WorldWideScience

Sample records for ammunition

  1. Sustainable Ammunition Safety (SAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hooijmeijer, P.; Harmelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, no national industry in the field of energetic materials / ammunition for military applications is available. The knowledge of explosives, ammunition and ammunition on the vulnerability of platforms is limited, first to Defence regarding the logistical and operational practice an

  2. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  3. Plasma ignition for medium calibre ammunition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Schilt, A.; Simor, M.; Schaffers, P.; Weise, T.

    2012-01-01

    Gun performance is usually affected by the operating temperature of the ammunition or weapon. This is caused by several factors, amongst which the temperature dependency of the propellant ignition and combustion processes. Compensation of temperature effects on weapon or ammunition performance is po

  4. Steel Ammunition Bins, MIL-STD-l66O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on steel ammunition bins with newly-designed plywood lids for use in the...transportation of hazardous waste. This report contains test results of the steel ammunition bins with plywood lids meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, test procedures.

  5. Design of Guided Air Ammunition's Optimal Guidance Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; LIU Zao-zhen; WANG Bao-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Some long distance air ammunition can be used to attack large still target. According to this character and according to the mathematical description of target-missile relative motion built by the message supplied by the strapdown inertial navigation system/global position system (SINS/GPS) of air ammunition, optimal guidance law is designed by applying optimal control theory. The simulation is provided to indicate that when the air ammunition reaches the target, its line-of-sight (LOS) and LOS angular rate can nearly equal zero. So the air ammunition can get good terminal attitude, and the air ammunition reaches the target at the expected velocity and heading.

  6. Environmentally Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents. Although highly effective, these heavy metal compounds have been...contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the EPA itself, barium compounds are generally regarded as toxic and likewise should...contains the lead styphnate based FA956 composition2 which is a typical formulation of conventional military ammunition percussion primers. The

  7. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    percussion primers typically consist of lead styphnate and antimony sulfide. Although highly effective, these heavy material compounds were identified under...Percussion primers, including those used in medium caliber ammunition, typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents...Furthermore, current percussion primer compositions also contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the Environmental Protection

  8. Strapdown Homing Guidance System Design for Some Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The strapdown homing guidance system for some ammunition was mainly studied. A strong tracking Kalman filter was designed for the strapdown homing guidance system using the information measured by the strapdown homing seeker to estimate relative movement variables between the ammunition and target. Then the optimal proportional law, which using the estimated information, guided the ammunition. Simulation results show that the designed strapdown homing guidance system with strong tracking Kalman filter can attack the maneuvering target effectively, and satisfy the performance index for the guided ammunition system.

  9. Concept of Field Storage of Ammunition and Explosives in 20’ Standard Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    eksplosiv- stoffer. Forsvarets Eksplosivstofkommission, Denmark 1990. 13 Tecnical Data Package, Quickload Program, Storing mixed ammunition in conex container. Project Manager, Ammunition Logistics, AMCPM-AL NJ, USA 1991.

  10. 27 CFR 479.192 - Commerce in firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in firearms and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.192 Commerce in firearms and ammunition. For provisions relating to commerce in firearms and ammunition, including the movement of destructive...

  11. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of firearms and ammunition. 123.17... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.17 Exports of firearms and ammunition. (a) Except as provided... export without a license of components and parts for Category I(a) firearms, except barrels,...

  12. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: A comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9mm ammunitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, José; Almada, Sara; Rotariu, Traian; Freire, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    Increase of environmental awareness of the population has pressured research activities in the defence area to cover environment and toxicity issues, where have been considered appropriate manners to reduce the environmental and toxicological impacts of ammunition. One of the adopted approaches to achieve such goal involves the replacement of lead and other heavy metals by alternative materials. However, the consequences of using alternative materials in ammunitions manufacturing are uncertain for the other life-cycle phases and trade-offs can occur. The present paper describes the potential benefits from the replacement of lead in the primer and in the projectile of a 9mm calibre ammunition. For that purpose, it is assessed and compared the environmental and toxicological impacts associated with the life-cycle of four ammunitions: combination of two types of projectiles (steel jacket and lead core; copper and nylon composite) with two types of primers (lead primer; non-lead primer). In addition, some potential improvements for the environmental performance of small calibre ammunition are also presented. To assess the impacts two Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methods are applied: CML for six environmental categories and USEtox to three toxicity categories. Results showed that the conclusion drawn for environmental and toxicological impact categories are distinct. In fact, ammunition production phase presents higher impacts for the environmental categories, whilst the operation phase has a higher impact to the toxicity categories. The substitution of lead in the primer and in the projectile provides a suitable alternative from a toxicology perspective; however, the composite projectile still presents some environmental concerns. The conclusions drawn are important for the procurement (and design) of environmental responsible ammunitions, in order to avoid (or decrease) the impacts for their manufacture and the effects on human health (e.g. shooters) and ecosystems

  13. 27 CFR 478.120 - Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien. 478.120 Section 478.120 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  14. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  15. Study of Brass Obturator Design for Combustible Cartridge Case for 105mm Tank Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Syal

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Brass cartridge case provides rearward obturation in the tank gun ammunition where the gun systedt has a sliding breech mechanism. In the case of semi-combustible cartridge case (SCCC ammunition, obturation is provided by a smal1 metal stub. The mechanism of obturation and obturator design for kinetic energy and high explosive squash heat (HESH, SCCC ammunition of 105mm tank gun have been studied. The dynamic firing results for SCCC ammunition for 105 mm tank gun reveal height 115 mm provides perfect obturation. The ballistic performance of SCCC ammunition is comparable with that of the brass-cartridged round in the pressure range 150-450 MPa.

  16. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT) ammunition accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. CORRIVEAU; C. FLORIN PETRE

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT) ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  17. Non standard pallet series designing problem in ammunition supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangchun; Guo Min; Wang Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    According to the compound packing problem in ammunition supply system in our army, the non-standard pallet series design model is proposed, and the original problem that can be solved as a set cover problem with a nested bin-packing problem, is analyzed, then two heuristic algorithms are applied to solve the problem.

  18. Wounding characteristics of "shotshell" ammunition: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, R E; Campbell, B; Balraj, E; Adelson, L; Fransioli, M

    1981-01-01

    Wounds caused by "shotshells" in three homicides are presented. Characteristics of shotshell ammunition based on test firings of .38 Special shotshells are detailed. Differences between shotshell wounds and shotgun wounds may include pattern spread, number of pellet defects, and defects caused by the shotshell wadding and plastic capsule.

  19. Should the U.S. Army Adopt New 5.56mm Ammunition Cartridge Designs to Reduce Overall Ammunition Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    and D. H. J. Halsey. Ammunition (Including Grenades and Mines . Shrivenham, UK: Brassey’s Publishers, 1982). McLaughlin Green, Constance , Harry...http://hsrlab.gatech.edu/AUTODYN/ papers/paper162.pdf (accessed 18 January 2011). McLaughlin Green, Constance , Harry C. Thomson, and Peter C. Root

  20. Study on risk measurement about ammunition-rocket system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xiaohui; Zhao Youshou

    2005-01-01

    Modern ammunition-rocket system is a complicated multidisciplinary system. During its development,undetermined factors will bring many risks. This paper elaborates the importance of risk analysis approach to ammunition-rocket system development and analyses various methods of risk analysis and estimation. Combined with practical situation of weapon system development, the risk measurement function with characteristics of risk preference is given provided that the risk preference characteristic of behavior maker is risk neutral of fixed constant. The development risk analysis based on risk measurement function enables effective risk decision to be made on the basis of quantified risk.Taking anti-helicopter intelligent mine warhead as an example, the paper verifies the efficiency of the method and shows that it has a scientific and practical value.

  1. Software requirements specification for an ammunition management system

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Robert Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis concerns the software requirements necessary to automate the present manual effort associated with ammunition inventory management and reporting at the afloat end-user level. Functional characteristics for the application software are developed, program and data structures are proposed and possible sources of data are identified. The end-product of this research is the software requirements specification. This document sup...

  2. A Design of Penetration Ammunition Fuse System Based on Embedded Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; LIU Xiao-ming; XIE Xiao-mei

    2007-01-01

    The hard target smart fuse of penetration ammunition is developing to be smaller,lighter, smarter and multifunction. After analyzing the characteristics of high-g accelerating signals and the penetration algorithms, this paper provides a solution of penetration ammunition fuse system based on embedded technology. This fuse system realizes acquisition of the high-g accelerating signals and uses the appropriate penetration algorithms to process them. The fuse system can not only make the same type of penetration ammunition to attack different kinds of objects accurately, but also meet the other requirements of the function of penetration ammunition fuse system.

  3. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implements of war. 5.18 Section 5.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... implements of war. (a) The exportation of technical data relating to arms, ammunition, and implements of war... parts 120 through 130); the articles designated as arms, ammunitions, and implements of war...

  4. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time,...

  5. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on 40- by 48-inch pallets produced by McAlester Army Ammunition Plant...MCAAP). This report contains test results with the pallets provided failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements due to nail failure.

  6. Use of Designed Experiments in the "Green Ammunition" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-13

    Excellence HEAVY METALS Primer Compositions Lead Styphnate Barium Nitrate Antimony Sulfide Green Ammunition Target Materials HEAVY METALS Projectile Slug Lead... Barium Peroxide Lead Dioxide Barium Nitrate ODCs Methyl Chloroform ODCs Casemouth Sealant Methyl Chloroform Committed To Excellence Non-Toxic Ammunition

  7. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  8. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition...Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition by John J Ritter and Richard A Beyer Weapons and Materials Research...

  9. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  10. Study on Storage Reliability Evaluation for Ammunition Using Gibbs Sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For the gradual maturity of Bayesian survival analysis theory, as well as the defects of the traditional methods for storage reliability evaluation, the Bayesian survival analysis method is proposed to build regression models for reliability in the random truncated test. These models can reflect the influences of different environments on the ammunition storage lifetime. As an example, the common exponential distribution is used here, and Markov chain Monte Carlo(MCMC)method based on Gibbs sampling dynamically simulates the Markov chain of the parameters' posterior distribution. Also,the parameters' Bayesian estimations are calculated in the random truncated condition. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and directly perceived.

  11. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  12. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... component part of an explosive, an ammunition or explosive end item, or of a weapon system— (i) Inert...) Oxidizers; (v) Powdered metals; or (vi) Other materials having fire or explosive characteristics. (b)...

  13. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  14. Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    1994-12-31

    At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

  15. From the Instrument of Delivery to the Actual Agent of Harm: Fighting the Criminal Purchase of Ammunition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The illegal trade in ammunition in the Netherlands seems to be a small-scale problem. However, as a result of high profits and a small chance of being caught, it is an extremely attractive criminal activity for malicious individuals. The criminal purchase of ammunition is facilitated by weaknesses i

  16. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’ targe

  17. 75TH Field Artillery Brigade Ammunition Resupply During Operation Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    doctrina . procedures durino pepacetime trainin.. Ic4 SuBJ(CT IERMS iS. NUMBER OF AGRM 122 FA Ammunition Resupply, FA Bde, Ammunition 16. PRICE CODE 17...Operations, A Concept for the Evolution of Airland Battle for the Strategic Army of the 1990s and Beyond (Fort Monroe , VA: TRADOC, August 1991) 1. 8. FM...TRADOC PAM 525-5, Airland Operations, A Concept for the Evolution of Airland Battle for the Strategic Army of the 1990s and Beyond, (Fort Monroe , VA

  18. Historical Development Summary of Automatic Cannon Caliber Ammunition: 20-30 Millimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    o, this report is specified on verso of front cover. " 0 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block numb, r...M53. F. Amor Piercing Projectiles The evolution of armor and armor piercing ammunition is a continuous see-saw. The improvement of one forces a

  19. 27 CFR 70.444 - Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., ammunition, and implements of war. 70.444 Section 70.444 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... implements of war. Part 47 of title 27 CFR implements Executive Order 11958 and supplements the import... implements of war, (b) Import permit requirements, (c) Import certification and verification, (d)...

  20. Numerical Modelling of Caseless Ammunition with Coreless Bullet in Internal Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Silva-Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the search of a new weapon for combat in short range, it is proposed the use of a new experimentally designed 7.62 mm calibre ammunition with a lighter weight (caseless-coreless. This can be used in carbine assault rifles with short barrel or pistols. In this work, the compressible gases flowing through the gun barrel caused by the proposed ammunition were experimentally and numerically analysed. The Large Eddy Simulation was used for the numerical simulation, considering a compressible and turbulent flow, with the chemical species transport model and a complete conversion of the propellant reaction. Variations in pressure and temperature were compared with the results obtained from a conventional 7.62 mm full metal jacket (FMJ ammunition. Results of ballistic experimental tests and numerical simulations were similar than those of the 9 mm x 19 mm FMJ ammunitions, showing feasibility for the development of new weapons intended for operations of short range shots.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.203-207, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8511

  1. Defense Logistics: Improved Data and Information Sharing Could Aid in DOD’s Management of Ammunition Categorized for Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Conventional Ammunition 27 Contents Page ii GAO-15-538 Defense Logistics Figures Figure 1: Flow of Conventional...GAO-15-538 Defense Logistics Figure 1: Flow of Conventional Ammunition Possession Until It Is Demilitarized Note: There are a number of closed...Oklahoma • Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Director for Material Readiness & Logistics (N4) • Naval Supply Systems Command, Mechanicsburg

  2. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  3. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  4. Theoretical and Practical Issues Regarding U.S. Army Ammunition Freight Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    reexamination of the nation’s power projection requirements and alternatives, changing attitudes in the United States about the size of the defense...standard rate term "Ton-Miles." Dummy or indicator variables (MTHDD=l for dromedary and MTHD_V=1 for van) were used to represent MTHD TRANS entries from...the database. The term " dromedary " is used for a smaller container that provides more segregation and security commonly used for small ammunition

  5. Defense Logistics: Actions Needed to Improve Department-Wide Management of Conventional Ammunition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inventory of certain missile items—including Stinger, Javelin, and Hellfire missiles —and the Joint Munitions Command manages all other ammunition items... Missile Command does not contribute to the annual reporting or redistribution process, but 52Missile support material refers to component parts...annual reports. The Army’s annual report, however, does not include information on certain missiles . Also, the Army’s report does not include

  6. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  7. The Combination of Expert Judgment and GIS-MAIRCA Analysis for the Selection of Sites for Ammunition Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Gigović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests spatial multi-criteria model in order to assist decision makers in the selection of sites which are suitable for ammunition depots (AD. They represent military facilities which have more criteria that need to be matched than civil structures. The proposed model is based on combined use of Geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria techniques. The model application is presented in the case study of Carpathian region, the Eastern part of Serbia. The model deals with nine restrictions and six evaluation criteria. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory—Analytic Network Process (DEMATEL-ANP multi-criteria techniques are used to determine weight coefficients of evaluation criteria. Along with the above mentioned methods, this paper introduces a new technique for the multi-criteria decision making—MAIRCA (MultiAttributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis method. The MAIRCA method is used for the ranking and selection of suitable locations. The results have shown that 45 km2 of the Carpathian region is very suitable for ammunition depot construction. The MAIRCA method chose location L1 as the most appropriate. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is capable of identifying a suitable ammunition depot location. This approach can be helpful in determining suitable ammunition depot locations in other regions with similar geographic conditions and can also be successfully used for the suitability assessment of existing ammunition depots.

  8. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  9. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, and a significant negative correlation for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  10. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  11. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (pleaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  12. Study on Stable Scanning of Terminal Sensing Ammunition Based on Quaternion Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臣明; 刘怡昕

    2012-01-01

    Euler angles and Euler kinematics equation of terminal sensing ammunition are expressed and rewritten by using quaternion to solve the singular problem in using Euler angles to describe the motion.The contrastive simulations are performed in order to validate the correctness and advantage of the quaternion description.The simulation results show that the dynamic model with quaternion have stable solution,there is not singular point in the calculation,and the ballistic model rewritten by using the quaternion is suitable for describing the terminal sensing ammunition's scanning motion than the common Euler equation.

  13. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  14. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoso, Laura [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: laurag@ebd.csic.es; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: pedalv@ugr.es; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: anava@ugr.es; Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Mateo@uclm.es; Hiraldo, Fernando [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: hiraldo@ebd.csic.es; Donazar, Jose Antonio [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: donazar@ebd.csic.es

    2009-02-15

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

  15. 77 FR 5735 - Importation of Arms, Ammunition and Implements of War and Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Arms, Ammunition and Implements of War and Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other... U.S.C. Chapter 53. The Attorney General is also responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Gun... application must be submitted for a permit to cover the unshipped balance. B. Importation of Machine...

  16. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) 40- by 44-Inch Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on a 40- by 44-inch wooden pallet (oak) manufactured by MCAAP. This report contains test...results with the pallets provided meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  17. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the Nav

  18. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  19. Studies on Some Nitramine based Low Vulnerability Ammunition Propellants with Cellulose Acetate as a Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Pillai

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulations of propellants based on RDX as an energetic solid ingredients and cellulose acetate (CA as a binder were processed using either dioctyl pthalate(DOP or tracetin(TA as plastisizer and a small amount of nitrocellulose(NC. The Performance of these propellants was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel firing data. The vulnerability aspects of these formulations were compared with those of conventional picrite propellant, NQ on the basis of their ignition temperatures and sensitivity to friction and impact. Triacetin was found to be better plasticizer than DOP for CA binder. Some RDX/CA/TA/NC/-based propellants were found to have energy levels comparable with NQ propellant and had less sensitivity to heat, impact and friction, and therefore have the potential for being used as low-vulnerability ammunition propellants for gun applications.

  20. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Agronomy Dept.; Houser, W.P. [US Army Environmental Center, Edgewood, MD (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  1. Normal Approximation to a Sum of Geometric Random Variableswith Application to Ammunition Stockpile Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Hurley

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The normal approximation for a sum of geometric random variables has been examined. Thisapproximation is relevant to the determination of direct-fire ammunition stockpile levels in adefence setting. Among the methodologies available for this assessment, one is a target-orientedmethodology. This approach calculates the number of rounds necessary to destroy a givenfraction of the enemy force and infrastructure. The difficulty is that the number of rounds requiredcannot be determined analytically. An obvious numeric approach is Monte Carlo simulation.Another is the approximation approach which has several advantages like it is easy to implement.and is accurate even in the case where the number of targets is low.

  2. Radiological assessment of cartridge 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829 ammunition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The components of the XM829 round effectively shield out nonpenetrating beta radiation emitted by the depleted uranium; however, photons cna penetrate the components of the round and are therefore the predominant emission. The radiation levels associated with the XM829 ammunition are low. The maximum emissions measured from a cartridge are not likely to result in exposure to military personnel above the maximum permissible nonoccupational dose limits listed in Army Regulation (AR) 40-14. Based upon the specifications contained in 49 CFR 173.424 and the radiation measurement data, the XM829 shipping package may be excepted from the specification packaging, marking and labeling requirements of subpart 49 CFR 173 as long as the outer surface of the uranium is enclosed in an inactive sheath and the conditions specified in 49 CFR 421 (b), (c), and (d) are met.

  3. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  4. 战时弹药供应链系统结构设计%Research on Ammunition Supply Chain System Structure Design in Wartime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 高军; 刘晓蕾

    2014-01-01

    通过对战时弹药供应的概念和特征的分析,提出了战时弹药供应链系统结构的设计原则和流程,建立了战时弹药供应链系统结构设计模型。以战时弹药供应过程为基础,运用关键绩效指标法构建了战时弹药供应链的运行效能评价指标。然后,结合战时弹药供应的实际情况,对每个指标进行了描述,并给出了具体的算法。%To analyze the concept and characteristic of the ammunition supply chain in wartime, the system structure design principle and process of ammunition supply chain are proposed,the ammunition supply chain system structure design model is established. The paper builds an evaluation index of ammunition supply chain in wartime by KPI,based on the ammunition supply process in wartime. Combined with the actual situation of ammunition supply in wartime,the paper describes each evaluation index and shows the detailed algorithm.

  5. Antimony content of inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR) produced by 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition having free-antimony primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Arie

    2017-01-01

    In a recent paper published in Forensic Science International (FSI), Lucas et al. (2016) claimed that muzzle discharge of 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is more likely to incorporate particles from the bullet surface than those retained on the firearm and that characteristic particles containing Pb, Ba and Sb formed from known Sb-free primers are likely to be more prevalent in muzzle discharge. It seems that this claim is not based on sufficient experimental results.

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF TYPICAL PATTERNS OF CRIME MECHANISM IN THE SPHERE OF ILLEGAL WEAPON AND AMMUNITION TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragulin I. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is important today because there is not enough attention in the contemporary law publications paid to the typical patterns of crime mechanism especially in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover. Taking into account the opinions of such well-known forensic scientists as R.S. Belkin, V.D. Zelensky, G.M. Meretukov, M.V. Golovin, V.A. Obraztsov, J.G. Korukhov, V.Y. Koldin, O.V. Chelysheva, L.Y. Drapkin, V.N. Karagodin and others, the author comes to the conclusion that it’s necessary to develop typical patterns of crime mechanism for certain types of crime. The author has worked out some typical patterns of crime mechanism in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover based upon major informative criminalistic elements, this particular article describes seven typical patterns of crime mechanism for the illegal storage, transportation, transfer, carry, purchase and sale, manufacture, repair or alteration, theft or extortion, careless storage or improper performance of duties on protection of weapon, its basic parts and ammunition. Each pattern is accompanied with the examples of judicial and investigative practice, followed by the necessary explanations and analysis of the activities of the subject of the investigation on the preparation, followup and final stages, which leads to the conclusion about the legitimacy of the proposed patterns

  7. Characterization of Exposure to Byproducts from Firing Lead Free Frangible Ammunition in an Enclosed, Ventilated Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Christin M; Methner, Mark M; Jackson, Jerimiah M; Moore, Alexander L; Flory, Laura E; Tilly, Trevor; Hussain, Saber M; Ott, Darrin K

    2017-02-26

    U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions. The ventilation system was assessed by measuring the range static air pressure differential and the air velocity at the firing line. Air flow patterns were observed near the firing line. Instructor exposure was sampled using a filter-based air sampling method for metals and a wearable, real-time ultrafine particle counter. Area air sampling was simultaneously performed to characterize the particle size distribution, morphology and composition. In the instructor's breathing zone, the airborne mass concentration of copper was low (range = weapons that fire lead free frangible ammunition. Using an ultrafine particle counter appears to be an alternative method of assessing ventilation effectiveness in removing ultrafine particulate produced during firing events.

  8. Booster Manufacture by Scrap Ammunition Recycling%废弹药再利用制造起爆具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高宏; 蔺庆元; 任流润; 郭新春; 刘大维

    2013-01-01

    利用起爆具的基本配方与制造工艺,在熔化TNT后的混制工序中将废弹药拆分所得猛炸药和熔化TNT混合,经搅拌制备成混合炸药,浇注入放置传爆药柱的壳体中,制成起爆具.试验结果表明,利用废弹药所配制的混合炸药性能优越,进而制成的起爆具完全能满足用户需求.这种拆分废弹药再利用,既节约了资源,降低了处理成本,又改善了环境,实现了资源循环利用.%Based on its basic formula and manufacturing process, the booster was successfully fabricated by mixing high explosive from the scrap ammunition with melt TNT, stirring of mixed explosives, and casting of mixed explosives into the case, in which a booster charge was prepositioned. The experimental results show that the mixed explosive prepared by using the scrap ammunition has superior performance, and the corresponding booster could fully satisfy the requirments of clients. The recycling of scrap ammunition has the advantages of resource saving, disposal cost reduction, environment im-provment, and circulation of resources.

  9. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ., of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept., of Agronomy

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  10. Plant uptake of explosives from contaminated soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Illinos, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-04-01

    Explosives and their degradation products may enter the animal and human food chains through plants grown on soils contaminated with explosives. Soil and plant samples were collected from the Group 61 area at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant and analyzed to determine the extent to which 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products are taken up by existing vegetation and crops growing on contaminated soils. Neither TNT nor its degradation products was detected in any of the aboveground plant organs of existing vegetation. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were planted on TNT-contaminated soils amended with three levels of chopped grass hay. Extractable TNT concentrations in hay-amended soils were monitored for almost 1 year. Crop establishment and growth improved with increased levels of hay amendment, but TNT uptake was not affected or detected in any aboveground crop organs. Evidence was found to indicate that soil manipulation and hay addition may reduce extractable TNT concentration in soils, but the wide variations in TNT concentrations in these soils prevented development of conclusive evidence regarding reduction of extractable TNT concentrations. Results from this study suggest that vegetation grown on TNT-contaminated soils is not a major health concern because TNT and its degradation products were not detected in aboveground plant organs. However, low concentrations of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were detected in or on some existing vegetation and crop roots. 21 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  12. Products of in Situ Corrosion of Depleted Uranium Ammunition in Bosnia and Herzegovina Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuheng; von Gunten, Konstantin; Bartova, Barbora; Meisser, Nicolas; Astner, Markus; Burger, Mario; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-11-15

    Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these postconflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years. We used a combination of X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that metaschoepite (UO3(H2O)2) was a main component of the two DU corrosion products. Moreover, studtite ((UO2)O2(H2O)2·2(H2O)) and becquerelite (Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6·8(H2O)) were also identified in the corrosion products. Their formation through transformation of metaschoepite was a result of the geochemical conditions under which the penetrators corroded. Moreover, we propose that the transformation of metaschoepite to becquerelite or studtite in the DU corrosion products would decrease the potential for mobilization of U from corroded DU penetrators exposed to similar environments in postconflict areas.

  13. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.; Johnson, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  14. Energy engineering analysis, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonik, D.M.

    1982-06-22

    This Energy Engineering Analysis consists of the main report, three appendices, and a summary of annual energy consumption on a per-building basis. The main report identifies the purpose of the study, describes the existing and anticipated energy use trends, and defines and summarizes specific energy conservation projects recommended to achieve the goals stated in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. Appendices I, II and III, and the Annual Energy Consumption Summary include building information, weather data, cost data, and detailed computer-generated and manual calculations for each individual project. The analysis will enable ammunition plant personnel to identify energy conservation measures and meet Army energy reduction goals. The report includes: Energy consumption by fuel type Energy consumption trends ECAM projects Other potential projects Quick-fix management form Description of analyzed buildings In addition, the Analysis is a detailed data base consisting of: An analysis of building energy use Energy Conservation Measures applied to each analyzed building to be improved A set of marked-up prints from the survey indicating the conditions when surveyed.

  15. Crusader Automated Docking System: Technology support for the Crusader Resupply Team. Interim report, Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Varma, V.K.; Jatko, W.B.

    1995-11-01

    The US Army and Team Crusader (United Defense, Lockheed Martin Armament Systems, etc.) are developing the next generation howitzer, the Crusader. The development program includes an advanced, self-propelled liquid propellant howitzer and a companion resupply vehicle. The resupply vehicle is intended to rendezvous with the howitzer near the battlefront and replenish ammunition, fuel, and other material. The Army has recommended that Crusader incorporate new and innovative technologies to improve performance and safety. One conceptual design proposes a robotic resupply boom on the resupply vehicle to upload supplies to the howitzer. The resupply boom would normally be retracted inside the resupply vehicle during transit. When the two vehicles are within range of the resupply boom, the boom would be extended to a receiving port on the howitzer. In order to reduce exposure to small arms fire or nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, the crew would remain inside the resupply vehicle during the resupply operation. The process of extending the boom and linking with the receiving port is called docking. A boom operator would be designated to maneuver the boom into contact with the receiving port using a mechanical joystick. The docking operation depends greatly upon the skill of the boom operator to manipulate the boom into docking position. Computer simulations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have shown that computer-assisted or autonomous docking can improve the ability of the operator to dock safely and quickly. This document describes the present status of the Crusader Autonomous Docking System (CADS) implemented at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the CADS project is to determine the feasibility and performance limitations of vision systems to satisfy the autonomous docking requirements for Crusader and conduct a demonstration under controlled conditions.

  16. Elements of a CERCLA action at a former Army ammunition plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, D.F.; Marotz, G.A.; Frazier, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    The Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant covers 44 km{sup 2} and is located near several large population centers. Leased sites within the plant are now being used for various activities including recreation and manufacturing. Plans are in place for conversion of an additional 3,000 ha to a commercial amusement park. Some 400 structures from the plant remain and most must be removed if further ventures are to take place. Many of the buildings are structurally unsound or contain potentially hazardous materials, such as explosive residues, lead sheathing or asbestos shingles, that were stored or used in the construction of the structures. State and federal agencies agreed that the buildings should be destroyed, but the method to do so was unclear. Analysis on building by building basis revealed that in many cases explosive residue made it unsafe to remove the buildings by any other method rather than combustion. Completion of a comprehensive destruction plan that included ground-level monitoring of combustion plumes, and burn scheduling under tightly prescribed micro and mesoscale meteorological conditions was approved by the EPA as a non-time critical removal action under CERCLA in 1996; the US Army was designated as the lead agency. Personnel at the University of Kansas assisted in developing the destruction plan and helped conduct two test burns using the comprehensive plan protocols. Results of one test burn scenario on June 26, 1997, intended as a test of probable dispersion safety margin and covered extensively by print and television media, the EPA and State agencies, are described in this paper. The selected building was smaller than typical of the buildings on the plant site. The events leading to a burn decision on the test day are used to illustrate the decision-making process.

