manages to fulfill its primary mission of maintaining combat readiness. One of the training areas OHARNG manages is the Ravenna Training and Logistics Site (RTLS). This facility is co-located with the Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant (RVAAP) in Portage and Trumbull Counties, Ohio. Training activities can subject watersheds to various effects. Although environmental effects from training activities cannot be completely avoided, OHARNG is actively seeking for ways to minimize such effects in accordance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the OHARNG, to inventory current conditions of the watersheds that drain the RTLS/RVAAP facility. As part of the inventory, a digital geographic database was developed.

  8. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  9. Trends in converted firearms in England & Wales as Identified by the National Firearms Forensic Intelligence Database (NFFID) between September 2003 and September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Abigail G

    2010-05-01

    The National Firearms Forensic Intelligence Database (NFFID (c) Crown Copyright 2003-2008) was developed by The Forensic Science Service (FSS) as an investigative tool for collating and comparing information from items submitted to the FSS to provide intelligence reports for the police and relevant government agencies. The purpose of these intelligence reports was to highlight current firearm and ammunition trends and their distribution within the country. This study reviews all the trends that have been highlighted by NFFID between September 2003 and September 2008. A total of 8887 guns of all types have been submitted to the FSS over the last 5 years, where an average of 21% of annual submissions are converted weapons. The makes, models, and modes of conversion of these weapons are described in detail. The number of trends identified by NFFID shows that this has been a valuable tool in the analysis of firearms-related crime.

  10. Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

  11. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  12. Blyfri riffelammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    DK: Brug af blyholdig riffelammunition til jagt indebærer en risiko for blyforgiftning af økosystemer, prædatorer, ådselædere og mennesker, der spiser vildt. Der findes i de fleste kalibre blyfri produkter, der lever op til kravene til effektivitet under jagt. Denne undersøgelse sætter fokus på, i...... riffelammunition i høj grad er til rådighed i danske jagtforretninger til priser, der er sammenlignelige med blyholdige produkter. Det svageste udbud ses i de små kalibre (... plan for udfasning af blyholdig riffelammunition vil kunne styrke udviklingen af og øge udbuddet af blyfri typer. EN: Use of lead ammunition for hunting involves a risk of lead poisoning of ecosystems, predators, scavengers, and people who eat venison. Non-lead products that are ballistically...

  13. Leadership Pipeline på rejse i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Dahl, Kristian Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    udbredelse af Leadership Pipeline modellen. Forskningslitteraturen om Leadership Pipeline er imidlertid beskeden. Med teoretisk ammunition fra ”idé på rejse” perspektivet og et multi-level case studie i den danske offentlige sektor belyser artiklen udbredelse og implementering af Leadership Pipeline. Ved...... at anvende skiftende teoretiske begreber og henholdsvis zoome-ind (organisationsniveau) og zoome-ud (feltniveau) viser artiklen, hvordan en række gensidigt forbundne teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter sikrede Leadership Pipeline legitimitet og fremskyndede dens udbredelse samtidig med, at forskellige...... praksisvarianter af Leadership Pipeline udkrystalliserede sig i offentlige organisationer med hver deres kendetegn og problemdefinitioner. Med afsæt i denne empiri argumenterer vi for, at implementering af Leadership Pipeline udspillede sig i overlappende teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter, der forstærkede...

  14. Pyrotechnic robot - constructive design and command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel A. Staretu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic robots are service robots used to reduce the time for intervention of pyrotechnic troops and to diminish the danger for the operators. Pyrotechnic robots are used to inspect dangerous areas or/and to remove and to distroy explosive or suspicious devices/objects. These robots can be used to make corridors through mined battle fields, for manipulation and neutralization of unexploded ammunition, for inspection of vehicles, trains, airplanes and buildings. For these robots, a good functional activity is determined with regard to work space dimensions,, robotic arm kinematics and gripper characteristics. The paper shows the structural, kinematic, static synthesis and analysis as well as the design and functional simulation of the robotic arm and the grippers attached on the pyrotechnic robot designed by the authors.

