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Sample records for ammonium nitrate solution

  1. EFFECT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monium nitrate and the percentage fertilization as weD as the subsequent development of the embryos compared with controls. At 10 and 100 p.p.m. there is a marked reduction in fertilization. Abnor- mal fonns are common at 100 p.p.m. and some 95 % of the population fail to reach the gastrula stage. INTRODUCTION.

  2. Effect of Ammonium Nitrate Solutions on Fertilization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 10 and 100 p.p.m. ammonium nitrate and the percentage fertilization as weD as the subsequent development of the embryos compared with controls. At 10 and 100 p.p.m. there is a marked reduction in fertilization. Abnormal forms are common at 100 p.p.m. and some 95 % of the population fail to reach the gastrula stage.

  3. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  4. Evaluation of natural zeolite clinoptilolite efficiency for the removal of ammonium and nitrate from aquatic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Murkani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surface water and groundwater pollution with various forms of nitrogen such as ammonium and nitrate ions is one of the main environmental risks. The major objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite to remove NO3– and NH4+ from polluted water under both batch and column conditions. Methods: The laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of clinoptilolite as the adsorbent for removal of nitrate (NO3– and ammonium (NH4+ ions from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, clinoptilolite dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration on NO3– and NH4+ removal were investigated in a batch system. Results: Equilibrium time for NO3– and NH4+ ions exchange was 60 minutes and the optimum adsorbent dosage for their removal was 1 and 2.5 g/L, respectively. The adsorption isotherm of reaction (r> 0.9 and optimum entered concentration of ammonium and nitrate (30 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively were in accordance with Freundlich isotherm model. The ammonium removal rate increased by 98% after increasing the contact time. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that natural Clinoptilolite can be used as one of effective, suitable, and low-costing adsorbent for removing ammonium from polluted waters.

  5. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH42SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.

  6. Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougle, P.G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Brink, H.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    Crystallisation of laboratory aerosols of ammonium nitrate and of internal mixtures of this salt with ammonium sulphate were investigated using humidity controlled nephelometry. The aerosol was produced via nebulizing of solutions and then dried to 25% RH, which is a realistic minimum value for

  7. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howa, John D; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R

    2014-07-15

    Because of the threat of bombings using improvised explosives containing ammonium nitrate (AN), law enforcement and intelligence communities have been interested in stable isotope techniques for tracking and discriminating AN sources. Separate analysis of the AN component ions ammonium and nitrate would add discriminatory power to these techniques. Ammonium ions in dissolved AN solution were isolated from samples by precipitation using sodium tetraphenylborate solution. We tested the isolation of ammonium from nitrates using solutions of ammonium and nitrate salts with different (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios. Ammonium tetraphenylborate and AN were separately analyzed for their (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios using EA-ConFlo-IRMS, and the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of the nitrate ions were calculated using mass balance. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen isotope ratios were plotted as two separate variables. Isolation of ammonium precipitate from solutions containing dissolved nitrates did not influence the nitrogen isotope ratios of test ammonium salts. A survey set of 42 AN samples showed that the ammonium and nitrate (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios were not significantly correlated, and the paired mean differences were not statistically significant. Both ammonium and nitrate were depleted in (15)N relative to their theoretical atmospheric sources. Isolation of the ammonium ion from AN adds another dimension for the discrimination of forensic AN samples. This technique using sodium tetraphenylborate is robust and does not require specialized equipment. Our observations indicated that ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen have independent sources of isotopic variation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia...

  9. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., combustible liquids, corrosive liquids, chlorates, permanganates, finely divided metals, caustic soda... molten ammonium nitrate if a fire occurred (and thus become potential detonators for the storage piles...

  10. Synthesis of cerous ammonium nitrate using ceric ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia as a reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourleaux, G.; Colombet, P.; Rouxel, J.; Gradeff, P.S.; Mauermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction of ceric ammonium nitrate by anhydrous ammonia has been studied. The reaction yields cerous ammonium nitrate complex. This is an easy method to prepare an anhydrous Ce (III) salt, suitable for synthesis of organo cerium (III) derivatives [fr

  11. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No mixture...

  13. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... located in, under, or adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Through its..., marking, labeling, placarding, security plans, emergency response information, training, etc.). f... ``solid ammonium nitrate that is chiefly the ammonium salt of nitric acid and contains not less than 33...

  14. Response of higveld grass species to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one populations in twenty-two species of highveld grasses were grown in pots of soil fertilized with solutions for comparing ammonium and nitrate nutrition. Cotton, tomato, cereal crops and pasture grasses were included for comparison. Roots and shoots were harvested separately, weighed and analysed for major ...

  15. Copolymerization of poly (ethylene oxide) and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.S.; Ferreira, A.A.; Coutinho, F.M.B.; Marinho, J.R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerium (IV) salts such as the ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous acid solution with reducing agents such as alcohols, thiols, glycols, aldehydes and amines are well known initiators of vinyl polymerization. In this work, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate/HNO 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) with hydroxyl end group system was studied in aqueous solution at 25 0 C to obtain block copolymers. (Author) [pt

  16. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  17. ROW METHOD OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L. FERTILIZATION WITH MULTICOMPONENT FERTILIZER BASED ON UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION AS A WAY TO INCREASE NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław BARŁÓG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is the main crop commonly cultivated for sugar production in temperate regions of the World. Actual yields in main Central Europe producing countries are much lower, due to many limiting factors. Among them, nutrients supply is of great value, especially referring to efficiency of nitrogen, which is generally low. In the conducted study two methods of nitrogen application were compared (i broadcast of calcium saltpeter and (ii row application of the multicomponent fertilizer based on urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN solution. The basic amount of the applied N was 75 kg ha-1. The highest yields of both taproots and refined sugar were harvested on the plot receiving 75 kg N-1 as UAN liquid multicomponent fertilizer and 50% of the recommended P and K rates. The positive effects of row application of liquid N fertilizer on taproot and sugar yields were also corroborated by high values of indices of agronomic efficiency for both N as well as P and K. However this method of sugar beets fertilization has some possibilities, as indicated by still high contents of melassogenic substances.

  18. Study of the changes in composition of ammonium diuranate with progress of precipitation, and study of the properties of ammonium diuranate and its subsequent products produced from both uranyl nitrate and uranyl fluoride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Subhankar; Kumar, Raj; Satpati, Santosh K.; Roy, Saswati B. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Uranium metal used for fabrication of fuel for research reactors in India is generally produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of UF{sub 4}. Performance of magnesio-thermic reaction and recovery and quality of uranium largely depends on properties of UF{sub 4}. As ammonium diuranate (ADU) is first product in powder form in the process flow-sheet, properties of UF{sub 4} depend on properties of ADU. ADU is generally produced from uranyl nitrate solution (UNS) for natural uranium metal production and from uranyl fluoride solution (UFS) for low enriched uranium metal production. In present paper, ADU has been produced via both the routes. Variation of uranium recovery and crystal structure and composition of ADU with progress in precipitation reaction has been studied with special attention on first appearance of the precipitate Further, ADU produced by two routes have been calcined to UO{sub 3}, then reduced to UO{sub 2} and hydroflorinated to UF{sub 4}. Effect of two different process routes of ADU precipitation on the characteristics of ADU, UO{sub 3}, UO{sub 2} and UF{sub 4} were studied here.

  19. Study of the changes in composition of ammonium diuranate with progress of precipitation, and study of the properties of ammonium diuranate and its subsequent products produced from both uranyl nitrate and uranyl fluoride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Subhankar; Kumar, Raj; Satpati, Santosh K.; Roy, Saswati B.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium metal used for fabrication of fuel for research reactors in India is generally produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of UF 4 . Performance of magnesio-thermic reaction and recovery and quality of uranium largely depends on properties of UF 4 . As ammonium diuranate (ADU) is first product in powder form in the process flow-sheet, properties of UF 4 depend on properties of ADU. ADU is generally produced from uranyl nitrate solution (UNS) for natural uranium metal production and from uranyl fluoride solution (UFS) for low enriched uranium metal production. In present paper, ADU has been produced via both the routes. Variation of uranium recovery and crystal structure and composition of ADU with progress in precipitation reaction has been studied with special attention on first appearance of the precipitate Further, ADU produced by two routes have been calcined to UO 3 , then reduced to UO 2 and hydroflorinated to UF 4 . Effect of two different process routes of ADU precipitation on the characteristics of ADU, UO 3 , UO 2 and UF 4 were studied here

  20. Study of the Changes in Composition of Ammonium Diuranate with Progress of Precipitation, and Study of the Properties of Ammonium Diuranate and its Subsequent Products Produced from both Uranyl Nitrate and Uranyl Fluoride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Manna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uranium metal used for fabrication of fuel for research reactors in India is generally produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of UF4. Performance of magnesio-thermic reaction and recovery and quality of uranium largely depends on properties of UF4. As ammonium diuranate (ADU is first product in powder form in the process flow-sheet, properties of UF4 depend on properties of ADU. ADU is generally produced from uranyl nitrate solution (UNS for natural uranium metal production and from uranyl fluoride solution (UFS for low enriched uranium metal production. In present paper, ADU has been produced via both the routes. Variation of uranium recovery and crystal structure and composition of ADU with progress in precipitation reaction has been studied with special attention on first appearance of the precipitate Further, ADU produced by two routes have been calcined to UO3, then reduced to UO2 and hydroflorinated to UF4. Effect of two different process routes of ADU precipitation on the characteristics of ADU, UO3, UO2 and UF4 were studied here.

  1. Ginger-supplemented diet ameliorates ammonium nitrate-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of ginger to repair the oxidative stress induced by ammonium nitrate. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups; they underwent an oral treatment of ammonium nitrate and/or ginger (N mg/kg body weight + G% in diet) during 30 days. Group I served as control (C); ...

  2. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  3. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Markus, E-mail: mhauck@gwdg.d [Department of Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. - Eutrophication has become a global threat for lichen diversity.

  4. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  5. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on vegetative growth, leaf yield and nutritive quality of Cleome gynadra (Cat Whiskers) in Keiyo District, Rift Valley Province. MJ Hutchinson, LK Kipkosgei, E Obudho, LSM Akundabweni ...

  6. An 15N study of the effects of nitrate, ammonium, and nitrate + ammonium nutrition on nitrogen assimilation in Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.T.

    1984-10-01

    A brief review of the literature on the effects of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen sources on plant growth, and the assimilation of those nitrogen sources, has been presented. It was concluded that ammonium nutrition produces optimum growth, with nitrate + ammonium being a better nitrogen source than only nitrate. Leaf blade nitrate reductase activity exceeded that of the root in nitrate-fed plants, suggesting that the shoot is the major region of nitrate assimilation. This is further supported by the results of xylem exudate analysis, where 93% of the newly-absorbed nitrogen exported by the roots was detected as nitrate. Evidence in support of this hypothesis was also obtained by studying the distribution of 15 N in the various nitrogenous compounds. The effects of nitrogen source on plant growth, organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen contents, and the rates of incorporation into nitrogenous compounds were studied. The observed differences were explained with reference to the effects of the various nitrogen sources on the physiology of the plants. The experimental techniques included assays of the enzymes nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, whole plant growth studies, and the analysis of nitrogenous compounds of xylem exudate and those extracted from the leaf blade, leaf base, and root regions of maize plants after feeding with a nutrient solution containing nitrogen as 15 N

  7. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5- triaryl-1H-imidazoles via condensation of benzoin/benzil, ammonium acetate, and aromatic aldehydes. The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time are the advantages of the method presented here. Keywords.

  8. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles via condensation of benzoin/benzil, ammonium acetate, and aromatic aldehydes. The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time are the advantages of the method presented here.

  9. Antimicrobial Nanocomposites Prepared from Montmorillonite/Ag+/Quaternary Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of Ag with organic montmorillonite (Ag-OMMT, Ag with montmorillonite (Ag-MMT, and organic montmorillonite (OMMT were successfully prepared via a one-step solution-intercalated method. Sodium MMT, silver nitrate, and dimethyl octadecyl hydroxy ethyl ammonium nitrate were used as precursors. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the MMT layers were intercalated, and Ag+ was partly reduced to silver nanoparticles with diameters within 10–20 nm in Ag-OMMT. The decomposition temperature of the organic cations in OMMT and Ag-OMMT increased to 220°C, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites was tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and killing rate. The MICs of Ag-OMMT against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were 0.313, 2.5, and 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Because of the presence of quaternary ammonium nitrate, Ag-OMMT has a better MIC against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. OMMT did not show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. In 2 h, 0.0125 mg/mL Ag-OMMT could kill 100% of S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans in solution, and Ag-MMT could kill 99.995% of S. aureus, 90.15% of E. coli, and 93.68% of C. albicans. These antimicrobial functional nanocomposites have the potential for application in the area of surface decoration films.

  10. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  11. Aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Qiang; Guo, Shi Wei; Shinmachi, Fumie; Sunairi, Michio; Noguchi, Akira; Hasegawa, Isao; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-01-01

    Acidic soils are dominated chemically by more ammonium and more available, so more potentially toxic, aluminium compared with neutral to calcareous soils, which are characterized by more nitrate and less available, so less toxic, aluminium. However, it is not known whether aluminium tolerance and nitrogen source preference are linked in plants. This question was investigated by comparing the responses of 30 rice (Oryza sativa) varieties (15 subsp. japonica cultivars and 15 subsp. indica cultivars) to aluminium, various ammonium/nitrate ratios and their combinations under acidic solution conditions. indica rice plants were generally found to be aluminium-sensitive and nitrate-preferring, while japonica cultivars were aluminium-tolerant and relatively ammonium-preferring. Aluminium tolerance of different rice varieties was significantly negatively correlated with their nitrate preference. Furthermore, aluminium enhanced ammonium-fed rice growth but inhibited nitrate-fed rice growth. The results suggest that aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference under acidic solution conditions. A schematic diagram summarizing the interactions of aluminium and nitrogen in soil-plant ecosystems is presented and provides a new basis for the integrated management of acidic soils.