  17. 基于系统动力学的弹药保障优化分析%Optimized Analysis of Ammunition Support Based on System Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪坤; 赵建江; 朱皖松

    2015-01-01

    The system dynamics model of ammunition support at war time is built based on the analysis of its control mechanism and relations among related factors using system dynamics method. The model is simulated on VENSIM platform, which finds the function laws of ammunition support at war time with different factors. The influence brought to storage of ammunition support at war is analyzed, and an approach to forecasting the minimum value of initial and expected storage of ammunition support system is proposed.%基于系统动力学原理和方法,在分析战时弹药保障系统控制机理和各要素间的因果关系的基础上,建立了战时弹药保障系统动力学仿真模型,利用VENSIM仿真平台对模型进行模拟,得出了在不同影响因素条件下的战时弹药保障系统的运行规律,分析了不同要素对战时弹药保障系统弹药存储的影响,提供了一种预测弹药保障系统初始存储量和期望存储量最小值的方法。

  18. 仿真技术在弹药贮存中的应用%Application of Simulation Technique in Ammunition Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣卫芳; 张勇智; 王一临

    2011-01-01

    利用仿真技术测定弹药贮存的微环境,根据包装结构和弹药结构对弹药贮存的微环境进行了分析.采用较为简便的数学模型,找出了包装箱和弹药在变化的环境温度下的温度分布和变化规律,然后通过弹药贮存微环境的仿真设计,确定了计算软件的功能模块.使用该软件可计算任一时间弹药及其各包装部位微环境的温度.%Simulation technique was used for measuring micro-environment of ammunition storage. The micro-environment was analyzed based of configuration of ammunition and its packaging. The temperature distribution and changing rule of ammunition and its packaging under different environment temperature was found out by simple and convenient math model. Simulation design of the micro-environment was carried out and the function module of calculation software was determined. The temperature in each positions of ammunition and its packaging can be calculated every time by the software.

  19. Exposure assessment of a burning ground for chemical ammunition on the Great War battlefields of Verdun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Tobias; Bonnaire, Eric; Preuss, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    severe arsenic contamination and the transfer of this carcinogen by leachate, surface runoff and probably by wind. Nevertheless, some studies on the effects of the contaminant inventory on the local vegetation revealed that ammonium nitrate elutable zinc is responsible for the spatial distribution of some tolerant plant species and not arsenic. Previously undetected buried munitions from the former delaboration facility can be an other source of environmental contaminants. This is supported by elevated concentrations of chlorate (cmax.=71 mg/l) and perchlorate (cmax.=0.8 mg/l) detected in the leachate samples. This is the second report about environmental contamination related to post-war ammunition destruction activities along the 1914/18 Western Front.

  20. Analysis of the Stability of Ammunition Supplies Chain System Based on SD%基于SD的弹药供应链系统稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美; 王立欣; 李文生; 王海宽

    2011-01-01

    为了研究弹药供应链系统的稳定性,基于弹药供应链系统的组成进行分析,采用系统动力学方法建立了二阶弹药供应链系统的稳定性模型,并利用系统动力学专用软件Vensim对该模型进行数学建模与仿真实验,得到系统稳定、出现震荡及溢出现象时相关参数的取值范围。仿真结果表明:影响弹药供应链系统稳定性的因素是弹药库订货决策的参数,与外部需求无关。%In order to solve the stability of the ammunition supplies chain system,second-level system of the ammunition supplies chain is set up based on the composition analysis of ammunition supplies chain system.Mathematics modeling and simulation experiment are carried on using professional SD software Vensim,and the value range of the parameter is elicited when the system come forth stability,shake and overflow phenomenon.The simulation result shows that the factor which influence the stability of the system of the ammunition supplies chain is the parameter of the magazine order decision,and has nothing to do with the external demand.

  1. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rhys E; Hunt, W Grainger; Parish, Christopher N; Newton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona) and Zion (Utah)) were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah), as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  2. Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rhys E.; W Grainger Hunt; Christopher N Parish; Ian Newton

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead co...

  3. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys E Green

    Full Text Available California condors (Gymnogyps californianus released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona and Zion (Utah were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah, as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  4. Analysis and Research of the Despinning Characteristics of Cannon Carried Falling Ammunition%榴弹搭载伞降子弹减旋特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘闯; 孙丽萍; 程宏涛

    2012-01-01

    针对榴弹搭载伞降子弹减旋翼片的结构特点,分析了其所受力矩,建立了伞降子弹在减速减旋阶段运动微分方程,仿真计算得出了在此阶段子弹的转速-时间曲线,计算结果和实弹试验均表明减旋翼片能使子弹的转速在较短的时间内由几百转/s降至零,从而使子弹达到稳定工作状态,说明减旋翼片能够满足伞降子弹的减旋要求.最后,分析了不同展长和开伞点不同存速对减旋翼片减旋性能影响.%According to the structure characteristics of despinning wings of cannon carried Falling ammunition, torque is analyzed, The movement differential equation in the deceleration and despinning stage is established. The velocity-time curve is calculated, the results and live firing testing indicate the velocity of ammunition can be reduced from several hundred rad/s to zero in a short time by using despinning wings. Ammunition can reach the steady-working state accordingly and the despinning wings can satisfied requirements of reducing velocity of ammunition. Finally, it is analysed that different spans and different velocities in parachute-opening point influence despinning performance of the despinning wings.

  5. 航母航空弹药组成及需求分析%The composition and requirement analysis of aviation ammunition in aircraft carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文强; 陈练; 蒋志勇

    2012-01-01

    为了保证持续的打击能力,舰载机必须往返于航母和战场上空,通过飞行甲板上的挂弹作业完成弹药补给,因而挂弹架次以及弹药需求量对于航空作业的规划安排具有重要意义.针对美国现役“尼米兹”级航母及其舰载机F/A-18E/F“超级大黄蜂”,重点分析了航母航空弹药类型及舰载机挂弹配置;讨论了作战架次的基本组成并总结了挂弹架次计算的基本步骤.以“尼米兹”级和“福特”级航母为例,详细计算了挂弹架次以及航空弹药需求量,并对弹药库自持力进行分析.结果表明,舰载机挂弹架次和航空弹药需求之间存在互相制约的关系.弹药需求量的分析对于航母设计和作战使用具有一定参考价值.%In order to ensure the sustained strike ability,embarked aircraft's should fly between the aircraft carrier and the midair of battlefield,completing the ammunition supplies by ordnance handling on the flight deck. Therefore, arming sortie of embarked aircrafts and requirement for ammunition have an important significance for planning arrangement of aviation operation. Based on the operation experience of USS Niinitz and F/A-l 8E/F Super Hornet onboard, analysis was firstly focused on the main types of aviation ammunition and the basic ordnance configuration for embarked aircraft. Then following by the discussion about breakdown of strike sorties and basic calculation steps of arming sortie, attention was drawn to the detailed calculation of arming sortie and ammunition requirement for USS Nimitz and Ford class aircraft carrier( CVN78). In the end,analysis was also performed on the self-supplying capacity of magazine stock in aircraft carrier. The conclusion is that it is interdependent between the arming sortie and requirement for ammunition. Paper's research production is valuable to the design and operation for aircraft carrier.

  6. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  7. Modeling Method Research of Ammunition Allocation Decision-Making Oriented on Equipment Combat Simulation%面向装备作战仿真的弹药调拨供应决策建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊胜利; 柏彦奇; 秦键; 姚涛

    2011-01-01

    针对用线性规划方法在解决弹药调拨供应决策过程中存在的弹药调拨供应量的分配与弹药保障原则关联不紧密的问题,采用目标规划理论与方法,引入优先级区分主要作战方向和次要作战方向弹药库的重要程度,在同一优先级上以权重区分一梯队、二梯队及预备队弹药库的弹药保障优先顺序,使得模型的构建过程与弹药保障原则紧密相联.同时,在模型构建过程中,综合考虑了弹药消耗预测量、弹药储备标准和弹药运输时限等因素对弹药调拨供应决策的影响,并从本级弹药储备不足和充足两种情况进行了数值模型及分析,验证了模型的正确性与可靠性,为弹药调拨供应提供了决策支持与理论支撑.%To solve the problem of the loose co-relationship between ammunition allocation and ammunition support principles resulting from decision-making based on linear programming, it adopts object programming and introduces priority level to distinguish the importance of ammunition depots in major engagement direction and minor engagement direction.Moreover it uses weight to define the order of priority for ammunition allocation of the first echelon, the second echelon and preliminary echelon.So it can combine clolsely the modeling procedures and ammunition allocation principles.At the same time,it thinks over synthetically the impact of ammunition consumption prediction quantity,ammunition storing standard and transportation time constraint on ammunition allocation decision-making.Finally it promotes the correctness and reliability of model results and provides theoretical support for ammunition allocation decision-making.

  8. 弹药木包装箱阻燃处理的研究%Study on Fire Retarding Treatment of Ammunition Wood Packaging Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑芬; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了目前弹药木包装箱由于材料和结构的特点,在部队仓储、运输等勤务处理和战时使用中存在的燃爆隐患。通过对国内木材阻燃情况的调研,并结合弹药木包装箱特点,利用开发的新型阻燃剂,通过对木材表面刷阻燃剂与不刷阻燃剂2种不同工艺状态下,燃烧时间、质量损失率2项指标的对比试验,表明经过阻燃处理的弹药木包装箱,其阻燃防火性能效果明显,可借鉴参考,指导生产。%The hidden dangers exist in current ammunition wood packaging box were introduced, which were burning and explosion, during army service such as storage, transportation and usage in war because of its materials and structures" characters. By means of survey and study into domestic wood fire-prevention condition and considering the character of ammunition wood packing box, a comparative test was carried out to find the difference in burning time and the rate of mass loss between the two kinds of wood materials, one's surface painted with the newly-developed fire retardant and the other without. The result showed that the ammunition wood packaging box treated by fire-prevention has excellent fire-prevention effect. The purpose was .to provide reference for production.

  9. Model of Suppression Weapon Ammunition Consumption Prediction Oriented Firepower Strike Mission%面向火力打击任务的压制武器弹药消耗预计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立欣; 刘志勇; 程中华; 王亚彬

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual increase of sort of suppression weapon ammunition,the gradual broad firepower strike mission,the problem of ammunition consumption prediction of suppression weapon is getting more and more important. On the base of the multi-target and multi-type ammunition in the firepower strike mission,with the constraints of time and expense,considering the best matching degree of ammunition type and mission,the shortest time,as well as the lowest expense,the model of suppression weapon ammunition consumption prediction oriented firepower strike mission is established by using the goal programming theory. The model are helpful for command organization and support organization to predict ammunition consumption.%随着武器装备的发展和高新技术的应用,压制武器弹药品种日益增多,所承担的火力打击任务日益广泛,压制武器弹药消耗预计问题尤为凸显。从弹种与任务的匹配入手,以弹种任务匹配最佳、完成任务时间最短和完成任务费用最省为决策准则,运用目标规划理论,构建面向火力打击任务的压制武器弹药消耗预计模型,为提高弹药消耗预计的准确性奠定基础,为部队作战指挥机构和保障机构开展弹药消耗预计提供模型支持。

  10. 弹药化验废液电渗析脱盐研究%The Research on Desalination of Waste Liquid of Ammunition Chemical Examination by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀智; 谢俊磊; 曹宏安; 谷智国

    2012-01-01

    为了解决弹药化验废液盐度高、毒性大且对环境污染严重等问题,采用电渗析技术对弹药化验废液进行脱盐处理.通过实验,研究了电渗析时间、实验温度以及物料流量等因素对脱盐效能的影响,结果表明:电渗析技术用于弹药化验废液脱盐处理是可行的,最佳脱盐温度为30℃.%In order to solve the high salinity, toxic and polluting of ammunition laboratory waste liquid, the waste liquid of ammunition chemical examination was desalinated by electrodialysis. Through the experiment the effect of time and temperature of electrodialysis, material flow on the efficiency of desalination was studied. The experimental results show that the technology used in their laboratory waste liquid electrodialysis desalination processing is feasible, the best temperature for desalination is 30℃.

  11. Study on Ammunition Warehouse Management Based on RFID%基于RFID技术的弹药仓库管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛东; 张国海; 胡国栋; 孙立贤

    2012-01-01

    射频识别(RFID)作为一种快速、实时、准确的信息采集与处理技术,为弹药仓库管理中信息的准确性、及时性提供了充分的保证.本文介绍了基于RFID技术的弹药仓储管理系统组成及其功能实现,为弹药仓库管理水平的提升奠定了基础,也为可视化管理信息系统的设计提供了一定借鉴.%Ammunition warehouse management has been rapidly converging with information system management. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is newly developing information technology for collecting and processing data that can ensure information accuracy and in real time.This article introduced the system construction and its function realization ammunition warehouse management system of RFID which established the foundation for the warehouse management and also offer some reference on the design of the visual management information system.

  12. Design and implementation of ammunition containerization security management system based on RFID%基于RFID的弹药集装化保障管理系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏伟; 何源; 赵宗宁

    2013-01-01

    随着弹药装备发展,传统保障模式存在的弊端不断显现。针对现代军事物流特点,着眼实现部队弹药装备信息化保障,利用数字信息化手段,以RFID技术为核心,配合WiFi应用,率先设计实现了一种弹药集装化保障管理系统。可全程动态实时可视化管理弹药装备,提高了管理能力,增强了安全性,为我军弹药保障实现信息化提供了一定借鉴意义。%With the development of ammunition,the insufficiency of traditional security pattern emerges. In order to realize the military equipment support informatization,according to the characteristics of modern military logistics,taking RFID as the key technology,a kind of ammunition containerization security management system was designed by means of digital informatiza-tion technology and WiFi. The system realized dynamic real-time visualization management of ammunition,improved the manage-ment ability,enhanced security,provided a reference for the ammunition informatization support of Chinese army.

  13. Funding Ammunition Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Brewer, Bruce Busler, Bud Drew, Robynn Flamm, James Jackson, Colonel Richard Kramer, Jasmine Liburd, Frederick Rice, Tara Sample, Linda Wilson, and...Coleman, and Cedric Jasmin of Army Headquarters G-4; Gregory Bod- dorf , Dina Crowley, Susan Goodyear, and Kenneth Holderfield of the Army Materiel Com

  14. An Ammunition Dump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    When educators open their "Fibber McGee's closets" of past reforms, a pile of silver bullets will spill out onto the floor. For at least the past 20 years, the sense of public confidence in public education has been fed by an arsenal of such quick, often creative, but largely unsubstantiated remedies for turning schools and kids around.…

  15. System Theory Based Gun Ammunition Consumption P rediction Correction Method%基于系统理论方法的炮兵弹药消耗量预测修正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 朱江; 闻传花; 周昊

    2014-01-01

    决策人员长期受到“弹药迷雾”的困扰,针对弹药保障中需求预计涉及多因素、彼此交错的复杂系统问题,基于系统理论,提出了一种融合解释结构模型( ISM)和系统动力学( SD)的弹药消耗预测修正方法。在联合作战背景下对炮兵群弹药消耗问题进行研究,使用解释结构模型研究弹药系统,对弹药保障需求影响因素的相互关系进行了科学的分析和评价,分析了影响弹药保障需求的因素,进而运用系统动力学研究可控制条件下的预测问题。从实验数据分析兵力比对弹药消耗的影响规律,得到有用的结论,并结合战例检验,证明了方法有效,修正了基于任务量公式计算方法的不足,提高了预测的精度。%Ammunition support demand prediction is a complex problem which involved all kinds of intertwined factors. Based on system theory and its derived methods such as ISM(Interpretative Structure Method), SD(System Dynamic), a gun-ammunition-consumption-prediction-correction-method is proposed in this paper. Under the circumstance for predicting the undermanned ammunition consumption of joint war, the ammunition system is analyzed by ISM for constructing the struc-ture of the factors and its relations which affects ammunition support demand systematically. and then by SD,prediction prob-lem under controllability condition is discussed. After analyzing experiment data, some useful conclusion can be got. As a conclusion, this method is validated by a history example, and the results shows the accuracy of prediction will be enhanced by this method, disadvantage of the Task Quantum method will be solved either. It is a new way of thinking about ammunition prediction.

  16. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  17. 弹药储供信息技术课程内容体系构建与实践%The Establishment and Practice of Ammunition Storage and Supply Information Technologies Curriculum Content System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军锋; 宣兆龙; 武洪文

    2014-01-01

    文中针对弹药储供信息技术课程教学现状及存在问题,以培养学员信息技术运用能力和岗位任职能力为主旨,构建了弹药保障信息采集、传递、储存、处理、应用为一体的教学内容体系。探索形成了实装实训、模拟虚拟、自主创新的实践教学内容,强化了学员弹药保障信息技术运用能力提高,为培养适应建设信息化军队、打赢信息化条件下联合战争需要的弹药保障人才奠定坚实的基础。%This paper aiming at the current situation and existing problems of ammunition storage and supply information technologies curriculum,the content system of the ammunition support information collection,transmission,storage,processing, application are constructed in order to cultivate the students'ability of information technology applying ability and capacidade professional ability.The practice teaching content of the real practice,virtual simulation and independent innovation are explored and ammunition support information technology applying ability is intensified and improved for students.The curriculum reform establish the solid foundation of ammunition support talents to build informationization army and win joint war under the condition of informationization.

  18. The Assess Efficiency Model for Shrapnel Cluster Ammunition to Fire Gather Aims%多用途子母弹对集群目标毁伤效率评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙兆军; 刘富书; 钱林方

    2012-01-01

    多用途子母弹是多功能火炮配备的一种集地面打击和防空袭于一体的新型弹药,为充分发挥该弹药的战技性能,并合理地研究其作战使用.在假定单个目标均匀分布的基础上,运用离散的方法研究并建立了单发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击的效率评定模型,在此基础上又建立了多发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击时的效率评定模型,并运用模型进行了计算分析,计算结果表明该模型计算过程简便、精度高、准确性较好.%The multi-function artillery is one of the most important directions of the artillery. The efficiency assess of the shrapnel cluster ammunition for the multi-function artillery is a important study appearance. In order to exert the tactics capability of the weapon and make use of the weapon logicall,the paper assume the single aim distribute equality and use the discrete method to establish the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multi-function artillery to fire gather aims. On the basis of the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multifunction artillery to fire gather aims, the paper establish the assess efficiency model for more multifunction artillerys launch the shrapnel cluster ammunition to fire gather aims, and then use the model to count and analyze the examples. The result indicates that the model is simplet and exact.

  19. 箱装发射药储存时的安全性及能量分析%Analysis of the Safety and Energy Content of Ammunition Stored in Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜培学; 任泽霈; 江劲勇; 陈明华; 路桂娥

    2001-01-01

    采用大型通用计算程序PHOENICS(1.4版本)对箱装发射药中含有内部热源的非稳态导热与自然对流换热及辐射换热的耦合问题进行了数值求解。分析和比较了在直角坐标和贴体坐标下发射药内部靠近中心处的最高温度随时间的变化趋势,并对发射药的安全性及发射药所含有的能量进行了分析。%The conjugate heat transfer analysis of transient thermal conduction, natural convection and thermal radiation in a case with ammunition, which is a temperature dependent heat sources, was simulated numerically using PHOENICS (Version 1.4). The variation of the maximum temperature and the self-ignition hazard in the ammunition was analyzed using both body fitted coordinates and cartesian cordinates. The safety and energy content in the ammunition were analyzed for various storage conditions.

  20. 前混式磨料水射流弹药切割机的研究与开发%Research and Development of Premixing Abrasive Water-jet Cutting Machine for Ammunition Destruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝爽; 吕游; 李湘文

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the disintegration of dangerous ammunitions,an ammunition cutting machine based on premixing abrasive water-jet technology was developed.Through the system design,abrasive supply system study,special actuator development,some problems in application of the technology have been solved.The field experiment showed that the developed cutting machine could safely,economically,environment-friendly and flexibly cut dangerous ammunitions,has been included in the formal army equipments.%为了解决危险弹药解体问题,研制了基于前混式磨料水射流技术的弹药切割机,通过对系统方案设计、磨料供应系统研究、专用执行机构的开发,解决了技术应用中存在的问题,现场试验证明,研制设备达到了安全、可靠、经济、环保、灵活切割危险弹药的目的,已列入部队正式装备。

  1. 箱装发射药堆的温度变化规律及其安全性分析%Analysis of the temperature variation and the safety of ammunition stored in a stack of cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜培学; 任泽霈; 江劲勇; 陈明华; 路桂娥

    2001-01-01

    为研究箱装发射药堆中发射药的温度、发射药的安全性及其所含有的能量随时间的变化规律,采用求解原始变量的通用计算程序PHOENICS(1.4版本)并结合“虚拟密度法”,对具有多个离散内热源的非稳态导热与自然对流换热的耦合传热过程进行了数值模拟。结果表明,当散热通风条件比较好、环境温度和初始温度较低(≤50℃)时,在经历50年后发射药不会发生热自燃,发射药所含有的能量足够高;而当环境温度和初始温度比较高(如:120℃)时,发射药很快就会发生热自燃;在绝热边界条件下,即使在初始温度、环境温度及环境中空气的温度都较低的情况下,发射药也可能发生热自燃。%Abstract: The aim is to investigate the temperature variation,the self-ignition hazard and the energy content in the ammunition. The conjugate heat transfer analysis of the transient thermal conduction and the natural convection in a stack of cases with ammunition №1 or №2, which are modeled as temperature dependent heat sources, were simulated numerically using PHOENICS(Version 1.4) and the false density method. It was found that with reasonable heat transfer conditions at the boundary and relatively low initial and boundary temperatures(≤50 ℃), the ammunition did not self-ignite within the 50 years time period used for the analysis. If the initial and boundary temperatures were high (120 ℃), the ammunition will self-ignite within about 1 h. If the heat transfer conditions on the boundary were very bad, e.g., thermally isolated boundary conditions, the ammunition self-ignited at relatively low initial and boundary temperatures within the stipulated 50 years period.

  2. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  3. Design and Application of Explosion Vessel for Destruction of Waste Ammunition%废旧弹药销毁用爆炸罐设计及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗同杰; 王保玲; 宁灵生

    2012-01-01

    在对露天炸毁法处理废旧弹药研究的基础上,介绍了一种炸毁用的钢筋混凝土结构体及其各组成部分的结构和功能,详细介绍了其炸毁作业流程.使用结果表明,该爆炸罐设计合理,可以连续重复、有效抵御6kgTNT当量爆炸冲击波及破片的破坏作用,完成一个作业周期为17 min.同时还指出了爆炸罐的发展方向.%On basis of the study on disposing the waste ammunition by explosion in the open air, this paper introduces the structure and functions of a land of reinforced-concrete construction used for explosion and its relevant parts, and the detailed operating processes of the explosion. The conclusion of its application shows that the explosion vessel is design-reasonable , and can be continuously reused and be able to effectively resist the destructive action of the explosion shock and the fragments of 6 kg TNT equivalent, It takes 17 min to completed an operating cycle. At the same time, it also points out the development trend of the explosion vessels.

  4. Potential health risks to adults and children in the UK from exposure to dietary lead in gamebirds shot with lead ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R E; Pain, D J

    2012-11-01

    We estimate potential risks to human health in the UK from dietary exposure to lead from wild gamebirds killed by shooting. The main source of exposure to lead in Europe is now dietary. We used data on lead concentrations in UK gamebirds, from which gunshot had been removed following cooking to simulate human exposure to lead. We used UK food consumption and lead concentration data to evaluate the number of gamebird meals consumed weekly that would be expected, based upon published studies, to result in changes, over and above those resulting from exposure to lead in the base diet, in intelligence quotient (IQ), Systolic Blood Pressure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) considered in a recent opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to be significant at a population level and also in SAT test scores and in rates of spontaneous abortion. We found the consumption of <1 meal of game a week may be associated with a one point reduction in IQ in children and 1.2-6.5 gamebird meals per week may be associated with the other effects. These results should help to inform the development of appropriate responses to the risks from ingesting lead from ammunition in game in the UK and European Union (EU).

  5. 埋头弹内弹道过程分段建模方法的研究%Study on Piecewise Model of Interior Ballistic Process of Cased Telescoped Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋斌

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the interior ballistic model of Cased Telescoped Ammunition (CTA) .divided the interior ballistic process into tow stages. Combined with the classical interior ballistic theory and the modern interior ballistic theory, a mathematical model composed of igniter squid zero dimension model and one dimension two-phase flow interior ballistic model of Cased Telescoped Ammunition simulated by using the two-phase flow method and computational fluid dynamics is established, and is confirmed with MATLAB software. Showed the distribution in space after the shell of ballistic parameters, a new model creation method of analyzing interior ballistic performance of cased telescoped ammunition is provided. Important theoretical guidance for revising and optimizing the CTA gun charge structure are provide.%为了简化埋头弹的内弹道模型,将埋头弹内弹道过程分为两个阶段.结合经典内弹道和高等内弹道理论,并应用两相流体力学模型和计算流体动力学技术,分别建立了埋头弹传火管零维模型和身管内一维两相流模型;并利用MATLAB软件进行了数值模拟.获得了内弹道参数在弹后空间的分布情况,为分析埋头弹内弹道性能提供了一种新的建模方法.为埋头弹装药结构的修正和优化提供了理论指导.

  6. Lesión por disparo con rebote atípico de proyectil 9 mm Luger KPO Atypical gunshot wound with 9 mm Luger KPO ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso atípico de herida de arma de fuego por un proyectil 9 mm Parabellum Luger KPO. El análisis de los datos balísticos permite estimar que el proyectil sufrió fragmentación y rebote sobre asfalto previos a la entrada en el organismo, penetrando los fragmentos del proyectil como un proyectil único en el cuerpo. El disparo del arma fue practicado a distancia de cañón tocante con la camiseta del lesionado. La bibliografía sobre el comportamiento de este tipo de proyectil en casos de disparos de rebote indica que esta circunstancia es posible, aunque extremadamente infrecuente. El uso de programas comerciales de diseño de imagen en 3D resulta muy útil para poder plasmar de una forma comprensible para los tribunales las conclusiones de estudios médico forenses en los que es necesario plantear hipótesis de escenarios de producción de ciertos hechos con condiciones espaciales y de posiciones relativas entre víctima y agresor diversas.We present a case report about an atypical gunshot wound with 9 mm Luger KPO ammunition. Ballistic reconstruction indicates that the bullet was fragmented and ricocheted from an asphalt surface and then hit the victim's body. The Gunshot was produced at a very short distance from the victim's shirt. Bibliographic data suggest that this a possible but extremely unusual circumstance. Animated three dimensional models make it easy to explain atypical spatial surroundings and positions of people implicated in a gunshot wound. Infographic commercial programs let us recreate these models.

  7. Recovery of radiation sources after the explosion of ammunition military facility of the city of Rio Tercero (Cordoba, Argentina); Recuperacion de fuentes radioactivas luego de la explosion de la fabrica militar de municiones de la Ciudad de Rio Tercero (Cordoba, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puntarulo, Luis J.; D' Apice, Americo A. [Superintendencia Federal de Bomberos, Ezeiza (Argentina). Policia Federal Argentina. Div. Cuartel Ezeiza; Superintendencia Federal de Bomberos, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Policia Federal Argentina. Seccion Seguridad Radiologica

    2001-07-01

    In this work it is reflected the operative task of the Team of Radiological Emergencies of the Federal Superintendence of Firemen, in the intervention that took place November 3 of 1995, in the Military Factory of Ammunition of the City of River Third, in the county of Cordoba (Argentina). After big explosions that caused the destruction of the building and surrounding areas, with dispersion of ammunition of canyons, we proceeded to locate and recover the industrial sources which were also at the scene. After their recovery, the sources were given to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority for its safe guard.(author)

  8. Research on Control Method of Anti-aircraft Correction Ammunition Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群算法的防空修正弹控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红伟; 甘明刚

    2011-01-01

    为了提高防空弹道修正弹拦截机动目标的能力,提出了一种弹载执行机构的控制方法.建立了防空弹道修正弹的质点弹道模型,根据弹道修正的基本原理,得到了脉冲控制的优化模型;针对脉冲控制的特点给出了脉冲点火控制策略;应用粒子群算法对脉冲控制指令进行了优化.通过引入脉冲能量消耗最小原则改进了适应度函数,搜索了控制指令的全局优化解.仿真结果表明,该方法使得防空弹药在拦截机动目标时具有较高的命中精度.%In order to improve the ability of anti-aircraft trajectory correction ammunition to intercept maneuvering targets, a control method of missile-borne actuator was proposed. The particle trajectory model was established. According to the basic principle of trajectory correction, the optimal model of impulsive control was obtained. The ignition pulse control strategy was given according to the characteristics of impulse control. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) was applied to optimizing the impulsive control instructions. By introducing the minimum consumption principle of pulse energy, the fitness function was improved. The overall optimal solutions of control instructions were searched. Simulation results show that this control method can make anti-aircraft ammunition gain high hit-precision to intercept maneuvering target.