  15. Lead shot ingestion in two raptor species from Doñana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R; Cadenas, R; Máñez, M; Guitart, R

    2001-01-01

    Diurnal raptors inhabiting wetland areas where waterfowl shooting is conducted have many opportunities to ingest lead (Pb) shot pellets when feeding on their prey. Exposure to Pb shot was studied in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), an endangered species with a world population of about 150 breeding pairs, and in the red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana (southwest Spain). Lead exposure was evaluated by the presence of Pb shot in the pellets of both species. Results obtained by this noninvasive method demonstrated Pb shot in 11.0% of Spanish imperial eagle and 5.5% of red kite pellets. When the data of both species were pooled, there was a significant relationship between Pb shot ingestion and consumption of waterfowl during the hunting season. Pb shot found in pellets exhibited signs of erosion, and their weight distribution had peaks at 70, 170, and 240 mg, which could correspond to ammunition used for duck and goose hunting.

  16. Problem of the reference height of the projectile trajectory as a reduced meteo-ballistic weighting factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cech

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of preparation of the aiming angles with the use of tabular firing tables and needed determination of the ballistic elements μB (ballistic wind wB, wxB, wZB, ballistic (virtual temperature τB, ballistic density ρB from the standardized met messages. The weighting factors are used for the calculation of ballistic elements μB that are incorporated into the trajectory calculations characteristics of weapon and ammunition. Two different methodologies practically used in the praxis are analysed and compared. For the comparison of the two methodologies the reference height of trajectory determined from the weighting factor functions is employed. On the basis of the analyses conducted, the potential for further increase in accuracy of these aiming angles preparation methods is pointed out.

  17. The Role of the Press in Public Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Sávio Reis Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensational increase in violent criminality in recent years has placed the question of public security on the social agenda. Formerly a matter restricted to a few actors, now the topic of public security has become the center of discussion in an affl icted society in the midst of a notorious increase in violence and criminality. The result of the referendum on the prohibition of the sale of fi rearms and ammunition amplifi ed an obvious popular clamor demanding consistent, lasting and clear measures in the combating and prevention of crime. The media, perceiving the importance of this historic moment (and mainly the power to vocalize this demand of the middle class – their major consumer – has deepened the discussion on this issue, organizing in an increasingly more constant way coverage of public security.

  18. The analysis of thermal stability of detonation nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Zakatilova, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    The detonation nanodiamond is a new perspective material. Ammunition recycling with use of high explosives and obtaining nanodiamond as the result of the detonation synthesis have given a new motivation for searching of their application areas. In this work nanodiamond powder has been investigated by the method of synchronous thermal analysis. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure in the environment of argon. Nanodiamond powder has been heated in the closed corundum crucible at the temperature range of 30-1500 °C. The heating rates were varied from 2 K/min to 20 K/min. After the heat treatment, the samples have been studied by the x-ray diffraction and the electron microscopy. As one of the results of this work, it has been found that the detonation nanodiamond has not started the transition into graphite at the temperature below 800 °C.

  19. The analysis of thermal stability of detonation nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, V P; Zakatilova, E I

    2016-01-01

    The detonation nanodiamond is a new perspective material. Ammunition recycling with use of high explosives and obtaining nanodiamond as the result of the detonation synthesis have given a new motivation for searching of their application areas. In this work nanodiamond powder has been investigated by the method of synchronous thermal analysis. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure in the environment of argon. Nanodiamond powder has been heated in the closed corundum crucible at the temperature range of 30-1500 °C. The heating rates were varied from 2 K/min to 20 K/min. After the heat treatment, the samples have been studied by the x-ray diffraction and the electron microscopy. As one of the results of this work, it has been found that the detonation nanodiamond has not started the transition into graphite at the temperature below 800 °C. (paper)

  20. External barrel temperature of a small bore olympic rifle and shooting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyszewska, B; Baranowski, P; Mazurek, W; Wozniak, J; Gladyszewski, G

    2013-03-01

    Investigations on changes in a rifle's barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm), a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called "warming shots" are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.

  1. EXTERNAL BARREL TEMPERATURE OF A SMALL BORE OLYMPIC RIFLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Gladyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on changes in a rifle’s barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm, a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called “warming shots” are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.