  12. Stripping study of U(VI) from loaded TBP/n-paraffin using ammonium nitrate bearing waste as strippant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrishma Paik; Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Stripping studies of U(VI) from loaded solvent TBP/n-paraffin was carried out using ammonium nitrate solution as strippant. Effects of various stripping parameters such as concentration of ammonium nitrate solution, U(VI) concentration in organic phase, initial pH of strippant, temperature etc. have been investigated in detail. Kinetics of the stripping process by ammonium nitrate was found to be slower than that of stripping with water. It was observed that with the increase in ammonium nitrate concentration in aqueous solution, stripping of U(VI) decreased. With the increase in U(VI) loading in the organic phase, there was an increase in uranium stripping for ammonium nitrate whereas for distilled water it becomes reverse. With the increase in pH of the aqueous ammonium nitrate solution, stripping increased up to a certain pH of 8.5 and after that precipitation of uranium started. Increase in temperature of the biphasic system shows an enhancing effect of U(VI) stripping. Evaluation of thermodynamic data such as ΔH indicated that the process is endothermic. Based on the optimized conditions, McCabe-Thiele diagram was constructed for U(VI) stripping using ammonium nitrate solution at room temperature. (author)

  13. Study of the influence of radiolysis on the stability of plutonium III. Application to a heterogeneous medium formed by a nitric solution of ferrous ions and an organic solution of trilauryl-ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmaux, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the behaviour of plutonium 238 in media which are commonly used to isolate it from other elements such as neptunium and fission products created during the neutron irradiation of the neptunium 237 isotope. As plutonium 238 purification processes are all based on redox reaction, it is essential to know the influence of radiolysis on the redox behaviour, and on the distribution coefficients of this isotope in solutions used during its separation from the neptunium 237 isotope. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence of radiolysis on the stability of plutonium with an oxidation III level. As this extraction is performed by an organic solvent (trilauryl-ammonium nitrate), this study addresses the behaviour of plutonium in an emulsion formed by this solvent and the nitric aqueous solution previously adjusted in terms of Fe 2+ ions. After a brief recall of bibliographical generalities related to radiolysis, the author presents and comments the Nernst law in the case of a two-phase system (emulsion), and reports the use of this law to obtain the plutonium potential-distribution coefficient relationship. The last part reports experimental data

  14. Effects of ammonium nitrate, cesium chloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Potassium, high affinity transporters, channel blockers, ammonium. .... channel AtAKT1, indicating that channels may be involved in high-affinity. K+ uptake in a range of K+ concentrations (Hirsch et al.,. 1998; Spalding et al., ...... and tissue potassium concentrations by negative feedback effects.

  15. Chemistry of rare earth solvent extraction by methyltrialkyl ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.I.; Tulina, L.V.; Stratonov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Solvent extaction of nitrates of lanthanum, gadolinium, dysprosium and erbium by methyltrialkyl ammonium nitrate is studied. Usng the methods of saturation and physicochemical analysis of extraction systems it is shown that along with di-and trisolvates, solvates containing 6,4,21/2 and 11/2 molecules of extractant per a molecule of lanthanide nitrate, are formed, depending on the lanthanide atomic number. The thermodynamic constants of extraction for every determined solvate are calculated and tabulated. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  17. Ammonia loss, ammonium and nitrate accumulation from mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Ammonia loss from urea significantly hinders efficient use of urea in agriculture. In order to reduce ammonia loss and, at the same time, improve beneficial accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate for efficient utilization by plants, this laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect.

  18. Ammonia loss, ammonium and nitrate accumulation from mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia loss from urea significantly hinders efficient use of urea in agriculture. In order to reduce ammonia loss and, at the same time, improve beneficial accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate for efficient utilization by plants, this laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of mixing urea with ...

  19. Nitrate and ammonium levels of some water bodies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examined the nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) levels of Rivers Wouri and Dibamba and some streams that feed them. The interaction of NO3- and NH4+ with some soil properties was also investigated. It was necessitated by the usage of these rivers for livelihood, despite the deposition of discharges ...

  20. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    For this reason, the development of mild, efficient and versatile method is still important. Ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a conven- ient and widely used reagent for affecting a wide ar- ray of synthetic transformations due to its many advantages such as solubility in organic solvents, low toxicity, high reactivity, and ease ...

  1. A software nitrate sensor based on ammonium and redox signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, D

    2003-01-01

    We have computed the nitrate concentration in the activated sludge in real-time using a model, which is a subset of ASM1. The model is in operation at two WWTPs where oxygen, ammonium and redox are measured online in the aeration tanks. The model uses these measurements to continuously adjust its values for the influent ammonium concentration, the nitrification rate, the denitrification rate and the net hydrolysis. Then it computes the nitrate concentration. This value is updated every 10 s. The model results have been compared with the output from a Dr Lange in-situ nitrate sensor at one of these WWTPs. The systematic difference between these two measurements is less than 0.2 mgN L(-1) and 90% of the differences are between -1.1 and 1.1 mgN L(-1).

  2. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The...

  3. Metal-free catalytic oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides with ammonium nitrate, ammonium hydrogen sulfate and ammonium bromide as catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, Arash; Zolfigol, Mohammad Ali; Ayazi-Nasrabadi, Roia

    2010-01-01

    A general and metal-free catalytic oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic sulfides to their corresponding sulfoxides via combination of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), supported ammonium hydrogen sulfate on silica gel (NH4HSO4-SiO2) and a catalytic amount of ammonium bromide (NH4Br) in the presence of wet SiO2 (50%, w/w) has been investigated. The reactions were carried out heterogeneously and selectively in short reaction times in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. This protocol is mild and efficient compa...

  4. Different species of basil need different ammonium to nitrate ratio in hydroponics' system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAADATIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a very important medicinal plant and culinary spice, and is marketed fresh, dried or frozen. In crop nutrition, nitrogen is essential for plant growth and as a macro-element, is part of the proteins’ structure and participates in the metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and energy transfer. It has been shown that a balance between ammonium and nitrate favors plant growth and that the degree of benefit varies among crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of two varieties of basil in function of four nutrient solutions containing different NH4+/NO3- ratios. Results showed that different variety response differently to nutrient solution. Although the highest yield in both varieties (sweet and purple was obtained when fed by nutrient solution without ammonium but their response on quality indices were different due to nitrate ammonium ratio in nutrient solutions. The highest total phenol content of sweet and purple basil was 92 and 100 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight respectively, while the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained in purple variety grown in nutrient solution 2 (NH4+:1/NO3:4 and the lowest value were related to sweet variety with the same nutrient solution. Moderate content of total nitrogen can be suitable for sweet variety while for purple variety nutrient solution with low amount of ammonium can be more suitable.

  5. nitrate-nitrogen and ammonium- nitrogen levels of some water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NaREM

    Key words: Nitrate, ammonium, water bodies/quality, soils, Douala metropolis. ... This has initiated progressive degradation of land and other vital resources .... 2.74 35.0 30.8. Downstream. Wouri Bridge. WOU6. 04 03 59.9N. 009 41 36.3E. 7.3. 6960. 0.11 39.2 22.4. Wouri Wharf. WOU7. 04 02 27.8N. 009 40 23.9E. 7.4. 9600.

  6. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  7. Impact of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate on tadpoles of Alytes obstetricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Núria; Montori, A; Llorente, G A

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions. We exposed larvae to increasing concentrations of nitrate and ammonium for 14 days and then exposed them to water without pollutants for a further 14 days. Only the higher concentrations of ammonium (>33.75 mg/L) caused larval mortality. The growth rate of larvae was reduced at ≥22.5 mg/L NH 4 + , although individuals recovered and even increased their growth rate once exposure to the pollutant ended. The effect of nitrate on growth rate was detected at ≥80 mg/L concentrations, and the growth rate reduction in tadpoles was even observed during the post-exposure phase. The concentrations of ammonium with adverse effects on larvae are within the range levels found in the study area, while the nitrate concentrations with some adverse effect are close to the upper range limit of current concentrations in the study area. Therefore, only the presence of ammonium in the study area is likely to be considered of concern for the population of this species, even though the presence of nitrate could cause some sublethal effects. These negative effects could have an impact on population dynamics, which in this species is highly sensitive to larval mortality due to its small clutch size and prolonged larval period compared to other anuran amphibians.

  8. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    KAUST Repository

    Raciulete, Monica

    2010-10-01

    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO2. The technique consists in heating to 400500 °C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl2). The crystallites of the resulting TiO2 demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant diversity effects on leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen from an experimental grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Sophia; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) from soil represents a resource loss and, in particular leaching of nitrate, can threaten drinking water quality. As plant diversity leads to a more exhaustive resource use, we investigated the effects of plant species richness, functional group richness, and the presence of specific functional groups on nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic N (DON), and total dissolved N (TDN) leaching from an experimental grassland in the first 4 years after conversion from fertilized arable land to unfertilized grassland. The experiment is located in Jena, Germany, and consists of 82 plots with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 60 plant species and 1-4 functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall herbs, non-leguminous small herbs). Nitrate, ammonium, and TDN concentrations in soil solution in the 0-0.3 m soil layer were measured every second week during 4 years on 62 plots and DON concentrations were calculated as difference between TDN and inorganic N. Missing concentrations in soil solution were estimated using a Bayesian statistical model. Downward water fluxes (DF) per plot from the 0-0.3 m soil layer were simulated in weekly resolution with a water balance model in connection with a Bayesian model for simulating missing soil water content measurements. To obtain annual nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching from the 0-0.3 m soil layer per plot, we multiplied the respective concentrations in soil solution with DF and aggregated the data to annual sums. TDN leaching resulted from summation of nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching. DON leaching contributed most to TDN leaching, particularly in plots without legumes. Dissolved inorganic N leaching in this grassland was dominated by nitrate. The amount of annual ammonium leaching was small and little influenced by plant diversity. Species richness affected DON leaching only in the fourth and last investigated year, possibly because of a delayed soil biota effect that increased microbial transformation of organic

  10. Shock Initiation and Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, David; Sheffield, Steve; Dattelbaum, Dana; Chellappa, Raja; Velisavljevic, Nenad

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive commonly found in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil. Neat AN is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities approaching 4 km/s. Previously, we reported a thermodynamically-complete equation of state for AN based on its maximum density, and showed that near-full density AN did not initiate when subjected to shock input conditions up to 22 GPa. In this work, we extend these initial results, by presenting new Hugoniot data for intermediate density neat AN obtained from gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. AN at densities from 1.8 to 1.5 g/cm3 were impacted into LiF windows using a two-stage light gas gun. Dual VISARs were used to measure the interfacial particle velocity wave profile as a function of time following impact. The new Hugoniot data, in addition to updates to thermodynamic parameters derived from structural analysis and vibrational spectroscopy measurements in high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, are used to refine the unreacted EOS for AN. Furthermore, shock initiation of neat AN was observed as the initial porosity increased (density decreased). Insights into the relationship(s) between initial density and shock initiation sensitivity are also presented, from evidence of shock initiation in the particle velocity profiles obtained for the lower density AN samples.

  11. Global simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols and their radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the formation of nitrate and ammonium on five types of externally mixed pre-existing aerosols using the hybrid dynamic method in a global chemistry transport model. The model developed here predicts a similar spatial pattern of total aerosol nitrate and ammonium to that of several pioneering studies, but separates the effects of nitrate and ammonium on pure sulfate, biomass burning, fossil fuel, dust and sea salt aerosols. Nitrate and ammonium boost the scattering efficiency of sulfate and organic matter but lower the extinction of sea salt particles since the hygroscopicity of a mixed nitrate-ammonium-sea salt particle is less than that of pure sea salt. The direct anthropogenic forcing of particulate nitrate and ammonium at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is estimated to be −0.12 W m−2. Nitrate, ammonium and nitric acid gas also affect aerosol activation and the reflectivity of clouds. The first aerosol indirect forcing by anthropogenic nitrate (gas plus aerosol and ammonium is estimated to be −0.09 W m−2 at the TOA, almost all of which is due to condensation of nitric acid gas onto growing droplets (−0.08 W m−2.

  12. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — Ammonium Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN). AN was tested, in most cases, as both received from manufacturer and dried/sieved. The participants found the AN to be: 1) insensitive in Type 12A impact testing (although with a wide range of values), 2) completely insensitive in BAM friction testing, 3) less sensitive than the RDX standard in ABL friction testing, 4) less sensitive than RDX in ABL ESD testing, and 5) less sensitive than RDX and PETN in DSC thermal analyses.

  13. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  14. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value

    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric

  15. Effect of Ammonium and Nitrate on Ferric Chelate Reductase and Nitrate Reductase in Vaccinium Species

    OpenAIRE

    POONNACHIT, U.; DARNELL, R.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate‐containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with th...

  16. Toxic fumes from explosives: ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiken, R.F.; Cook, E.B.; Ruhe, T.C.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has carried out experimental and theoretical studies with prilled and pulverized ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (AN-FO) mixtures containing varying amounts of fuel oil in an attempt to quantify the effects of stoichiometric composition, nonideal detonation behavior, and expansion volume on the production of CO, NO, and NO/sub 2/ fumes. Experimental fume measurements were obtained in the Bureau's large closed gallery facility (7.2 x 10/sup 4/ liter expansion chamber) and in the standard Crawshaw-Jones apparatus (90-liter expansion chamber) using a prepackaged charge configuration containing about 450 g of explosives. The theoretical calculation of toxic fumes was achieved with an equilibrium detonation code called TIGER. Contrary to initial expectations, the NO/sub x/ (= NO + NO/sub 2/) fumes from the large gallery test were found to be in essential agreement with the Crawshaw-Jones results. It was also concluded that TIGER calculations offer a good approach to the prediction of toxic fumes; there is a basic problem in extrapolating laboratory measurements of CO fumes to mine conditions, this being due to postdetonation oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/; and the detonation velocity decay rate of an explosive is a useful experimental parameter for correlating toxic fumes production with nonideal detonation behavior.

  17. Equation of state, initiation, and detonation of pure ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, D. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Velisavljevic, N.; Stahl, D. B.

    2009-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive throughout the world. One of the more common explosives using AN is called ANFO, a mixture of AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. The AN prills are specially made to absorb the fuel oil, forming a mixture that reacts under shock loading through a diffusion-controlled process, resulting in a non-ideal explosive with detonation velocities around 4 km/s. While there are a number of studies on ANFO, there are only a few studies relating to the equation of state (EOS) and detonation properties of pure AN - resulting mainly from studies of accidents that have occurred during transportation of large quantities of AN. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed AN ranging in density from 1.72 to 0.9 g/cm^3. Several of the high density experiments were performed in front surface impact geometry, in which pressed AN disks were built into the projectile front and impacted onto LiF windows. Additional experiments at low density have been done in ``half cell'' multiple magnetic gauge gun experiments. From this work a complete unreacted EOS has been developed, as well as some initiation and detonation information. Additional high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells have provided a static isotherm for AN.