  9. Analyze the Scan Interval of Terminal Sensing Ammunition in the Stable Scan Section that Impacts on Firing Result%末敏弹稳态扫描段扫描间隔对射击效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰; 张凌海

    2014-01-01

    首先研究末敏弹的弹道特性,提出末敏弹稳态扫描段扫描间隔的产生原因,最后通过末敏弹在稳态扫描段扫描间隔对扫描幅员、评定射击效率方法及对单个静态目标、运动目标射击的影响进行分析,得出了末敏弹对单个静态目标、运动目标射击时的相关数据,增强了末敏弹的作战效能。%Firstly,The ballistic property of terminal sensing ammunition is studied. The reason of the scan interval in the stable scan section is analyzed. Finally, analyze four questions in detail which are computing technology of scanning interval, evaluating shooting efficiency, choosing the individual static or mobile target. According to the analysis above, the data of terminal sensing ammunition firing the he individual static or mobile target is reached. The fighting efficiency of terminal sensing ammunition is strengthened.

  10. Research on the Current Status of Intelligent Ammunition Support Decision-making Oriented on Man-not-in-the-loop%面向人不在环的智能化弹药保障决策过程研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊胜利; 柏彦奇; 李文山

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the research status of intelligent ammunition support decision-making, the paper analyzes and compares the research methods of ammunition information sensing, prediction and decision-making during the course of ammunition support decision-making profoundly in the view of man-not-in-the-loop equipment combat simulation. It points out the current existing problems and normal thinking and method solving this kind of question.%针对智能化弹药保障过程研究现状,从人不在环的装备作战仿真的角度出发,深入分析比较了智能化弹药保障决策过程中的弹药信息感知、预测和决策等各个阶段的研究方法,以及当前研究中存在的问题,提出了解决此类问题的一般思路和方法.

  11. 弹药引信封口机滚轮沟槽曲线的分析及优化%Analysis and Optimization of the First Operation Seaming Curve of Ammunition Fuze with Sealing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莎莎; 赵美宁; 王玉林; 王妮

    2011-01-01

    阐述了弹药引信包装封口机的卷封机构及二重卷边过程,论述了金属罐二重卷封一道滚轮沟槽曲线的设计,通过有限元仿真模拟卷封过程,分析了滚轮沟槽曲线各段在二重卷边中所起的作用,并对4种曲线进行受力分析比较,确定卷封性能最优良的曲线,并对其进行优化,得到一条理想的曲线.%lllustrated ammunition fuze with sealing mechanism and double seam process, expounded double seaming of cans first operation seaming curve design. By finite element simulation of the double seam process analysis and comparing of the four curves of seaming process, determined the best seaming curve, and optimized it to obtain good seaming curve.

  12. 热释电红外传感器在新型弹药引信中的应用%Application of Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor in New Ammunition Fuze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平子鹏; 赵洋

    2016-01-01

    The target detection and recognition of the fuze is an important part of the new intelligent ammunition .Com‐bined with the current target detection and recognition technology ,a method of target detection and identification is presented based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor .On the basis of the working principle of pyroelectric infrared sensor ,the infrared characteristics of the human body are analyzed and the experimental simulation is carried out .The results show that the tar‐get detection and recognition based on pyroelectric infrared sensor is feasible ,which has a key role in improving the opera‐tional effectiveness of weapon system ,enhancing the conventional deterrence and combat capability .%引信的目标探测与识别是新型智能弹药系统的重要组成部分,结合当今目标探测识别技术,给出了一种基于热释电红外传感器的引信探测与识别方法。文章在阐述热释电红外传感器工作原理的基础上,分析人体目标的红外特性并进行实验仿真。结果表明,基于热释电红外传感器的引信目标探测与识别是可行的,对提高武器系统作战效能,增强常规威慑和实战能力具有关键作用。

  13. Detection of Harmful Gas in Ammunition Warehouse Based on BP Neural Network Improved by Particle Swarm Optimization%基于改进BP网络的弹药库房有害气体检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 安振涛; 张倩; 赵志宁

    2014-01-01

    通过气体采样分析,确定了弹药库房需要重点检测的有害气体种类,在此基础上构建了基于传感器阵列与粒子群优化 BP网络的气体检测系统;针对线性惯性权重调整的粒子群优化 BP神经网络算法的不足,提出了一种新的非线性惯性权重调整方法,既保证了算法在运行前期具有较快的搜索速度和全局搜索能力,又保证了后期具有较高的搜索精度;为了克服算法在运行后期的局部收敛,在算法运行过程中引入速度变异算子,使算法摆脱了易陷入局部最优点的束缚;最后,通过实验对气体检测系统的性能进行了检验。结果表明,该气体检测系统速度快、精度高,能够较好地实现对弹药库房有害气体的检测。%Through the analysis of the gas sample,the species of harmful gas was defined in the ammunition warehouse.The gas analysis system composed of sensor array and BP neural network was established.An advanced BP algorithm based on improved particle swarm opti-mization with non-linear adjustment of inertia weight was proposed by analyzing the shortcomings of BP algorithm using linear adjustment of inertia weight.The algorithm can not only maintain the characteristic of fast speed and global searching in the early convergence phase,but also keep a high precision in the later convergence phase.In order to escape from the local minimum basin of attraction of the later phase,a mutation operator of velocity is added to the Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO)algorithm.In the end,the performance of the algorithm was tested by the experiment.The experimental result indicates that the system has a rapid detection speed and a high precision.It is an effective method for harmful gas detection.

  14. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    operations include, but are not limited to: power screening equipment, power rakes, and shredders . C12.5.8.3.5.1. Nonessential Personnel...present an explosive hazard. C15.8.4.2. The use of remotely operated equipment (e.g., excavators, sifters, and shredders ) or other standoff

  15. Evaluation of Ammunition Data Cards (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    were verifying ADCs based on how they interpreted WARP and MIL-STD-1168. Although ISO 9001 compliance was not part of the objective of this...evaluation, as an ISO 9001 -certified organization,9 JMC should have its operating processes documented in order to meet ISO requirements and ensure process...parts data on the ADCs. Traceability, as defined in International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) 9000, Paragraph 3.6.13, “Traceability,” is the

  16. Introductory Handbook for Small Arms Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-07-01

    by a casual nents and drawings, or a visit t line. A lipstick container Is not trldge case In form. It Is blanked and trimmed by the same general...pro ment. However, the lipstick tube s container while the cartridge case of a very powerful "engine". ntlons that the ves "problems", d that... Waterproof Opera- tion. The cases are processed through a Dry Opera- tion after this operation. r. Mouth and Neck Anneal (1) The cases are mouth and

  17. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  18. Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    evolved over the years, and virtually all current primers use lead styphnate , and exhaust lead, barium , and antimony as products of combustion. These primer...Policy and Regulations 9 3.2 Procedures and Infrastructure 11 Section 4 Determining Criteria for Toxicity 14 4.1 General 14 4.2 Lead 15 4.3 Barium 15 4.4...antimony and barium are not indicated on this list, but this certainly does not mean that they are not toxic. There are a number of more complete

  19. A High Resolution Ammunition Resupply Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Missile Range, Jew Mexico 88002 190 Hejjuarters, Department of the Arsp Of o he Depuy Ch ef of Staf for operations and Pl ans ATTII DA8O-2D Washlngton...D.C. 20310 20. Commander US Army Conceits and Analysis Agency ATTN: MOCA -W 8120 Wsodmout veue(Bethesda, Marylan" 20014 266S"-~--- . 21. Director 1us...Range, New Mexico 88002 24. Director Combat Developments. Studies Division ATTN: MAJ W. Scott Wallace US Army Armor Agency Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121 25

  20. Peacetime Industrial Preparedness for Wartime Ammunition Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Secretary of Defense Harold Brown is offered. Following a discussion of actions taken to redress prior materiel readiness shortfalls, the Secretary...York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1978), pp. 315-316. 3. Harold Brown , Report of the Secretary of Defense to the Congress on the FY 1980 Budget...encompasses activities which range from the "Dante’s Inferno " of a metal parts plant to the antiseptically clean environment of a load, assemble, and pack

  1. An epidemiological study on malignant tumor in employees in a firearms and ammunition plant%某厂枪弹制造作业人员恶性肿瘤流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李垚; 那常筠; 袁重胜; 王洪军; 姚荫龙; 吴艳萍; 赵新军

    2001-01-01

    目的从流行病学的角度研究某厂枪弹制造作业人员恶性肿瘤的死亡水平,为进一步研究二者之间关系提供线索。方法应用回顾性队列研究法追访6 310人,观察91 600.0人年。观察期从1981年1月1日至1995年12月31日。结果该作业全死因粗死亡率590.61/10万人年,恶性肿瘤粗死亡率216.16/10万人年,居死因第一位。以哈尔滨市1986~1990年男性恶性肿瘤死亡专率为标准,暴露组及其中的熔铜、热加工组男性恶性肿瘤死亡超量,SMR 分别为1.49、2.17、2.41,男性 RRT 分别为2.41、2.62(P<0.01)。其中热加工组男性肺癌 SMR 为3.40,RRT 为4.59(P<0.01);熔铜组男性肝癌SMR为4.48,RRT为4.50(P<0.01)。结论该作业男性恶性肿瘤死亡超量,尤其是热加工工人肺癌、熔铜作业工人肝癌死亡超量有统计学意义,其他工种及其他肿瘤均无明显超量。%Objective Malignant tumor mortality in employees was conducted in a firearms and ammunition plant to study their association.Methods Totally,6 310 employees were followed-up in a retrospective cohort,with 91 600.0 person-years,from January 1,1981 to December 31,1995.Results Crude mortality of all causes was 590.61 per 100 000 person-years in this plant,and malignant tumor-specific mortality 216.16 per 100 000,ranking the first place in the causes of death.Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of malignant tumor was 1.49,2.17 and 2.41(P<0.01) for those exposed to firearms and ammunition,copper melting and heating,respectively,for male employees,with malignant tumor-specific mortality of males in Harbin during years of 1986 to 1990 as a reference,and relative risk(RR) was 2.41 and 2.62 for those exposed to copper melting and heating(P<0.01),respectively.SMR for lung cancer in male employees exposed to heating was 3.40 with an RR of 4.59(P<0.01),and SMR for liver cancer in

  2. 一种提高炮射智能弹药初速的新型发射装药方案%A New Firing Charge Concept of Increasing Intelligent Ammunition Muzzle Velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华; 陆欣; 周彦煌; 赵润祥

    2014-01-01

    A new charge concept for increasing intelligent ammunition muzzle velocity based on differential traveling charge tech-nology which is able to largely increase gun working volume utilization rate and muzzle velocity within the limits of given projec-tile overload was proposed. With adaption of sub-caliber sabot projectile design technology,this charge technique facilitates the design of high lift-drag ratio gliding projectile,and increases artillery range. A differential traveling principle interior ballistic nu-meric model was established. Assuming traveling charge mass 9. 2 kg and main principal charge mass 13. 41 kg,the calculation of 160 mm gun with the new charge technique demonstrates that the projectile muzzle velocity increases by 26% and gun working volume utilization rate increases by 28%,and under the conditions of maximum bore pressure up to 350 MPa,projectile bottom maximum pressure p2m≤318 MPa,projectile mass 43. 4 kg and travel 7. 64 m. Through calculation with modified particle external trajectory model for 130mm sub-caliber gliding projectile,this charge technique can extend maximum range to 99 km.%基于再生式液体炮( RLPG)及差动原理,提出了一种提高炮射智能弹药初速的新型随行装药方案,其特点是能在保持射弹过载不变条件下,大幅度提高火炮工作容积利用率和初速。这种装药技术便于与次口径脱壳弹设计技术匹配,设计出高升阻比滑翔弹,从而更有利于提高火炮的射程。导出了差动随行装药火炮内弹道模型。数值计算表明,160 mm口径火炮采用这种新型装药方案,在限定最大膛压为350 MPa、射弹底部最大压力为 p2 m≤318 MPa、飞行弹重为43.4 kg及弹丸行程为7.64 m 的条件下,取随行药量9.2 kg、主装药量13.41 kg,弹丸初速相对常规装药可提高26%,火炮工作容积利用率提高约28%。飞行弹丸采用次口径滑翔弹时,弹径为130 mm,采用修正质

  3. Thermal Exposure of Ammunition on Board Ship. Part 3. Ammunition Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Code 862, GIDEP Office (1) Technical Library (I) 5 Naval Air Engineering Center, Lakehurst Code 93 (1) Code 9313 D. Broude (1) Cornetz (1) Technical...Topographic Laboratories, Fort Belvoir ETL-GS- EA (1) ETL-GS-EC, T. Neidringhaus (2) Technical Library (I) 2 Chemical Systems Laboratory, Aberdeen

  4. Application and Research of Medium and Large Caliber Ammunition Mass Centroid Mass of Partial and Length Automation of the Measurement System%中大口径弹药物理量自动化测量系统的应用与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛明旭; 于晓光; 陈涛; 刘志强; 赵学龙

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一组中大口径弹药质量质心质偏及长度自动化测量系统的应用与研究,本套装备可实现多种型号、多种尺寸火工品的质量、质心、质偏、长度的自动化测量,详细介绍了本套装备的测量原理以及测量系统的设计;设备经实际应用检验,满足工艺要求,实现了无人化操作,提高了测量效率和测量精度,提高了本质安全度,降低了工人劳动强度,避免了火工品表面刮伤和火工品倾覆等危险事件的发生。%This paper introduced a set of new applications and large-caliber ammunition centroid qualita-tive study quality and length of partial automation of the measuring system,and this set of equipment can achieve the quality,centroid,quality bias and length of automation measure of EED of a variety of models and sizes. The article detailed the design of the sets of equipment measuring principle and the measure-ment system. After practical application test,the equipment meets the process requirements,and achieves unmanned operation,and improves measurement efficiency and accuracy,and improves the intrinsic safe-ty,and reduces labor intensity,and avoids the product surface scratches and Pyrotechnics overturning and other dangerous events.

  5. Field Artillery Cannon Weapons Systems and Ammunition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    SOCKE T-ý’ q--l D E FIRING STAKE FIRING PLATEFORM Figure 2-4. The M102 howitzer leveler, pivot, buffer assembly, firing platform, and firing...Cumr its movement is controlled by the azimuth micrometer knob. The nonslipping azimuth scale, located below the slipping azimuth scale, can be ,WiNG...moved only by the azimuth micrometer knob and ’KNOB the motion of the totating head. A door covers the nonslipping azimuth scale when it is not in use

  6. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  7. Removal of DNT from Wastewaters at Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-31

    54 peroxide experiments 15. Optimization of time 55 16. Adsorption isotherm for water dry water 55 17. Adsorption isotherm for solvent-fortified water... dry water 56 18. Adsorption isotherm for plant effluent with DNT 56 19. Test matrix for DNT degradation by UV/ozonation 57 iii I I I I Page 20...concentrations have been normalized to reflect adsorption by a 20-mg sample of FS-400. Table 16. Adsorption isotherm for water dry water Final concentration

  8. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  9. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  10. DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    11-6 Fire ighting M easures .............................................................. 11-5 11-6 CHAPRa 12.-QUANTITY...and effective date on each sized numerals and letters: revised page. When it is necessary to supplement page changes with explanatory information...effects, such an facility damage and personnel injury expected at specific scaled distances for class 1 division 1 explosions. D. Recomended methods

  11. Historic Properties Report: Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Grand Island, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    contained TNT and aluminum poder .29 The Nebraska Ordnance Works at Wahoo did the pioneer work in loading both Composition B and tritonal, and trained...Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings, 1983. Wash., D.C.: Preservation Assistance Division, National Park Ser •ice. 1983. Quayle, L. A

  12. Elimination of Airborne Lead Contamination from Caliber .22 Ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    composition is comprised of the toxic heavy metals: lead and barium . The barium , however, is considered a minor contributor to the contamination...lead styphnate priming mixture and 2.9 grains of Winchester (WC371) propellant. This propellant quantity resulted in near the maximum recommended...standard lead styphnate primer mixture to four times the volume of the lead styphnate primer mixture. The amount of new primer mixture which produced

  13. PEO Ammunition Systems Portfolio Book 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    consists of an aluminum alloy cup containing an ignition charge of lead styphnate , an intermediate charge of lead azide, and a base charge of RDX. The...51.5 kg SPECIAL FEATURES: • An aluminum alloy cup containing an ignition charge of lead styphnate , an intermediate charge of lead azide, and...49% Barium Nitrate; 16.5% Strontium Nitrate; 5% Binder • Hazard Class/Net Energetic Weight: 1.3G/0.145150 Kg FIELDING: • Fielded PRIME

  14. Aquatic Field Survey at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-24

    MailaBgji8iiMMggMMMHMig^iiiliIMtiaM(aMBM|M m ..„....„„ ,„,.,.... ^,... —^^n^^g^ Table B-6 shows only one species, Oedogonium spp., at Station A, in...X X X X X X X X Chlorophyceae Chaetopeltis sp. Choleochaete spp. Cylindrocapsa geminella Mougeotia spp. Oedogonium sp. 1 Ulothrix spp...Chlorophyceae Aphanochaete polychaete Bulbochaete sp. Choleochaete spp. j Cylindrocapsa geminella j Mougeotia spp. Oedogonium sp. 1

  15. Energy Recovery from Army Ammunition Plant Solid Waste by Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    with laboratory equipment capable of processing 1.4 kg/hr (3 Ib/hr). Waste feed, in addition to municipal refuse, included bark, rice hulls, sewage...pyrolyzed products. The solid residue or char is extruded from the end of the screw. The four taps on the barrel correspond to the different zones of...carbon char can be either briquetted for use as a fuel with a very low sulfur content or as a soil conditioner with the fortification of the

  16. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition, Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume III. Ammunition Post Processor User’s Manual (APP-UM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    preparation of the Distribution Requirement Report and the 3 - Day Report; these are produced and copied into the output file REPORTI by the program, and is...day in the study the number of samples or postures that are being played, and the AMMO (or DATA) expenditure file. The main output file ** REPORTI is...34 is to be used instead of the Program File name for the remainder of the processing; o The old output file REPORTI (56REPORT)is deleted o The input

  17. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Rifle. Ammunition, Beacon. See Iluminants - Beacon shells. AMMUNITION, BIOLOGICAL. AMMUNITION, BLANK. x Hlank armunition. AMMUNITION, CANISTER. (UL 400...illumination x Star shells - Beacon shells x Ammunition, Beacon - Candles - Flares - Flares, Aeroplanes x Aeroplanes - Flares - Iluminating shells (UL 440.1

  18. Anaerobic treatment of army ammunition production wastewater containing perchlorate and RDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikovic, Emina; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2008-08-01

    Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil). Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR), has been shown to be an effective method for the removal of both perchlorate and RDX in contaminated wastewater. The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of removal of perchlorate and RDX, individually and when co-mingled, using ethanol as an electron donor under steady state conditions. Three AFBRs were used to assess the effectiveness of this process in treating the wastewater. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored relative to perchlorate, RDX, and chemical oxygen demand removal effectiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the biodegradation of perchlorate and RDX was more effective in bioreactors receiving the single contaminant than in the bioreactor where both contaminants were fed.

  19. Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-Powered Forklifts during Operations in Ammunition Storage Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Camel, Jr., Eds., National Cancer Institute Monograph No. 9, p. 225, 1962. 11.6 Sawicki, E., R. C. Corey, A. E. Dooley,J. B. Gisclard, J. L. Monkman, R...tum wmammmmm ~m mamas aB-mm7 B-27 1K PEDCO INVIRONMENTAL. INC ARMY DIESEL FORKLIFT STUDY Location THREE TOt Description TEST SI Date: DECEMIER 6. 1103

  20. Standardizing Ammunition Distribution within the United States Navy as either a Push or Pull Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Information System RBS Readiness Based Sparing RFID Radio Frequency Identification SCM Supply Chain Management SLCM Submarine Launched Cruise Missile...instruction card ,” there are also other paperless methods for controlling product movement. One example is the use of containers or bins—if the bin...listed below:  Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID )  Item Unique Identification (IUID)  Joint Regional Inventory Material Management (JRIMM

  1. Detoxification of PAX-21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Se Chang; Cha, Daniel K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kim, Byung J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL 61826-9005 (United States); Oh, Seok-Young, E-mail: quartzoh@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. {yields} DNAN is identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. {yields} Iron treatment not only removes energetic compounds but also eliminates the toxic constituents that inhibit the subsequent microbial process. - Abstract: US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical option for the treatment of perchlorate in PAX-21 wastewater, we conducted biodegradation experiments using glucose as the primary sources of electrons and carbon. Batch experiments showed that negligible perchlorate was removed in microbial reactors containing PAX-21 wastewater while control bottles containing seed bacteria and glucose rapidly and completely removed perchlorate. These results suggested that the constituents in PAX-21 wastewater may be toxic to perchlorate reducing bacteria. A series of batch toxicity test was conducted to identify the toxic constituents in PAX-21 and DNAN was identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. It was hypothesized that pretreatment of PAX-21 by zero-valent iron granules will transform toxic constituents in PAX-21 wastewater to non-toxic products. We observed complete reduction of DNAN to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) and RDX to formaldehyde in abiotic iron reduction study. After a 3-day acclimation period, perchlorate in iron-treated PAX-21 wastewater was rapidly decreased to an undetectable level in 2 days. This result demonstrated that iron treatment not only removed energetic compounds but also eliminated the toxic constituents that inhibited the subsequent microbial process.

  2. Investigation and Site Restoration Following a Major Accident Involving Hazard Classification 1.2 Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Magnesium-Strontium Nitrate Pyrotechnic Composition Using Isothermal Microcalorimetry and Thermal Analysis Techniques, Thermochimica Acta , 417, 233...Analysis Techniques Thermochimica Acta 426, 115-121, February 2005. 10. I M Tuukkanen, E L Charsley, S J Goodall, P G Laye, J J Rooney, T T Griffiths and H...Microcalorimetry and Thermal Analysis Techniques Thermochimica Acta , 443/1 116-121, April 2006. 11. I M Tuukkanen, E L Charsley, P G Laye, J J

  3. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing of Large Caliber Ammunition Greater Than 40MM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    compositions containing metal fuels (e.g., magnesium ) are prone to oxidation resulting in the production of hydrogen gas, which if present in...extremes on board ship. A.1-1.4 Temperature Stabilization. For environmental tests that require temperature conditioning, temperature stabilization...charge loaded into a hot gun may cook-off depending upon the temperature of the breech wall, heat dissipation, and the construction of the charge. In

  4. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that similar terminal ballistic behavior can be achieved. Furthermore, the volumetric image processing allowed superior analysis compared to methods that involve cutting of the soap blocks.

  5. An Exploration of the Contribution of Strike Feedback to Combat Effectiveness with Ball and Tracer Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    firing each round. (c) Adjust the rear sight to move the center of the three-round shot group to the aiming point. One click of deflection will move...the strike of the bullet one centimeter. One click of elevation will move the strike of the bullet 1/4 of a centimeter. (4 clicks = 1 centimeter.) (d

  6. Assessment of Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARS) for Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    system must be compatible with the waste constituents and must have sufficient strength to withstand operational stress, static pressure and...I <--. ■-- 33in-0-3-r-l*NC0-O OCO-iOON- omO 03 in o r-i C 2 01 C E _i ■D ü 01 O 3- » 5- o ■-. 3- <r ~ 3- r\\ • in W 01 y ir -H

  7. Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    downrange spin rates predicted by the trajectory calculations, a second set of “at range” Magnus bounds was calculated using equation 4 set to 0 and an...improved modeling ability. A flight dynamic characterization, to include yaw limit cycle and Magnus moment instabilities, was accomplished at the same...11  3.2  Trajectory Analysis

  8. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 6. Appendix L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ug/g DBB-91-01 SB 25 QGD SVOC 612 Silane containing H.C. 3 ug/g DBB-91-02 SB 8 QGP SVOC 609 Unknown nitro aromatic amine 5 uL DBB-91-02 SB 8 QUP SVOC...621 Unknown nitro aromatic amine 4 u/gl DBB-91-02 SB 8 QGP SVOC 622 Unknown alkane @ C21 I DBB-91-02 SB 8 QOP SVOC 610 Unknown phthalate ester 0.5...This Agency concurs with the laboratory’s recommendation that the data for lot QGP are unacceptable due to low recoveries for at least two-thirds of the

  9. Ammunition for Law Enforcement. Part II. Data Obtained for Bullets Penetrating Tissue Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Kind and Knox Gelatin Company, Ordnance Type 2SOA. Home Office: Johnstown, New York; production plant: Camden, New Jersey. (2) Thymol , available from...container and the other stirrer near the bottom. Add three grams of thymol * and dissolve in the hot water. Add 3,000 grams of Pharmagel A to the hot... tlR t2J 12A LP 137 14:? ’d 7 15? 157 !6:? 1fl7 17?. t 77 11𔃻? 167 192 !Q7 201 206 21 1 216 22! 22ti 231 CAVITY RADllJSI

  10. Wartime Requirements for Ammunition Materiel and Personnel (WARRAMP). Volume II. Materiel Postprocessor Program Maintenance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    1005.10 .0510 400 . 31? 1.20 AV .LARS[NTSB .0E00 .00 Al: 41.2001 $.50 .2003$.0 5.A00 20 S.0 A41 05 .50 .10 50 52: S3’t FART ILLS Of PERr Ay POSUR IVU...14ý1 I YC LEZ Sl 6LU EF AP.TION 1 144 ’ r YC L Z S2BLUE FART 11T ON 14! ’.CYLE= t3 LUr F APTIT ONI 147* I YC L z SSBLUE 4APT I’ ’NI 1. 4S :rYC L = 4 G...YCLE:= 130 PLUE EAP.TIT’ON 1 1 3,’ YLEVELt 130 BLUE FART IVTCN1 197: lEVELSLE: 131 BLUE FART ITT70N 1 198: ICrYCLE:= 132 BLUE F APT IT TONM 118 EES

  11. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 4-2-013 Commodity Engineering Test Procedures, Recoilless Rifle Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    External Fire, and Munition Test Procedures. The critical requirements of the STANAG are: (a) The test is done in an enclosed hearth designed...of STANAG 4240. However, the procedures of the STANAG are not amenable to satisfying the TB due to the confinement of the required hearth . c...within the hearth or bonfire. (4) Observations photographs of any reactions such as burning or explosions. TOP 4-2-013 22 September 2009

  12. Technology Assessment of the DACS/MERADCOM Prestaged Ammunition Loading System (PALS) Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    TO A DOOR POST VERTICAL W/4-10d NAILS AFTER THE LOWER DOOR SPANNER PECES ARE IN POSITITON. HOLD-DOWN PIEC, 2" X 4" BY CONTAINER HEIGHT MINUS 1/2" (2...34 .7 CUBIC FEET SRAER PECE , 2 X 4- X 09 I PRAD ), LAMAINATE TO THf RETAINER PIECE W/7.104 NAILS. RETAINER PIECE, 2- X 4’ SPREADER ASSEMBLY D

  13. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in species that might retain Cu fragments for a longer time.

  14. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  15. A Measuring Method on Moment of Inertia of Large-scale Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wen; ZHENG Bin; YANG Rui-feng

    2005-01-01

    A compound pendulum based measurement method is put forward and the relevant equipment is designed. By using the variation of angle with the time acquired by an angular displacement sensor, the moment of inertia is obtained through the numerical solution of certain equations, which are deduced from the phase-plane analysis of compound pendulum. The influences of both friction and air resistance on the compound pendulum are already taken into consideration without estimating and measuring the resistances in advance. With this method, the to-be-measured object can be positioned and fixed easily and safely. Numerical simulations show a favorable precision of this method.