  2. Concentrations of lead and other elements in the liver of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), a European flagship species, wintering in Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wiącek, Dariusz; Sujak, Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    As a top predator, the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) may serve as a good indicator species, providing information about the bioavailability of contaminants and their transfer within the food chain. In this study, we aimed to determine the common sources of origin of 17 metals and other elements in the liver of white-tailed eagles, and to compare the variations in their hepatic concentrations by age (adults vs immatures) and sex (males vs females) in groups of white-tailed eagles wintering in Eastern Poland. The element concentrations followed the pattern of S > K > Na > Fe > Mg > Ca > Zn > Cu > Mn > Se > Pb > Hg > Cd > Cr > Sr > V > Sc. We found significant age-related differences in the hepatic concentrations of some of the elements. Adults showed higher concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ca, Fe, and Zn and lower concentrations of Cu and Se than immatures. These differences may be explained by age-related differences in wintering strategy (adults are sedentary, and immatures are migratory) and hunting skills (adults are more successful when hunting for agile prey). Our study indicates that ingested Pb ammunition poses a serious threat to the health and lives of white-tailed eagles in Poland (32% of the studied individuals had acute lead poisoning). Our study also indicates a serious need for banning the use of lead hunting ammunition in the parts of Europe (including Poland) where it is still allowed.

  3. Information as a part of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M. [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS.

  4. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  6. Phytoremediation of explosives in groundwater using innovative wetlands-based treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, F.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Coonrod, H.S.; Phillips, W.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Environmental Research Center; Bader, D.F. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many army ammunition plants across the country have problems with groundwater contaminated with explosives. A field demonstration was initiated at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant near Milan, Tennessee early in 1996 to demonstrate the feasibility of treating contaminated groundwater with constructed wetlands. Two different systems were designed and installed. A lagoon system consisted of two cells in series with each cell having dimensions of 24 x 9.4 x 0.6 m (L x W x H). A gravel-bed system consisted of three gravel-beds operated in series with a primary anaerobic cell having dimensions of 32 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H), followed by a pair of secondary cells each with dimensions of 5.5 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H). The primary cell is maintained anaerobic by adding powdered milk to the water every two weeks. The secondary cells are maintained aerobic via reciprocation, whereby water is pumped back and forth from one cell to another to cause a recurrent fill and drain action. The lagoons were planted with sago pond weed, water stargrass, elodea, and parrot feather. The gravel-bed wetlands were planted with canary grass, wool grass, sweet flag, and parrot feather. Water began flowing to each of the wetland treatment systems at 19 L min{sup {minus}1} starting in June 1996. The design hydraulic retention time through each treatment system was approximately 10 days. Influent and effluent water samples were collected every 2 weeks. Intensive sampling of water interior to the wetlands occurred every 2 months.

  7. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  8. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  9. Survey of natural and artificial radionuclide contents in soil samples from some areas of the AP Kosovo (Serbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, Feriz; Kosanovic, Katica; Jakupi, Bajram; Krstic, Gordana; Filipovic, Radmila

    2008-01-01

    After the war conflict in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Serbia), NATO published data on locations where they used ammunition with depleted uranium. In these regions there were localized points of concentrated contamination, so called 'contamination points'. Taking into consideration the amounts of depleted uranium ammunition used by the NATO, obviously the number of these points in the area of Kosovo and Metohija is not negligible. Within the past 7 years there have been conducted various radiological and other surveys in this area. Majority of these surveys were focused around contamination points. The fact is that so far there has been surveyed only a small percentage of the contaminated area in this region, and apparently there are more contamination points outside the surveyed area. Taking into account the mobility of depleted uranium from contaminated areas by various transportation processes (underground waters, winds and diverse mechanical contacts of people, animals, and other activities), the idea of this work was to investigate possible contamination from depleted uranium not only at the locations indicated and published by the NATO in their reports, but also in the wider area around the zones of NATO strikes. In this paper we presented results of gamma spectrometry analysis of soil samples from wider area of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. We used semiconductor HpGe detector with 30% relative efficiency and the resolution FWHM(1332 keV)=1,78 keV. Spectral analysis were made on the basis of the present gamma lines, using a software package. The activity concentrations of the investigated radionuclides in the soil samples were ranged in the following intervals: 226 Ra from 19 to 55 Bq/kg, 235 U from 1,2 to 4,6 Bq/kg, 238 U from 26 to 95 Bq/kg, 40 K from 83 to 648 Bq/kg, 137 Cs from 1 to 176 Bq/kg. (author)