  18. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Effects of ammonium and nitrate on mycorrhizal seedlings of Pinus sylvestris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Ket, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate on Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with Paxillus involutus and Suillus bovinus were investigated. Weekly fertilization (26 weeks) positively affected the plant dry weight, but inhibited the mycorrhizal formation and decreased the root

  20. Scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium nitrate from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.I.; Kiyatkina, N.G.; Fedotov, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    Chemistry of scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium (MTAA) nitrate in toluene from nitrate solutions is studied. Methods of saturation, equilibrium shift, physicochemical analysis, isomolar series and UV-spectroscopy are used to determine the composition of extracted complexes. It is shown that with low saturation degrees of extractant (R 4 N) 6 Sc(NO 3 ) 9 complex is formed in organic phase and with saturation - (R 4 N) 3 xSc(NO 3 ) 6 complex

  1. Crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Julie C; Martin, Scot T

    2005-11-10

    Crystallization experiments are conducted for aerosol particles composed of aqueous mixtures of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)NO(3)(aq), (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq), and NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq). Depending on the aqueous composition, crystals of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s), NH(4)HSO(4)(s), NH(4)NO(3)(s), 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), and 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) are formed. Although particles of NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq) do not crystallize even at 1% relative humidity, additions of 0.05 mol fraction SO(4)(2-)(aq) or NO(3)(-)(aq) ions promote crystallization, respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s) appear to serve as good heterogeneous nuclei for NH(4)NO(3)(s) and NH(4)HSO(4)(s), respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) crystallizes over a greater range of aqueous compositions than 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s). An infrared aerosol spectrum is provided for each solid based upon a linear decomposition analysis of the recorded spectra. Small nonzero residuals occur in the analysis because aerosol spectra depend on particle morphology, which changes slightly across the range of compositions studied. In addition, several of the mixed compositions crystallize with residual aqueous water of up to 5% particle mass. We attribute this water content to enclosed water pockets. The results provide further insights into the nonlinear crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

  2. Fate of nitrate and origin of ammonium during infiltration of treated wastewater investigated through stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matthew; Schlögl, Johanna; Knöller, Kay; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The EU FP7 project MARSOL addresses water scarcity challenges in arid regions, where managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an upcoming technology to recharge depleted aquifers using alternative water sources. However, a potential impact to water quality is increasing ammonium concentrations, which are known to be a problem resulting from bank filtration. In the context of MAR, increasing ammonium concentrations have received little attention so far. A soil column experiment was conducted to investigate transformations of nitrogen species when secondary treated wastewater (TWW) is infiltrated through a natural soil (organic matter content 5.6%) being considered for MAR. The TWW contains nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), but typically very low (samples were collected from six depths. Results show that the largest decreases in nitrate concentration occur in the upper part of the soil, with on average 77% attenuated by 15 cm depth and 94% by 30 cm depth. Starting at 30 cm and continuing downward, ammonium concentrations increased, with concentrations reaching as high as 4 mg-N/L (the EU drinking water limit is 0.41 mg-N/L). Selected samples were also measured for stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. Nitrate became isotopically heavier (both N and O) with increasing depth (samples collected at 5 and 15 cm below the soil surface), with most results forming a linear trend for δ18O vs. δ15N. This pattern is consistent with denitrification, which is also supported by the fact that the ammonium concentration first increases at a depth below where most of the nitrate is consumed. However, the relationship between δ15N-NO3- and nitrate concentration is not clearly logarithmic, so processes other than denitrification are not ruled out for explaining the fate of nitrate. The δ15N of ammonium in the water samples and of nitrogen in the soil were also measured. With increasing depth and time, the δ15N-NH4+ (mean 4.3‰) decreases and approaches the δ15N of the pre

  3. Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

  4. Effects of acute and sub-chronic ammonium nitrate exposure on rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of fertilizers like ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) for agricultural purposes has increasingly contaminated the ecosystem with nitrate and/or nitrites. Nitrite is a toxic substance that can cause multiple physiological effects if allowed to build up to high concentrations in animals such as methemoglobinemia. This work is ...

  5. The boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.; Nikonov, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN - 3 - 4 2-

  6. Thermal stability and kinetics of decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Richard; Zhang Dongke

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between ammonium nitrate based industrial explosives and pyrite-rich minerals in mining operations can lead to the occurrence of spontaneous explosion of the explosives. In an effort to provide a scientific basis for safe applications of industrial explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite, ammonium nitrate decomposition, with and without the presence of pyrite, was studied using a simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analyser (DSC-TGA) and a gas-sealed isothermal reactor, respectively. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of ammonium nitrate decomposition were determined to be 102.6 kJ mol -1 and 4.55 x 10 7 s -1 without the presence of pyrite and 101.8 kJ mol -1 and 2.57 x 10 9 s -1 with the presence of pyrite. The kinetics of ammonium nitrate decomposition was then used to calculate the critical temperatures for ammonium nitrate decomposition with and without the presence of pyrite, based on the Frank-Kamenetskii model of thermal explosion. It was shown that the presence of pyrite reduces the temperature for, and accelerates the rate of, decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It was further shown that pyrite can significantly reduce the critical temperature of ammonium nitrate decomposition, causing undesired premature detonation of the explosives. The critical temperature also decreases with increasing diameter of the blast holes charged with the explosive. The concept of using the critical temperature as indication of the thermal stability of the explosives to evaluate the risk of spontaneous explosion was verified in the gas-sealed isothermal reactor experiments.

  7. Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Canola Plants Supplied with Urea and Ammonium Nitrate in Response to Various Nickel Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the beneficial and the adverse effects of various nickel level supplements on growth and chlorophyll content of canola plants were evaluated while either urea or ammonium nitrate was supplied as the sole N source in the nutrient solutions. This study was arranged in completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included nutrient solution cultures containing urea and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 84 mg N L-1 separately as nitrogen sources with four nickel levels as NiSO4.6H2O at the rates of 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg Ni L-1. Plants were allowed to grow for 6 weeks then leaves chlorophyll content and shoots and roots fresh and dry weight were determined. Both plant growth and leaves chlorophyll content of the urea-fed plants increased significantly with the increase in nickel content up to 0.1 mg Ni L-1. However, root fresh and dry weight increased up to 0.01 mg Ni L-1 and started to decrease with further increase in solutions nickel content. Nickel did not affect these parameters with plants supplied with ammonium nitrate significantly. In these plants, the optimum nickel level for shoot growth and leaves chlorophyll content was 0.05 mg L-1 and for root fresh and dry weight was 0.01 mg Ni L-1. Further increase in Ni concentration reduced growth. As a whole, plants received urea plus nickel performed better than those received ammonium nitrate plus nickel.

  8. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na 2 SO 4 , NH 4 Cl, and NH 4 NO 3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na 2 SO 4 > (NH) 2 SO 4 > NaCl > NH 4 Cl > NH 4 NO 3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO 4 2- > Cl - > NO 3 - and of cations: Na + > NH 4 + . The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  9. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, S.L.; Michel, R.C.; Terpandjian, P.D.; Vora, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification by Pseudomonas Stutzeri has been chosen as the method for removing nitrate from the effluent stream of the Y-12 uranium purification process. A model was developed to predict bacterial growth and carbon and nitrate depletion during the induction period and steady state operation. Modification of analytical procedures and automatic control of the pH in the reactor are recommended to improve agreement between the prediction of the model and experimental data. An initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) mass ratio of 1.4-1.5 insures adequate population growth during the induction period. Further experiments in batch reactors and in steady state flow reactors are recommended to obtain more reliable kinetic rate constants

  10. Ions transfer modeling through monopolar and bipolar membranes: Treatment of wastewater containing ammonium nitrate by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Ben Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mathematical model was proposed to illustrate the different transport modes contributing in transfer of all involved species through anion, cation and bipolar membranes. This study was led on a wastewater containing ammonium nitrate treated by bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BPMED. In this electrodialysis, different species are involved, in particular, ammonium ions NH4+, nitrates NO3-, ammoniac NH3, water H2O and protons H+. Calculations led from the material balance sheets equations obtained in bath mode, allowed to validate the proposed transfer model and to check balance sheets material on all involved species during electrodialysis.

  11. Improved daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, J.W. [Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lynch, J.A. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, 311 Forest Resources Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]. E-mail: jal@psu.edu

    2005-06-15

    Daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models were developed for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (USA) using a linear least-squares regression approach and precipitation chemistry data from 29 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites. Only weekly samples that comprised a single precipitation event were used in model development. The most significant variables in both ammonium and nitrate models included: precipitation volume, the number of days since the last event, a measure of seasonality, latitude, and the proportion of land within 8 km covered by forest or devoted to industry and transportation. Additional variables included in the nitrate model were the proportion of land within 0.8 km covered by water and/or forest. Local and regional ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions were not as well correlated as land cover. Modeled concentrations compared very well with event chemistry data collected at six NADP/AirMoN sites within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Wet deposition estimates were also consistent with observed deposition at selected sites. Accurately describing the spatial distribution of precipitation volume throughout the watershed is important in providing critical estimates of wet-fall deposition of ammonium and nitrate. - A linear least-squares regression approach was used to develop daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

  12. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2012-07-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with {sup circle} NO{sup 2} radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  13. Experimental and theoretical approach to the assessment of stability criteria for safe transport of ammonium nitrate based emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabiano, B.; Kersten, R.J.A.; Barbucci, A.; Boers, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    The safety issues connected to storage and transportation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate emulsions are to be considered of primary importance, as demonstrated by the Tolouse explosion and various handling and storage accidents in different countries. This paper is focused on the assessment

  14. Effects of ammonium nitrate encapsulated with coal combustion byproductson nutrient uptake by corn and rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) fertilizer is an ingredient in explosives. NH4NO3 encapsulated with coal combustion byproducts [class C fly ash (FAC) and flue gas desulfurization-gypsum (FGDG)] reduces the explosiveness of NH4NO3. A two-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of encapsula...

  15. Isotopic and elemental profiling of ammonium nitrate in forensic explosives investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Koeberg, M.; van der Heijden, A.; Wiarda, W.; Mügler, I.; Schrader, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is frequently encountered in explosives in forensic casework. It is widely available as fertilizer and easy to implement in explosive devices, for example by mixing it with a fuel. Forensic profiling methods to determine whether material found on a crime scene and material

  16. strawberry to various ratios of ammonium to nitrate nitrogen in nutrient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Hydroponic production of vegetables and ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, Greece, pp. 179–210. Tabatabaei SJ, Fatemi L, Fallahi E (2006). Effect of ammonium: nitrate ratio on yield, calcium concentration, and photosynthesis rate in strawberry, J. Plant Nutr., 29: 1273–1285. Tabatabei SJ, Yusefi ...

  17. Effects of acute and sub-chronic ammonium nitrate exposure on rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... nitrates as well as a hepatic cytotoxicity indicated by an increase in bilirubin and transaminases levels were observed. Key words: Ammonium toxicity, Blood tissues, Methemoglobin, Bilirubin, Rat liver, Fertilizers. INTRODUCTION. Mineral fertilisers .... visualizing red blood cells morphology. We observe that.

  18. Contrasting effects of ammonium and nitrate additions on the biomass of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate to ammonium ratios in nitrogen (N compounds in wet atmospheric deposits have increased over the recent past, which is a cause for some concern as the individual effects of nitrate and ammonium deposition on the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities are still poorly defined. We established a field experiment and applied ammonium (NH4Cl and nitrate (NaNO3 at monthly intervals over a period of 4 years. We collected soil samples from the ammonium and nitrate treatments and control plots in three different seasons, namely spring, summer, and fall, to evaluate the how the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities responded to the ammonium (NH4Cl and nitrate (NaNO3 applications. Our results showed that the total contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs decreased by 24 and 11 % in the ammonium and nitrate treatments, respectively. The inhibitory effects of ammonium on Gram-positive bacteria (G+ and bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF PLFA contents ranged from 14 to 40 % across the three seasons. We also observed that the absolute activities of C, N, and P hydrolyses and oxidases were inhibited by ammonium and nitrate, but that nitrate had stronger inhibitory effects on the activities of acid phosphatase (AP than ammonium. The activities of N-acquisition specific enzymes (enzyme activities normalized by total PLFA contents were about 21 and 43 % lower in the ammonium and nitrate treatments than in the control, respectively. However, the activities of P-acquisition specific enzymes were about 19 % higher in the ammonium treatment than in the control. Using redundancy analysis (RDA, we found that the measured C, N, and P hydrolysis and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities were positively correlated with the soil pH and ammonium contents, but were negatively correlated with the nitrate contents. The PLFA biomarker contents were positively

  19. Contrasting effects of ammonium and nitrate additions on the biomass of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Zou, Hong-Tao; Kou, Liang; Yang, Yang; Wen, Xue-Fa; Li, Sheng-Gong; Wang, Hui-Min; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2017-10-01

    The nitrate to ammonium ratios in nitrogen (N) compounds in wet atmospheric deposits have increased over the recent past, which is a cause for some concern as the individual effects of nitrate and ammonium deposition on the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities are still poorly defined. We established a field experiment and applied ammonium (NH4Cl) and nitrate (NaNO3) at monthly intervals over a period of 4 years. We collected soil samples from the ammonium and nitrate treatments and control plots in three different seasons, namely spring, summer, and fall, to evaluate the how the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities responded to the ammonium (NH4Cl) and nitrate (NaNO3) applications. Our results showed that the total contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) decreased by 24 and 11 % in the ammonium and nitrate treatments, respectively. The inhibitory effects of ammonium on Gram-positive bacteria (G+) and bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) PLFA contents ranged from 14 to 40 % across the three seasons. We also observed that the absolute activities of C, N, and P hydrolyses and oxidases were inhibited by ammonium and nitrate, but that nitrate had stronger inhibitory effects on the activities of acid phosphatase (AP) than ammonium. The activities of N-acquisition specific enzymes (enzyme activities normalized by total PLFA contents) were about 21 and 43 % lower in the ammonium and nitrate treatments than in the control, respectively. However, the activities of P-acquisition specific enzymes were about 19 % higher in the ammonium treatment than in the control. Using redundancy analysis (RDA), we found that the measured C, N, and P hydrolysis and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were positively correlated with the soil pH and ammonium contents, but were negatively correlated with the nitrate contents. The PLFA biomarker contents were positively correlated with soil

  20. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by a natural ion-exchange resin was investigated by considering the factors affecting the ammonium-exchange capacity including the zeolites' particle size, the loading flow rates and the impact of a number of regenerations upon the ion-exchange capacity. The resin column was ...