  16. DoD Contractors’ Safety Manual for Ammunition and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    SAFETY PIN AND SAFETY PIN IS RIDING BORE OF TUBE, DEPRESS SAFETY PIN AND TAKE POSITIVE ACTION (THAT...IS, REINSERT SAFETY WIRE, IF POSSIBLE, TAPE SAFETY PIN DOWN, ETC. ) TO ENSURE THAT IT WILL REMAIN DEPRESSED. (5) REMOVE ROUND. [STORE ROUND IN A SAFE...RELEASED SAFETY PIN AND SAFETY PIN IS RIDING 130RE OF TUBE, DEPRESS SAFETY PIN AND TAKE POSITIVE ACTION (THAT IS, REINSERT SAFETY WIRE, IF POSSIBLE,

  17. Studies on Some Nitramine based Low Vulnerability Ammunition Propellants with Cellulose Acetate as a Binder

    OpenAIRE

    A.G.A. Pillai; C. R. Dayanandan; B. R. Gandhe; J. S. Karir

    1996-01-01

    Several formulations of propellants based on RDX as an energetic solid ingredients and cellulose acetate (CA) as a binder were processed using either dioctyl pthalate(DOP) or tracetin(TA) as plastisizer and a small amount of nitrocellulose(NC). The Performance of these propellants was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel firing data. The vulnerability aspects of these formulations were compared with those of conventional picrite propellant, NQ on the basis of their ignition temperat...

  18. Defense Logistics: Enhanced Policy and Procedures Needed to Improve Management of Sensitive Conventional Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    told us that depots are required to receipt inbound shipments within 24 hours based on a policy letter issued prior to 2010, and that this requirement...affect the safe, timely, and cost - effective transportation of HAZMAT. For example, we found that at least 44 times during fiscal years 2012 and...procurement costs for certain usable items that may already be available in the Army’s stockpile. We made 7 recommendations, of which 2 have been

  19. Remedial Investigation Report for Lake City Army Ammunition Plant. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1,1,1-TrichLoroethane --- -- --- 200 - Vinyl Chloride --- -- - -- 2 -- - -- Xyiene --- - -- --- 10,000 - -- -.-- DISS. TOT. INORGANICS Aluminum ...4.2.l8 4,-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is a solid used as an air deodorant and as an insecticide. EPA (1987) reports that 100% of an oral dose...SCHROEDER, H.A., AND MITCHNER, M. 1975. Life-term studies in rats: Effects of aluminum , barium, beryllium, and tungsten. J. Nutr. 105:421-421 WAGONER, J.K

  20. Toxicity Testing of Soil Samples from Joliet Army Ammunition Plant, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    and 20 radish seeds were planted in the other pot. After germination , the seedlings were thinned to the 10 most uniform per pot. "Day 1" of treatment...terrestrial community, it is important to determine effects at several trophic levels. Plants ( seed germination and early seedling growth test...and radish seeds were sorted to remove broken or malformed seeds and to obtain seeds of similar size. There were 20 cucumber seeds planted in one pot

  1. Effects of Aging and Environmental Conditions on Ammunition/Explosives Storage Magazines - Paper 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Figure 16. The curvature of the roof creates an arch or singly-curved shell idealization, so that membrane response of the vault can provide resistance to...reinforced concrete structure with either a single- or double-curvature roof (i.e., vaults or domes), a headwall (including a door), and a rear wall...Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.” • ASTM C 496, “Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete

  2. Detoxification of PAX-21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Se Chang; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Oh, Seok-Young

    2011-08-30

    US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical option for the treatment of perchlorate in PAX-21 wastewater, we conducted biodegradation experiments using glucose as the primary sources of electrons and carbon. Batch experiments showed that negligible perchlorate was removed in microbial reactors containing PAX-21 wastewater while control bottles containing seed bacteria and glucose rapidly and completely removed perchlorate. These results suggested that the constituents in PAX-21 wastewater may be toxic to perchlorate reducing bacteria. A series of batch toxicity test was conducted to identify the toxic constituents in PAX-21 and DNAN was identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. It was hypothesized that pretreatment of PAX-21 by zero-valent iron granules will transform toxic constituents in PAX-21 wastewater to non-toxic products. We observed complete reduction of DNAN to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) and RDX to formaldehyde in abiotic iron reduction study. After a 3-day acclimation period, perchlorate in iron-treated PAX-21 wastewater was rapidly decreased to an undetectable level in 2 days. This result demonstrated that iron treatment not only removed energetic compounds but also eliminated the toxic constituents that inhibited the subsequent microbial process.

  3. Experimental Studies of the Number 41 Primer and Ignition 5.56-mm Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    caliber primers are lead styphnate , barium nitrate, and antimony sulfide, Sb2S3. Lesser amounts of aluminum powder, tetracene, and...this particle, which apparently did not melt, consists primarily of Barium . ...........................................................14 Figure 17...15 Figure 21. Reference spectrum of barium nitrate (top) compared to a spectrum representative (**splat) of many residual particles from

  4. Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Longterm Groundwater Monitoring Health and Safety Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    in Table 2. Asbestos containing building materials (ACBM) have been used throughout CAAP. ACBM has been removed and remediated during past operations...mg/L; trout, LC 10o, 10 mg/1J24 hr shrimp , LCs0, 100 to 330 ppm/starfish, LC.•, 100 to 330 mg/L/48 hr; shore crab, LC50, 240 mg/L/48 hr. Disposal...trimers, butyl rubber, and other polymers; also used to produce antioxidants for foods, plastics, and packaging food supplements. NFPA HMIS Other

  5. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Appendices A Through D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    5753- 62 PROJECT NMAE: USATHAMA- MAAP PAGE / OFZ IDRILLING CONTRACTOR: LATNE-NORTNIvIEST DRILLER: Padr . K.rI .-9-7 JDATE STARTED I jqM COMPLETED METHOD...STPKEr" - P.O. BOX 9534. MAAISON, WIS. 53715 * TL. (600) 257-4046.... /• SAMPLE SOIL PROPERTIES CLASSIFICATION S L__S RICO ~l~ and Remarks * C LLP No. TYPe

  6. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 7. Appendices M Through R

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    pregnancy , produced no significant embryotoxic effects and only infrequent slight expansion of ventricles of the cerebrum, renal pelves and urinary bladder...typical of an infectious agent with an associated active immune response rather than ethylbenzene exposure (NTP, 1989). This diagnosis was supported by... Nephropathy , increased NOAEL: 125 mg/kg/day 3000 1 4E-2 liver weights, hema- mg/kg/day tological alterations, LOAEL: 250 mg/kg/day and clinical effects Mouse

  7. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Appendices D.2 Through F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Well Number DNK Wed Numoer TypeofWell WafTableOtMrvanonWeHlElU LAeca Locauon Dat Wenl Instaled Pistanc Wel Is N/4 of l/4 of Seco _.._.., m -" V v D. R...Sump - 24.____________ LDr~bioe Dbisousioe ’Method of coautructung upper ealarge gol 06..51F TO Frain To dr~hiol Only. Tr,,. Covn(a imeaving, Calor

  8. Archeological Survey and Testing Along Boone Creek, Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Webster Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    radiocarbon dates from the Mounds Plantation Site in Caddo Parish (Webb and McKinney 1975:72). This is supported by the dates from the George C. Davis Site in...under Don Esteban Miro, Spanish Military governor of Louisiana." Cook remarks that the eastern portion of the road was heavily used in the 1820s...HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Danube (cargo and passenger), Rosa Bland (freighter), Bonita and Bill Butler (sternwheel- ers), Morning Light (sidewheeler), and Jewell

  9. Remedial Investigation Report for USATHAMA - RATSS Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, Independence, Missouri. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    experience biochemical alterations, nausea, headaches and in more severe cases, liver dysfunction ( jaundice , enlargement and fatty infiltration) (ACGIH...can result in cyanosis, methemoglobinemia, jaundice , anemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, and dark urine (EPA 1980). Short-term exposure to high levels of...regarding dermal absorption, but because RDX is relatively lipid insoluble, skin absorption is unlikely (Rosenblatt 1980). In humans, the toxic effects

  10. Engineering Design Handbook - Military Pyrotechnics Series. Part Four. Design of Ammunition for Pyrotechnic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-15

    Dimensions 7—13 8— 1 Constants of the Beattie - Bridgeman Equation of State 8-2 8—2 Properties of Plastics 8—11 8—3... BEATTIE - BRIDGEMAN EQUATION OF STATE Mini- Maxi- mum mum vol- pres- ume. Temp. sure, cc/g- Gas A0 a ßo b C X 10𔃾 0.0040 range, 400 to - °C...8-6) where A0, B0,a,b, and c are constants. Table 8-13 lists constants of the Beattie - Bridgeman equation of state for several gases. The

  11. Effects of Aging and Environmental Conditions on Ammunition/Explosives Storage Magazines - Paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    These requirements naturally led to a web-based application using the industry standard MVC software architecture . MVC is an abbreviation for...Model/View/Controller, and this architecture is widely used in interactive computing settings. MVC applications can be made secure, because access to...additional performance is required, because the SQL accesses are mediated via the model and controller components of the MVC software architecture . But the

  12. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  13. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  14. Simulated and Experimental In-wall Temperatures for 120 mm Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Bundy

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Bore and chamber surface as well as subsurface temperature prediction are made for the US Army M256 120mm chromium-plated cannon firing M865 M829 and DM13 cartridges. The surface temperature predictions are validated by comparison with other numerical modelling results, while the subsurface temperature predictions are compared directly with experimental measurements made by in wall thermocouples. The surface temperature predictions fall in line with other numerical estimates, and, in general, the simulated probe temperatures at each axial location are within the circumferential and round-to-round variation in the experimental probe tempretaures.

  15. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 3. Appendices G Through J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    UNITS OpH PAPER i7, TURBID SPECFIC ONDUTIVIY urbas /m DOR PUMP RATE, GPM _______"_L__OTHER (SEE NOTES) EQUIPMEN’T DOCUMENTATION PERISTALTIC PUMP ISCO...12.000 -0.006 Q ~-w (n_ _ V)__ _- 6 000 0) 0) 0D 0 0 C? 9 C) (D WELL SPN-8&-:IC WELL 2I.AME.v.3125F, 92R..M LENGT0: !V, BORI , VAME:-1 .... TEST I ?•lE3 2

  16. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Hays Army Ammunition Plant, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-07

    Society of Professional Archeologists in field, collections, and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical archeology...evidence of broad regional cultural interactions throughout the prehistoric Paloo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland tra- ditions. As discussed in 2.1.1...available in draft for consultation by Hays AAP facility personnel (Stephanie Rodeffer, personal co=nuication 1983). In addition, the Carnegie Museum has

  17. Small-Caliber Ammunition Identification Guide. Volume 1. Small-Arms Cartridges Up to 15 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    PIT’ pertur ’ILL: j1CIiZ.:rl IC AlI1T PL ASF wiati’nre plastique Pla-ýric material Itec r11ltc Shnrt I lIILy C Ir3 DST-11606-51 4-78-VOL 1 Orkinia lt...Natiunal de IPallcia. The lettcr P indicates Al’ " Sac Note 4. bullct. 1938. N"SPAIN BELGIUM •"•F C)Pp CF O)N1""-b". 0 1947-1951.. Made by a-abtiquc...NAVSUR:WiP’NCEN DAHL K(515 COMSEVENTHFLT D249 NAVPCgCOL K65) COMNAVSURFPAC * D492 N,’’SCOLEOD K658 COMUSNAVPHII. SD506 NOC (CODE 121A11B) L040 SAC

  18. The Blast and Fragment Resistant Construction System (BFR) for Ammunition Quickload Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    separation walls designed to withstand near miss of air bombs. ANTI-TERROR - Structures, such as computer centers or embassy buildings, designed to...structures (wall thickness 10”) subjected to near miss of MK-82, MK-83 and MK-84 aerial bombs. Tests established that for a near miss criteria a 10

  19. 炮兵侦察校射无人机连续定位校射的应用分析%Analyze of the Reconnaissance Regulating Ammunition UAV to Achieves the Continuous Location Regulating Ammunition Goal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏新; 包化; 孙烨

    2008-01-01

    炮兵部队是对面目标进行压制的有力武器,利用无人机定位校射系统,在短时间内实现对多目标的连续定位校射,使炮兵对面目标的支撑点进行有效地射击,达到拔点毁面的基础上提战术目的.对目前无人机定位校射系统的现状进行了综述,对实现连续定位校射存在的问题进行了深入的分析,在此提出了相应的解决办法.

  20. Engineering Guide for Fire Protection and Detection Systems at Army Ammunition Plants. Volume 1. Selection and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    control valves, Venturi -type controllers and/or pressure tanks, As the mixture of water and foam concentrate is discharged from the sprinkler head or...1 r~ileticetcr iaesheeti aeils td D Ignition of a cold cathoO tubo that initaiats tho alarm. The * burn weui produe mey deonse "Wubt

  1. Assessment of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives Accountability and Control; Security Assistance; and Sustainment for the Afghan National Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-24

    Rabia Balkhi Women’s Hospital, one of two women’s hospitals in Kabul that are used by female ANA and ANP personnel. Beginning in 2002, DoD...childbirth and community-based prenatal care at the Rabia Balkhi and Malalai Women’s Hospitals, in collaboration with the U.S. Agency for...such as: o Ministries of Defense, Interior, and Public Health o Kabul Medical University o Rabia Balkhi and Malalai Women’s Hospitals o Kabul

  2. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is routinely involved in the forensic investigation of CBCs in the Netherlands. Reliable DNA profiles were frequently obtained from CBCs and used to match suspects, victims, or other crime scene-related DNA traces. In this paper, we describe the sensitive method developed by us to extract DNA from CBCs. Using PCR-based genotyping of autosomal short tandem repeats, we were able to obtain reliable and reproducible DNA profiles in 163 out of 616 criminal cases (26.5%) and in 283 out of 4,085 individual CBC items (6.9%) during the period January 2003-December 2009. We discuss practical aspects of the method and the sometimes unexpected effects of using cell lysis buffer on the subsequent investigation of striation patterns on CBCs.

  3. 美军弹药配送及启示%Ammunition distribution by US Army and its enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁立雷; 安振涛; 周文忠

    2007-01-01

    弹药是一种特殊的商品,弹药配送在现代战争中显示出越来越重要的作用.文中分析了美军弹药配送保障的特点,介绍了美军战略弹药配送和战区弹药配送的机构、模式和流程,在此基础上提出了对我军弹药配送和保障的几点启示.

  4. M549A1 Projectile Delay Assembly Predictive Engineering Analysis in Support of the Ammunition Stockpile Reliability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    study on the propellant degradation kinetics (Bixon, 2001) resulted in reaction kinetic (Fogler, 2000, Levenspiel , 1972) models. The models were...34, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 3. Octave Levenspiel , 1972, "Chemical Reaction Engineering", New York, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Nelson, Wayne, (1982), Applied...nitrodiphenylamine 2-2’ DNDPA 2-2’ dinitrodiphenylamine 2-4’ DNDPA 2-4’ dinitrodiphenylamine REFERENCES 1. Octave Levenspiel , 1972, "Chemical Reaction

  5. Identification of the Properties of Gum Arabic Used as a Binder in 7.62-mm Ammunition Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    flask was still hot, filtering by suction technique was performed using a pre-weighed Gooch crucible. (The crucibles were perforated crucibles with...produced using the standard manufacturing process, with the exception that these were a single bucket , whereas, production considers two buckets to be one

  6. Law of Dynamic Consumption for Artillery Ammunition%炮兵弹药动态消耗规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海飞; 王京鸣

    2011-01-01

    应用系统动力学方法建立了基于兰切斯特平方律方程的弹药消耗SD模型,为了宏观认识炮兵弹药消耗规律,选用不同策略对模型参数进行了调整,并在Vensim平台上进行了仿真实验,得出了弹药消耗随兵力、损耗系数变化的关系和规律.实践证明,该方法研究弹药消耗规律,实用性强、可行性好,能够为指挥员科学学决策提供有力的方法支撑.

  7. Lightning Protection Design of Ammunition Warehouse%某弹药库房防雷设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝华; 刘振宇; 严凤斌; 林义

    2012-01-01

    Direct lightning stroke, lightning, lightning invasion wave, electrostatic and other protective measures were designed scientifically through field investigation and reasonable terms against high risk for the treasury vulnerable to lightning. The specific implementation plan was developed. The purpose was to provide technical guidance and reference for safety of the warehouse.%针对弹药库房危险性高、易受雷击等特点,笔者通过实地勘测,合理计算,科学地设计了直击雷、感应雷、雷电波侵入、静电等防护措施,并制定了具体的实施方案,对仓库的安全工作有一定的技术指导和借鉴作用.

  8. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Bossier and Webster Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-06

    Corps of Engineers, provided very helpful information regarding the availability of early maps for the area. Dr. Wayne Hudnell, Louisiana State...to have settled in the area of the facility. No roads crossed the area; the main roads were one built in 1827 from Fort Jessup to Fort Towson ...Louisiana. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 34:144-187. Webb, Clarence H., Joel L. Shiner, and E. Wayne Roberts. 1971. The John Pearce Site

  9. Handbook of Ballistic and Engineering Data for Ammunition. Volume 1. 20-1-95 to 75-1-310 Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-07-01

    Imparted by 75-mm Gun Tl3E1", gives data obtained by means of a radio spin sonde from five inert M48 Shell with a dummy fuze that has the same contour...shell with Dummy Fuze T34. A wooden plug was inserted in the tracer cavity, but it came out when the shell was fired. The stability firings were done

  10. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Hawkins and Sullivan Counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-25

    forest understory and floor include paw-paw, persiumon, black cherry, huckleberry, service-berry, wild plum, mayapple, blackberry, raspberry and...than today during the Mid-Holocene (8000-4000 years ago), followed by increased precipitation and cooling weather to present conditions. Thus, climatic...construction of an industrial wastewater treatment lift station and a large underground forced-main pipeline. The excavations were supervised by Jim

  11. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    planned to address these areas. Other field activities will consist of documenting (mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection...mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection & field measurements. All sampling activities will be performed with site clearance

  12. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-001 Allied Ammunition Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing Publication - Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    hazards may include: a. Acoustic energy (steady-state noise, impulse noise, and blast overpressure). b. Biological species (mould, fungus , and... bacteria ). c. Toxic chemical substances (solids, liquids, gases, mists, vapours, fumes, or dusts. Also includes combustion products). d

  13. Biopolymer as an Alternative to Petroleum-based Polymers to Control Soil Erosion: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    of the manufacturing plant. Maintaining berm height is a critical parameter to explosion containment. 1.1.2 Technology Description Rhizobium ...by Rhizobium leguminosarum var. phaseoli CIAT 899. Carbohydr. Res. 204, 103-107. Goto, N., Mitamura, O. and Terai, H. 2001. Biodegradation of...Martinez-Romero, E., Segovia, L., Mercante, F.M., Franco, A.A., Graham, P., Pardo, M.A. 1991. Rhizobium tropici, a novel species nodulating Phaseolus

  14. Demonstration Results for the Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soil at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    fertilization, plant physiology, plant botany , heavy metals chemistry in soil and plants, and application of soil amendments. ATK, the operating...replaced without it being detected. Two styles have been useful for samples or sample containers. Adhesive seals advertised as meeting forensic science

  15. Prove-Out RAM Assessment Report for the 155 mm M483 LAP Line at Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    C o O- -— -. ^ — M -« U. 3 II O u. _ c c ca I (\\.irifcr-ecac — ( vnar ^ecac — fv.-3’tff"-(Vi-3-irerc-"t\\.-Jccc: — ir...70 Defense Documentation Center Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 71-82 Weapon System Concept Team/CSL ATTN: DRDAR-ACW Aberdeen ...Proving Cround, MD 21010 83 Technical Library ATTN: DRDAR-CLJ-L Aberdeen Proving Cround, MD 21010 84 Technical Library ATTN: DRDAR

  16. Evaluation of Rhizobium tropici-derived Biopolymer for Erosion Control of Protective Berms. Field Study: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    7 Figure 2-2. Steps in the reconstruction of Berm 03-50-A...reduced the potential for soil transport. Figure 2-2. Steps in the reconstruction of Berm 03-50-A. 2.2.2 Biopolymer application Several different...clear line-of-sight is important for accurate repeated measurements. Grass was not an issue with the six-month scan, because while germination was

  17. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the St. Louis Army Ammunition Plant, St. Louis County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    certified by the Society of Professional Archeologists in field, collections, and archival research; administration; museology ; teaching; and historical...socio-political-religious unit and interactions with smaller villages and hamlets. Due to the presence of Cahokia, a large Mississippian town several...Officer, Jefferson City. Munson, Patrick J. 1971. An Archaeological Survey of the American Bottoms and Wood River Terrace. Illinois State Museum Report

  18. Pilot Test of Hot Gas Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Equipment at Hawthorne Army Ammunition Plant (HWAAP), Hawthorne, Nevada. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    in turn couples with N, N-dimethyl-l-naphthylamine to produce an azo- dye . This dye is determined from its absorbance at 510 um. C3 N3 N3 0 9...used. For 0, monitors that cannae analyza using asn Oreat or ’yrlte anialyse as specifications end test ptocedures are zr a.achbutngscnnro sctaz eln 3

  19. Automation Study for Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Hand Held Signal Flight Assembly, Rocket Barrel Assembly, 40 MM Signal, Final Packaging/Pack-Out, and Star Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Kenneth Shackelford, Carl Walek, Gene Muehleisen, Jamie Horning, Hugh Hines, Doyle Dorsey, Delbert Barton, John Broderick, E.V. Wilson, Hoss Watkins...refilled a maximum of four cimes an hour. The delay assembly contains energetic material and should be stacked so the material can not rub against the

  20. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY 87. Part 1. Alabama Army Ammunit, Alabama-Yancopin, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    dOQ 0 41 (1444 <<<< 4-IN 13333 9-3 蘝 𔃾t~ " ɛទt 4 oca CI(/00 00 a 0z 00030 ɘ 0000 >0 n n n i (/) 0 CL )) cc ) * 94O.-I00000 9-00 .z.) 񓀠 0...4 * N * N (D ’I L) co1-4 N NN.44 --- -4 -. 4(1 N-4 .-4 -4 N 4N C4 N N 4N" (D- ON0NN4N 0)N C4 I 1 1 0 0 -4 Cl) C.) 0 0 0) N10 - iSO ,4c4c4cjc jc c-4 c

  1. Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Operations: Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    columns to eliminate photodegradation processes). Controlled tension (vacuum) was applied equally at the bottom of each soil column across the controlled...Environmental Science and Engineering; Gainesville, FL. (32) Ghodrati, M. and W.A. Jury. 1990. A field study using dyes to characterize preferential flow

  2. Sustaining the Single Naval Battle: Enhancing USMC Expeditionary Logistics with the Addition of the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Auxiliary Dry Cargo / Ammunition Ships (T-AKES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    Anderson, Duncan. The Falklands War 1982 ( Great Britain: Osprey Publishing, 2002), 48. 71 Steven Gorton, "Thoughts on the Falkland Island War...MLA) and Sustainment Training Package (STP)) Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) are devided between the LHD-l, LHA-l, LPD-4 and LPD-17 class ships in...War 1982. Great Britain: Osprey Publishing, 2002. Button, Robert and National Defense Research Institute. Maritime Pre positioning Force (Future

  3. Laboratory Studies and Preliminary Evaluation of Destructive Technologies for the Removal of RDX from the Water Waste Stream of Holston Army Ammunition Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    successfully demonstrated at the field scale as an in situ groundwater treatment (Wani et al. 2007) and as a water treatment system in upflow fluidized ... bed reactors (Atikovic et al. 2008). Iron and ferrous minerals have been demonstrated to degrade RDX in biologically active systems (Shrout et al...supplies of both 200 W and 450 W (Ace Glass, Vineland, NJ). RDX-laden water circulated between the photochemical reactor and a 1-L mixed reservoir

  4. 迫弹配用近炸引信杀伤能力分析%Analysis of Kill Efficiency for Trench Mortar Ammunition Equipped with Proximity Fuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李其祥; 汪勇; 马永忠

    2006-01-01

    文章通过建立迫弹杀伤能力计算模型,结合靶场试验数据,对迫弹采用预制破片和近炸引信后的杀伤能力进行了深入的分析,得到了许多有益的结论.所建立的模型和得到的结论,对于正确评价产品性能,改进弹药设计以及指导部队作战都具有重要意义.

  5. Estimating the ROI on Implementation of RFID at the Ammunition Storage Warehouse and the 40th Supply Depot: KVA as a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Actual Avg Training 0.967057 Pay Grade Yearly Salary($) Yearly  salary/hr($) Mkt   Comparable  Revenue Mkt   Comparable  Revenue/hr E $3,000 $1.44...9.13 $9.94 $14.42 Mkt  revenue/hr $10.10 $11.28 $27.18 $35.64 $36.05 $13.69 $14.92 $21.63 Total Process Process 1. Sending Requirement Paper (R.P.) of...Yr Mil salary/Hr Mkt  Comp  Rev/Yr Mkt   comparable  Revenue/Hr Human IT 67% 33% S 2 $26,490 $12.74 39,735.00$         $19.10 100% 0% S 3 $37,695 $18.12

  6. Research on Teleoperation Robot of Digging & Conveying Dangerous Ammunition%危险品弹药遥操作挖掘搬运机器人研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昂勤树

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍了危险品弹药遥操作挖掘搬运机器人研究,该机器人系统利用无线局域网络实现机器人本体和遥控系统的通讯,远距离遥操作处理危险品弹药,可以进行挖掘和搬运的功能,对部队解决危险品弹药处理具有重要现实意义.

  7. 危险品处理机器人机械手控制系统设计%Design of the ammunition dangerous goods handling robot' Manipulator Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万文斌; 钱园园

    2010-01-01

    本文首先简要介绍了危险品处理机器人的作用,机械手的结构形式,着重从控制系统、硬件设计和软件设计3个方面介绍了危险品处理机器人机械手控制系统的设计与实现.最后给出了实验测得的机械手的各项技术指标.

  8. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art High Speed Deluge Systems Presently in Service at Various U.S. Army Ammunition Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    01CLASSIFIAT1o i ooWNGRAoING sO4EO4JLE distribution. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMSER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZACION REPORT NUMSER(S) WL-TR-93...commercially available infrared flame detectors are somewhat susceptible to background infrared radiation from hot bodies and simple ambient light sources. There...high-speed deluge system activations result from poor installation, ambient conditions not suitable for the detection system, degradation of

  9. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  10. A Study on System of Ammunition Auto-loading Robot%弹药自动装填机器人系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郁峰; 潘玉田; 郭保全; 李科蕾

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on the merits and shortcomings of active-duty large-caliber guns automatic loading system at home and abroad ,this paper presents a flexible robot of automatic loading system ,which is used to replace conventional bomb loading system ,to meet the large-caliber guns requirements of fully-automatic loading and artillery firing rate .The overall scheme of the automatic loading system is discussed in this paper . The auto-loading system can provide a new thinking and conception for improving its automation level .%在分析和综合各国现有的大口径火炮自动装填系统的基础上,提出了一种机器人弹药自动装填系统来取代传统常规的装填方式,以适应大口径火炮全自动化装填和高射速的要求。对该自动装填机器人系统总体方案进行了分析研究,为提高大口径火炮装填系统自动化程度提出了新的思路和构想。

  11. Progress in the Development of a Multiphase Turbulent Model of the Gas/Particle Flow in a Small-Caliber Ammunition Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    number 41 primer mixture. Name Formula Weight-Percent ± Weight-Percent Deviation Primary Purpose Lead styphnate H3 C6 N3 O9 Pb 37 5...Primary explosive Barium nitrate Ba (N O3)2 32 5 Oxidizer Antimony sulfide Sb2 S3 15 2 Fuel, slow Aluminum powder Al 07 1 Fuel, fast Tetracene H8 C2...Oxidizers are materials with excess oxygen which when liberated can be used by a fuel. 7 The lead styphnate and tetracene are primary explosives

  12. Assessment of the Accountability and Control of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (AA&E) Provided to the Security Forces of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    USJFCOM USML North Atlantic Treaty Organization Office of Inspector General Operational Mentoring Liaison Teams Police Mentor Team Police...specifies the United States Munitions List ( USML ). The USML is a list of articles, services, and related technology designated as defense-related by the

  13. Biological Treatment of Composition B Wastewaters. 2. Analysis of Performance of Holston Army Ammunition Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility, January 1985 through August 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-18

    Arimunition Plant, Vol. II. Preliminary Engineering Report, Contract DACAO1-73-C-0110. 10. Eckenfelder , W.W., Jr. 1980. Principles of Water Quality...Disposal. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, p433. 15. Adams, C.E., Jr, and W.W. Eckenfelder , Jr, editors. 1974. Process Design Techniques for

  14. 155-MM Shell MK II (HOW), HS-FILLED: Serviceability of War Reserve Shell and Quantities of Ammunition Required to Produce 50% Casualties on Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-07-19

    Caaualtie1 Baaed on Btreota on Aaiaala • . Animale were plaoed on the target area and at posi tiona d.owmrind troa the target area to deter.mine...at oentera within a From HS liquid a from effeot• ot 2o-yd.a 20.yd.aq. • and w.por J on animall •quare a a : 13𔃻 I 0 a 94 I 139 I 1 I 96 a 100...pOraFrom HS liquidaFrom etlects on no. at awithir& aEatimated man a o.t.aEetima•a and vapor a animall oenter a20-Jd,o a oaaual ties anlue ated man

  15. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 4. Ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    3D526) 53 DAKA-PPC (3E443) 5 Cost & Audit (2) APA (9) MIPA (10) DANA-PP (3E374) 1 Plano /Systema (1) PWTCV (10) PAA (11) DAMA-RA (3E360) I Construction (1...transferred 10,000 10.000 Unobhigated balance available, COY 24 4002 For completion of prior year budget pie 390,633 300,163 347,127 𔃿.000l iunobligeted

  16. Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater (Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    subsurface geology at Site 16 consists primarily of a thin veneer of Quaternary alluvium mantling Tertiary age formations of the Wilcox and Midway Groups...APPENDIX C BOREHOLE LOGS & WELL CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 2 inch diameter schedule 40 PVC screen (0.010 inch slotted) cement surface seal drilled hole...8.5 inches in diameter portland cement with 8% bentonite 2 inch diameter well casing 20/40 filter sand 20/40 filter sand bottom screen end cap

  17. The Analysis on Influence Factors of Terminal Sensing Ammunition Sensing Motion%末敏弹扫描运动的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建平; 韩子鹏

    2009-01-01

    针对影响末敏弹扫描运动的落速、转速、扫描角这些因素,依据由四元数法求解伞弹刚体简化模型得出的系统方程组进行数值仿真,从弹重和静态悬挂角方面列表比较,以求找到所需扫描轨迹最为合适的末敏弹参数.同时又考虑风对弹道的影响,结合具体实例做数值仿真,仿真结果也量化了横风和纵风对扫描轨迹的影响,对作战环境的选择具有指导意义.