  10. Goods for Guns--the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Margaret; Manno, Mariann; Rook, Allison; Maranda, Louise; Renaud, Elizabeth; DeRoss, Anthony; Hirsh, Michael

    2011-11-01

    US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community. The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony. Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year. IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling.

  11. Using Web-Based Search Data to Study the Public's Reactions to Societal Events: The Case of the Sandy Hook Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Rahurkar, Saurabh; Rahurkar, Mandar

    2017-03-23

    Internet search is the most common activity on the World Wide Web and generates a vast amount of user-reported data regarding their information-seeking preferences and behavior. Although this data has been successfully used to examine outbreaks, health care utilization, and outcomes related to quality of care, its value in informing public health policy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Internet search query data in health policy development. To do so, we studied the public's reaction to a major societal event in the context of the 2012 Sandy Hook School shooting incident. Query data from the Yahoo! search engine regarding firearm-related searches was analyzed to examine changes in user-selected search terms and subsequent websites visited for a period of 14 days before and after the shooting incident. A total of 5,653,588 firearm-related search queries were analyzed. In the after period, queries increased for search terms related to "guns" (+50.06%), "shooting incident" (+333.71%), "ammunition" (+155.14%), and "gun-related laws" (+535.47%). The highest increase (+1054.37%) in Web traffic was seen by news websites following "shooting incident" queries whereas searches for "guns" (+61.02%) and "ammunition" (+173.15%) resulted in notable increases in visits to retail websites. Firearm-related queries generally returned to baseline levels after approximately 10 days. Search engine queries present a viable infodemiology metric on public reactions and subsequent behaviors to major societal events and could be used by policymakers to inform policy development. ©Nir Menachemi, Saurabh Rahurkar, Mandar Rahurkar. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2017.

  12. Criminal Use of Assault Weapons and High-Capacity Semiautomatic Firearms: an Updated Examination of Local and National Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Christopher S; Johnson, William D; Nichols, Jordan L; Ayers, Ambrozine; Mullins, Natalie

    2017-10-02

    Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health.

  13. Lead Poisoning Due to Lead-Pellet Ingestion in Griffon Vultures ( Gyps fulvus ) From the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvm, Manuela A Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula A; Brandão, Ricardo; Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago; Colaço, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Avian scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets are at risk of lead poisoning from ingestion of carcasses with fragmented or residual lead ammunition that is used in hunting. Thus, lead may be one of the threats that the griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) faces in the Iberian Peninsula and particularly in Portugal, where their conservation status is considered to be near-threatened. This is the first report that details 3 cases of lead poisoning, associated with the ingestion of lead shot, in adult female griffon vultures found in the Iberian Peninsula. The birds were found prostrate and immediately transferred to a wildlife rehabilitation center, where they died within 24 hours after supportive treatment. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations were done in 2 birds and metal analyses were done in all birds to determine the birds' causes of death. In one vulture, 9 uneroded lead pellets were recovered from the stomach, and moderate to severe hemosiderosis was seen histologically in the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed by results of metal analyses, which revealed extremely high lead concentrations in blood (969-1384 μg/dL), liver (309-1077 μg/g dry weight), and kidneys (36-100 μg/g dry weight) for all 3 vultures. To prevent lead poisoning in vultures and preserve their populations in the Iberian Peninsula, more resources are needed for diagnosis and treatment of wildlife in rehabilitation centers, new regulations enabling the abandonment of fallen stock in the field must be approved, and lead ammunition must be prohibited in big-game hunting.