  1. Ammonium Inhibits Chromomethylase 3-Mediated Methylation of the Arabidopsis Nitrate Reductase Gene NIA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yong; Kwon, Ye Jin; Kim, Sung-Il; Kim, Do Youn; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Gene methylation is an important mechanism regulating gene expression and genome stability. Our previous work showed that methylation of the nitrate reductase (NR) gene NIA2 was dependent on chromomethylase 3 (CMT3). Here, we show that CMT3-mediated NIA2 methylation is regulated by ammonium in Arabidopsis thaliana. CHG sequences (where H can be A, T, or C) were methylated in NIA2 but not in NIA1, and ammonium [(NH4)2SO4] treatment completely blocked CHG methylation in NIA2. By contrast, ammonium had no effect on CMT3 methylation, indicating that ammonium negatively regulates CMT3-mediated NIA2 methylation without affecting CMT3 methylation. Ammonium upregulated NIA2 mRNA expression, which was consistent with the repression of NIA2 methylation by ammonium. Ammonium treatment also reduced the overall genome methylation level of wild-type Arabidopsis. Moreover, CMT3 bound to specific promoter and intragenic regions of NIA2. These combined results indicate that ammonium inhibits CMT3-mediated methylation of NIA2 and that of other target genes, and CMT3 selectively binds to target DNA sequences for methylation. PMID:26834755

  2. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  3. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  4. Stability and Concentration Verification of Ammonium Perchlorate Dosing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, David

    1998-01-01

    Stability and concentration verification was performed for the ammonium perchlorate dosing solutions used in the on-going 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study conducted by Springborn Laboratories, Inc. (SLI Study No. 3433.1...

  5. Improved daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, J W; Lynch, J A

    2005-06-01

    Daily precipitation nitrate and ammonium concentration models were developed for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (USA) using a linear least-squares regression approach and precipitation chemistry data from 29 National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites. Only weekly samples that comprised a single precipitation event were used in model development. The most significant variables in both ammonium and nitrate models included: precipitation volume, the number of days since the last event, a measure of seasonality, latitude, and the proportion of land within 8km covered by forest or devoted to industry and transportation. Additional variables included in the nitrate model were the proportion of land within 0.8km covered by water and/or forest. Local and regional ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions were not as well correlated as land cover. Modeled concentrations compared very well with event chemistry data collected at six NADP/AirMoN sites within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Wet deposition estimates were also consistent with observed deposition at selected sites. Accurately describing the spatial distribution of precipitation volume throughout the watershed is important in providing critical estimates of wet-fall deposition of ammonium and nitrate.

  6. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB. Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in

  7. Estimating ammonium and nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies within ArcGIS environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Ye, Ming; Roeder, Eberhard; Hicks, Richard W.; Shi, Liangsheng; Yang, Jinzhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a recently developed software, ArcGIS-based Nitrogen Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET), for estimating nitrogen loading from septic systems to surface water bodies. The load estimation is important for managing nitrogen pollution, a world-wide challenge to water resources and environmental management. ArcNLET simulates coupled transport of ammonium and nitrate in both vadose zone and groundwater. This is a unique feature that cannot be found in other ArcGIS-based software for nitrogen modeling. ArcNLET is designed to be flexible for the following four simulating scenarios: (1) nitrate transport alone in groundwater; (2) ammonium and nitrate transport in groundwater; (3) ammonium and nitrate transport in vadose zone; and (4) ammonium and nitrate transport in both vadose zone and groundwater. With this flexibility, ArcNLET can be used as an efficient screening tool in a wide range of management projects related to nitrogen pollution. From the modeling perspective, this paper shows that in areas with high water table (e.g. river and lake shores), it may not be correct to assume a completed nitrification process that converts all ammonium to nitrate in the vadose zone, because observation data can indicate that substantial amount of ammonium enters groundwater. Therefore, in areas with high water table, simulating ammonium transport and estimating ammonium loading, in addition to nitrate transport and loading, are important for avoiding underestimation of nitrogen loading. This is demonstrated in the Eggleston Heights neighborhood in the City of Jacksonville, FL, USA, where monitoring well observations included a well with predominant ammonium concentrations. The ammonium loading given by the calibrated ArcNLET model can be 10-18% of the total nitrogen load, depending on various factors discussed in the paper.

  8. Density effects on ammonium nitrate toxicity on amphibians. Survival, growth and cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Marco, Adolfo

    2012-04-01

    Temporary ponds where many amphibians breed experience a gradual desiccation that leads to growing larval densities, which can reduce tadpole survival rates and increase cannibalistic interactions among carnivorous salamander larvae. Concentrations of many agrochemicals, including nitrogenous fertilizers, can also increase as the water volume decreases. We analyzed the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer at two larval densities on growth and survival of Rana dalmatina tadpoles, and on cannibalistic behaviors of Salamandra salamandra larvae. We observed synergistic lethal effects until day 17 of exposure, when ammonium nitrate-related mortality of tadpoles was five times greater at high than at low density. The fertilizer impaired tadpole growth. This effect was stronger at low density than at high density. In the absence of ammonium nitrate, the incidence of cannibalism was higher at high than at low larval density. However, fertilizer exposure removed this density-dependent effect, which, under field conditions, would negate some potentially advantageous effects of cannibalism such as reduced intraspecific competition and the stimulation of defensive behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Explosive Performance Modification by Cosolidification of Ammonium Nitrate with Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    all materials, primarily as a safety check. The test was -* .",;also sometimes conducted in the manur of a Bruceton .ethad, and La ’A 0 A...when rich aqueous solutions of the two materials, in the proportions desired, are heated under vacuum, the fraction of water being stripped away per...at numerous locations in very large quantities, is made by reaction of nitric acid with ammonia , neither of which depends on petroleum, which could

  10. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  11. The importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the nitrogen cycle of coastal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giblin, Anne E.; Tobias, Craig R.; Song, Bongkeun

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it was believed that biological assimilation and gaseous nitrogen (N) loss through denitrification were the two major fates of nitrate entering or produced within most coastal ecosystems. Denitrification is often viewed as an important ecosystem service that removes reactive N from...... the ecosystem. However, there is a competing nitrate reduction process, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), that conserves N within the ecosystem. The recent application of nitrogen stable isotopes as tracers has generated growing evidence that DNRA is a major nitrogen pathway that cannot...... of denitrification and DNRA, and how the balance changes with increased nitrogen loading, is of critical importance for predicting eutrophication trajectories. Recent improvements in methods for assessing rates of DNRA have helped refine our understanding of the rates and controls of this process, but accurate...

  12. Investigation into common solubility of dysprosium nitrate with nitrates of aniline, pyridine in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katamanov, V.L.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are given on solubility at 20 and 40 deg C in the systems: dysprosium nitrate - aniline nitrate -water and dysprosium nitrate - pyridine nitrate - water. Solubilities are determined by the method of sections. It is found that isotherms of the first system are of eutonic type, equilibrium solid phases of dysprosium hexahydrate nitrate and aniline nitrate correspond to non-variant points of intersection of lines of saturated solutions. The solubility of aniline nitrate is much lower than that of dysprosium hexahydrate nitrate. An increase in the concentration of Dy 3+ ions in a binary solution results in salting-out of aniline nitrate and in absence of any interaction in the system. The compound Dy(NO 3 ) 3 x2PyxHNO 3 is formed in a congruent way in the second system considered

  13. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiapu Gai

    Full Text Available Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+-N and nitrate N (NO3(--N. Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC, corn-straw (C-BC and peanut-shell (P-BC at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1 adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+-N g(-1 in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+ L(-1. Compared with NH4(+-N, none of NO3(--N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(- concentrations. Instead, some NO3(--N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+-N (or NH3 pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(--N pollution.

  14. Dark CO2 fixation in leaves of tomato plants grown with ammonium and nitrate at nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, M.; Yamada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The dark (non-photosynthetic) CO 2 fixation was studied in the leaves of ammonium-fed and nitrate-fed tomato plants. The ability to fix 14 CO 2 in the dark of ammonium-fed plants was remarkably lower as compared with nitrate-fed plants, supporting the previous finding that the synthesis of C 4 -compounds from C 3 -compounds was reduced in the leaves of ammonium-fed plants. There was no difference in the activity of PEP carboxylase in extracts prepared from the leaves between both the plants during an early period of the treatment. However, the enzyme activity began to decrease rapidly in ammonium-fed plants 4 days after the treatment. By long-term treatments, the enzyme activity in ammonium-fed plants became half as high as that of nitrate-fed plants. The decreased PEP carboxylase activity in ammonium-fed plants was not associated with the presence of NH 4 -N and the absence of NO 3 -N in the leaf extract, and was not restored by the addition of the leaf extract from nitrate-fed plants. It is concluded that the decreased rate of synthesis of C 4 -compounds from C 3 -compounds in ammonium-fed plants is closely associated with a decrease in the dark fixation involving PEP carboxylase. (orig.)

  15. Elemental source attribution signatures for calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) fertilizers used in homemade explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Mitroshkov, Alexander V.; Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Melville, Angie M.

    2017-11-01

    Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a widely available fertilizer composed of ammonium nitrate mixed with some form of calcium carbonate such as limestone or dolomite. CAN is also frequently used to make homemade explosives. The potential of using elemental profiling and chemometrics to match both pristine and reprocessed CAN fertilizers to their factories for use in future forensic investigations was examined. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on 64 elements in 125 samples from 11 CAN stocks from 6 different CAN factories. Fisher ratio, degree-of-class-separation, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to develop a model using the concentrations of Na, V, Mn, Cu, Ga, Sr, Ba and U to classify a validation set of CAN samples into 5 factory groups; one group was two factories from the same fertilizer company. In terms of the pristine CAN samples, i.e., unadulterated prills, 64% of the test samples were matched to their correct factory group with zero false positives. The same PLSDA model was used to correctly match 100% of the CAN samples that were reprocessed by crushing and mixing the CAN with powdered sugar. In the case of crushed CAN samples mixed with aluminum powder, correct matches were made for zero to 100% of the samples depending on the factory the CAN originated. Remarkably, for one factory, 100% of the ammonium nitrate samples that were extracted from CAN using tap or bottled water were matched to the correct CAN factory group. Lastly, the water-insoluble (calcium carbonate) portions of CAN provided a greater degree of discrimination between factories than the water-soluble portions of CAN. In summary, this work illustrates that sourcing unadulterated CAN fertilizer can potentially be done with high frequency and high confidence using elemental profiling and chemometrics while the sourcing of reprocessed CAN is dependent on how much an adulterant alters the recovered elemental profile of

  16. Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2015-11-01

    A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers (N = 15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an unrewarded odor (ethanol) by manipulating scented objects with their nose in order to receive a food reward using a canine-adapted discrimination training apparatus. All dogs successfully learned this olfactory discrimination task (≥80 % correct in a mean of 296 trials). Next, dogs were trained on an ammonium nitrate (AN, NH4NO3) olfactory discrimination task [acquired in 60-240 trials, with a mean (±SEM) number of trials to criterion of 120.0 ± 15.6] and then tested for their ability to respond to untrained ammonium- and/or nitrate-containing chemicals as well as variants of AN compounds. Dogs did not respond to sodium nitrate or ammonium sulfate compounds at rates significantly higher than chance (58.8 ± 4.5 and 57.7 ± 3.3 % correct, respectively). Transfer performance to fertilizer-grade AN, AN mixed in Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum was significantly higher than chance (66.7 ± 3.2, 73.3 ± 4.0, 68.9 ± 4.0 % correct, respectively); however, substantial individual differences were observed. Only 53, 60, and 64 % of dogs had a correct response rate with fertilizer-grade AN, AN and Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum, respectively, that were greater than chance. Our results suggest that dogs do not readily generalize from AN to similar AN-based odorants at reliable levels desired for explosive detection dogs and that performance varies significantly within Labrador retrievers selected for an explosive detection program.

  17. Electron transfer reactions of 1-phenyl-4-vinylpyrazole mediated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarch-Vinuesa, M.; Miranda, M.A.; Medio-Simon, M.; Sepulveda-Arques, J.

    1993-01-01

    The title compound is converted into the cyclic ethers 5 and the alcohol 6 upon treatment with ceric ammonium nitrate in acetone. Using methanol as a solvent the dimethoxy derivative 9 and the nitrate ester 10 are formed. No cross cycloaddition is observed in the presence of olefins such as ethyl vinyl ether, DMAD, or indene; however, with cyclopentadiene as co-reagent a mixture of the exo-endo Diels-Alder adducts 14 involving the vinylic system of 1 as 2π component is obtained. The results are rationalized through the intermediacy of the radical cation 1 .+ , generated by single electron transfer (SET) from the neutral precursor 1 to Ce(IV)

  18. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  19. Case study and lessons learned from the ammonium nitrate explosion at the West Fertilizer facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboureur, Delphine M.; Han, Zhe; Harding, Brian Z.; Pineda, Alba; Pittman, William C.; Rosas, Camilo; Jiang, Jiaojun; Mannan, M. Sam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In-depth technical analysis of the West, Texas ammonium nitrate incident. • Regulatory analysis for compliance with federal, state and local regulations. • Facility siting and land use planning implications. • Need for local coordination of risk information and emergency planning. - Abstract: In West, Texas on April 17, 2013, a chemical storage and distribution facility caught fire followed by the explosion of around 30 tons of ammonium nitrate while the emergency responders were trying to extinguish the fire, leading to 15 fatalities and numerous buildings, businesses and homes destroyed or damaged. This incident resulted in devastating consequences for the community around the facility, and shed light on a need to improve the safety management of local small businesses similar to the West facility. As no official report on the findings of the incident has been released yet, this article first investigates the root causes of the incident, and presents a simplified consequence analysis. The article reviews the regulations applicable to this type of facility and recommended emergency response procedures to identify gaps between what happened in West and the current regulations, and discusses how the current regulations could be modified to prevent or minimize future losses. Finally, the federal response that followed the incident until the publication of this paper is summarized.