  18. Methodological approach for the assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of smoke ammunitions by in silico, in vitro and in vivo modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradines, E.; Glacial, F.; Medus, D.; Stiee, E.; Fedou, F.; Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the toxicity of military pyrotechnic products is a growing challenge in the current context of Human and Environment protection. The Allied Ordnance Publication (AOP) 45 and the Standard NATO Agreement (STANAG) 4588 “Guidelines for toxicity testing of smokes, obscurants and pyrotechnics mi

  19. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  20. TRABZON’DA 10 TEMMUZ 1919 CEPHANELİK PATLAMASI

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A huge ammunition depot exploded in Trabzon on July 10, 1919. The effects of the explosion were seen even in Batumi, 100 miles distant. There were many weapons and ammunition left by the Russian army in the ammunition depot. The explosion of the ammunition depot was important because the opening date of the Erzurum Congress was scheduled to be the same day. On the other hand, British control officers in the city was preparing to hand over ammunition to the Volunteer Russian Army (White Army)....

  1. Dynamic Characteristic Research of Timing Belt Ammunition Box Based on RecurDyn%基于RecurDyn的同步带弹箱动态特性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建兴; 张相炎

    2010-01-01

    火炮在高速射击时,为了保证射击的稳定性和连续性,可靠的弹箱系统是关键部分.在吸取同步带传动技术特点的基础上,提出了一套基于同步带传动技术的弹箱系统.为了解同步带弹箱的运动特性,进一步优化结构参数,利用多刚体动力学软件RecurDyn和Pro/E软件建立同步带弹箱系统的仿真模型并进行仿真计算.通过分析弹箱的整体工作特性和炮弹在整个供输弹过程中的受力情况,证明了设计的可行性和合理性,为新型无链供弹系统的设计研究打下了坚实的基础.

  2. Support Effectiveness Evaluation of Ammunition Scheduling System based on FNP-ADC Model%基于FNP-ADC模型的弹药调度系统保障效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小威; 吕晓峰; 马登武

    2014-01-01

    正确评估诸如弹药调度系统此类复杂武器装备的系统效能,可为作战指挥决策提供重要支撑依据.从装备系统结构组成及复杂性出发,合理地表示工作状态及其转移过程,在流水网络计划(flow network planning,FNP)技术框架下应用ADC模型开展效能评估.以FNP时间参数为基础,确定了组成分系统故障一般概率分布下的可用性、可信性和保障能力表示方法,分别表示为影响因素的函数关系,最终建立了FNP-ADC模型.综合进行保障效能评估,可进一步分析因素对效能的影响程度,并给出了案例分析.

  3. Economic evaluation of carbon adsorption/ion exchange wastewater-treatment options for Sunflower AAP (Army Ammunition Plant) NQ (nitroguanidine) wastewater-treatment facility. Final report, October 1986-July 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasco, A.A.; Cheng, G.C.; Field, E.L.; Vejins, V.R.

    1987-07-31

    The objective of this subtask was to provide an estimate of the capital investment and operating costs for the wastewater-treatment technology option involving activated-carbon adsorption and ion exchange for primary separation, and multiple-effect evaporation and spray drying for volume reduction. During the course of this study, however, it became evident that the process economics could be significantly improved of the ion-exchange step was eliminated from the process scheme. The bases for the system design, plant operation, and cost evaluation were provided to Arthur D. Little by Sunflower AAP personnel to make certain that direct comparisons could be made with other treatment options under consideration.

  4. Research and Development on Tele-Operated Robot for Conveying Dangerous Ammunition%危险品弹药遥操作搬运机器人的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 马振书; 穆希辉; 夏辉; 兰箭

    2007-01-01

    针对危险品弹药处理设计了一种遥操作搬运机器人,该机器人由车载远端控制系统和监控平台组成.详细阐述了整个硬件设计方案以及软件流程,具体介绍了各功能模块的系统组成和结构特点.测试表明该机器人工作可靠,能够满足处理危险弹药任务的要求.

  5. Evaluation of Various Organic Fertilizer Substrates and Hydraulic Retention Times for Enhancing Anaerobic Degradation of Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater While Using Constructed Wetlands at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    sparging or pruning -. Seei manual sect: 5. Injection Technique As soon as the INJECT light comes on, inject the sample into the POC sparger through the...or perforated glass beads is not satisfactory to obtain smooth boiiing. Hengar chips are available from Arthur H. Thomas Company, Vine & Third

  6. 基于HLA的炮兵侦察校射无人机训练仿真系统%A Training & Simulation System of artillery Reconnaissance Regulating Ammunition UAV based on HLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜辉; 杨艾军; 王鹏华

    2009-01-01

    对炮兵侦察校射无人机训练仿真系统进行了深入分析和描述.为了便于系统的可扩展性,采用开放的分布式体系结构,且针对其执行任务过程,设计了基于HLA的炮兵侦察校射无人机训练仿真系统基本结构,构造了一个包含炮兵武器系统的联邦,并对联邦开发过程进行了初步研究.该仿真系统各成员间有良好的互操作性,为各操作手提供了一个虚拟的操作环境,能满足了无人机协同训练仿真的要求.

  7. Research on calculation and optimization for the spherical-wrist mechanism of the ammunition auto-loading manipulator system%弹药装填机器人并联球面腕关节解算及优化.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄应清; 徐达

    2011-01-01

    针对弹药装填机器人并联球腕关节解算及优化问题,建立了并联结构火炮弹药装填机器人样机模型,构建了基于粒子群算法弹药装填机器人并联球面腕关节数学模型,推导建立了在杆长约束条件下的并联球腕关节机构运动学分析模型,并以此为基础给出了并联球面腕关节机构尺寸参数及灵巧度的优化方法。

  8. Роль Архангельского и Владивостокского портов в снабжении российской армии в первую мировую войну (1914-1917 гг. )

    OpenAIRE

    Виноградов, Павел

    2008-01-01

    Archangelsk and Vladivostok ports in the system of supplying Russian armies with armament ammunition in the First World War. In 1915 the provision of Russian Army with armament, ammunition and other kinds of supply. One of the ways to solve that problem was armament and ammunition was struck by crisis. But with the beginning of the war, the Black and the Baltic seas became the zone of military operations where transportation was impossible. As a result, Russia had only two ports Archangelsk a...

  9. 27 CFR 479.92 - Transportation of firearms to effect transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Exemptions Relating to Transfers of Firearms §...

  10. 27 CFR 479.31 - Liability for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN... business in any one location under the same proprietorship. Passageways, streets, highways, rail...

  11. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  12. 44 CFR 151.03 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., explosions of ammunition or other detonating materials, overheating, mechanical failures, or breakdown of electrical equipment in power transmission facilities, and accidents involving ships, aircraft, or...

  13. 27 CFR 479.50 - Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.50 Delinquency. Any...

  14. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.51 Fraudulent return. If...

  15. Explosives Safety Competency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    Munitions Systems Journeyman CDC—AFSC 2W051 Combat Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Combat...Ammunition Planning and Production—AFCOMAC Munitions Systems Craftsman Course—AFSC 2W071 Navy Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control—AMMO-18 b

  16. Analytical and numerical description of the PELE fragmentation upon impact with thin target plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    The PELE ammunition is characterized by a low-density filling material surrounded by a high-density brittle jacket material. An analytical model describing the fragmentation of this ammunition behind a target plate is presented. This model assumes uniaxial strain in the filling and uses the Rankinge

  17. Definition of a JA-2 equivalent propellant to be produced by continuous solventless extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, T.G.; Leone, J.; Zebregs, M.; Ramlal, D.R.; Driel, C.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to eliminate residual solvents in ammunition and to reduce the emissions of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere, the U.S. Army ARDEC has teamed with TNO in developing a new process for the production of solventless propellant for tank ammunition. To reduce the costs of solventless

  18. 32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552..., Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other devices defined in this subpart, that are...

  19. The effect of tempered glass on bullet trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J I; Cashman, P J

    1986-04-01

    It was determined that tempered glass automobile windows may severely influence the trajectory of .38 Special projectiles. In replicating an actual case situation, deflections as great as 26.4 degrees were observed with jacketed hollow-point ammunition, and as high as 10.8 degrees for lead ammunition.

  20. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Virginia GOCO Manufacture propellants : nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose , powders, medium caliber ammunition. ARMS program Scranton Army Ammunition...high explosives, and propellants . Between 1915 and 1918, U.S. production facilities expanded to 185 organic and commercial plants. Following WWI...decisions propelled the munitions industrial base to achieve efficiency through mergers, redundancy, and commercial partnerships. The facilities are

  1. Cerulean Warbler Occurrence Atlas for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Army Ammuniton Plant (Closed) IN NO 2009 Army IOWA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT IA UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE J. Percy Priest Lake TN UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE J...Stonewall Jackson Lake WV UNCERTAIN 2009 USACE Summersville Lake WV no POC Army Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant KS no POC USACE Sutton Lake WV UNCERTAIN

  2. 27 CFR 478.42 - License fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License fees. 478.42... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478.42 License fees. Each applicant shall pay a fee for obtaining a firearms license or...

  3. 27 CFR 478.44 - Original license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original license. 478.44... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Licenses § 478.44 Original license. (a)(1) Any person who intends to engage in business as a firearms or...

  4. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  5. Report on Functional Design Specification for the Automated Alphanumeric Data Entry System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-30

    Force Base Aic Station Airfield Airoort Airstrip Aisle Alcove Alluvial Fan Alicviua Alto Ammunition Popot Ammunition nlant Amphibious...center I -’ Barrier Island island center Barrio civil center Basin basin center Battle *ield locale center n Battlefield locale center u Batture

  6. Training Manuals and Technical Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Test and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    The objective of the Materiel Test Procedure is to describe methods for determining the need for adequacy of comprehensiveness, and clarity of training manuals and technical publications (or other pertinent types of literature) relating to the ammunition or ammunition components being tested. (Author)

  7. Cygnal C8051F Based Telecontrol System in Digging & Conveying Dangerous Ammunition Robot of Teleoperation%基于C8051F的危险品弹药遥操作挖掘搬运机器人遥控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昂勤树; 方凯; 夏际金

    2004-01-01

    介绍了基于新型高速单片机C8051F的危险品弹药遥操作挖掘搬运机器人遥控系统的设计.高速的混合信号系统级芯片C805IF206为设计小体积、低功耗、高性能的遥操作控制器提供了方便;各种软硬件抗干扰措施的实施确保系统的可靠运行.

  8. 基于物联网与三维可视化的弹药库实时监测系统%Research of Ammunition Depot Real-time Monitoring System Based on IoT and 3D Visualization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹向阳; 邹和辉; 刘戎

    2015-01-01

    为满足部队弹药库监测的信息化、智能化、实时化、可视化应用需求,提出一种基于物联网与三维可视化技术的弹药库实时监测方案.通过综合分析弹药库实际监测需求以及应用特点,充分利用ZigBee无线传感器网络,依托云架构下的数据采集、传输、存储、分析、展示技术,构建多平台可视化弹药库实时监测系统.详细阐述了弹药库监测系统的架构、功能和设计方案,为建设新型弹药库实时监测提供了新的思路与方向.

  9. 77 FR 38886 - Proposed Information Collections; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... pages in order to ensure electronic access to our equipment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To obtain... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and ammunition excise taxes,...

  10. 27 CFR 479.93 - Transfers of firearms to certain persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Other Provisions § 479.93 Transfers of firearms to...

  11. 27 CFR 479.66 - Subsequent transfer of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.66...

  12. 27 CFR 479.65 - Denial of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.65 Denial of application....

  13. 27 CFR 479.71 - Proof of registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Registration § 479.71 Proof of registration. The approval by...

  14. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Application and Order for Transfer of Firearm § 479.86 Action on...

  15. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.41 Single sale. A single sale, unattended by...) tax liability. Change of Ownership...

  16. 27 CFR 479.87 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Application and Order for Transfer of Firearm § 479.87 Cancellation of...

  17. 27 CFR 479.64 - Procedure for approval of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.64 Procedure...

  18. 27 CFR 70.441 - Applicable laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Explosives (18 U.S.C. chapter 40) of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 922) provides for the... ammunition in or affecting commerce, who (1) has been convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for...

  19. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Gun Safety Print A ... unloaded, and the ammunition should be stored separately. Guns and Pretend Play Allowing kids to play with ...

  20. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  1. 27 CFR 478.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... firearms and ammunition and are promulgated to implement Title I, State Firearms Control Assistance (18 U.S.C. Chapter 44), of the Gun Control Act of 1968 (82 Stat. 1213) as amended by Pub. L. 99-308...

  2. Annual Historical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Development Plan V 41 _ MRSA Field Evaluation on SDC Program V 41 ,-. SMART at AMCCOM V 41 MOP Shop Relocation V 42 M249 Squad Automatic Weapon V 42 Technical... robotics , and measurements and qualification of auto gages at Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant. Major General 0. Decker (retired) conducted an...be telerobotically operated to eliminate human contact with dud ammunition. The Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) had an ongoing robotic test project

  3. A Study of an Effective Offsets Model for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Defense and Space EISD Excess Inventory Sales Division EU European Union FMS Foreign Military Sale ISDEFE Ingenieria de Sistemas para la Defensa de...2013 1 2013-1 Delicate fire power with array antenna and active phased array radar Fire control 2013 2 2013-2 Fast ammunition system and...phased array radar Fire control 2013 2 2013-2 Fast ammunition system and calibration method Ammo 2013 3 2013-3 New maneuver phased using data

  4. The U.S. Army Safeload Explosives Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    hazards and risks. The Safeload Program replaces a program called Quickload , which was started in 1984 to provide interim solutions to unsafe storage of...basic loads of ammunition in ammunition holding areas in South Korea. While Quickload primarily focused on Korea, and secondarily on Europe, the...areas in South Korea. While the original Quickload Program primarily focused on Korea, and secondarily on Europe, the Safeload Program addresses

  5. Competition and Bidding Data as an Indicator of the Health of the U.S. Defense Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    regulations require only that all unclassified prime contracts worth $2,500 and above be reported to FPDS. • FPDS data are constantly being updated...Aircraft & Drone s (pAir); • Missile & Space programs (pMnS); • Weapons & Ammunition programs (pWnA); • Electronics & Communications...contract obligations related to Aircraft & Drone programs (pAir); Missile & Space programs (pMnS); Weapons & Ammunition programs (pWnA); and Electronics

  6. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    particles caused by slack quench, or small carbide due to insufficient austenitizing time (fig. 29). Test 2 These white areas and the low mechanical...L J F CKD . APPO. Chamberlain Ctamtariain Manufacturing Corporation Scranton Army Ammunition Piant BILLET z) A A O ex iMM DATE 3...Chamberlain Manufacturing Corporation Scranton Army Ammunition Plant TITLE BILLET 5i X 5i 1BA DRN. L J F CKD . APPO. 173 DATf 3 ZZ. Bl SCALE

  7. Structured Analysis and Structured Design for the Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) Task, LSA Subtask 402.2.4, ’Combat Resource Requirements’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    CONTAINS INFORMATION REGARDING STORAGE LOCATIONS OF FUEL STORAGE AMNITION AND FUEL IN THE DEPOT TO MAINTAIN A CONTINUOUS SUPPLY OF THE DATA HATRIELS...NOT LIMITED TO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: A. SPARE AND REPAIR PARTS. B. FUEL. C. OILS, LUBRICANTS, AND OTHER FLUIDS . D. ADAPTIVE KITS. E. AMMUNITION F...PARTS. 2. FUEL/REPAIR PARTS. 3. OILS,LUBRICANTS, AND OTHER FLUIDS . 4. ADAPTATION KITS. 5. AMMUNITION. 6. REPLACEMNT MODULES. 7. SPECIAL TOOLS AND

  8. "A WAR OF MACHINERY”: the British Machine Tool Industry and Arming the Western Front, 1914-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lloyd-Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to David Lloyd George, Britain’s first Minister of Munitions, World War L “the Great War” was a “war of machinery,” and required unprecedented supplies of ammunition and the machine tools necessary to make them. In the early phase of the conflict, when the importance of machine tools was not fully recognized, a shortage of ammunition on the western front precipitated a military and political crisis, and led to the formation of the Ministry of Munitions. A trade-off between quantity and quality of ammunition shell (the machined outer metal casing was a product of the Ministry directive to increase output as both makers and users of machine tools came under intense pressure to reach their goals. British engineering achieved huge increases in ammunition output in preparation for the Somme offensive, but the complexities of the supply chain meant that makers and users of machine tools put them to use to make ammunition of a type and quality that was to prove defective.

  9. Director, Operational Test and Evaluation FY 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Shipboard Ammunition and Ammunition Boards (JSAABR) • Jont Interoperablty for Martme Interdcton ( JIMI ) • Joint Counter Remote-Control Improvised...on Navy ships. JoInt IntEroPErABILItY For MArItIME IntErdIctIon ( JIMI ) test description JIMI is sponsored by U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) and ends...during Exercise Valiant Shield 2006. JIMI developed TTP for E-2C, F/A-18, F-15E, and F-16CJ aircraft. The final JIMI test event was conducted in

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    back up and stored away until the next time. Why all this window dressing? Our bar- racks is like a museum. We’re not allowed to enter it with our...on the work bench and spare parts kits are in a container. Fuel cans of gasoline, kerosene, coolant, and special liquids are placed on racks . Two...equipped with a reloading mechanism. This device "car- ries" ammunition from the ammunition stowage area and loads it into the cannon. In essence, this

  11. Quantifying Friction Effects of Molybdenum Disulfide, Tungsten Disulfide, Hexagonal Boron Nitride, and Lubalox as Bullet Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    also claims that these coatings eliminate copper fouling of the barrel. The Swedish ammunition company Norma Precision advertises friction reduction...Lubricant,” US Patent 6036996. [7] Norma , 2011. “ Norma Diamond Line.” http://www.norma.cc/en/Products/Our-Brands/ Norma - Diamond-Line/ Accessed

  12. 27 CFR 479.52 - State regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Application of State Laws § 479.52 State regulations. Special tax stamps are merely receipts for the tax. Payment of tax under Federal law confers no...

  13. 27 CFR 479.33 - Special exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.33 Special exemption. (a) Any person required to pay special (occupational) tax under this part shall be relieved from payment of that tax if he establishes...

  14. 27 CFR 479.62 - Application to make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.62 Application to make. No... Federal firearms license and special (occupational) tax stamp issued to the applicant, if any....

  15. 27 CFR 479.81 - Scope of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of tax. 479.81... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax § 479.81 Scope of tax. Except as otherwise provided in this part,...

  16. 27 CFR 479.82 - Rate of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rate of tax. 479.82... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax § 479.82 Rate of tax. The transfer tax imposed with respect to...

  17. 27 CFR 479.91 - Unserviceable firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax Exemptions Relating to Transfers of Firearms § 479.91 Unserviceable... transfer tax. However, the procedures for the transfer of a firearm as provided in § 479.90 shall...

  18. 27 CFR 479.48 - Failure to pay special (occupational) tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (occupational) tax. 479.48 Section 479.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.48 Failure to...

  19. 27 CFR 479.32 - Special (occupational) tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special (occupational) tax..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.32 Special (occupational) tax rates....

  20. 27 CFR 479.61 - Rate of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rate of tax. 479.61... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms § 479.61 Rate of tax. Except as provided in this subpart,...

  1. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Exceptions to Tax on Making Firearms § 479.70 Certain government entities. A firearm may be made without payment of the making tax by, or on behalf...

  2. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.67 Cancellation of stamp. The... genuineness from being readily determined. Exceptions to Tax on Making Firearms...

  3. 27 CFR 479.32a - Reduced rate of tax for small importers and manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced rate of tax for... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes §...

  4. 27 CFR 479.69 - Making a firearm for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Exceptions to Tax on Making Firearms § 479.69 Making... department, independent establishment, or agency thereof without payment of the making tax. However, if...

  5. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition..., TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax § 479.83 Transfer tax in addition to import duty....

  6. 78 FR 78275 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Revision of Language for Approval of Nontoxic Shot for Use in Waterfowl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... investigated as representative of normal levels encountered in natural waters of importance. The newly proposed... effectiveness and availability of shot detection methods to USFWS's satisfaction, rather than calling out one..., which is 1,000 employees for ``Small Arms Ammunition Manufacturing'' businesses (NAICS 332992). In...

  7. 77 FR 25865 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Exemption for Temporary Export of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... temporary export of chemical agent protective gear for personal use. The exemption for body armor is amended to also cover helmets when they are included with the body armor. An exemption for firearms and ammunition is clarified by removing certain extraneous language that does not change the meaning of...

  8. The U.S. Navy’s Military Sealift Command 2009 in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ship USNS Concord then transferred to dry cargo/ammunition ship USNSAmelia Earhart for U.S. Pacific Fleet operations, while Detachment Bravo aboard...MSC Mariner Awards of Excellence USNS Concord 2nd Mate Ronald Bylsma Medical Services Officer Querubin Tagulao Purser Honesto Ramos Yeoman

  9. UXO Detection and Characterization in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    sensor Towed Array Detection System DoD Department of Defense NASD Naval Ammunition Support Detachment DOI Department of Interior NOAA National ...Evaluation/Cost Analysis NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization EFA Environmental Field Activity NAVFAC Naval Facilities Command EMI Electromagnetic...Activity EOTI Explosive Ordnance Technology Inc. NPL National Priorities List EMA Eastern Maneuver Area NSWC Naval Surface Warfare Center EMI

  10. 44 CFR 401.1 - Prohibited transportation and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Commerce, Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 368 through 399), any article designated as arms, ammunition, and implements of war in the United States Munitions List (22 CFR parts 121 through 128), or any... transport in any ship documented under the laws of the United States or in any aircraft registered under...

  11. Explosives safety research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Wees, R.M.M. van; Dongen. P. van

    2013-01-01

    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transhipment may result in severe injury and material damage. TNO has developed a number of tools to quantify the consequences and risks of accidental explo

  12. The effect of subsurface military detonations on vadose zone hydraulic conductivity, contaminant transport and aquifer recharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, J.; Burman, J.; Edlund, C.; Simonsson, L.; Berglind, R.; Leffler, P.; Qvarfort, U.; Thiboutot, S.; Ampleman, G.; Meuken, D.; Duvalois, W.; Martel, R.; Sjöström, J.

    2013-01-01

    Live fire military training involves the detonation of explosive warheads on training ranges. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the hydrogeological changes to the vadose zone caused by military training with high explosive ammunition. In particular, this study investigates artillery ammu

  13. 32 CFR 179.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environment. Chemical Warfare Materiel (CWM) means generally configured as a munition containing a chemical... people, property, operational capability, or the environment. Military munitions means all ammunition... or suspected to contain UXO, DMM, or MC. Examples are former ranges and munitions burial areas....

  14. Ageing of gun propellants in munition articles or in glass bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Meer, B.J. van der; Steen, A.C. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of the seventies TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNOPML) investigates the thermal stability of all stored land-force gunpropellants by isothermal microcalorimetry. The investigations are performed with IST (Isothermal Storage Test) at a temperature of 85 °C (358 K). Ammunition arti

  15. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES-ETM) System. Environmental Impact Assessment Process Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-28

    ETM system. These five sites are: White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) Site, New Mexico Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) Site, Wisconsin BPA Hanford ...Geological Conditions: Hazards, energy and mineral resources and soil resources; and ■ Seismic Conditions: Physiography, stratigraphy, geologic...structure, and regional seismicity . This work plan identifies requirements for producing an analysis of water resources to be examined during SMES

  16. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... smaller, rifles firing .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, or archery equipment. 6. All youth hunters age 15..., you may archery hunt in the portions of the refuge that are open for deer hunting during the archery... smaller, .22 caliber rimfire, or legal archery equipment. 10. We allow you to use dogs during the...

  17. 75 FR 832 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Balance of Payments Program evaluation factor to offers of products (other than arms, ammunition, or war... inconsistent with the public interest to apply the provisions of the Balance of Payments Program to offers of... determination of the inapplicability of the Balance of Payments Program to end products and...

  18. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...

  19. A statistical description of explosion produced debris dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transshipment may result in severe injury and material damage. Dispersion of structural debris is one of the main hazards resulting from detonations inside

  20. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its center at latitude 24°30′50.6″, longitude 81°50′31.6″ with a radius of 300 yards, for use for ammunition exceeding the prescribed limits for pier-side handling. (b) The regulations. (1) When occupied by a...

  1. Marksmanship Requirements from the Perspective of Combat Veterans - Volume 2: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Dr. Scott E. Graham a. REPORT...Operations Support (OS) Signal Military Intelligence 25 35 Force Sustainment (FS) Multi-functional Logistician Transportation Ammunition...In order to have Operations Support (OS) leaders represented in the major questionnaire analyses, the Signal and Military Intelligence leaders were

  2. 27 CFR 479.105 - Transfer and possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 479.105 Section 479.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Registration and Identification of Firearms Machine Guns § 479.105...

  3. Ergonomische Evaluatie van Drie Prototypen van een Gevechtsbepak- Kingssysteem (Ergonomical Evaluation of Three Prototypes of a Military Backpack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-25

    MAXIMUM 200 WORDS, 1044 BYTE) Three prototypes of a new backpack for the Royal Netherlands Army were evaluated on ergonomical aspects, The physical...C was a vest-type backpack . Ammunition and equipment could be carried in attachable pockets. 10 The average loss of maximal physical performance with

  4. 32 CFR 264.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS INTERNATIONAL... Defense to encourage and facilitate international interchanges of patent rights and technical information..., ammunition, and implements of war in the United States Munitions List shall be subject to the...

  5. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  6. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  7. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined...