  14. Performance of natural curaua fiber-reinforced polyester composites under 7.62 mm bullet impact as a stand-alone ballistic armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A multilayered armor system (MAS is intended to personal protection against high kinetic energy ammunition. MAS layers are composed of materials such as a front ceramic and a back composite that must show both high impact resistance and low weight, usually conflicting characteristics. Synthetic fiber fabrics, such as Kevlar™ and Dyneema™, are the favorite materials to back the front ceramic, due to their high strength, high modulus and relatively low weight. Recently, composites reinforced with natural fibers have been considered as MAS second layer owing to their good performance associated with other advantages as being cheaper and environmentally friendly. Among the natural fibers, those extracted from the leaves of the Ananas erectifolius plant, known as curaua, stand out due to its exceptional high strength and high modulus. Thus, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of curaua fiber-reinforced polyester composites subjected to ballistic impact of high energy 7.62 mm ammunition. Composites reinforced with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% of curaua fibers were produced and stand-alone tested as armor target to evaluate the absorbed energy. Analysis of variance (Anova and Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD made it possible to compare the results to Kevlar™ laminates. Among the tested materials, the 30 vol.% fiber composites were found to be the best alternative to Kevlar™. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Ballistic test

  15. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  16. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  17. Analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the biological monitoring of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Göen, T; Müller, J; Angerer, J

    1998-06-12

    Organic nitrocompounds are the most frequently used constituents of explosives and some of them have been evaluated to be highly toxic or even carcinogenic. Human contact with explosives may originate from a variety of sources, including occupational exposure during the production of ammunition as well as environmental exposure due to the contamination of soil and ground water reservoirs on former military production sites and training areas. This paper describes two gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring methods for the determination of twelve nitroaromatic compounds in urine (nitrobenzene, 1,2-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene). The analytes are detectable in the lowest microg/l range, with imprecisions of 3-22% within series and 5-29% between series, depending on the compound of interest. Both procedures are rapid and relatively easy to perform and, therefore, are advantageous for the screening of occupationally or environmentally exposed persons. We analysed urine samples obtained from nine workers from an ammunition dismantling workshop and from twelve control persons. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was detected in six samples at concentrations between 4 and 43 microg/l. The main metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, were found in a concentration range from 143 to 16,832 microg/l and from 24 to 5787 microg/l, respectively. Nonconjugated aminodinitrotoluenes were present as varying percentages of the total amount. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene were found in two samples (2-9 microg/l). Nitroaromatics were not detectable in urine specimens from control persons.

  18. Information as a part of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS

  19. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloraby, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and health impact of DU use. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemo toxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. After deposition on the ground, resuspension takes place, if the DU containing particle size sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposure to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, bio monitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation. (author)

  20. The Department of Energy's safeguards and security technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.; Pocratsky, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has had a program that develops technologies to protect sensitive nuclear weapons facilities for more than thirty years. The mission of the program is overwhelmingly diverse, as it must be to protect an array of assets such as nuclear weapons, special nuclear material in various forms, components of nuclear weapons, and classified nuclear weapons design information. Considering that the nuclear weapons complex consists of dozens of facilities that are scattered all over the US, the technology development mission is very challenging. Complicating matters further is the ever uncertain future of the DOE. Some examples of dramatic Departmental mission changes that directly impact their security technology development program are given. A few development efforts are highlighted as examples of efforts currently being sponsored. They are: automated sensor testing devices to help reduce the requirement for personnel to enter vaults containing highly radioactive nuclear materials; a vehicle inspection portal to screen vehicles for hidden passengers, nuclear material, explosives, and other contraband; non-lead and short-range ammunition as an environmentally safe alternative to lead ammunition; a complex-wide visitor access control system to allow all DOE employees to travel to all sites with a commonly recognized credential; automated nuclear material monitoring technologies to provide assurance that material in storage has not been tampered with; laser radar as a potential solution to early warning deficiencies throughout the Department; performance testing standards for many security products to include an automated and consistent standard for assessing the quality of video; low temperature pyrotechnic smoke as a possible adversary delay mechanism; modular vaults to provide temporary protection for nuclear material during D and D activities, and a protection approach for restricted passage areas such as the volume above a tiled ceiling or within a crawl space