  20. Complexes of pentavalent plutonium in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.; Zaki, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pu 0 2 ion can form nitrate complexes in concentrated solution of lithium nitrate of PH 3.5. Spectrophotometric and ion exchange studies revealed the existence of two complexes, presumably the mono-and the dinitro. The rate of adsorption of the dinitrato complex, formed in 4 to 6 M-lithium nitrate solutions, on De-Acidite FF has been investigated and suggested to be diffusion controlled. The adsorption isotherm found to obey satisfactorily Freundlich equation

  1. Nitrogen concentrations in a small Mediterranean stream: 1. Nitrate 2. Ammonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of storm frequency as well as the groundwater and hyporheic inputs on nitrate (NO3-N and ammonium (NH4-N levels in stream water were studied in a small perennial Mediterranean catchment, Riera Major, in northeast Spain. NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.9 mg l-1. Discharge explained 47% of the annual NO3-N concentration variance, but this percentage increased to 97% when single floods were analysed. The rate of change in nitrate concentration with respect to flow, ΔNO3-N/ΔQ, ranged widely from 0 to 20 μg NO3-N s l-2. The ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values fitted to a non linear model with respect to the storm flow magnitude (ΔQ (r2=0.48, d.f.=22, P3-N/ΔQ occurred at intermediate ΔQ values, whereas low ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values occurred during severe storms (ΔQ > 400 l s-1. N3-N concentrations exhibit anticlockwise hysteresis patterns with changing flow and the patterns observed for autumnal and winter storms indicated that groundwater was the main N3-N source for stream and hyporheic water. At baseflow, NO3-N concentration in groundwater was higher (t=4.75, d.f.=29, P>0.001 and co-varied with concentrations in the stream (r=0.91, d.f.=28, P3-N concentration in hyporheic water was identical to that in stream water. The role of the hyporheic zone as source or sink for ammonium was studied hyporheic was studied comparing its concentrations in stream and hyporheic zone before and after a major storm occurred in October 1994 that removed particulate organic matter stored in sediments. Results showed high ammonium concentrations (75±28 s.d. μg NH4-N l-1 before the storm flow in the hyporheic zone. After the storm, the ammonium concentration in the hyporheic dropped by 80% (13.6±8 μg N4-N l-1 and approached to the level found in stream water (11±8 μg NH4-N l-1 indicating that indisturbed hyporheic sediments act as a source for ammonium. After the storm, the ammonium concentrations in the stream, hyporheic and groundwater zones were very

  2. Chemical denitration of aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1987-11-01

    The Plant for Active Waste Liquids (PAWL) at CRNL will immobilize in glass the fission products in waste from Mo-99 production. The nitrate ions in the waste can be destroyed by heating, but also by chemical reaction with formic acid (HCOOH). Since chemical denitration has several advantages over thermal denitration it was studied in the course of vitrification process development. Two free radical mechanisms are examined here to explain kinetic data on chemical denitration of nitric acid solutions with formic acid. One mechanism is applicable at > 1 mol/L HNO 3 and involves the formate radical (HCOO . ). The second mechanism holds at 3 and involves the hyponitrous radical (HNO . ). Mass balances for various species were written based on the law of mass action applied to the equations describing the reaction mechanism. Analytical and numerical solutions were obtained and compared. Literature data on batch denitration were used to determine some of the rate constants while others were set arbitrarily. Observed stoichiometry and trends in reactant concentrations are predicted accurately for batch data. There are no literature data to compare with the prediction of negligible induction time

  3. Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezawa, Yu [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (Japan)], E-mail: umezawa@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Hosono, Takahiro [Department of Earth Science and Technology, Akita University (Japan); Onodera, Shin-ichi [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Siringan, Fernando [Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines (Philippines); Buapeng, Somkid [Department of Groundwater Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Thailand); Delinom, Robert [Division of Hydrology, Indonesia Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Yoshimizu, Chikage [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama (Japan); Tayasu, Ichiro; Nagata, Toshi [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Taniguchi, Makoto [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The status of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) contamination in the water systems, and the mechanisms controlling their sources, pathways, and distributions were investigated for the Southeast Asian cities of Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta. GIS-based monitoring and dual isotope approach (nitrate {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O) suggested that human waste via severe sewer leakage was the major source of nutrient contaminants in Metro Manila and Jakarta urban areas. Furthermore, the characteristics of the nutrient contamination differed depending on the agricultural land use pattern in the suburban areas: high nitrate contamination was observed in Jakarta (dry fields), and relatively lower nutrients consisting mainly of ammonium were detected in Bangkok (paddy fields). The exponential increase in NO{sub 3}{sup -}-{delta}{sup 15}N along with the NO{sub 3}{sup -} reduction and clear {delta}{sup 18}O/{delta}{sup 15}N slopes of NO{sub 3}{sup -} ({approx} 0.5) indicated the occurrence of denitrification. An anoxic subsurface system associated with the natural geological setting (e.g., the old tidal plain at Bangkok) and artificial pavement coverage served to buffer NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination via active denitrification and reduced nitrification. Our results showed that NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} contamination of the aquifers in Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta was not excessive, suggesting low risk of drinking groundwater to human health, at present. However, the increased nitrogen load and increased per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in these developing cities may increase this contamination in the very near future. Continuous monitoring and management of the groundwater system is needed to minimize groundwater pollution in these areas, and this information should be shared among adjacent countries with similar geographic and cultural settings.

  4. Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Yu; Hosono, Takahiro; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Siringan, Fernando; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Tayasu, Ichiro; Nagata, Toshi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The status of nitrate (NO 3 - ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) contamination in the water systems, and the mechanisms controlling their sources, pathways, and distributions were investigated for the Southeast Asian cities of Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta. GIS-based monitoring and dual isotope approach (nitrate δ 15 N and δ 18 O) suggested that human waste via severe sewer leakage was the major source of nutrient contaminants in Metro Manila and Jakarta urban areas. Furthermore, the characteristics of the nutrient contamination differed depending on the agricultural land use pattern in the suburban areas: high nitrate contamination was observed in Jakarta (dry fields), and relatively lower nutrients consisting mainly of ammonium were detected in Bangkok (paddy fields). The exponential increase in NO 3 - -δ 15 N along with the NO 3 - reduction and clear δ 18 O/δ 15 N slopes of NO 3 - (∼ 0.5) indicated the occurrence of denitrification. An anoxic subsurface system associated with the natural geological setting (e.g., the old tidal plain at Bangkok) and artificial pavement coverage served to buffer NO 3 - contamination via active denitrification and reduced nitrification. Our results showed that NO 3 - and NH 4 + contamination of the aquifers in Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta was not excessive, suggesting low risk of drinking groundwater to human health, at present. However, the increased nitrogen load and increased per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in these developing cities may increase this contamination in the very near future. Continuous monitoring and management of the groundwater system is needed to minimize groundwater pollution in these areas, and this information should be shared among adjacent countries with similar geographic and cultural settings

  5. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  6. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  7. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  8. Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in a temperate re-connected floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouridis, F; Heppell, C M; Wharton, G; Lansdown, K; Trimmer, M

    2011-10-15

    The relative magnitudes of, and factors controlling, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in the soil of a re-connected temperate floodplain divided into four different land management zones (grazing grassland, hay meadow, fritillary meadow and a buffer zone). Soil samples were collected from each zone to measure their respective potentials for nitrate attenuation using 15N both at the surface and at depth in the soil column and additional samples were collected to measure the lability of the organic carbon. Denitrification capacity ranged between 0.4 and 4.2 (μmol N g(-1) dry soil d(-1)) across the floodplain topsoil and DNRA capacity was an order of magnitude lower (0.01-0.71 μmol N g(-1) d(-1)). Land management practice had a significant effect on denitrification but no significant effects were apparent for DNRA. In this nitrogen-rich landscape, spatial heterogeneity in denitrification was explained by differences in lability and the magnitude of organic carbon associated with different management practices (mowing and grazing). The lability of organic carbon was significantly higher in grazing grassland in comparison to other ungrazed areas of the floodplain, and consequently denitrification capacity was also highest in this area. Our results indicate that bacteria capable of DNRA do survive in frequently flooded riparian zones, and to a limited extent, compete with denitrification for nitrate, acting to retain and recycle nitrogen in the floodplain. Exponential declines in both denitrification and DNRA capacity with depth in the floodplain soils of a hay meadow and buffer zone were controlled primarily by the organic carbon content of the soils. Furthermore, grazing could be employed in re-connected, temperate floodplains to enhance the potential for nitrate removal from floodwaters via denitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  10. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions below Danish forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    1999-01-01

    species. A few sites deviated radically from the general pattern of low concentrations. The elevated concentrations recorded there were probably caused by high levels of N deposition due to emission from local sources or temporal disruptions of the N cycle. The nitrate concentration in the soil solution......Nitrate in the soil water below the root zone is a pre-condition for nitrate leaching, and it indicates loss of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Nitrate leaching may potentially cause eutrophication of surface water and contamination of ground water. In order to evaluate the extent of nitrate...... leaching in relation to land-use, a national monitoring programme has established sampling routines in a 7x7 km grid including 111 points in forests. During winters of 1986-1993, soil samples were obtained from a depth of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions were...

  11. Transformation of 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate in a pot experiment with winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, S.; Herbst, F.; Weigert, I.

    1986-01-01

    The transformation of 15 N-ammonium nitrate in the soil-plant system was investigated in Mitscherlich pots. Single nitrogen applications at the start of the growing season resulted in a decline in dry matter content and nitrogen uptake by the plant at the end of the ripening process. Root development shows respective reductions already after ear emergence. Nitrogen fertilization leads to an additional uptake of soil nitrogen. Between 60 and 85% of the fertilizer nitrogen is taken up by the plants. Only 2% of this nitrogen is found in the roots at the time of ripeness. Already 49 and 55 %, respectively, of the second nitrogen applications at the time of shooting or at the end of ear emergence is taken up by the plants after a few days, with 75 and 80%, respectively, of the nitrogen being utilized; but the second nitrogen application at the end of ear emergence has less influence on the crop yield. (author)

  12. Evidence for dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium in irradiated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, R.; Guiraud, G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation (1 kGy) on nitrogen transformation in a brown soil, labelled with 15 N(Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ) and glucose amended was studied. The fractions of the added nitrique-N in the ammoniacal-N, organic-N and N-gas forms were determined. In the unirradiated soil, after 3 days incubation, 54% of the N transformations from N-nitrique was accounted for by organization and 45% was lost by denitrification. In the irradiated soil, these transformations were less intense, but the production of ammonium by the dissimilatory nitrate reduction was noticeable (25% of the N-NO 3 - transformation). Two hypothesis are discussed: one on microbial dynamic population and the other, on the factors affecting this process [fr

  13. Potential rates of ammonium oxidation, nitrite oxidation, nitrate reduction and denitrification in the young barley rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Binnerup, S. J.; Sørensen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    and denitrifiers. The results indicate that potential activities (enzyme contents) in the four bacterial groups were less dependent on their inorganic N substrates in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, but showed distinct and different responses to duration of soil wetting after rainfall.......Potential activities (enzyme contents) of ammonium (NH4+) oxidizing, nitrite (NO2-) oxidizing, nitrate (NO3-) reducing and denitrifying bacteria were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil obtained from young barley plants in the field. The activities as well as pools of inorganic N (NH4+, NO2......- and NO3-) were followed for 3 weeks in the beginning of the growth season (May-June). During the 3 weeks two separate periods of rain gave dramatic changes in soil water content. A rainfall in the beginning of the sampling period, resulting in a short-term wetting of the soil, stimulated the potential...

  14. Development of a microbiological ammonium to nitrate recycling bioreactor for space capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pycke, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1988, the Expertise group of Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB) is an important partner in the development of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). The MELiSSA was designed to allow a small crew to survive on an Antarctic, lunar or Mars outpost, and is a joint research project currently fostered by the European Space Agency, ESA. The MELiSSA functions through a series of five interconnected compartments, of which four are microbial bioreactors and was engineered to degrade organic waste, regenerate the outpost's atmosphere and water, and provide the crew with an additional vegetarian diet. The bioreactor of the third compartment provides the edible cyanobacteria and plants of the fourth compartment with nitrate instead of ammonium as a source of nitrogen. The two bacteria responsible for the biological transformation of ammonium to nitrate (nitrification) are Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Since all MELiSSA-reactors are to be relied on for a period of several years, reactor operation is to be studied exhaustively to allow optimal process- and reactor performance. Therefore, a pilot reactor for the third compartment was engineered and constructed at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), where the pilot plant of the MELiSSA is installed. The reactor was able to perform nitrification with high efficiency for the entire trial period of nearly five years and was the subject of this study. Collaboration between the unit of MCB and researchers at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) allowed the development and validation of a mathematical model for the third compartment of the MELiSSA. A mathematical model will allow optimizing reactor operation and reactor performance even further. A Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR) was developed at MCB that allowed the quantitative assessment of the relative distribution of the two autotrophic nitrifying bacterial species along the reactor's packed

  15. Thermal Signature Measurements for Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Mixtures by Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2016-01-10

    Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how the sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal response of each ANF mixture was found to be different, which was based on the mixture composition and the thermal behavior of each mixture constituent.

  16. Thermal signature measurements for ammonium nitrate/fuel mixtures by laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary, E-mail: cpresser@nist.gov

    2016-01-10

    Highlights: • LDTR is a useful diagnostic for characterizing AN/fuel mixture thermochemical behavior. • Each AN/fuel mixture thermal signature was different. • AN/fuel mixture signature features were defined by the individual constituents. • Baseline signatures changed after an experiment. - Abstract: Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal

  17. Radiolysis studies of uranyl nitrate solution in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, Sandra; Mondino, Angel V.

    2005-01-01

    The radiolysis of acidic uranyl nitrate solutions was investigated using Co-60 gamma radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was determined as a function of increasing dose. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the irradiated solutions were measured and the spectral changes were analyzed. The increasing dose increases the absorbance intensities, possibly by an increment in nitrate concentration produced by radiolysis, which can originate the formation of different uranyl complexes in solution. (author)

  18. The effect of nitrate addition on efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer under saline soil condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, KH.; Zedan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studied using N sub 1 sub 5 method. In pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of NO sub 3/NH sub 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO sub 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH sup 4 fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO sub 3 and N-NH sub 4) with NO sub 3/NH sub 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  19. In vitro development of endangered Laelia marginata Lindl. in growth media containing different nitrate/ammonium ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas junior bertoncelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation is a very important method for the conservation of germplasm and the multiplication of endangered plants; however, studies on the adequacy of the nutrients used for a good development of each species are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro development of Laelia marginata Lindl. in culture media containing different nitrate/ ammonium ratios. Seedlings were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The treatments consisted of different nitrate/ ammonium ratios, with five proportions of NO3 - and NH4 + : T1-0/100; T2-25/75; T3-50/50; T4-75/25 and T5-100/0. At 200 days after seedling transplanting, height of the aerial part, root length, number of leaves, number of shoots, leaf length, leaf width, aerial and root dry mass and contents of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids were evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments and ten replicates. The combination of 50/50 nitrate/ammonium resulted in the highest values of aerial part and root length, dry mass of the aerial part and root, as well as leaf length and width. The proportion of 50/50 nitrate/ammonium resulted in the best initial development of L. marginata seedlings.

  20. Effects of coal combustion byproduct encapsulated ammonium nitrate on wheat yield and uptake of nitrogen and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient that is taken up in large quantity. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used in agriculture as an N fertilizer, but it is also an ingredient in explosives. As a result of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in April 1995, regulations o...

  1. Continuing assessment of the 5 day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay as an indicator test for silicon fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The five day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay has been proposed by the AAFPCO as a standard test to identify fertilizers that provide plant-available Si. A single-lab validation test was previously performed; however, the analysis lacked any correlation to a grow-out study. To do...