  8. RAF and Sustainment Warfighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    APS accountability, including storage, maintenance, issues, and receipts .31 APS is the third leg of the strategic mobility triad with airlift and...have to be strictly a cash arrangement. Replacement-in-kind or exchange-for-equal value basis is acceptable. Common services under ACSA are ammunition

  9. A Guide to Interagency Support for DoD: Military Force Deployment, Civilian Noncombatant Repatriation, and Military Patient Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    commands are: • Commodities: Ammunition POL (discussed in Section 4.3) - Maps - Items Expendables •• Food •• Water •• Blood/P! asma 438...main- land countries of Latin America south of Mexico , excluding the Panama Canal Zone, - - - ■ -■.--■V«.VVt • The Central Liaison

  10. Plasma ignition of LOVA propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Boluijt, A.G.; Schilt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition experiments were performed using a gun simulator which is equipped with a burst disk. This equipment facilitates the application of propellant loading densities which are comparable to those applied in regular ammunitions. For this study the gun simulator was equipped with a plasma jet igni

  11. Reflected Blast Measurements at Small Scaled Distances for M26E1 Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    produces a half- sine , positive pressure pulse with peak amplitudes from 100 psi (0.7 MPa) to more than 10,000 psi (70 MPa), and rise times of 1 to 2...Plant ATTN: SARMI-S Milan, TN 38358 Commander Radford Army Ammunition Plant ATTN: SARRA -IE (2) Radford, VA 24141 Commander Badger Army

  12. Glycidyl Azide Polymer-based Enhanced Energy LOVA Gun Propellant

    OpenAIRE

    R. R. Sanghavi; P. J. Kamale; M.A.R. Shaikh; T. K. Chakraborthy; S. N. Asthana; Amarjit Singh

    2006-01-01

    In this study, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine propellants with triacetin (TA)-plasticisedcellulose acetate (CA) and nitrocellulose (NC) combination as binders were evaluated for lowvulnerable ammunition (LOVA). Triacetin was replaced by energetic plasticiser; glycidyl azidepolymer (GAP) in increments to enhance the performance in terms of force constant . In additionto ballistics, parameters like vulnerability, mechanical and thermal properties of GAP-basedpropellants in comparison to those o...

  13. FY04 NDCEE Annual Technologies Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-14

    Recycling and Reuse System X X Electronic Source Book for Biobased Industrial Products X Electroplating (manual plating) X ElectroSpark Deposition ...Honeycomb Cleaning System ....................................................................................... 102 Ion Beam Assisted Deposition System...HVOC halogenated volatile organic compound IAAAP Iowa Army Ammunition Plant IBAD Ion beam assisted deposition Transferring Technology Solutions vii

  14. FY04 NDCEE Annual Technologies Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-14

    Recycling and Reuse System X X Electronic Source Book for Biobased Industrial Products X Electroplating (manual plating) X ElectroSpark Deposition ...Honeycomb Cleaning System ....................................................................................... 102 Ion Beam Assisted Deposition System...HVOC halogenated volatile organic compound IAAAP Iowa Army Ammunition Plant IBAD Ion beam assisted deposition Transferring Technology Solutions vii

  15. 27 CFR 53.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 53.1 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS MANUFACTURERS EXCISE TAXES-FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Introduction § 53.1 Introduction. The regulations in this part (part 53, subchapter C, chapter I, title 27, Code...

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 79, Number 4, July-August 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-08-01

    ments of the equipment, such as ammunition chests, stabilizers, muzzle radiators, circulating pumps, and link chutes , were found unsatisfactory in...upon the probable solution of the application of certain engineering knowl- edge already available. Most of these su~ gestions pertain to the size

  17. Army-Navy Integration and the Pivot to the West: A New Joint Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    16 Similarly, John P. Kotter argues there are challenges within these intercultural ... communicates a vision of future force operations, expanding upon direction by the Secretary of Defense. One key idea within the CCJO is the concept of...vital sea line of communication for both the North and the South. This maritime highway carried war supplies, weapons, cannons, ammunition, cargo

  18. 75 FR 63859 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...: Application and Permit for Temporary Importation of Firearms and Ammunition by Nonimmigrant Aliens. The... Aliens. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department of Justice... alien is in compliance with 18 U.S.C. 922(g)(5)(B). This application will also serve as...

  19. On park design; looking beyond the wars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oneka, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with limbs brok

  20. Wooden Box Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Division (SMCAC-DES), to test a wooden box pallet. This report contains the procedures, results, and recommendations from the MIL- STD -1660 tests...conducted. As tested, the wooden box pallet passed MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, tests.

  1. 40 CFR 52.876 - Compliance schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Wichita 28-19-20A, 28-19-50A Oct. 4, 1974. Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, open burning Parsons 28-19-45 Jan... 28-19-50A Do. U.S. Steel—Universal Atlas Cement Independence Clay storage bin 28-19-50A Do....

  2. Proceedings of the Conference on the Standardization of Safety and Performance Tests for Energetic Materials. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Design hanaoook, Ammunition Series, Fuzes, AMPC 70o-210, Navemoer 1969, p 10-11 7* -IL-STL-351 2:» Environmental and Performance rests for ;-uie...drains, AMPC 70o-179, January 197^, P 3-19 575 MM s«^.-^..-».. - . ■ - : - --. _--.. - iHrtiMrtM 10. R.H. Dinegar, M.S. Millican, "The

  3. 76 FR 42119 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... elements of logistics and program support. Articles may be provided in furtherance of a co-production... services, and other related elements of logistics and program support. Articles may be provided in... tank is the compartmentalization of fuel and ammunition. Compartmentalization is the...

  4. 77 FR 33625 - Firearms Disabilities for Certain Nonimmigrant Aliens (2001R-332P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Certain Nonimmigrant Aliens (2001R- 332P) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives... nonimmigrant aliens. That regulation implemented the law by prohibiting, with certain exceptions, the sale or... or ammunition by, nonimmigrant aliens. The Department of Justice has now determined that the...

  5. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Reason, 134. 35 actually fought.61 Many of these leaders, including the iconic Curtis LeMay, saw the civilians as amateurs out of their league . In...provide the ammunition.6 As for airpower theory, it is neither religion, faith, philosophy, doctrine (save education), nor is it legend or myth

  6. Evolution of Approaches to Safe Handling of Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mikhaylov

    2004-01-01

    On definition, nuclear weapons (NW) containing fissile and explosive materials are dangerous in terms of radiation release and explosion. In Russia, the problems of nuclear safety of ammunition during accidents are solved by so-called “one-point safety” with use of physical and design scheme of the primary unit.

  7. Evolution of Approaches to Safe Handling of Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Mikhaylov

    2004-01-01

    @@ On definition, nuclear weapons (NW) containing fissile and explosive materials are dangerous in terms of radiation release and explosion. In Russia, the problems of nuclear safety of ammunition during accidents are solved by so-called "one-point safety" with use of physical and design scheme of the primary unit.

  8. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.128 Requirements for possession and use. All... installation, or after obtaining the weapon, except: (1) Firearms legally brought onto the installation for...

  9. Laser-Excited Opto-Acoustic Pulses in a Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Corporation Ŗ AFRPL (DYSC) AATTN: E.B. Fisher ATTN: D. George P.O. Box 400 J.N. Levine Buffalo, NY 14211 Edwards AFB, CA 93523 4 o u o n1 Foster Miller...Corporation 3 West Virginia University Badger Army Ammunition Plant Department of Chemistry ATTN: J. Ramnarace ATTN: G. Havrilla Baraboo, WI

  10. 49 CFR 174.290 - Materials extremely poisonous by inhalation shipped by, for, or to the Department of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with substantial wooden frames and blocks. (e) Bombs, projectiles, and cannon ammunition being transported by rail must be loaded, blocked and braced as shown in Bureau of Explosives Pamphlet No. 6A, or... and braced and not loaded higher than the sides of the car. (f) When a material extremely poisonous...

  11. 27 CFR 53.111 - Tax on use by manufacturer, producer, or importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., producer, or importer. 53.111 Section 53.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... AND AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes Use by Manufacturer Or Importer Considered Sale § 53.111 Tax on use by manufacturer, producer, or importer. (a) In general. Section 4218...

  12. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... importer. 478.112 Section 478.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Importation § 478.112 Importation by a licensed importer. (a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall be imported or brought into the United States by a licensed importer (as defined in § 478.11)...

  13. Self-Inflicted Wounds: Russia’s Failed Chechen and North Caucasus Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-22

    of weapons and ammunition, and withdrawing with minimal losses.290 In June 2009, the President of Ingushetia, Yunus -Bek Yevkurov was severely...a reason to lay down their arms.353 Medvedev also appointed Yunus -bek Yevkurov as the President of Ingushetia.354 Though Yevkurov has a

  14. Solid Propellant Test Motor Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    thickness, mm Greek Symbols k burned gas specific heat ratio M average molecular mass, g/mole 71:K temperature sensitivity of steady chamber pressure...NETHERLANDS DELFT UNIVERSITY F. Dijkstra NORWAY NORDIC AMMUNITION COMPANY St. Haugen SPAIN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA M. Mulero AEROSPACIAL (INTA) UNITED

  15. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  16. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... specified geographical region if certain findings are made and either regulations are issued or, if the.... Chemical residues can enter the water through ammunition, flares, drones, missiles, and smoke. However, the... of such taking''. The MMPA implementing regulations at 50 CFR 216.104 (a)(13) indicate that...

  17. Intercultural Education Series. The Americas and Self-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.

    This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…

  18. Red phosphorus smoke in combination with fine dust and its effect on human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Langenberg, J.P.; Alblas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Particle matter (PM) <10 μm is known to be unhealthy. Sand present in some of the expeditionary areas military personal is stationed contains diverse particles sizes including the PM< 10 μm. When Smoke ammunition is used it might be possible that the formed smoke components are adsorbed by these sma

  19. Navy Research, Development, and Acquisition Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    processes, fluids , materials, and safety fire than 50 products and services from NTIS. hazards. Also includes data from ALERT’s as well including as...launchrs. amnition , guis. E-6 an G4.)launchers, ammunition. guided missiles. E-6 and G4.) mines, and torpedoes. "* Navy and Marine Corps aircraft

  20. 27 CFR 479.49 - Failure to register change or removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.49 Failure to... an additional payment of the tax, addition to tax and interest, as provided in sections 5801,...

  1. 27 CFR 53.91 - Charges to be included in sale price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or display of the article, for sales promotion programs, or otherwise. With respect to the rules... sale price. 53.91 Section 53.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.91 Charges to be included in sale...

  2. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1: Strategic Forces, Budget Activity 2: General Purpose Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Accounting Activity, Great LakesTransfer to BA-9 -47 c. Programmatic Decreases -92,7771) Reduction to Fund DrugTesting 2) Overseas...to re-align funding for drugtesting program publichealth service program, Sealift Prepositioningto finance ammunition prepositioning, and

  3. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  4. Radiation characterization, and exposure rate measurements from cartridge, 105-mm, APFSDS-T, XM774

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Baer, J.L.

    1979-11-01

    In response to a recommendation from the Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness, Working Group on Depleted Uranium Munitions, the Department of the Army contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the health physics problems associated with the assembly, storage, and use of 105-mm, APFSDS-T, XM774 ammunition. Each round of this ammunition contains a penetrator rod of 3.4 kg of depleted uranium (DU), which is classified as a radioactive source material. The study carried out by PNL included laboratory and field analyses and an assessment of current health physics practices. The data sought included: the characteristics of radiation emitted from a penetrator and an assembled projectile; a comparison of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters; a comparison of radiation detection instruments; and the exposure rates from a single XM774 round, a loaded storage container, a standard pallet, and a loaded tank.

  5. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program Plan, CY 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    n * 00 z SP0 .4 w SJZ 0 2 4 2 zS 0 0J 5 .. ja :) z 4SI -l - A.- 4 - 3.. - t CL P- 3 =z .j ZOO n c U 2 cca CL .9M %1 0 ac-j.. ac28 ul 4 ; -4 01 -u3...leI -4 wu 4mg 4U 0 w. =in a- LLD0 11 mu a1 0 a.. a- Ka" 0 w a w w mu-UaK K 3 . $-. KPg a- A..a a- -. j .2 A05 ; anIM cca m 0 .%. 70 z Lita- x0 x 0 vi...Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, ATTN: SMCKA-CO, Parsons, KS 67357-9107 Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, ATTN: SMCLC-CO, Independence, MO 64051-0330 Lone Star

  6. The Synthetic Evaluation of Warhead Overall Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓辉; 曹兵

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation system of smart ammunition warhead overall efficiency has been established in this paper. All kinds of evaluation methods have been analyzed. Having led the concept of hierarchical structure into technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method, we put forward the step TOPSIS method which is suitable for evaluating the overall efficiency of smart ammunition warheads. In the calculation of index weight, the graded weight calculus is put forward which hardly relies on the subjectivity of decision-makers and can reflect the sensitivity and compatibility of the index. In the graded weight calculation, the proportional-arithmetic weight value calculus and sensitivity-compatibility weight value calculus are given respectively.

  7. Design and Analysis of Test Schemes of Static Postponing Time on Shrapnels Used to Riot Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yong-hai; MIN Bi-bo; SUN Guo-ju

    2006-01-01

    The test scheme of static postponing time given in our actual national military test standard on shrapnels used to control riot is a nine-point test scheme on the combined action of three kinds of temperatures and three kinds of pressures,the consumed ammunitions are more excessive. Statistic analysis and tentative checkout about a lot of test data are done,feasibility gists are put forward for optimizing of the test design scheme. The optimizing design and data analysis of test scheme of the item are done by managing uniformity design theory, two scientific and reasonable six-point test schemes are confirmed. The feasibility and reliability of the optimizing design schemes put forward above are proved ulteriorly by test validating. The gained schemes not only have good design uniformity and little ammunition wastage and meet the test demand, but also have better forecast ability for the result data of other points using the mathematic models from the actual test points.

  8. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination.

  9. Management concerns about known and potential impacts of lead use in shooting and in fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, C.I.; Leonard, N.J.; Stang, D.L.; Wingate, P.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.; Sheffield, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of the technical review, jointly requested by the American Fisheries Society and The Wildlife Society, addressing the hazards to wildlife resulting from lead objects or fragments introduced into aquatic and terrestrial environments from the use of ammunition and fishing tackle. Impacts from lead are well documented in humans, as well as in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Concern about impacts from lead ammunition and fishing tackle has resulted in the development of non-lead alternatives, educational campaigns, and regulations to restrict their use. This article discusses the general biological impacts of lead exposure from fishing and shooting activities to fish, wildlife, and humans; summarizes existing and proposed regulations to reduce lead exposure to biota; reviews alternatives to lead materials that are currently available for fishing; and outlines options for further actions to reduce wildlife and human exposure to lead from fishing activities.

  10. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region......, and thereafter penetrated the left side of the neck, causing tearing of the left common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. The entrance wound in the axilla was larger than the other wounds, and before autopsy it was believed that the shotgun had been fired twice, causing one wound in the neck...

  11. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  12. Global Demands: Limited Forces. US Army Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    space lot tirve. hence a rlassical moble defense is !uled out. in Eur ope, one finds not only a lack of geostrategic depth but also an understandable...fuel and ammunition require- ments, putting greater reliance on technology ; Clausewitz-like "friction" always diminishes expected performance...34 Moreover, as General Donald R. Keith has said, " Technology won’t save us if we don’t field it." 18 One serious drain on Army resources is POMCUS-prepo

  13. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY83, Part 6 (W061-Z299).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    O,,PITALS ANID INFIRMARIELS BATESON J W CO & CENTEX CORP JV TEXAS ARMY CONSTR: CONSTRUCTION/HOSPITALS AND INFIRMARiES BLAKE CONST CO & U S INDUSTRIES...FACILITIES GHArER TAHSEEN EST TRADING & CONTR S ARAB;A ARMY CONSTP: CONSTRUCTION/AMMUNITION FACILITIES GREGORY CONSTRUClORS INC MISS ARMY CONSTR...GOGO FACILITIES 246- GREGORY CONSTRUCTORS INC mISS NAVY CONSTR: CONSTRUCTION/R&D - GOGO FACILITIES 14. HAWKINS FRED L MARYLAND ARMY CONSTR

  14. Considerations for Deep Maneuver: Lessons from North Africa, 1941-1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    and the patronage of Adolf Hitler . Irrespective of the origin of Guderian’s concepts, his development of them into doctrine for the German Army was...than a few hours supply of ammunition, water, fuel and food . Thus there was great dependence upon resupply, to include diversion of armored vehicles and...Lewin, The Life and Death of the Africa Koros (New Yorks Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977), p. 63. 17. Although information from Enigma provided

  15. Assessment of the DSE 40mm Grenades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    Systems to the ISO 9001 :2008 “Quality Management Systems - Requirements” identified 20 individual findings. DSE Systems had the elements of an ISO ...recommend that: 1. Project Manager, Maneuver Ammunition Systems ensure rigorous compliance to ISO 9001 standards at DSE Systems and future 40mm...conducted a full quality assurance assessment of DSE Systems using the Quality Management System standard ISO 9001 :2008. We also assessed the

  16. Enhancing Situational Awareness When Addressing Critical Incidents at Suburban and Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    ESRI, Inc., May 2000), 17. 8 David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D. Surgeon General, Youth Violence: Report of the Surgeon General (Washington, DC: U.S...geared more toward addressing student actions and issues surrounding bullying , interpersonal actions and social influences.20 4. Studies and Research...fired 188 rounds of ammunition, killing twelve students and one teacher before committing suicide .84 Since there were no witnesses to the suicide

  17. Base Structure Annex to Manpower Requirements Report for FY 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    iistal- lation c,..mmander; by an activity or an installation •,hich is not paut of the installat4-n organization (medical, commis- sary, etc.!; by a...and implementation phases . of these actions. Because of various types of contamination at a number of Army installations, such as unexploded ammunition...military target and is afforded a resor-;.ble degree of survivability, and training areas should provide the force with a wide array of climatological and

  18. Proceedings of the Tri-Service Gun Tube Wear and Erosion Symposium, ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ, 29-31 March 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    sequently released when the fibers were dissolved to form the lacquer in the hardening process. The presence of acidic materials in the finished...introduced a rifle-type ablative ammunition employing beeswax as the ablator in 1948 with some success but it was not until the last 10 years that...elevated temperatures, as elemental hafnium and columbium oxidize preferentially. The Hf2 then dissolves in the columbium oxide Cb 0 to form 611f0-Cb2 0

  19. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technolo...

  20. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    captured or detained by the KKA. KKA personnel have forensics and investigative training, and are able to exploit intelligence gained during their...enable, preserve, and sustain operations. These items include ballistic guard shacks, small arms and crew-served weapons, ammunition, and equipment...collection, challenges remain in forensics analysis, the logistics involved in maintaining a chain of custody, and the storage of evidence while awaiting

  1. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    1996-01-01

    Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary value...

  2. Neutralising ordnance with non-extending elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Golodyaev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of neutralising ordnance by rinsing explosive materials with a solution enables significant cost saving while reducing the risk pyrotechnic personnel is exposed to, especially during ammunition transport to recycling sites.  Costs for necessary special equipment are minimal. The technology is easy to be automated using an electronic and remotely controlled drilling process which reduces the risk of explosion to the minimum. This demining method will prove effective especially for operations against guerrilla mine warfare.

  3. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area - Findings of a first experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2012-01-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by...

  4. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area (Belgian coastal zone): findings from a first experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter; particle size distribution; statistical handling; coastal turbidity maximum; wind impact; seabed variations The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbour related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for three months to investigate mine burial processes as a functi...

  5. Human Performance in Continuous Operations: Volume 2. Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Fox- present purposes, it can be said that distress (produced by any source) probably acts as a constant distractor . At least with re- spect...Heavy enemy artillery suppressive fires force the Artillery FO accompanying the 1st PLT to abandon his primary OP. While moving to his alternate...immediate suppression mission and to redirect the adjustment mission on the suspected OP. The FDC advises the FIST Chief that because of ammunition

  6. Developing a Common Metric for Evaluating Police Performance in Deadly Force Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    Chertow (2002). “Nephrology consultation in acute renal failure : Does timing matter?” American Journal of Medicine, 113:456-528. Miller, Bank and Ben...Edition. Cincinnati: Atomic Dog . Tufte, Edward. (1994) Envisioning Information. Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press. Vila Bryan, Gregory B. Morrison and...developed after arrival Difficulty 77 officer equipment failures , malfunction, or out of ammunition Difficulty 78 recent media reports of alleged

  7. Evaluation of combat service support logistics concepts for supplying a USMC Regimental Task Force

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    One of the primary responsibilities of a Marine Corps Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) is to provide water, fuel, and ammunition requirements for the primary task forces and other Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) elements. This thesis evaluates existing and proposed concepts on how to best use the CSSE resources of a Force Service Support Group to transport supplies to Regimental Combat Teams over constrained networks with time constraints. A model was developed that optimizes the use of...

  8. Adsorption/Desorption Measurements of Nitroglycerin and Dinitrotoluene in Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Figure 1. Fate-and-transport conceptual model for the deposition of fired propellant ing nitrocellulose , nitroglycerin, and dinitrotoluene...Double-base propellants used within newer small-arms ammunition typi- cally contain up to 84% nitrocellulose (NC), with 10% nitroglycerin (NG), a... modifier , and flash suppressant in gun propellants . Consequently, they have been identified at the SAR and gun and mortar firing points at Camp

  9. Proceedings of the Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research, Development, and Testing (33rd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    the relationships among the variables and pro. vide accurate predictions for allocating and distributing 1565mm howitzer fire. As an alternative to...target’s value based on the initial ammunition load, its type/subtype, and FDO. The "best subset" multiple regression equations pro- vide only weak...primitive. RESUME Student est un outil expert utilise" par les statisticiens pour construire des systemes de consultation pour l’anayse de donne"es

  10. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates FY 1991 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1990: Military Construction & Family Housing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    impacts upon local traffic and nearby non-Navy residents and businesses . IMPACT IF NOT PROVIDED: Continued and likely increasing expenditure of...under the flight path of Lindbergh Field, a busy municipal airport. The location of this range, ammunition, and explosives in an airfield flight zone...STIUGTH 1477 10228 5569 17274 1443 L0724 5382 17549 7. PIRMNENT PARTY PERSONNEL 1380 9819- 5296 16495 1297 9666 4883 15846 1. GROSS FAMILT HOUSING

  11. Applying the Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS) (User Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    site is included with the TREECS™ install along with the Web site for Visual MINTEQ , which is a user-added Web site also included with the install...MIDAS is maintained by the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC). Visual MINTEQ is software for chemical equilibrium speciation modeling and could be...helpful for estimating solubility for various inorganic constituents, such as metals. The use of Visual MINTEQ for estimating the solubility of lead and

  12. Tasked and Ready: The Armys Commitment to the Better Buying Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    adversaries as isolated as individual terrorists and as large as nation-states. Our portfolio must span aviation, ground vehicles, missiles, ammunition...and elimination of chemical and biological weapons. This breadth of portfolios coupled with significant fund- ing and manpower reductions posed by...programs of record, then examined ongoing sustainment needs from a total-life-cycle perspective . The Army continues to identify critical technolo- gies

  13. Aspects of the Squad and Company in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    recruits. The other form of training given to recruits was zhengzhi jiaoyu-- political education . Although, recruits used live ammunition for...During basic training, the political commissar’s primary responsibility centered on the political education , but he also was involved with all of the 75...members of the command element to do. Soldiers trained day and night; political education usually occurred at night; but other training was also done at

  14. Explosive Safety Training "Training for Total Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    SCOPE: Courae content will introduce the different classes SPECIAL INFORMATION : This course can also be presented SECURITY CLEARANCE: None. 0 LENGTH...course for certification IN AMCR 360-4. Candidates selected for attendance ehould be working with ammunition or in related field. SPECIAL INFORMATION : f...radiation. SCOPE: Course includes generalized training on missile shop PREREQUISITES; None SPECIAL INFORMATION : Thia murue oan a180 be presented

  15. Defense Management Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    the Ammunition School. SPECIAL INFORMATION : This course is identified for attendance by foreign military students through provisions of AR 12-15... SPECIAL INFORMATION : This course is identified for attendance by foreign military students through provisions of AR 12-15. This course is taught...management at the wholesale level. SPECIAL INFORMATION : This course is identified for attendance by foreign military students through the provisions

  16. The Art of War in Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-12

    losses, The Holy Roman Empire disintegrated and that of Charlemagne restored, all as a result of seventy days’ campaigning and eight hours’ fighting. 3...They fired three types of ammunition: caseshot or canister, shell, or grapeshot. The Emperor im- proved on the artillery system fielded under Jean...consisted of three sections: 1. A personal staff, "the Raison," performed political as well as military functions for the Emperor . 2. The General Staff of

  17. To Fight or Not to Fight? Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    reconnaissance platform. The development of an extended stowage rack for the HMMWV helped to overcome the per- petual problem facing scouts of where...threats except small arms fire.148 Its cramped configuration offered little room for stowage , com- munications gear, or workspace for the platoon leader...ammunition stowage problems not easily recon- ciled with the scouts’ gear and limited vehicle space.103 Survivability issues also plagued jeep use. The

  18. Fires Bulletin: A Joinit Professional Bulletin for US Field & Air Defense Artillerymen, January-February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    potential. - M109 Family of Vehicles (FOV) Paladin projectile stowage increases: Forward Vertical (Under the Weapon): 2 Hull Extension “Ready Racks ...Vehicle (FAASV) projectile stowage increases: Forward Projectile Racks : 90 Vertical Rack on Left Side Sponson: 5 - Improves mobility to keep pace with...10 Rear Vertical (Hull Extension): 8 Right Side Sponson: 7 Left Side Sponson: 10 Cab “Ready Rack ”: 6 - M109 FOV Field Artillery Ammunition Supply

  19. Respect, Trust and Engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XUECHENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Navy conducted a live ammunition drill in the East China Sea from June 30 to July 5 amid intense speculation by Western media. Held ahead of planned anti-submarine exercises by the United States and South Korea in the Yellow Sea near east China's Shandong Province, the drill was thought to be Beijing's response to the joint war games. But Chinese officials denied this, saying it was a routine training program having nothing to do with Korean Peninsula affairs.

  20. An Assessment of the Global War on Terrorism, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    2001, issue 14134. 63 Ibid. 30 Islamique du Salut, FIS, which was a peaceful Islamic organization that won the democratic election in 1991. The...ammunition and finance ) for their next battle with the regime. Crises events soon interrupted this phase, when the military establishment cancelled the...videotapes. They do not the core organization’s finances or detailed plans. Marc Sageman argues that 78 percent of all terrorist plots between 2004 and 2009

  1. Nitramine-Based High Energy Propellant Compositions for Tank Guns

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse; Haridwar Singh

    2000-01-01

    Six different RDX-based gun propellant compositions have been formulated and studied to select the most suitable composition for tank gun ammunition in terms of higher force constant at relatively lower flame temperature (T). Ballistic'performance of the compositions was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel test. JIea(energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter. Sensitivity, thermal characteristics, stability and mechanical properties of the compositions were studied for assessing their...

  2. New Propellant Formulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    initiators, JA2 19-Perf Hex propellants and Hagedorn-Plastic manufactured Nitrocellulose with Alkohol - German manufacturer. STAR-ATO goal is to develop... propellants in the U.S. Army’s small, medium and large caliber munitions are all nitrocellulose -based. As the Army drives continuous improvement in both...understanding the influence of nitrocellulose properties on propellant performance. Projectiles are getting heavier, ammunition is being exposed to

  3. Ballistic evaluationof LOVA propellant in high calibre gun

    OpenAIRE

    A.G.S. Pillai; R. R. Sanghavi; C. R. Dayanandan; M. M. Joshi; J. S. Karir

    2001-01-01

    'This paper presents the data obrained on dynamic firing of a cellulose acetate binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOV A) propellant using 120 mm fin-stabilised armour piercing discarding sabot (FSAPDS) kinetic energyammunition. An optimised propellant composition formulated ~sing fine RDX as an energetic ingredient and a mixture of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose as binder was qualified fit for firing in a high calibre gun by its successful static evaluation for absolute...

  4. Development of Toxicity Benchmarks for Nitrogen-based Energetic Materials for the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytraeus crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    be released into the environment from the nitrocellulose matrix of solid propellants used in rockets and artillery ammunitions. It is mobile in soil...materials (EMs). Consequently, soil contamination with explosives, propellants , and related materials at many U.S. military installations is widespread...OECD Publishing: Paris, 1984. Pal, B.C.; Ryon, M.G. Database Assessment of Pollution Control in the Military Explosives and Propellants

  5. Application of a Solvent Emulsion Technology for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    and operated intermittently over a 55-year period to produce single- and double-base propellants for cannon, rocket, and small arms ammunition... nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. The explosive potential is due to the residual explosives that fell on floors, collected in concrete pores, settled or...site. For example, the rocket propellant press house buildings had PCB levels as high as 11,000 mg/kg in the painted surfaces of the concrete

  6. DoD Program for Stability of Civilian Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    111-9 Fort Wayne , IN Defense Contract Administration Services Plant Representative Office, 386D 11-44 New Orleans, LA Defense Contract Administration...Investigative Service, Smyrna, GA 336A 11-17 Defense Investigative Service, Towson , MD 232D 1-42 Defense Investigative Service, Hanover, MD 232E 1-42...Beach, VA Charlottesville, VA 232D Defense Investigative Service 1-42 2153 Radford Army Ammunition 1-59 Towson , ND Plant, VA 232E Defense

  7. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  8. Independent Auditors Report on the Air Force Working Capital Fund FY 2015 and FY 2014 Basic Financial Statements for United States Air Force Agency Financial Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    aerial targets/ drones . The DoD Inspector General issued an unqualified examination opinion in June 2012 on these assets recorded in the Reliability and...FBWT at TUS in GWA. The Foreign Military Sales- Military Assistance Program (FMS-MAP), the Department of Agriculture and the Department of...Operating Materials and Supplies (OM&S) include weapon systems spares, ammunition, tactical missiles, aerial target drones , uninstalled aircraft and

  9. Manufacturing Methods & Technology Project Execution Report. Second Half CY 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    U.S. ARMY MATER-IEL DEVELOP AND READINESS COMMAND Lu ti MAANUFACTURING METHODS & 0 ~ ECHNOLOGY ELECTE, hAY 4 19 81 PROJECT EXECUTION REPORTautw w...Armament Materiel Readiness Command (Ammunition) . ... 83 Armament R&D Cormtand Armament Materiel Readiness Command (Weapons) .. . . . 105 Mobility ... MOBILIZATION PRODUCTION RATES ARE ESTIMATED TO BE S1t6 6000 PER YEAR. 5 78 4288 EXPLOSIVE SAFE SEPARATION AND SENSITIVITY CRITERIA ZERO PALLET SPACING

  10. The United States Army Logistics Center Historical Summary. (RCS-HIS-6 (R2)). 1 October 1976 to 30 September 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-10

    special review to further assess the program and provided Dr. Percy Pierre, the Assistant Secretary Army (RDA), information upon which to base a...ATCL-TA, 11 Oct 77, Subj: US Army Training Center, Ft Jackson ; Ltr, ATCL-TA, LOGC, 9 Dec 77, Subj: Containerized Shipment and Storage of Ammunition...COSSA); LOGC DMMC Independent Evaluation Report, 2 Mar 78; Trip Report, ATCL-TA, 26 Jun 78, Subj: Staff Visit to Ft Jackson ; Trip Report, ATCL-TA, 11

  11. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. The Battle for An Loc 5 April - 26 June 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-31

    ground requirements, or to abide by FAC 3idecisions on what ordnance could best serve the ground forces, some con- gestion might be mitigated by...a high altitude drop with a low open- Ing parachute (HALO), the chute fully deploying at a predetermined point (usually 500-800 feet) above the ground...bags of rice split and, when a chute holding m lOSm ammunition malfunctioned, primary and sympathetic detonations lasted for hours. The immediate

  12. Messaging, Missions, and Mindsets: The Unintended Consequences of National Messaging and Policy when Translated into Operations and Soldier Actions in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-23

    suffered from a lack of adequate clothing, food, and shelter during harsh seasonal weather. These conditions and the additional stressors of a tenacious... supplies , including ammunition. The outcome was evident to all but the most ardently fanatical Nazis. Morale was low, and there was little preventing them...men. (Each man also received) a tablespoon of milk powder, coffee, grapefruit powder, and one tablespoon of sugar. And this went on for three long

  13. An Approach to the Application of Life Cycle Cost Concept in Weapon Systems Acquisition for the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    element 303.3. 69 307.3 Training Expendable Stores: The cost of the expendable ordnance, ammunition, pyrotechniques, missiles, ballis- tic weapons...1010 Venezuela S.A. 9. Jefatura de Logistics 4 * Comandancia Gereral de la 1arina Caracas 1010 Venezuela S.A. 10. Jefatura de Educacion 2 * Comandancia...Direccion Presupuesto y Programacion Economica 2 * Comandancia General de la Marina Caracas 1010 Venezuela S.A. 13. Biblioteca Escuela Superior de Guerra

  14. Annual Historical Review FY89

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    we’ve gotten some interesting insights into the value of things like robotics (of great value), space (of great value), efficient command and...used to evaluate the repowering of the Medium Tactical Fleet. Cost Analysis for Decision Making (CADM). The U.S. Army Logistics Management College...Ammunition Requirements and Production Schedules to Increase Combat Capability (AMCCOM); "* Artificial Intelligence (Al)/ Robotics for Combat Systems (LABCOM

  15. Comparative Study of Base Community Relations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    of tension surrounding a given base is determined less by major crimes that get the most academic and media attention, but rather by pacifist ...while there are certainly sincere pacifists on the islands, there is a group of activists and politicians who have grown extremely adept at using the...However, in these two cases as well, while they certainly provide ammunition to the pacifist left in general, the crimes have fallen short of

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 63, Number 2, August 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-08-01

    Marshal de Puyseguir, desiring to see the system at Leuctra realized, conceived in his "Art de la Guerre ," a tactical movement which would make it...lighting up.-Report from Damme: Enemy aviators audible direction. Damme-St. Croix . 2800 m. up. Observation: St. Croix fire at tar- get. Order to...batteries on ammunition used.-St. Croix : Two aviators in searchlight, well covered, one of them very shaky, after third volley veered off seawards

  17. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  18. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax, captured during the moose (Alces alces hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus, golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  19. Dermal Sensitization Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-20

    name: Hexahydro-l, {,,-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, Cyclotrimethyleetririitranine, Cyclonite Hexogen, RDX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 121-8 2...HMX, Cyclotetramethylenetrinitramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 2691-411-0 Structural formula: NO2 02 N-N N-NO2 LNI2 NO2 APPENDIX A...Ammunition Plant Kingsport, TN 3. Chemical name: Hexahydro-l-(’)-Acetyl-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, TAX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number

  20. Acute Oral Toxicity of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) Process Stream Samples in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, Cyclonite Hexogen, RDX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 121-82-4 Structural formula: 02N\\ IN02 N N NO2 Empirical...Ammunition Plant Kingsport, TN 2. Chemical name: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,1-Tetrazine HMX, Cyclotetramethylenetrinitramine Chemical Abstract Service...TN 3. Chemical name: Hexahydro-1-(NI)-Acetyl-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, TAX Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: 14168-42-4 Structural formula

  1. New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    UTILIZING MECHANICAL NAILERS MIL- STD -1660 TESTS Prepared for: Distribution Unlimited U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...SUBTITLE New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL- STD - 1660 Tests Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT...to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, on 42- by 53-inch pallets using commercially available nails installed with

  2. Navy Public Works Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Navy a barrel and a half of oil. Additionally, the low sulfur con- tent of solid waste makes it less of an air polutant than most coal or fuel oils...916 -pk PREFACE The Navy can best accomplish its mission if ships and air - craft are ready and able to perform as designed, and...34public works": air fields; ammunition storage facilities; amphibious pontoon equipment; bridges and causeways; buildings (including furniture and fixed

  3. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Rolling Thunder, July 1965 - December 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-07-15

    34 OM Fig.4 Two F-105’s were lost during this attack. Eight F4C’s struck the Lang Het I Ammunition Depot - in the face of heavy ground fire - causing one...outweigh the potential 3 net gains from cessation or, at least, drastic and demonstrative de- escala - t ion." 18/ 3 134 I U UNCLASSIFIED FOOTNOTES CHAPTER

  4. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    the 11- meter boats included in the SUW Mission Package when the launch, recovery, and handling system is operational. —The ship’s Mk 110 57 mm gun...anchor and chain to pay out smoothly. —The fenders designed to guide the 11- meter Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats included in the SUW Mission Package...mm Gun Mission Modules (GMM) remain prone to jams caused by separation of ammunition links and accumulation of spent cartridges in the ejection path

  5. A Systems Approach to Architecting a Mission Package for LCS Support of Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    energy rather than ammunition cartridges , fueling and refueling aviation assets, supporting required maintenance operations, and monitoring the...of 10 meters or less. C2 Subsystem Fire Control The Fire Control shall be capable of calculating solutions for Air Weapon Systems and Shipboard...imaging can aid in target identification. The photograph in Figure 27 is a SAR image of hangars at Kirtland air force base with a one- meter resolution

  6. Microwave Resonant Absorption of Potential Exothermic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-22

    exothermic materials: lead azide, lead styphnate , PETN, composition B, black powder, nitrocellulose, boron barium Chromate, and M-30 exhibit sharp...the exothermic materials. Table 1. Compounds Tested Compound Source 1 Lead Azide Broco Inc, Rialto CA 2 Lead Styphnate 3 PETN 4 Comp B 5 Black Powder 6...Nitrocellulose (12.6% Nitration) 7 Boron Barium Chromate ICI America, Valley Forge, PA 8 M30 (Gun Propellent) Radford Army Ammunition Plant, Radford

  7. SERDP and ESTCP Technical Exchange Meeting on DoD Operational Range Assessment and Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    wastewater in lagoons. The major chemical compounds of concern have been those used as secondary explosives (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT]; 1,3,5...impact areas is quite different than that at ammunition plants where deposition was largely due to disposal of wastewater containing high...situ remediation. In the ESTCP-supported demonstration, cheese whey is being injected into an energetics-contaminated aquifer to promote biological

  8. Building Special Operations Partnerships in Afghanistan and Beyond: Challenges and Best Practices from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    issue; ammunition was cor- roded; night - vision goggles had no protective eye shields;37 and there was a dearth of even basic supplies, such as cleaning...this deficiency made Colombians highly reluctant to undertake night patrols due to the fear that the glow from the night - vision goggles would make...tasks, such as routinely wearing their night - vision goggles and conducting tactically proficient dismounted patrols. The same problems of focusing

  9. Assessing the Ability of the Afghan Ministry of Interior Affairs to Support the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Pay Process . . . . . . . 59 4.2. Proposed Afghan Local Police Eligibility and Pay Process . . . . . 62 Table 4.1. Tribal/ Ethnic Breakdown Compared...might contribute to a greater understanding of logistics requirements and consumption patterns. In the longer term, they should invest in logistics...involved in helping ALP headquarters resolve local ammunition, food , and water 23 NSOCC-A, 2013e. 24 NSOCC-A official, interview with the authors

  10. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  11. The Need for a Permanent Gun System On the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    5. 9. Emmanuel Gustin and Anthony G Williams, Flying Guns: The Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Installations 1933-1945 (Airlife...Checking Six Not Enough, 23. 33. Ibid., 24. 34. Ibid., 24. 35. Todd E. Denning, A Case for the Joint Strike Fighter Gun (Army General Command and...Washington DC, 20 October 2006. 38. Ibid 39. Todd E. Denning, A Case Joint Strike Fighter, 56. 40. David R. Mets, Checking Six Not Enough, 41

  12. Reducing contraband in a psychiatric hospital through the use of a metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, Terry A

    2007-05-01

    A private, free-standing, nonprofit psychiatric hospital installed a metal detector and a screening procedure to prevent weapons and other proscribed items from being carried into the hospital by visitors. A wide variety of metal objects was discovered, including knives, ammunition, and hand tools. Visitors did not object to the procedure. As an unexpected benefit of the screening, unauthorized smoking in the hospital decreased.

  13. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  14. Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-09-01

    agencies have diplomatic immunity and, if arrested for espionage activities, are not jailed but de- clared persona non grata and forced to leave the...Tactics Used Earlier a t Bien Hoa," The Washington Post, February 8 , 1965, p. A-10; Fred H. Barton, Salient Operational Aspects of Paramilitary...American-made ammunition and six 81-mm mortars, the Viet Cong attacked the Bien Hoa air base for 20 minutes. Targets were the control tower, the

  15. Solid Propellant Subscale Burning Rate Analysis Methods for US and Selected NATO Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    molecular mass, g/mole 7K temperature sensitivity of steady chamber pressure, K1( PC combustion chamber gas density, g/cm 3 pp propellant density, g...chamber volume (V), the molecular mass of the gas (M), the gas constant (R), the flame temperature (T.) and the total propellant weight (WP) M m = (42...TNO PML G.Gadiot1 NORWAY, NORDIC AMMUNITION COMPANY St. Haugen SPAIN INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA M. Mulero AEROSPACIAL (INTA) UNITED KINGDOM ROYAL

  16. Army Financial Improvement Plans Generally Managed Effectively, but Better Contract Management Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    stating that except for reporting deficiencies associated with missiles held at the contractor’s facilities and material in transit, the assertion...Optically-tracked, Wire-command link; Javelin; and Hellfire missiles ). From February 2011 through January 2012, ASA(FM&C) personnel and audit...vehicles $92 General Equipment Equipment for material handling, training, and special tooling and testing 11 OM&S Missiles , ammunition, and munitions

  17. Prediction Model for Impulsive Noise on Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group MCAAP McAlester Army Ammunition Plant MIF Mode Indicator...uncompressed data streams. Each recorder was operated continuously during periods of expected firing. All recordings were synchronized with IRIG -B time codes...included the nominal time and/or run log number, and the sampling rate. IRIG -B time code channels were included in this processing. Further

  18. Bastion on the Border: Fort Bliss, 1854-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    THE BORDER border. Several smuggling rings even made canvas vests for their runners to wear so they could carry more cartridges per trip. There was...no lack of runners , especially among destitute Mexican refugees eager to earn a few cents per cartridge for carrying ammunition. They knew that if they...Aftermath /99 cavalry found it difficult to maneuver in a maze of irrigation ditches. Accordingly the Villistas were not crushed, but they were completely

  19. Mineral resource of the month: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on tungsten. It says that tungsten is a metal found in chemical compounds such as in the scheelite and ore minerals wolframite. It states that tungsten has the highest melting point and it forms a compound as hard as diamond when combined with carbon. It states that tungsten can be used as a substitute for lead in fishing weights, ammunition, and hunting shot. Moreover, China started to export tungsten materials and products instead of tungsten raw materials.

  20. Química forense: perspectivas sobre novos métodos analíticos aplicados à documentoscopia, balística e drogas de abuso

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderson Romão; Schwab,Nicolas V.; Bueno,Maria Izabel M. S.; Regina Sparrapan; Eberlin, Marcos N; Andrea Martiny; Sabino, Bruno D; Maldaner,Adriano O

    2011-01-01

    In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing ''lead-free'' or ''nontoxic'' handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are be...

  1. American method and comparison of the different methods of internal ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Patnaik

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Duc's method gave good results in almost all cases. But in all cases American ammunition was used in American guns and it is doubtful if the method would give equally good results when applied to British guns or British propellants. The advantage of Le Duc's method, however, in its simplicity compared with the other theoretical methods and the quickness with which results can be calculated by this method.

  2. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 01-1-020 Tropical Regions Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ammunition bunker, an unventilated sheet metal building, a general purpose tent, and a transportation container (CONEX). Mean maximum temperatures...injected by the bite (or sting) of a venomous animal. The banana spider of South and Central America, the funnel-web spiders of Australia, and several...displays. Containers constructed of sheet materials, and particularly certain plastics, deteriorate and fail under long-term exposure to high

  3. Využití čichových schopností psa pro vyhledávání kůrovci napadených stromů v rámci preventivní ochrany lesa

    OpenAIRE

    Drmla, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional ability to smell dog in human activity are used for several centuries. The dog is trained for tracking , searching for drugs , weapons, ammunition , human remains , tobacco and money . Usability dog is recorded in the health sector , where the dog can identify the smell serious illness. Deploying a dog to search for forest pests , especially bark beetle was experimentally tested in several European countries , but they were always used the associated odors from the environment bee...

  4. Laminated safety glass as an intermediate target: a wound ballistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Zinka, Bettina M; Fieseler, Sybille; Graw, Matthias; Peschel, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    Various 9-mm ammunitions (A1, A4, A5, ST, GS, GSb, P.E.P., SeCa, HP, PTP/s, VM, McVG, DM41, PTP, SX2, PT, and MEN frangible) were tested regarding their velocity, energy, angle of impact, and potential wound channel after penetrating a car window at 30° and 90°. Test materials were gelatine, soap, and pig cadavers. The velocities of the projectiles were between c. 288 and 430 m/ses, the energy spread between 394 and 564 J. Handgun bullets fired through vehicular side window glass lose substantial energy reducing the effectiveness of the ammunition. This effect is greater when fired at an angle of 30° compared to 90°. At a shooting angle of 90°, none of the different projectiles showed remarkable differences considering its wound ballistic features. Accuracy is maintained at a 90° angle but seriously impaired at 30°. None of the examined ammunition complied with the demanded wound channel effectiveness of 30-60 J/cm.

  5. The evaluation of a new technology for gunshot residue (GSR) analysis in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Andersen, Danielle; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There continues to be a need for improved technology to be used in theater to quickly and accurately identify the person who shot any weapon during a terrorist attack as well as to link a suspect to the actual weapon fired during a crime. Beyond this, in areas of conflict it would be desirable to have the capability to establish the source country for weaponry and ammunition. Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a reasonably well-studied technology area. Recent scientific publications have reported that the residues have a rich composition of both organic and inorganic compounds. For the purposes of identifying the manufacturer or country of origin for the ammunition, the inorganic components of GSR appear to be especially promising since their presence in the propellant and primer formulations are either specific to a given chemical formula, or they represent impurities in the manufacturing process that can be unique to a manufacturer or the source country for the chemicals used for propellants and primers. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology has already demonstrated considerable capability for elemental fingerprinting, especially for inorganic/metallic components. A number of reports have demonstrated LIBS capability in forensics for matching materials such as inks, fabrics, paper, glass, and paint. This work describes the encouraging results of an initial study to assess a new commercial field-portable (battery operated) LIBS system for GSR analysis with gunshot residues having been collected from inside cartridge casings from 3 different ammunition manufacturers.

  6. [Morphologic detection of Bacillus cereus in blank cartridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M A; Mülling, C

    1998-01-01

    Wound infections after gunshot wounds from live ammunition can produce serious complications. It is well known that projectiles per se are neither sterile nor does their firing cause sterilization. The germs on the surface of a projectile enter the body together with the projectile and are thus introduced into the wound together with skin bacteria. However it is less known that wound infections can occur in wounds caused by the gas jet from blank ammunition (mainly from shots at very close range). In such ammunition without a projectile, the propellant particles are usually contaminated with bacteria which find their way into the wound together with skin germs. In previous investigations, we have microbiologically detected the species Bacillus cereus in the propellant of blank cartridges. In the present study, we have applied scanning electron microscopic methods to find out which areas of the blank cartridges are colonized by these bacteria. For this purpose 20 blank cartridges, each from 4 different manufacturers, were electronmicroscopically examined. B. cereus only found on the surface of intact nitrocellulose particles but not in the interior of broken prepared propellant particles. Bacterial structures were not morphologically identified on black powder particles.

  7. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, S. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TU BAF), Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Leipziger Str. 29, D - 09599 Freiberg (Germany)], E-mail: matthias.otto@chemie.tu-freiberg.de; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Brozek-Mucha, Z. [Instytut Ekspertyz Sadowych (IES), Westerplatte St. 9, PL - 31-033 Krakow (Poland); Biegstraaten, J. [Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI), Fysische Technologie, Laan van Ypenburg 6, NL-2497 GB Den Haag (Netherlands); Horvath, R. [Kriminalisticky a Expertizny Ustav (KEU PZ), Institute of Forensic Science, Sklabinska 1, SK - 812 72 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-09-15

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification.

  8. Simulation of Pressure Variation of the Expandable Graphite in Deflagration Process%可膨胀石墨燃爆过程压力变化规律仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉成; 王国栋

    2015-01-01

    根据可膨胀石墨燃爆过程需要,采用数值方法对可膨胀石墨燃爆过程中装药壳体对压力的影响规律进行了仿真研究。仿真结果表明,当装药壳体较厚时,内部高压的持续时间较长,能够为可膨胀石墨提供一个较长时间的受热环境,有利于可膨胀石墨充分膨化。因此,在保证装药压力能够可靠破碎壳体的前提下,在弹药壳体设计过程中,应尽量选用较厚的壳体。%According to the deflagration requirement of expandable graphite, this article uses numerical method to conduct simulation study of the influence of ammunition charging shell on the pressure in the deflagration process of expandable graphite. The simulation results show that when the ammunition charging shell is thick, the duration of the internal pressure is long, so it can provide heated environment expandable graphite for a long time and is conducive to the full expansion of expandable graphite. Therefore, in the ammunition shell design process, a thicker shell should be used.

  9. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  10. Study on measurement method for projectile location based on light screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Liu, QunHua; Sun, GuoBin

    2008-09-01

    In weapon-ammunition system, firing accuracy of projectile is major characteristic parameter weighing fire effect and capability of weapon-ammunition system for target. At present, firing accuracy of projectile is obtained by measuring the two-dimensional coordinates of projectile for target. In order to measure the parameters of two-dimensional coordinates of projectile for target, a new type of measurement system is proposed. The measurement system is composed of four high sensitivity light screens (known as target) with special geometrical frame. Light source of the screens is formed by special infrared LED array. The PIN infrared photodiodes array is used as the sensors. The longest effective distance between light source and sensors is 4m. It is impossible to achieve using traditional methods. Four light screens and high-precision timers are combined in order to acquire the value of time when the projectile flies across the position of four light screens. The real-time data acquirement and processing and display of two-dimensional coordinates and the projectile velocity can be realized. The principle of measurement system and the design of high sensitivity light screen are introduced emphatically. The measurement system was verified by using five kinds of small caliber pellets. As compared with the paper target sheet, the measurement system designed can meet the demand of check-up test of gun, bullet and ammunition. The firing testing in the target field has proved that the measurement system has the advantages of simple construction, easy operation and high precision and high sensitivity.

  11. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

  12. Technology Strategy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    need for new tactics to incorporate both the ability to load and fire from the prone position, and to enforce the conservation of ammunition and set up...agricultural purposes and were now readily transformed to the business of planting men by the addition of plating and weapons.270 Admiral Reginald...design was made to avoid having to pay Pollen the sum of £100,000.335 However, besides the saving the £100,000—a truly inconsequential sum when

  13. Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Stefanopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles. Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues. Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets. Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.

  14. The Behavior of Some Waxes in Composition B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    beeswax 14 10 Bareco X-715 Lot C-652 15 K 11 Bareco X-404 Batch B-610 16 12 Bareco X-718 Lot C-649 17 13 Bareco X-719 Batch 658 18 14 Bareco X-717 Lot C-655...Wax of Knoxville 123, Petrolite ES670, and Beeswax . Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant grade TNT and Holston Class A RDX were used in most of the...hydrocarbon standards against their retention volume. The molecular weights derived from the calibration curve are based upon the chain length of the dissolved

  15. Uranium: myths and realities the depleted uranium; Uranio: Mitos y realidades. El caso del uranio emprobrecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, G.

    2001-07-01

    Uranium is an element whose name causes worry. The uranium properties are very unknown for people. However the element plays an important roll in the Earth as responsible of numerous natural phenomena, which are vital for life evolution. An example of the low knowledge about uranium has been the Balkan syndrome. A relation between cancers and the use of depleted uranium in ammunition in the Balkan War has been pretended to be established. From the beginning, this hypothesis could have been discarded as it has been confirmed and stated in recent reports of UNEP Commissions who have studied this matter. (Author)

  16. The Future of Naval Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    sovereignty over which may provide access to considerable reserves of offshore oil and/or natural gas. The goal of the United States would be to play...fuel oil, dry cargo, and, in the midst of a conflict, ammunition. But this umbilical connecting deployed navy combatants to the shore is largely...Report of the National Defense Panel, December 1997, pp. 12–13 <www.dtic.mil/ndp/>. vi On the United States being an offshore balancer of last resort, see

  17. Willibrords wijnfles. Autorisatie en memorisatie van de contrareformatorische boodschap in Richard Verstegens Nederlantsche antiquiteyten (1613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Maas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Nederlantsche antiquiteyten (1613 by Richard Verstegen, the national past, and especially the conversion of the Low Countries by St. Willibrord, is used as ammunition for a Counter-Reformation argument. Precisely this shift of the theological discussion to the historical domain provided Verstegen with the means for an effective authorization of his arguments (including citations, truth claims and self-presentation as a critical investigator. In addition, Verstegen made smart use of the iconography of St. Willibrord on the title page of the work. He thus created a vivid image that would facilitate the recollection of the text's main arguments.

  18. Christians and Jews in the Twelfth-Century Werewolf Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyovitz, David I

    2014-10-01

    In the late twelfth century, northern European Jewish mystics engaged in a sustained, unprecedented effort to explore the theological meaning of werewolves. This article seeks to anchor this surprising preoccupation in contemporary European religious culture, arguing that medieval Jews and Christians found werewolves "good to think with" in exploring the spiritual status of the (mutable, unstable) human body. Discourses of monstrosity were used as polemical ammunition in Jewish-Christian debates, but monstrous creatures were simultaneously held to be theologically resonant by both communities-a fact that sheds light upon the broader intellectual and cultural setting in which they were joint participants.

  19. Development of an Item Unique Identification Strategy for the Legacy Components of the US Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    rack and 6 in a rear storage box located in the hull of the tank. April 1993 marked the end of M1A1 MBT production with a total of 4,796 vehicles...Position Location Reporting System (PLRS) and additional tie-down points for stowage on board ship and transportation on LCACs of the US Navy (Jane’s...computer were made on completion of firing table data collection. The ammunition racks , blow-off panels and crew compartment sliding door were

  20. Leading Edge. Volume 7, Number 3. Systems Safety Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    including both the MOGAS Stowage Room and MOGAS Transfer Room • Remove the external 1,500‑gallon bladder stowage rack and replace with modified low‑ sulfur...the 01 level on the port side deck edge. One rack holds six 55‑gallon drums and the other, a MOGAS stowage locker that is adjacent to the drum...requirements and standards for the safe handling, stowage , and use of all ammunition and explosives afloat. It is applicable to all ships owned or

  1. Munitions Executive Summit 2010 Held in San Diego, California on February 8-10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    echnology • raining / areer g t Tooele Army Depot •Supply Depot Operations •Ammunition Peculiar Equip ele r y e t • upply epot perations • unition... mobility , force protection, and close battle systems for the Army’s Current, Stryker and Future Forces. • PM Demil • Industrial Base/EDCA • SMCA...ccsweb.pica.army.mil PM CCS Mission:  Provide the Warfighter world‐class close combat, force protection & assured  mobility  capabilities across full

  2. Editorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING JianGuo

    2010-01-01

    @@ Numerical simulation performed by computers is crucial for technology innovation in explosion mechanics.For independent innovations concerning vehicles, equipment and related high-tech areas, such factors as the production technology of key industrial equipment and numerical methods and software technology are essential.Explosion mechanics is the theoretical basis for the design of highly efficient arms and ammunition, involving complex physical and mechanical behaviors of multi-materials at high speed, high temperature and high pressure under extreme conditions.Explosion experimental technique studies occur over a very short period of time and have a strongly destructive effect, yielding a limited amount of experimental data.

  3. MIL-STD-1660-Tests of DS2 Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A253 400 9 FINAL REPORT JUNE 1991 REPORT NO. EVT 13-90 MIL- STD -1660 TESTS OF DS2 CONTAINERS VIC’ -~ ~ UL P.7~9a Prepared for: Distribution...Classification) MIL- STD - 1660 Tests of DS2 Containers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 1,U. TYPE OF REPORT I1ft. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...tests conducted. As tested, the DS2 container passed MIL- STD - 1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads. 20. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT

  4. C6 GPMG and 40 mm AGL Weapon Integrated on RWS Mounted on TAPV Platform: Probability of Hit Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    considération l’effet d’interaction du véhicule, canonnier et du RWS sur la précision de l’arme. Aussi, le RWS n’a pas d’anémomètre ni de capteur de...system and application . The ammunition performance characteristics resulting from the design process plays an important role in defining other...error due to the target velocity (if applicable ). This input is one of the inputs that will be used to simulate the target’s tracking error of section

  5. Range of fire determination from the pseudostippling of skin by shotshell buffer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    The plastic buffer material in certain American shotgun shells emerges from the muzzle with the same velocity as the pellets that it was intended to protect from deformation during the very high accelerative forces associated with the discharge process. These small plastic particles spread out quickly over distance in a predictable, reproducible, and uniform manner as they lose velocity because of air resistance. If these plastic particles strike skin with sufficient velocity and energy, they will produce stipple marks whose distribution and density can be used to establish range of fire. This can be of critical importance in the reconstruction of a shooting involving this type of ammunition.

  6. Fagre nye arbejdsliv? – set gennem fire fremtrædende kritisk-sociologiske samtidsdiagnoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    it exclusively through a critical and pessimistic lens. There may be good reasons for this, but we also need to consider if these diagnoses are in fact correct and reflect social reality. In this article, the authors first present four distinct yet interrelated critical sociological diagnoses dealing...... of Arlie R. Hochschild. Finally, we have the ‘Precarization Diagnosis’ promoted by, amongst others, Guy Standing. Each of these diagnoses provides important conceptual and analytical ammunition for a scathing critique of contemporary work life. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of these diagnoses...