  2. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was the removal of phosphate and nitrate by sodium alginate seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata) beads from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate and nitrate on the seagrass beads were optimized under different operational parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial ...

  3. Densities concentrations of aqueous of uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Fernandez Rodriguez, L.

    1966-01-01

    The ratio density-concentration of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions expressed as U 3 O 8 grams/liter, U grams/liter and hexahydrate uranyl nitrate weight percent at different temperatures, are established. Experimental values are graphically correlated and compared whit some published data. (Author) 2 refs

  4. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  5. Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in the Yellow River Estuary: Rates, Abundance, and Community Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Cuina; Wang, Yu; Ge, Chenghao; Ahmad, Hafiz Adeel; Gao, Baoyu; Ni, Shou-Qing

    2017-07-28

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) is an important nitrate reduction process in estuarine sediments. This study reports the first investigation of DNRA in the Yellow River Estuary located in Eastern Shandong, China. Saltwater intrusion could affect the physicochemical characteristics and change the microbial community structure of sediments. In this study, the activity, abundance and community diversity of DNRA bacteria were investigated during saltwater intrusion. The slurry incubation experiments combined with isotope-tracing techniques and qPCR results showed that DNRA rates and nrfA (the functional gene of DNRA bacteria) gene abundance varied over wide ranges across different sites. DNRA rates had a positive and significant correlation with sediment organic content and extractable NH 4 + , while DNRA rates were weakly correlated with nrfA gene abundance. In comparison, the activities and abundance of DNRA bacteria did not change with a trend along salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA gene indicated that delta-proteobacteria was the most abundant at all sites, while epsilon-proteobacteria was hardly found. This study reveals that variability in the activities and community structure of DNRA bacteria is largely driven by changes in environmental factors and provides new insights into the characteristics of DNRA communities in estuarine ecosystems.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Nitrogen Transport in Unsaturated Soils for Evaluating Ammonium and Nitrate Contamination over the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, S.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to contribute to the understanding of nitrate transport and transformations in soil and its impact on groundwater. The physical, chemical and biochemical nitrogen transport processes with the spatial and temporal climate groundwater model are considered to simulate nitrate and ammonium concentration. A Nitrogen-1D model was developed to analyze the nitrogen dynamics during treated manure application to the soil. The model simulates water movement, heat transfer and solute transformations in one dimensional unsaturated soil. First, we coupled a vertical soil nitrogen transport with SABAE-HW model. This model was a one-dimensional physically-based model that uses the same physical mechanisms, inputs and outputs, as CLASS (2.6). It is noted that the applications of SABAE-HW has been verified before by the authors. Mineralization, nitrification and denitrification are modeled in the soil profile as the most important nutrient cycles. It is also assumed that the main source of organic N is from animal manure. A-single-pool nitrogen transformation is designed to simulate mineralization, nitrification and denitrification processes. Since SABAE-HW considers the effects of soil freezing and thawing on soil water dynamics, the proposed mathematical model (SABAE-HWS) is able to investigate the effects of nitrogen biochemical reactions in winter. An upwind finite volume scheme was applied to solve solute transport and nitrogen transformation equations numerically. The finite volume method insures continuous fluxes across layers boundaries. To evaluate the reliability of the numerical approach we compared the results of the model with one of the pioneer analytical solutions. Both analytical and numerical solutions have been obtained for temporally dependent problems for uniform and increasing inputs. A complete agreement between them has been found respecting to the different boundary conditions. The model is also calibrated using field data

  7. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified [pt

  8. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  9. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  10. Provision of nitrogen as ammonium rather than nitrate increases silicon uptake in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeping, Malcolm G; Rutherford, R Stuart; Sewpersad, C; Miles, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Silicon (Si) is important in mitigating abiotic and biotic plant stresses, yet many agricultural soils, such as those of the rainfed production areas of the South African sugar industry, are deficient in plant-available Si, making Si supplementation necessary. However, Si uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is limited even where silicate amendments improve soil Si status. Rhizosphere pH, which can affect Si uptake, can be manipulated using different N-form fertilizers. We tested whether (i) fertilization with [Formula: see text] (rhizosphere acidification) increased Si uptake compared with [Formula: see text] (rhizosphere alkalinization); and (ii) uptake differed between an N-efficient, more acid-tolerant cultivar (N12) and an N-inefficient, less acid-tolerant cultivar (N14). Two pot trials with low-Si soil were fertilized with calcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) slag, plus N from ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4], ammonium thiosulphate [(NH4)2S2O3] and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (Trial 1) or N from (NH4)2S2O3 and Ca(NO3)2 only (Trial 2). Trial 2 included cultivars N12 and N14. Nitrate treatments significantly increased soil pH and soil Si compared with [Formula: see text] However, [Formula: see text] treatments significantly increased leaf and stalk Si content compared with [Formula: see text] reflected in a significant negative relationship between soil pH and leaf Si. Acid-extracted soil Si was negatively related to leaf and stalk Si, likely due to adsorption of silicic acid to soil surfaces under higher pH of the [Formula: see text] treatment and its reduced availability for plant uptake. We conclude that [Formula: see text] increased Si uptake into leaf and stalk, and propose that reduced rhizosphere pH solubilized Si from Ca2SiO4 and increased silicic acid availability for plant uptake. By contrast, [Formula: see text] may have reduced Si uptake due to adsorption of Si to soil surfaces at higher pH. Our results indicate that ammoniacal fertilizers, such as (NH4

  11. Dissimilatory nitrogen reduction in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary: small scale heterogeneity and novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eDecleyre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The estuarine nitrogen cycle can be substantially altered due to anthropogenic activities resulting in increased amounts of inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate. In the past, denitrification was considered to be the main ecosystem process removing reactive nitrogen from the estuarine ecosystem. However, recent reports on the contribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA to nitrogen removal in these systems indicated a similar or higher importance, although the ratio between both processes remains ambiguous. Compared to denitrification, DNRA has been underexplored for the last decades and the key organisms carrying out the process in marine environments are largely unknown. Hence, as a first step to better understand the interplay between denitrification, DNRA and reduction of nitrate to nitrite in estuarine sediments, nitrogen reduction potentials were determined in sediments of the Paulina polder mudflat (Westerschelde estuary. We observed high variability in dominant nitrogen removing processes over a short distance (1.6 m, with nitrous oxide, ammonium and nitrite production rates differing significantly between all sampling sites. Denitrification occurred at all sites, DNRA was either the dominant process (two out of five sites or absent, while nitrate reduction to nitrite was observed in most sites but never dominant. In addition, novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers assigned to Thalassospira, Celeribacter and Halomonas, for which DNRA was thus far unreported, were isolated, with DNRA phenotype reconfirmed through nrfA gene amplification. This study demonstrates high small scale heterogeneity among dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in estuarine sediments and provides novel marine DNRA organisms that represent valuable alternatives to the current model organisms.

  12. Simulations of Si-PIN photodiode based detectors for underground explosives enhanced by ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mete; Bayrak, Ahmet; Yücel, Esra Barlas; Ozben, Cenap S.

    2018-02-01

    Massive Ammonium Nitrate (NH4-NO3) based explosives buried underground are commonly used in terror attacks. These explosives can be detected using neutron scattering method with some limitations. Simulations are very useful tools for designing a possible detection system for these kind of explosives. Geant4 simulations were used for generating neutrons at 14 MeV energy and tracking them through the scattering off the explosive embedded in soil. Si-PIN photodiodes were used as detector elements in the design for their low costs and simplicity for signal readout electronics. Various neutron-charge particle converters were applied on to the surface of the photodiodes to increase the detection efficiency. Si-PIN photodiodes coated with 6LiF provided the best result for a certain energy interval. Energy depositions in silicon detector from all secondary particles generated including photons were taken into account to generate a realistic background. Humidity of soil, one of the most important parameter for limiting the detection, was also studied.

  13. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Annika [Umeaa Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: annika.nordin@genfys.slu.se; Strengbom, Joachim [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: joachim.strengbom@ebc.uu.se; Ericson, Lars [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: lars.ericson@eg.umu.se

    2006-05-15

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH{sub 4} {sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3} {sup -}) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} was added to 2 m{sup 2} sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO{sub 3} {sup -}. Bryophytes took up predominately NH{sub 4} {sup +} and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH{sub 4} {sup +} and NO{sub 3} {sup -} to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen.

  14. Hydrological controls on nitrogen (ammonium versus nitrate) fluxes from river to coast in a subtropical region: Observation and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinjuan; Chen, Nengwang; Yu, Dan; Wu, Yinqi; Huang, Bangqin

    2018-05-01

    Increased anthropogenic nutrient input and losses has caused eutrophication problems in freshwater and coastal ecosystems worldwide. High-frequency observations and modeling of river fluxes in subtropical regions are required to understand nutrient cycling and predict water quality and ecological responses. In 2014, a normal hydrologic year, we carried out daily sampling of the North Jiulong River in southeast China, which drains an agricultural watershed and experiences the Asian monsoon climate. We focused on the distinct characteristics of two important inorganic nitrogen forms (ammonium and nitrate). Our results show contrasting hydrological controls on the seasonal timing and magnitude of ammonium and nitrate concentrations and loads, likely due to differing sources and transport pathways (surface runoff versus baseflow) to the river. Both nitrogen concentrations were enriched in the dry season and diluted in the wet season. Arrival of rains in the pre-wet period in March caused a "first flush" peak event with the highest concentrations of the year, during which ammonium peaked two weeks earlier than nitrate. In contrast, the majority of nitrogen transport occurred during the lower concentrations of the wet season, with seven storms inducing flood events that lasted 24% of the time, contributed 52% of the runoff, and exported 47% of the ammonium and 42% of the nitrate. We found that seasonally piecewise LOADEST models (for pre-wet, wet and post-wet periods) performed better (5-8% error) than a year-round model (12-24% error) in estimating monthly nitrogen loads. However, not all nitrogen dynamics are easily synthesized by this approach, and extreme floods might produce a greater deviation in estimating nitrogen loads. These findings represent important implications for coastal ecology and provide opportunity on improving observation and modeling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

  16. Dissolution kinetics of calcined ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Demirkıran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ulexite is one of the boron minerals, which include a respectable amount of hydration water. It can be used as a raw material in the production of boron compounds. Some part of water in the composition of ulexite can be removed from the solid matrix applying dehydration treatment, and a porous structure can be obtained to increase the reaction rate. In the present study, the effect of dehydration temperature on dissolution kinetics of ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions was researched in a batch reactor utilizing the parameters of solution concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, stirring speed and reaction temperature. It was determined that the dissolution rate of calcined material increased with increasing solution concentration and reaction temperature and with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest dissolution rate was attained with the sample calcined at 150 °C. It was found that the dissolution rate fit to the first order pseudo-homogeneous model. The activation energy of the dissolution process was estimated to be 42 kJ·mol-1.

  17. Analysis of ammonium nitrate headspace by on-fiber solid phase microextraction derivatization with gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano, Adam L; Andrews, Benjamin; Hammond, Mark; Collins, Greg E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan

    2016-01-15

    A novel analytical method has been developed for the quantitation of trace levels of ammonia in the headspace of ammonium nitrate (AN) using derivatized solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ammonia is difficult to detect via direct injection into a GC-MS because of its low molecular weight and extreme polarity. To circumvent this issue, ammonia was derivatized directly onto a SPME fiber by the reaction of butyl chloroformate coated fibers with the ammonia to form butyl carbamate. A derivatized externally sampled internal standard (dESIS) method based upon the reactivity of diethylamine with unreacted butyl chloroformate on the SPME fiber to form butyl diethylcarbamate was established for the reproducible quantification of ammonia concentration. Both of these compounds are easily detectable and separable via GC-MS. The optimized method was then used to quantitate the vapor concentration of ammonia in the headspace of two commonly used improvised explosive device (IED) materials, ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate aluminum powder (Ammonal), as well as identify the presence of additional fuel components within the headspace. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained but, due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3, uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species among NH3 and HNO3 in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The data set also allows evaluating the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM. Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g., mean bias of −75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively. This leads to a misrepresentation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated gas ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998 and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 agricultural emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results remind us of the caution required when using of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  19. Treatment of uranyl nitrate and flouride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study on the fluoride complexes contained in uranyl and aluminium solutions has been carried out. Likewise concentration limits and Duhring diagrams for those solutions have been experimentally established. As a result, the optimum operation conditions for concentration by evaporation in the treatment plant, have been deduced. (Author) 12 refs

  20. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Total ammonium (tot-NH4+ and total nitrate (tot-NO3 provide chemically conservative quantities in the measurement of surface exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds ammonia (NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3, using the aerodynamic gradient method. Total fluxes were derived from concentration differences of total ammonium (NH3 and NH4+ and total nitrate (HNO3 and NO3 measured at two levels. Gaseous species and related particulate compounds were measured selectively, simultaneously and continuously above a spruce forest canopy in south-eastern Germany in summer 2007. Measurements were performed using a wet-chemical two-point gradient instrument, the GRAEGOR. Median concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3 were 0.57, 0.12, 0.76, and 0.48 μg m−3, respectively. Total ammonium and total nitrate fluxes showed large variations depending on meteorological conditions, with concentrations close to zero under humid and cool conditions and higher concentrations under dry conditions. Mean fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate in September 2007 were directed towards the forest canopy and were −65.77 ng m−2 s−1 and −41.02 ng m−2 s−1 (in terms of nitrogen, respectively. Their deposition was controlled by aerodynamic resistances only, with very little influence of surface resistances. Including measurements of wet deposition and findings of former studies on occult deposition (fog water interception at the study site, the total N deposition in September 2007 was estimated to 5.86 kg ha−1.

  2. Criticality of plutonium nitrate solutions (19% 240Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomb, Guy; Mangin, Daniel; Maubert, Louis.

    1976-09-01

    The results of a critical approach performed on plutonium nitrate solutions containing 19% of 240 Pu in two geometrical shapes are presented; the first one is annular cylinders with diameters of 200 and 500 mm, the second one is a parallelepiped of great dimension: 1300x1300x1000mm 3 . A total plutonium concentration range from 13.2 to 105 g/l has been examined. Various calculation methods are compared to experiment. A formula has been established which gives the critical limit concentration for a plutonium nitrate solution as a function of acidity and of the 240 Pu and 241 Pu percentages [fr

  3. EMERGENCE, GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF SESAME UNDER SALT STRESS AND PROPORTIONS OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADAAN SUDARIO DIAS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi - arid regions, the quality of irrigation water varies in geographic terms and during the year, and the occurrence of water with high concentrations of salts is common. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, irrigated with saline water and fertilized with N of different carrier proportions by the ratio of nitrate and ammonium ( NO 3 - - N and NH 4 + - N in an experiment conducted in lysimeters arranged in a greenhouse in the municipality of Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. The treatments were distributed into randomized blocks using a 5 × 5 factorial scheme relative to levels of irrigation water salinity (ECw; 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m - 1 and five proportions of NO 3 - - N/NH 4 + - N (200/0; 150/50; 100/100; 50/150 and 0/200 mg of N kg - 1 , with three replicates. The increase in ECw compromised the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, and the production components were the most sensitive variables. The highest growth in diameter was obtained with the proportion of 200/0 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N . An ECw level of 3.0 dS m - 1 and fertilization with 0/200 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N promoted deleterious effects on the total mass of sesame fruits and mass of seeds. The interaction between water salinity levels and NO 3 - /NH 4 + proportions significantly affected the number of leaves (at 50 and 70 days after sowing, the total mass of fruits and the mass of seeds.

  4. Ammonium nitrate evaporation and nitric acid condensation in DMT CCN counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big a fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles after entering but before particle activation in the DMT-CCN counter? (2) How much can the CCN activity be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? Both experimental and modelling results show that the evaporation of ammonia and nitric acid from ammonium nitrate particles causes a 10 to 15 nm decrease to the critical particle size in supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.7%. On the other hand, the modelling results also show that condensation of nitric acid or similar vapour can increase the CCN activity of nonvolatile aerosol particles, but a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) would be needed. Overall, it is more likely that the CCN activity of semivolatile aerosol is underestimated than overestimated in the measurements conducted in ambient conditions.

  5. Influence of carbamide content in nitric acid solutions of uranium on ammoniac precipitation of ammonium polyuranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakhonov, V.G.; Dorda, F.A.; Zagumennov, V.S.; Lazarchuk, V.V.; Ledovskikh, A.K.; Matyukha, V.A.; Portnyagina, Eh.O.; Tinin, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Regularities of ammoniac precipitation of ammonium polyuranates from nitric acid solutions of uranium in the presence of carbamide are investigated. Influence of temperature, carbamide and uranium concentration in initial solution on sedimentation and filtration properties of precipitates is determined. Optimal regimes of operations of ammoniac precipitation of ammonium polyuranates containing carbamide providing preparation of crystalline, effectively filtered precipitates are selected [ru

  6. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  7. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  8. Properties of concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Swanson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selected properties were measured for solutions containing about 500 and 700 g/l plutonium (IV) in 4--5M nitric acid: density, viscosity, vapor pressure, boiling point, radiolytic gas (H 2 ) evolution rates, and corrosion rate on Ti and 304L stainless steel. Pu solubility was determined to be 550 to 800 g/l in 2.5 to 7M HNO 3 at ambient temperature and 820 to 860 g/l in 3M HNO 3 at 50 0 C

  9. Design of one evaporation system for uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancilla Romero, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The authors propose an instant evaporation system with recirculation of the concentrated solution to raise the concentration from 50 to 1500 g of uranium per litre of solution. The capacity of the plant is to be 14.1 kg of uranium per hour. The main equipment used in the system is as follows: 1. Ring-type heat exchanger, for increasing the temperature of the mixture of fresh and recirculated solution from 80 to 115 0 C; 2. Separation tank, in which instant evaporation is carried out. The absolute pressure inside the tank will be 500 mmHg, with steam separation from a concentrated (78.5 wt.%) uranyl nitrate solution; 3. Desuperheater-condenser of horizontal tubular type for condensing water vapour and recovering any uranyl nitrate that may have been entrained; 4. Storage tank for the concentrate, with a capacity for one day's normal operation, and a heating coil to prevent crystallization of the concentrated solution; 5. Two storage tanks for feed and condensate with capacity for one day's normal operation; 6. Supporting structure for the above components. Virtually all equipment in contact with the uranyl nitrate solution will be made of 304 stainless steel. Saturated steam at 143.3 0 C will be required. The cost of the proposed system is $543 030.00. (author)

  10. Effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers uptake in salty soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Zidan, A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studies using N 15 method, in pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of No 3 /NH 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH 4 Fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO 3 and N-NH 4 ) with NO 3 /NH 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author)

  11. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Liu, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Ban, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous/aqueous reactions. As the parameterizations of those heterogeneous reactions are not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory were likely important factors contributing to those peak PM2.5 concentrations.

  12. Cultivation of CNPA G3 sesame irrigated with saline water and fertilized with nitrate-N and ammonium-N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effects of irrigation with saline water and fertilization with nitrate (NO3--N and ammonium (NH4+-N ratios on growth, flowering, water consumption and water use efficiency of the sesame cv. CNPA G3. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks in a 5 x 5 factorial with three replicates, referring to five levels of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - ECw (0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m-1 and nitrate (NO3--N and ammonium (NH4+-N (200/0, 150/50, 100/100, 50/150, 0/200 mg kg-1 ratios. Irrigation with saline water above 0.6 dS m-1 inhibited the growth, delayed flowering and promoted early maturation of capsules of sesame, cv. CNPA G3. The proportion of 0/200 mg kg-1 of NO3--N/NH4+-N promoted the greatest increase relative to stem diameter and height of sesame plants. Water consumption decreases with increasing ECw and was significantly lower in plants fertilized with the proportion of 0/200 of NO3--N/NH4+-N. The interaction between ECw levels and ammonium/nitrate proportions significantly affect water use efficiency, and the highest value was obtained with ECw of 0.6 dS m-1 and fertilization with 150:50 mg kg-1 of NO3--N and NH4+-N.

  13. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome D.; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-30

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous reactions. As the parameterizations of those reactions is not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory

  14. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Gracy, E-mail: gracy.elias@inl.go [Idaho National Laboratory, Chemical and Radiation Measurement Department, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2213 (United States); Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6180 (United States); Mezyk, Stephen P. [California State University-Long Beach, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840-3903 (United States); Muller, Jim [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0850 (United States); Martin, Leigh R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6180 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the nitration of aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director toluene in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using {gamma} and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection, GC-MS and LC-MS, were used to assess the stable reaction products. Free-radical based nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}, ring substitution, side chain substitution, and oxidation, produced different nitrated toluene products. For ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to cyclohexadienyl radicals, whereas for side chain substitution, these radicals were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite solutions, radiolytically-induced ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a direct free-radical reaction involving addition of the {sup {center_dot}N}O{sub 2} radical.

  15. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gracy; Mincher, Bruce J.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Muller, Jim; Martin, Leigh R.

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the nitration of aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director toluene in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using γ and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection, GC-MS and LC-MS, were used to assess the stable reaction products. Free-radical based nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In 6.0 M HNO3, ring substitution, side chain substitution, and oxidation, produced different nitrated toluene products. For ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to cyclohexadienyl radicals, whereas for side chain substitution, these radicals were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite solutions, radiolytically-induced ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a direct free-radical reaction involving addition of the rad NO2 radical.

  16. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Gracy; Mincher, Bruce J.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Muller, Jim; Martin, Leigh R.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the nitration of aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director toluene in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using γ and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection, GC-MS and LC-MS, were used to assess the stable reaction products. Free-radical based nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In 6.0 M HNO 3 , ring substitution, side chain substitution, and oxidation, produced different nitrated toluene products. For ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to cyclohexadienyl radicals, whereas for side chain substitution, these radicals were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite solutions, radiolytically-induced ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a direct free-radical reaction involving addition of the · NO 2 radical.

  17. Corrosion performance of several metals in plutonium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiichiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Yasu, Shozo; Koizumi, Tsutomu

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of several metals exposed in plutonium nitrate solution was studied. Plutonium nitrate solution with the plutonium concentration ranging from 0.01 to 300 g/l was used as a corrosive medium. Specimens tested were type 304 ULC (304 ULC) stainless steel, type 310 Nb (310 Nb) stainless steel, titanium (Ti), titanium-5% tantalum alloy (Ti-5Ta), and zirconium (Zr). Corrosion behavior of these metals in plutonium nitrate solution was evaluated through examining electrochemical characteristics and corrosion rates obtained by weight loss measurement. From the results of the corrosion tests, it was found that the corrosion rate of stainless steels i.e. 304 ULC and 310 Nb, increases by the presence of plutonium in nitric acid solution. The corrosion potential of the stainless steels shifted linearly towards the noble direction as the concentration of plutonium increases. It is thought that the shifts in corrosion potential of the stainless steels to the noble direction results an increase in anodic current and, hence, corrosion rate. Valve metals, i.e. Ti, Ti-5Ta and Zr, showed good corrosion resistance over the whole range of plutonium concentration examined here. (author)

  18. Subseafloor nitrogen transformations in diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids of the Juan de Fuca Ridge evidenced by the isotopic composition of nitrate and ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Annie; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Butterfield, David A.; Juniper, S. Kim

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) transformations in hydrothermal vent (HV) fluids. Here, we present the first isotopic measurements of nitrate (δ15N and δ18O) and ammonium (δ15N) from three HV fields on the Juan de Fuca ridge (NE-Pacific). The dominant process that drives DIN concentration variations in low-T diffuse fluids is water mass mixing below the seafloor, with no effect on the DIN isotope ratios. Strong inter-site variations in the concentration andδ15N of NH4+in high-T fluids suggest different subsurface nitrogen (N) sources (deep-sea nitrate versus organic sediments) for hydrothermally discharged ammonium. Low NH4+ community N isotope effects (denitrification occur in bacterial mats, and/or in situ production of low δ15N nitrate. A significantly stronger relative increase for nitrate δ18O than for δ15N was observed at many sites, resulting in marked deviations from the 1:1 relationship for nitrate δ15N versus δ18O that is expected for nitrate reduction in marine settings. Simple box-model calculation show that the observed un-coupling of N and O nitrate isotope ratios is consistent with nitrate regeneration by either nitrite reoxidation and/or partial nitrification of hydrothermal ammonium (possibly originating from N2 fixation). Our isotope data confirm the role of subsurface microbial communities in modulating hydrothermal fluxes to the deep ocean.

  19. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements-Part I: Results and analysis of spectral absorbing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the first part of two, we present new high-spectral-resolution infrared (IR) optical constants for multi-component aqueous solutions composed of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid over a range of compositions and temperatures representative of tropospheric conditions and atmospheric aerosols. The optical constants were determined from ATR measurements via a Kramers-Kronig transformation. To accomplish this, we adapted an existing technique for estimating the real index of refraction of aqueous sulfate and nitrate solutions at multiple visible frequencies as a function of concentration and temperature. An approximation of the low-frequency behavior of the ATR spectrum was also used to reduce the error associated with using ATR data of finite frequency range. This paper also provides a brief examination of absorption spectra for analyzed mixtures in relation to their composition and temperature and discusses possible implications. The new optical constants will be of great utility to high-spectral-resolution IR remote sensing as well as radiative balance analysis in climate studies because they will enable researchers for the first time to model the impacts of tropospheric aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component aerosols, including their mixtures with other important species such as dust or soot

  20. Airborne Measurements of Ammonia and Implications for Ammonium Nitrate Formation in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Brock, C. A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences aerosol formation and composition. Ammonium nitrate aerosol is formed from the reaction of gas phase NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3). Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 and NOx (NO + NO2), which in sunlight can be oxidized to form HNO3, can react to form ammonium nitrate aerosol. Agricultural activity (i.e., dairy farms), and urban centers (i.e., Fresno, Los Angeles) are sources of ammonium nitrate gas-phase precursors in both the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. Airborne measurements of NH3, HNO3, particle composition, and particle size distribution were made aboard the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during May and June 2010 in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California, as part of CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change). The highest mixing ratios of NH3, well over 100 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv), were measured downwind of dairy farms. The high NH3 mixing ratios were highly anti-correlated with HNO3 mixing ratios on fast time scales (~1 s) that correspond to short flight distances (~100 m). During these periods particulate nitrate (NO3-) concentrations increased, indicating ammonium nitrate formation. The meteorological and chemical environments during these periods will be studied to determine the factors driving or limiting ammonium nitrate formation and the resulting regional differences. Finally, the relationship between the NH3 observations and NH3 sources will be examined to assess the emissions and their contribution to ammonium nitrate abundance.

  1. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  2. Studying solubility of praseodymium(3) nitrate with nitrates of aniline, guanidine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, L.S.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility in the systems praseodymium nitrate-aniline nitrate-water(1) and praseodymium nitrate-guanidine nitrate-water(2) has been studied at 20 and 40 deg C. In the given temperature range the state diagrams of the systems correspond to the isotherms of the simple eutonic type. Aniline nitrate and hexahydrate of praseodymium nitrate in the first system and guanidine nitrate and hexahydrate of praseodymium nitrate in the second system are equilibrium solid phases. The most developed crystallization fields are those of amine nitrates; eutonics are enriched with praseodymium nitrate

  3. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... reductase activity and nitrite accumulation depend on the exogenous nitrate. Nitrite itself is reduced to ammonium by palstidic nitrite reductase. Nitrite reductase is activated by both nitrate and nitrite ions by positive feed forward, whereas nitrate metabolites, most likely ammonium and glutamine; down.

  4. stripping of uranium from DEHPA/TOPO solvent by ammonium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Shino, O.; Wahood, A.; Dahdouh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from phosphoric acid by the DEHPA/TOPO process. In this process uranium is stripped from the loaded DEHPA/TOPO solvent in the second cycle by an ammonium carbonate solution. This paper studied stripping of uranium from 0.3 Mol DEHPA/0.075 Mol TOPO in kerosene by different ammonium carbonate solutions. The ammonium carbonate solutions tested were either made locally from ammonia and carbon dioxide gases or commercial and laboratory grades available on the market. A comparison was made between these carbonate solutions in terms of purity, stripping efficiency and phase separation. Both stripping and phase separation were carried out under different conditions of phase ratio and concentrations. The results obtained showed that ammonium carbonate prepared from direct synthesis of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases had a high purity and gave the same stripping yield as the laboratory grade. The phase separation was also slightly improved using a pure synthesized ammonium carbonate solution. the phase separation was found to be best at concentration of 0.5 Mol/L ammonium carbonate solution and at a phase A/O of 1/1 and a temperature of 50 degree centigrade. It was possible to obtain >99% yield by operating 2 stripping stages counter currently under these conditions. (authors)

  5. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  6. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  7. Simultaneous ammonium and nitrate removal by a modified intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (SBR with multiple filling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajsardar Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimized methods for simultaneous removal of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are important features of nutrient removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency in an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IA-SBR with multiple filling events was studied. No external carbon source was added and three filling events were considered. Oxidationreduction potential (ORP and pH curve at solids retention time (SRT of 20 d were analyzed. Effects of three organic loading rates (OLR, 0.67, 1.0 and 1.5 kgCOD/m3d, and three nitrogen loading rates (NLR, 0.054, 0.1 and 0.15 kgN/m3d, on nitrogen removal were studied. Nitrate Apex in pH curve and Nitrate Knee in ORP profile indicated that the end of denitrification would be achieved sooner. The kinetic coefficients of endogenous decay (kd and yield (Y were identified to evaluate heterotrophic specific denitrification rate (SDNRb. In period 2 at NLR of 0.054 kgN/m3d and considering 2 anoxic and 3 aerobic phases, nitrogen removal efficiency was 91.43%.