  7. Penetrating facial injury with an "Airsoft" pellet: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Ben; Coady, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Airsoft is a recreational combat sport that originated in Japan in the 1970s and is currently increasing in popularity in the UK. Participants use air or electrically powered weapons to fire small plastic pellets at a controlled pressure. UK law strictly regulates the maximum muzzle velocity and the type of ammunition used in these weapons. A search of published papers found several reports of penetrating ocular injuries caused by Airsoft pellets, but no reports of penetrating injuries to other areas of the body. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who sustained a penetrating injury to the cheek after being shot with an Airsoft weapon.

  8. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary values, the response of the projectile, flywheel and other components can be determined continuously for firing and in-flight conditions.

  9. Remembering the Avonmouth mustard gas factory

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction \\ud \\ud The women of the Great War had undertaken a predominantly domestic role until that point in time. This changed during these testing times, as women took the place of the men in the factories. There was an urgent need to produce large quantities of ammunition and the women made up the majority of the workforce. In the factories of Avonmouth and Chittening hundreds of women worked in perilous conditions to produce shells, but these shells weren’t just filled with explosives...

  10. Gunshot wounds:A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPanagiotis K Stefanopoulos; Georgios F Hadjigeorgiou; Konstantinos Filippakis; Dimitrios Gyftokostas

    2014-01-01

    Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles.Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues.Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets.Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.

  11. U. S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies, Gas Warfare in World War I: The 32nd Division Advances to Fismes, August 1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-04-01

    cross gas ammunition will be employed during the fighting and move- ,.1* • ment...whenever the supply permits. But the rules governing gas fire must...the yellow cross fire that night, there is not a word in 32nd Divi- sion or Division Gas Officer records, unless reports of gas fire during the day of 4...August refer to enemy HE fire on areas contaminated during the previous night, so that the effect was that of mixed HE and gas fire . German . records

  12. CNA’s Integrated Ship Database: Third Quarter CY 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Inventory > The Naval History & Heritage Command’s Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships (DANFS) and Ship History/Command Operations Reports...DANFS: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships from the Naval History & Heritage Command (NHHC) 12 • 5030.8A Force • 5030.8A Ship Category • 5030.8A...rritrsiAmphibious Trans ort Oock. ® Landin Craft Carriers/ Cock . Landin Shi ® Underwa Re lenishment/Dr Car o and Ammunition Shi l.!l Undtrwa Fit ltnlshmt nti

  13. Environmental security of the Adriatic coastal sea floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, V.; Kollar, R. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, D. [Institute for for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Zagreb (Croatia); Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The coastal sea floor is littered with many of man made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in anti-fouling paints. This report presents locations within the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean as a whole, that are found to be contaminated by different ammunition. In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above an object such a system can inspect the object for the presence of a threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from a sealed tube d+t neutron generator and a gamma detector. The same system can also be used to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull, or to determine the nature of materials within the hull, especially of sunken ships. (authors)

  14. The evaluation of solid phase micro-extraction fibre types for the analysis of organic components in unburned propellant powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Oliver; Birkett, Jason W

    2010-11-12

    This work describes the evaluation of various solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibre types for the detection of compounds originating from particles of unburned propellant powders. These compounds may also be found in association with organic gunshot residues (OGSR). Seven SPME fibres were assessed based on their ability to extract the compounds of interest (diphenylamine (DPA), 4-nitrodiphenylamine (4-NDPA), ethyl centralite (EC), nitroglycerin (NG) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)) from four ammunition types across three calibres (9 mm, 5.56 mm and 7.62 mm). Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicated that the 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) was the most suitable fibre type for the extraction of these compounds across the ammunition types tested. Optimal extraction time parameters were also assessed with a 35-min period determined to be suitable. A number of previously unreported considerations for extracting propellant powders and potentially OGSR related materials are discussed.

  15. The effect of subsurface military detonations on vadose zone hydraulic conductivity, contaminant transport and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Burman, Jan; Edlund, Christina; Simonsson, Louise; Berglind, Rune; Leffler, Per; Qvarfort, Ulf; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Meuken, Denise; Duvalois, Willem; Martel, Richard; Sjöström, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Live fire military training involves the detonation of explosive warheads on training ranges. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the hydrogeological changes to the vadose zone caused by military training with high explosive ammunition. In particular, this study investigates artillery ammunition which penetrates underground prior to exploding, either by design or by defective fuze mechanisms. A 105 mm artillery round was detonated 2.6 m underground, and hydraulic conductivity measurements were taken before and after the explosion. A total of 114 hydraulic conductivity measurements were obtained within a radius of 3 m from the detonation point, at four different depths and at three different time periods separated by 18 months. This data was used to produce a three dimensional numerical model of the soil affected by the exploding artillery round. This model was then used to investigate potential changes to aquifer recharge and contaminant transport caused by the detonating round. The results indicate that an exploding artillery round can strongly affect the hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone, increasing it locally by over an order of magnitude. These variations, however, appear to cause relatively small changes to both local groundwater recharge and contaminant transport.

  16. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  17. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  18. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  19. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  20. Waste reduction at a propellant manufacturing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, L.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is the US Army policy to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste generated by its operations and activities. The Army established a goal to reduce 1985 waste generation levels by 50% by the year 1992, with additional reductions proposed through 1999 per Army guidance. To assist in accomplishing this goal, the Production Base Modernization Activity under a program sponsored by the US Army Materiel Command contracted Science Applications International Corporation to conduct a waste minimization audit at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. This study addressed hazardous wastes as well as non-hazardous oily wastes. The investigation was conducted in three phases to document how hazardous and oily wastes are produced and to recommend waste reduction alternatives. Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) produces in-process materials such as nitric and sulfuric acids, and propellant components including nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. In addition, to propellants, the explosives trinitrotoluene and diethylene glycol dinitrate can be produced. The manufacture of military propellants generates the majority of waste at the facility. This paper will present the results of the RAAP Hazmin study, focusing on the major waste generating processes involved with propellant manufacture, Hazmin options suggested to minimize waste generation, and lessons learned.

  1. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  2. A simple method for detection of gunshot residue particles from hands, hair, face, and clothing using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, S; Kudo, K; Kaizoji, A; Ryumoto, J; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, N

    2001-07-01

    We devised a simple and rapid method for detection of gunshot residue (GSR) particles, using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX) analysis. Experiments were done on samples containing GSR particles obtained from hands, hair, face, and clothing, using double-sided adhesive coated aluminum stubs (tape-lift method). SEM/WDX analyses for GSR were carried out in three steps: the first step was map analysis for barium (Ba) to search for GSR particles from lead styphnate primed ammunition, or tin (Sn) to search for GSR particles from mercury fulminate primed ammunition. The second step was determination of the location of GSR particles by X-ray imaging of Ba or Sn at a magnification of x 1000-2000 in the SEM, using data of map analysis, and the third step was identification of GSR particles, using WDX spectrometers. Analysis of samples from each primer of a stub took about 3 h. Practical applications were shown for utility of this method.

  3. Shotcup petal abrasions in close range .410-caliber shotgun injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, G P; Dickinson, J A; Cooke, C T

    1988-01-01

    Shotcup petal abrasions centered around a shotgun wound of entrance are generally thought to occur at a range of 30 to 90 cm. A suicidal .410-caliber shotgun injury of the right eye is described in which typical petal abrasions were noted around the entrance wound. However, significant soot deposition around the wound suggested that the range of fire was less than 30 cm and perhaps closer to 15 cm. Test-firing of the weapon and ammunition used by the decedent showed some spread of the shotcup petals at a range of 7.5 cm, progressing to maximum spread at 30 to 52.5 cm. Further testing with other .410 ammunition, containing shotcups, confirmed the spread of shotcup petals at ranges less than 30 cm, irrespective of manufacturer, shotshell length, and birdshot size. When a variety of shotguns were tested, it was found that one weapon with a very short barrel and cylinder bore did not exhibit petal spread until a range of 30 cm was reached. The remaining shotguns, with longer barrels and full choke, all demonstrated definite petal spread at a range of 12.5 cm. The long, narrow configuration of .410 shotcup petals may explain their early spread and the production of petal abrasions at ranges of less than 30 cm.

  4. Biological and societal dimensions of lead poisoning in birds in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J Christian; Anderson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of spent lead shot was known to cause mortality in wild waterfowl in the US a century before the implementation of nontoxic shot regulations began in 1972. The biological foundation for this transition was strongly supported by both field observations and structured scientific investigations. Despite the overwhelming evidence, various societal factors forestalled the full transition to nontoxic shot for waterfowl hunting until 1991. Now, nearly 20 years later, these same factors weigh heavily in current debates about nontoxic shot requirements for hunting other game birds, requiring nontoxic bullets for big game hunting in California Condor range and for restricting the use of small lead sinkers and jig heads for sport-fishing. As with waterfowl, a strong science-based foundation is requisite for further transitions to nontoxic ammunition and fishing weights. Our experiences have taught us that the societal aspects of this transition are as important as the biological components and must be adequately addressed before alternatives to toxic lead ammunition, fishing weights, and other materials will be accepted as an investment in wildlife conservation.

  5. Comparación entre heridas por proyectiles de fuego calibre .22 de baja velocidad y de aire comprimido calibre .177 sobre flanco derecho de cadáveres frescos de conejos (Wounds produces by fire projectils caliber .22 low velocity and air compressed caliber.177 on right side of fresh dead rabbits. a trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimonte, D.

    2009-09-01

    Joules and n=6for .177 AC weight 0,475 grams, initial velocity 138 m/s and initial energy4,54 Joules.; ,supported for simulation of real impact conditions. Thisexperimentally design was approved by the Bioethical Committee ofVeterinary Faculty. Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Penetration testwere done at Club Uruguayo de Tiro. At necropsy injuries on muscles,osseous tissues, and cavitary organs; and the caracteritics of entranceholes (OE and exit holes (OS, for each type off ammunition andpropulsión system, were done. There was evidence, that firing with .22Rimfire (LV ammunition produce long bones fractures, and when firing.177 (AC air compressed propulsion used, it´s didn´t produce any bonefracture. The injuries in viscerally organs (thoracic and abdominals werelethal for both types of ammunition fired at 16 meters. Only with .177ammunition (AC, there were projectiles retained in the opposite flankrelated to the input side. The projectile .22 Rimfire (LV the bodypenetration is complete in both flank. The two types of ammunition firedto 16 meters, had the capability to produce lethal injuries.

  6. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating caused by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash

  7. Effects of Launch Tube Curvature on Ballistics Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Bundy

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is possible for two different launch. platforms to produce centre of (shot impacts (COIs, that differ in magnitude by several times the ammunition dispersion. It is difficult to discern what fraction of this variation is due to the launch tube alone, since changing tube alters both the mounting conditions and the occasion. A means has been devised to 'change tubes' without altering the mount or the occasion, by merely changing the shape of a given tube within the same mount. This is accomplished by localised control of a gun barrel's axial thermal expansion, implemented through a series of temperature-controlled heating pads adhered to the outer barrel wall. Using this technique, it was found that a simple, yet very common, bow-shaped curvature to the right verses left, for example, produced a significant shift in COI. Furthermore, it was found that holding the barrel shape constant dramatically reduced the standard deviation (dispersion of shot Impacts about COI.

  8. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  9. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  10. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  11. Analysis of Wastewater for Organic Compounds Unique to RDX/HMX manufacturing and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    best qualified to conduct the chemical studies. Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP) Holston AAP is a government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO...proton-containing DMSO and water, respective𔃻 y. The regularly spaced disturbances which occur about every 1.2 ppm and are most intense at 9.2 ppm are...N~q W 0, tWt il- tillr it ;Iil I itl! I!t :111 :a."d i l il 11 1 1a Ii. 19, li I ’i i~ H ji j; l il1 i C𔃾 9 0 (Al I’.L) fo~ L(U Ex .t * .C,-’- I, R E

  12. Research on Influence Factors of Truck-mounted Artillery Consistency at Maximum Range%车载炮最大射程地面密集度影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建中; 朱军; 张飞猛; 胡敬坤

    2011-01-01

    分析影响某型车载炮最大射程地面密集度的主要因素,并对在高低齿弧上的作用力和弹药的影响进行重点探讨,提出提高地面密集度试验精度的措施,为密集度试验方法改进提供了依据.%The main factors influencing the consistency at the maximum range of a type of truckmounted artillery are analyzed.Measures to improve the precision of the consistency test are suggested based on a detailed discussion of the influence of the force acting on the elevating gear arc and ammunition parameters in detail.The work provides a theoretical basis for improving the consistency test method for the truck-mounted artillery.

  13. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.  JEL Codes: E44, G1, G18, G28Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole

  14. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO TONVERONACHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.

  15. AJOG against homebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, while 99.3% of US women delivered in hospital, 0.7% delivered at home. In response to this slight rise in homebirths, The American Journal of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AJOG) issued a warning to all doctors and midwives to refuse to attend homebirth under all circumstances. In the absence of respected medical research showing planned homebirth to be unsafe, their recommendation is based on a single maternal death reported in the Daily Mail. American obstetrics is so profit-orientated that it is willing to use misquoted newspaper articles as ammunition and pretend that 277 women don't die in the US annually from cesarean surgery at planned hospital births. AJOG articles are nothing more than publicity stunts created in an effort to maintain a monopoly on birth and not to forfeit even a small amount of business to competitors.

  16. [Werkgartner's muzzle imprint mark--a literature study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Since Werkgartner described and correctly interpreted the muzzle imprint mark around the gunshot entrance wound in 1922, this finding has been generally accepted as a sign of a contact shot. In further studies, it could finally be clarified that the muzzle imprint mark is caused by the expansive power of the powder gases with pressure on and abrasion of the skin at the muzzle (weapon imprint). Its shape depends on the firearm, the ammunition and the anatomical conditions, but does not require a bullet. Examinations under a magnifying glass microscope and histological investigations can complete the macroscopic findings. Occasionally, the muzzle imprint mark requires a certain "drying period" in order to become clearly visible. In rare cases, muzzle imprint marks also form on textiles perforated by the projectile. Characteristically shaped muzzled imprint marks can provide clues to the type of the firearm and its position at the time of discharge.

  17. Pyrotechnic robot - constructive design and command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel A. Staretu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic robots are service robots used to reduce the time for intervention of pyrotechnic troops and to diminish the danger for the operators. Pyrotechnic robots are used to inspect dangerous areas or/and to remove and to distroy explosive or suspicious devices/objects. These robots can be used to make corridors through mined battle fields, for manipulation and neutralization of unexploded ammunition, for inspection of vehicles, trains, airplanes and buildings. For these robots, a good functional activity is determined with regard to work space dimensions,, robotic arm kinematics and gripper characteristics. The paper shows the structural, kinematic, static synthesis and analysis as well as the design and functional simulation of the robotic arm and the grippers attached on the pyrotechnic robot designed by the authors.

  18. Studies on Some Aspects of Propellants for Improving the Performance of Tank Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The main criterion, in the design of propellant charge for a tank gun, is to achieve the highest possible muzzle velocity for fin stabilized armour piercing dicarding sabot (FSAPDS projectiles. This ensures penetration through the toughest armour plates by the kinetic energy of the projectile. One of the solutions, is to increase the force constant of the propellant. Higher force constant from conventional double and triple base propellant compositions lead to prohibitive linear rates of burning coefficients. ERDL has developed a high energy propellant based on RDX, with very high force constant and low linear rate of burning coefficient. The objective of the present paper is to discuss various aspects of the interior ballistics of the three types of propellants in question in 105 mm tank gun with FSAPDS ammunition. The study shows that only the solution with RDX base propellant is feasible for an increase of three per cent in muzzle velocity.

  19. Spanish Naval Artillery on 1890–1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent R. Crawford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish naval artillery in the late XIX cen. had features such as artillery great maritime states and the countries of the second world. On the one hand, in Spain, developed and put into service the original artillery systems of national development, on the other - export versions of the world's leading manufacturers. And often when applying for a variety of weapons could be made is not in favor of cheaper and more advanced foreign models. But we should not downplay the role of Spanish designers: often implements its development could outpace similar foreign solutions. All this predetermined the extraordinary diverse nature and diversity of nomenclature, both the guns and ammunition. The proposed work –is the first attempt to bring together a variety of eclectic details, often contradict each other, the Spanish artillery of the period.

  20. Problem of the reference height of the projectile trajectory as a reduced meteo-ballistic weighting factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir CECH; Ludek JEDLICKA; Jiri JEVICKY

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of preparation of the aiming angles with the use of tabular firing tables and needed determination of the ballistic elements mB (ballistic wind wB, wxB, wZB, ballistic (virtual) temperature tB, ballistic density rB) from the standardized met messages. The weighting factors are used for the calculation of ballistic elements mB that are incorporated into the trajectory calculations characteristics of weapon and ammunition. Two different methodologies practically used in the praxis are analysed and compared. For the comparison of the two methodologies the reference height of trajectory determined from the weighting factor functions is employed. On the basis of the analyses conducted, the potential for further increase in accuracy of these aiming angles preparation methods is pointed out.

  1. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Pati

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent systems and thetypes of fire detectors used in fire detection systems. The experimentalset-up used for simulating a simple system having 24 sensors connecteato the micro computer via digital input card is explained in detail withthe limitations of the experimental set-up and improvements that canbe made by incorporating serial communication in a loop, using fibre optics data links. and intelligent loop/interface units.

  2. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  3. Research on Modeling of Equipment Support Plan Based on UML%基于UML的装备保障方案建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 阮拥军

    2011-01-01

    传统的装备保障方案不便于被计算机理解,本文采用了UML对装备保障方案从静态和动态两个框架进行建模,直观形象地描述了装备保障方案的内容,为装备保障方案的自动生成提供了理论基础,并且以陆军师弹药保障方案为例进行说明.%Traditional armament support plan can't be understand easily by computer, the paper modeling with UML from static and dynamic frameworks for armament support plan, which have described content of armament support plan visually and vividly. The paper would be the foundation of automating armament support plan, and represents the modeling research by ammunition armament support plan of army division.

  4. Ballistic evaluationof LOVA propellant in high calibre gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.S. Pillai

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper presents the data obrained on dynamic firing of a cellulose acetate binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOV A propellant using 120 mm fin-stabilised armour piercing discarding sabot (FSAPDS kinetic energyammunition. An optimised propellant composition formulated ~sing fine RDX as an energetic ingredient and a mixture of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose as binder was qualified fit for firing in a high calibre gun by its successful static evaluation for absolute ballistics using high pressure closed vessel technique. Dynamic firing of the propellant processed in heptatubular geometry was undertaken to assess the propellant charge mass. This propellant achieved higher muzzle velocity as compared to the standard NQ/M119 triple-base propellant while meeting the non-vulnerability characteristics convincingly.

  5. Química forense: perspectivas sobre novos métodos analíticos aplicados à documentoscopia, balística e drogas de abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Romão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing ''lead-free'' or ''nontoxic'' handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are being presented. For drugs analysis, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS is shown to provide a relatively simple and selective screening tool to distinguish m-CPP and amphetamines (MDMA tablets, cocaine and LSD.

  6. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  7. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Kapoor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technological challenges in post-war scenario worldwide is thedetection of landmines using these trace vapour signatures and neutralising them safely.  Differenttypes of explosives are utilised as the main charge in antipersonnel and antitank landmines. Inthis paper, an effort has been made to review the techniques so far available based on explosivevapour detection especially to detect the landmines. A comprehensive compilation of relevantinformation on the techniques is presented, and their maturity levels, shortcomings, and difficultiesfaced are highlighted.

  8. An evaluation of childhood deaths in Turkey due to yellow phosphorus in firecrackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Yilmaz, Eyyüp; Ozdemir, Veli; Can, Muhammet; Pakis, Isil; Piskin, Ibrahim E; Dokgoz, Halis; Ozer, Erdal; Numanoglu, Kemal V

    2015-05-01

    Yellow phosphorus (YP) is a powerful protoplasmic poison used in the manufacturing of matches, pest poisons, firecrackers, firework cracker, lights for watches, military ammunition, and agriculture fertilizer. YP is extremely flammable and toxic and easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we examined childhood deaths from 1997 to 2012 resulting from the ingestion of firecrackers. The patients ranged from 2 to 15 years of age and were admitted to the hospital with a variety of symptoms. Those that presented with nausea, vomiting, and hypotension rapidly deteriorated and entered a coma. An autopsy was performed in all but one of the 16 cases reviewed. Macroscopically, the livers had a yellowish discoloration with petechial bleeding. Histopathologic examination revealed acute toxic hepatitis. In conclusion, these firecrackers are found in corner shops throughout Turkey, may cause death in children with little warning, and should be banned to prevent further deaths.

  9. The analysis of thermal stability of detonation nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Zakatilova, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    The detonation nanodiamond is a new perspective material. Ammunition recycling with use of high explosives and obtaining nanodiamond as the result of the detonation synthesis have given a new motivation for searching of their application areas. In this work nanodiamond powder has been investigated by the method of synchronous thermal analysis. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure in the environment of argon. Nanodiamond powder has been heated in the closed corundum crucible at the temperature range of 30-1500 °C. The heating rates were varied from 2 K/min to 20 K/min. After the heat treatment, the samples have been studied by the x-ray diffraction and the electron microscopy. As one of the results of this work, it has been found that the detonation nanodiamond has not started the transition into graphite at the temperature below 800 °C.

  10. Environmental aspects of the demilitarization and destruction of ordnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun B. Jeremić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, the Serbian Army has been facing the problem of surplus of various ordnance, which resulted from the changes in the organizational structure and rationalization. In addition, at several locations in Serbia there is still a large amount of unexploded ordnance remaining after the NATO bombing. The paper examined the environmental aspects of the destruction of surplus ammunition and unexploded ordnance. A brief survey of the methods of destruction and the technological conditions for their implementation are presented. The impact of toxic constituents of ordnance on human health and the environment is analyzed in particular. In order to minimize environmental risks during the demilitarization process of ordnance, appropriate proposals are given.

  11. Air gun injury with deadly aftermath--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Muric, Nedzat; Dwork, Andrew J; Cakar, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    In Republic of Macedonia the use of air guns is quite widespread. They are used mainly for target practice. They are regulated by the Law of Arms, where they are defined as pneumatic weapons. There is no legal limit on type or quantity of ammunition that one may possess. Our Institute performs at least 90% of the forensic autopsies in Macedonia. In this report we describe the only fatality by pneumatic weapon to come to our attention over the past 10 years. A 6-year-old girl was accidentally wounded by her brother when he and his father were trying a new air gun, a 4.5mm single shot, break barrel, spring piston air rifle manufactured in China under the brand "Westlake". She died within minutes. Autopsy showed cardiac tamponade due to penetration of the aorta. A 0.5g metal projectile, 4.5mm in diameter, with a pointed, conical shape, was recovered from the pericardial sac.

  12. Terminal Performance of Lead-Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Andrusiv, Lubov; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Due to concerns about environmental and industrial hazards of lead, a number of military, law enforcement, and wildlife management agencies are giving careful consideration to lead-free ammunition. The goal of lead-free bullets is to gain the advantages of reduced lead use in the environment while maintaining equal or better terminal performance. Accepting reduced terminal performance would foolishly risk the lives of military and law enforcement personnel. This paper uses the established technique of studying bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to characterize the terminal performance of eight commercial off-the- shelf lead-free handgun bullets for comparison with earlier analysis of jacketed lead bullets. Peak retarding force and energy deposit in calibrated ballistic gelatin are quantified using high speed video. The temporary stretch cavities and permanent wound cavities are also characterized. Two factors tend to reduce the terminal performance of these lead-free projectiles compared to similar jacketed ...

  13. [Enforcement of type M 20 cal. 4 mm cartridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jaworski, Ryszard; Kawecki, Jerzy; Semiczek, Wiesław; Trnka, Jakub

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to investigate and compare the speed and energy of a bullet from 4 mm cal. cartridges of central ignition type M20, both original and transformed by addition of different kinds of propellants. Original cartridges are characterized by an average speed of the bullet of 144 m/s and average energy of 4.8 J. After transformation by the addition of on an average 31.3 mg of smokeless powder from a cartridge type LR'22, a maximum bullet speed of 299 m/s (average) and maximum energy of 21.2 joule (average) were reached. Our test showed that shots using transformed ammunition type M 20 cal. 4 mm can be dangerous for both health and life. Multiple M20 shot wounds may be very similar to single shot wounds caused by a shotshell cartridge fired from a shotgun weapon.

  14. Hostile fire indicator threat data collection for helicopter-mounted applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; De Mezzo, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper briefly describes the set-up of the sensors and the instrumentation deployed by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) during the last NATO/ACG3/SG2 HFI Threat Data Collection (Trial PROTEUS which has been conducted during the summer 2012 in Slovenia). The main purpose of this trial was the measurements of weapon and ammunition signatures for threat warning and hostile fire indicator (HFI) system development. The used weapons vary from small caliber rifles to anti-tank rockets in ground-to-ground shooting configurations. For the ISL team, the objectives consisted in measuring the acoustic signals for detection and localization of weapon firing events. Experimental results of sound localization obtained by using ground based sensors are presented and analyzed under various conditions.

  15. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  16. The growth of sport shooting participation: What does this trend mean for conservation revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Mark D.; Beppler, Tom; Organ, John

    2017-01-01

    Enacted in 1937, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act – more commonly known as the Pittman-Robertson Act – is one of the oldest and most reliable sources of funding for wildlife conservation in the United States. The result of organized support form sportsmen, fish and wildlife agencies, firearms manufacturers, conservation organizations, and even garden clubs, the PR Act created an excise tax on so-called “long guns” and ammunition used by hunters, thereby establishing the first sustainable source of revenue dedicated to conservation and land management efforts throughout the country. Later, legislators amended the PR Act to include an excise tax on pistols, revolvers, bows, arrows, and other archery equipment.

  17. Problem of the reference height of the projectile trajectory as a reduced meteo-ballistic weighting factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cech

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of preparation of the aiming angles with the use of tabular firing tables and needed determination of the ballistic elements μB (ballistic wind wB, wxB, wZB, ballistic (virtual temperature τB, ballistic density ρB from the standardized met messages. The weighting factors are used for the calculation of ballistic elements μB that are incorporated into the trajectory calculations characteristics of weapon and ammunition. Two different methodologies practically used in the praxis are analysed and compared. For the comparison of the two methodologies the reference height of trajectory determined from the weighting factor functions is employed. On the basis of the analyses conducted, the potential for further increase in accuracy of these aiming angles preparation methods is pointed out.

  18. Influence of yawing force frequency on angular motion and ballistic characteristics of a dual-spin projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu WANG; Jie CHENG; Ji-yan YU; Xiao-ming WANG

    2016-01-01

    A roll-decoupled course correction fuze with canards can improve the hit accuracy of conventional unguided ammunitions. The fuze increases accuracy by reducing the effect of angular and translational motion produced by the cyclical yawing forces applied on the projectile. In order to investigate the influence of yawing forces on angular motion, a theoretical solution of the total yaw angle function with the cyclical yawing forces is deduced utilizing the 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF) model designed for this calculation. Furthermore, a detailed simulation is carried out to determine the influence rules of yawing force on angular motion. The calculated results illustrate that, when the rotational speed of the forward part is close to the initial turning rate, the total yaw angle increases and the flight range decreases sharply. Moreover, a yawing force at an appropriate frequency is able to correct the gun azimuth and elevation perturbation to some extent.

  19. Influence of yawing force frequency on angular motion and ballistic characteristics of a dual-spin projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A roll-decoupled course correction fuze with canards can improve the hit accuracy of conventional unguided ammunitions. The fuze increases accuracy by reducing the effect of angular and translational motion produced by the cyclical yawing forces applied on the projectile. In order to investigate the influence of yawing forces on angular motion, a theoretical solution of the total yaw angle function with the cyclical yawing forces is deduced utilizing the 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF model designed for this calculation. Furthermore, a detailed simulation is carried out to determine the influence rules of yawing force on angular motion. The calculated results illustrate that, when the rotational speed of the forward part is close to the initial turning rate, the total yaw angle increases and the flight range decreases sharply. Moreover, a yawing force at an appropriate frequency is able to correct the gun azimuth and elevation perturbation to some extent.

  20. Visualizing Armed Groups: The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s M23 in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nangini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23 rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing relationships in a multi-dimensional dataset. We draw exclusively from the findings the UN Group of Governmental Experts report S/2012/843 documenting the procurement of weapons and ammunition by the M23 network. The visualization was built using a hierarchical edge bundling algorithm (Holten 2006 implemented in Data-Driven Documents (d3 (Bostock 2011, an open-source JavaScript-based library for interactive web visualizations. We contend that such visualizations can provide improved understanding of complex social networks both within and beyond the confines of war.