  8. Increase in the biomass of some green algae species in nitrate and ammonium mediums depending on auto-, mixo- or heterotrophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gumiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in total dry mass and protein in cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Ankistrodesmus acicularis was studied. Under autotrophic conditions, increases in dry mass were, as a rule, larger in the nitrate medium than in the ammonium one, under mixotrophic conditions the situation was reversed and in the case of heterotrophy, the individual species reacted differently. The dependence ot the protein content increase on the nitrate or ammonium form of the medium was not clear. Changes in time of the pH and rH of the mediums were followed and the interdependence of these changes with the production of biomass is discussed.

  9. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  10. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50% of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%. RESULTS: The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9. Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm. In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were

  11. Thermal decomposition of phase-stabilised ammonium nitrate (PSAM), HTPB based propellants. The effect of iron(III)oxide burning-rate catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheira, P.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L.; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    1995-01-01

    Phase-stabilised ammonium nitrate (PSAN) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) are the main ingredients of propellants used with success in some pyrotechnic igniter components of the VULCAIN liquid rocket engine for the ARIANE 5. Small amounts of selected additives play an important role in

  12. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  13. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60 Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  14. Critical experiments on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution with STACY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1996-01-01

    As the STACY started steady operations, systematic criticality data on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution system could be accumulated. Main experimental parameters for the cylindrical tank of 60 cm in diameter were uranium concentration and the reflector condition. Basic data on a simple geometry will be helpful for the validation of the standard criticality safety codes, and for evaluating the safety margin included in the criticality designs. Experiments on the reactivity effects of structural materials such as borated concrete and polyethylene are on schedule next year as the second series of experiments using 10 wt% enriched uranyl solution. Furthermore, neutron interacting experiments with two slab tanks will be performed to investigate the fundamental properties of neutron interaction effects between core tanks. These data will be useful for making more reasonable calculation models and for evaluating the safety margin in the criticality designs for the multiple unit system. (J.P.N.)

  15. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  16. Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum (III) solutions. I. Titration of acidified aluminum nitrate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.C.; Geus, John W.; Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    Acidified aluminum nitrate solutions were titrated with alkali (NaOH or KOH) over a temperature range of 24°C to 90°C. A homogeneous distribution of added base was achieved by: (i) in situ decomposition of urea (90°C); and (ii) a novel method involving injection through a capillary submerged in the

  17. Determination of free nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayankutty, P.C.; Ravi, S.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiometric titration of uranyl nitrate solution with sodium hydroxide exhibits two peaks. The first peak characterises the following reaction, UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )+NaOH Na[UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )(OH)]. This reaction, indicating the partial hydrolysis of uranyl oxalate complex, appears to be complete at pH9. If the titration is carried out to this end-point pH, the total alkali consumed can be equated to the sum of uranium content and the free acidity present in the sample volume. Based on this, a method was standardised to determine the free acidity in uranyl nitrate solution. The sample, taken in a solution of potassium oxalate previously adjusted to pH9, is titrated to this pH with standard sodium hydroxide. The free acidity in the sample can be computed by subtracting the alkali reacted with uranium from the total alkali consumed. Analyses of several synthetic samples containing uranium and nitric acid in a wide range of combinations indicate that the free acidity can be accurately determined by this method, if uranium concentration in the sample is known. The results are compared to those obtained by two other widely used methods, viz., (i) titration of pH7 in the presence of neutral potassium oxalate to suppress hydrolysis and (ii) separation of hydrolyzable ions on a cationic resin and alkali titration of the free acid released. The advantages of and the precision obtained with the present method over the above two methods are discussed. (author)

  18. Alanine synthesis from glyceraldehyde and ammonium ion in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of alanine (ala) form C(14)-glyceraldehyde and ammonium phosphate in the presence or absence of a thiol is reported. At ambient temperature, ala synthesis was six times more rapid in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid than in its absence (0.6 and 0.1 percent, respectively, after 60 days). Similarly, the presence of another thiol, N-acetylcysteinate, increased the production of ala, as well as of lactate. The reaction pathway of thiol-catalyzed synthesis of ala, with the lactic acid formed in a bypath, is suggested. In this, dehydration of glyceraldehyde is followed by the formation of hemithioacetal. In the presence of ammonia, an imine is formed, which eventually yields ala. This pathway is consistent with the observation that the rate ratio of ala/lactate remains constant throughout the process. The fact that the reaction takes place under anaerobic conditions in the presence of H2O and with the low concentrations of simple substrates and catalysts makes it an attractive model prebiotic reaction in the process of molecular evolution.

  19. Removal of radioactive cesium from soil by ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Shunji; Kitakouji, Manabu; Taga, Atsushi; Ogata, Fumihiko; Ouchi, Hidekazu; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Inagaki, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive cesium has strongly bound soil as time proceeded, which could not be cleaved in mild condition. We have found that serial treatment of ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid removed radioactive cesium from soil effectively. The sequence of the treatment is crucial, since inverse serial treatment or mixture of two kinds of solution did not show such an effect, which suggested that ammonium citrate unlocked trapped cesium in soil and ionic liquid solved it. We also found that repeating serial treatment and prolonged treatment time additively removed cesium from soil. (author)

  20. Fabrication of porous tungsten oxide via anodizing in an ammonium nitrate/ethylene glycol/water mixture for visible light-driven photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of a nanoporous tungsten oxide film via anodizing of tungsten in an ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)/ethylene glycol (EG)/water (H2O) mixture is reported for use as a visible light-driven photocatalyst. Anodizing of tungsten in a 1.0 M NH4NO3/EG solution containing less than 0.1 vol% H2O resulted in active dissolution of the tungsten substrate. As the H2O concentration increased to more than 25 vol%, a thin barrier oxide film was formed on the tungsten substrate. A thick porous tungsten oxide with numerous nanopores measuring several tens of nanometer in diameter was fabricated via anodizing at a moderate H2O concentration of 1.0 vol%. The porous oxide consisted of a double-layered structure with an outer porous layer and an inner dense layer, and the outer porous layer became thinner as the NH4NO3 concentration decreased. A uniform porous oxide film from the top surface to the bottom interface was fabricated via anodizing at 20 V in a 0.02 M NH4NO3/EG solution containing 1.0 vol% H2O at 313 K. The porous tungsten oxide exhibited visible light-driven photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue.

  1. Thermodynamic and kinetic verification of tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) as a promoter for the clathrate process applicable to precombustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Yao, Minghuang; Datta, Stuti; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-03-18

    In this study, tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) is evaluated as a promoter for precombustion capture of CO2 via hydrate formation. New hydrate phase equilibrium data for fuel gas (CO2/H2) mixture in presence of TBANO3 of various concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.7 mol % was determined and presented. Heat of hydrate dissociation was calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation and as the concentration of TBANO3 increases, the heat of hydrate dissociation also increases. Kinetic performance of TBANO3 as a promoter at different concentrations was evaluated at 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. Based on induction time, gas uptake, separation factor, hydrate phase CO2 composition, and rate of hydrate growth, 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution was found to be the optimum concentration at the experimental conditions of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K for gas hydrate formation. A 93.0 mol % CO2 rich stream can be produced with a gas uptake of 0.0132 mol of gas/mol of water after one stage of hydrate formation in the presence of 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution. Solubility measurements and microscopic images of kinetic measurements provide further insights to understand the reason for 1.0 mol % TBANO3 to be the optimum concentration.

  2. Accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, Takashi; Maruishi, Yoshihiro (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works); Aritomi, Masanori; Kawa, Tunemichi

    1993-05-01

    An accurate volume measurement system for a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution stored in a reprocessing or a conversion plant has been developed at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) Tokai Works. A pair of differential digital quartz pressure transducers is utilized in the volume measurement system. To obtain high accuracy, it is important that the non-linearity of the transducer is minimized within the measurement range, the zero point is stabilized, and the damping property of the pneumatic line is designed to minimize pressure oscillation. The accuracy of the pressure measurement can always be within 2Pa with re-calibration once a year. In the PCDF, the overall uncertainty of the volume measurement has been evaluated to be within 0.2 %. This system has been successfully applied to the Japanese government's and IAEA's routine inspection since 1984. (author).

  3. Removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions using alkali-modified biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars converted from agricultural residuals can effectively remove ammonium from water. This work further improved the sorption ability of biochars to aqueous ammonium through alkali modification. Three modified biochars were prepared from agricultural residuals pre-treated with NaOH solution through low-temperature (300 °C slow pyrolysis. The modified biochars effectively removed ammonium ions from water under various conditions with relatively fast adsorption kinetics (reached equilibrium within 10 h and extremely high adsorption capacity (>200 mg/g. The Langmuir maximum capacity of the three modified biochars were between 313.9 and 518.9 mg/g, higher than many other ammonium adsorbents. Although the sorption of ammonium onto the modified biochar was affected by pH and temperature, it was high under all of the tested conditions. Findings from this work indicated that alkali-modified biochars can be used as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of ammonium from wastewater.

  4. Assimilation of 15N-labelled urea nitrogen and ammonium nitrate nitrogen by plants in case of root and non-root fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Eh.A.; Kozhemyachko, V.A.; Vernichenko, I.V.

    1974-01-01

    Assimilation of 15 N labeled urea and ammonium nitrate in root and foliar application by spring wheat and barley has been studied during 1970-1973 period in a series of vegetative experiments at the Department of Agrochemistry, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and at D.N. Pryanishnikov Experimental Agrochemical Station. Additional fertilizer nitrogen applied at later ontogenesis stages (flowering and milky ripeness) is utilized mostly for protein synthesis in developing grains, thus leading to a significant increase in the relative grain protein content. A transfer of a part of nitrogen from the main ortion of fertilizer at later stages of nitrition results, at the same time, in a lower yield. Nitrogen utilization degree of urea and ammonium nitrate, when introduced before sowing or at the flowering stage is similar but in the latter case, however, additional assimilation of soil nitrogen is lower. The assimilation rate of nitrogen in root application is the lower the later the fertilizer is applied. When ammonium nitrate is additionally applied as nutrition to barley at the milky ripeness stage, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are assimilated at the same rate and to the same extent but ammonia nitrogen is more rapidly used for protein synthesis and the rate of its transfer to the developing grains is higher. The rate of nitrogen assimilation at plant is much higher in foliar than in root application. Wheat utilizes more urea nitrogen at the flowering stage when root application is used but at the milky ripeness stage foliar application is more effective

  5. Removal of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate from aqueous solutions in packed bed filter using biochar augmented sand media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hanandeh Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients from wastewater are a major source of pollution because they can cause significant impact on the ecosystem. Accordingly, it is important that the nutrient concentrations are kept to admissible levels to the receiving environment. Often regulatory limits are set on the maximum allowable concentrations in the effluent. Therefore, wastewater must be treated to meet safe levels of discharge. In this study, laboratory investigation of the efficiency of packed bed filters to remove nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solutions were conducted. Sand and sand augmented with hydrochloric acid treated biochar (SBC were used as packing media. Synthetic wastewater solution was prepared with PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ concentrations 20, 10, 50 mg/L, respectively. Each experiment ran for a period of five days; samples from the effluent were collected on alternate days. All experiments were duplicated. Over the experiment period, the average removal efficiency of PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ were 99.2%, 72.9%, 96.7% in the sand packed columns and 99.2%, 82.3%, 97.4% in the SBC packed columns, respectively. Although, the presence of biochar in the packing media had little effect on phosphate and ammonium removal, it significantly improved nitrate removal.

  6. Soil nematode responses to fertilization with ammonium nitrate after six years of unfertilized apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Azpilicueta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A nematode community was used as a bioindicator of changes in agroecosystems caused by fertilization. The effect of applying nitrogen (N fertilizer on a soil nematode community structure was studied in a soil which had not been fertilized for six years in the Rio Negro Valley, Argentina. Treatments were: i 100 kg N ha-1 (N100; ii 200 kg N ha-1 (N200; in each case 50% of the dosage was applied at the time of petal fall and 50% at fruit harvest in 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007 growing seasons; and iii control with no fertilizer (N0. Soil samples were collected in the 0 to 30 cm soil layer in October, November, April and July in each growing season. The number of bacterivores increased in N200 compared to N0. Cephalobidae were present in greater numbers in N200 than in N100 and N0. Predator abundance was lower under N200, after the first N application in each growing season. The ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (F/B was 0.21, 0.3 and 0.41 in N200, N100 and N0, respectively. N200 resulted in a community with a lower maturity index (MI than N0. Structure index (SI was lower in N200 than N100 and N0. The enrichment index (EI was less sensitive at detecting fertilizer effects. In November and April, soil nitrate concentrations were higher in N200 than in N100 and N0. Soil nitrate concentration was positively correlated with EI and negatively with MI, SI and F/B. N200 affected the trophic structure of the nematode community consistent with a less stable soil system.

  7. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions using Ammonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    of lead from aqueous solution onto untreated orange barks, Chem. Engin. Trans., 2013, 32, 55–60. 36 E.N.Bakatula, Biofunctionalisation and Influence on Remediation capacity of Bentonite and Zeolite for Metal Remediation in Gold Mine and Tailing. Water, Ph.D. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,.

  8. Impact of orchard and tillage management practices on soil leaching of atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Lipiec, J.; Siczek, A.; Kotowska, U.; Nosalewicz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The experiments were carried out on an Orthic Luvisol developed from loess, over limestone, at the experimental field of Lublin Agricultural University in Felin (51o15'N, 22o35'E), Poland. The investigation deals with the problems of leaching's rate of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,2,3-triazine), potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates from two management systems of soil: (i) conventionally tilled field with main tillage operations including stubble cultivator (10 cm) + harrowing followed by mouldboard ploughing to 20 cm depth, and crop rotation including selected cereals, root crops and papillionaceous crops, (ii) 35-year-old apple orchard field (100x200m) with a permanent sward that was mown in the inter-rows during the growing season. The conventionally tilled plot was under the current management practice for approximately 30 years. Field sites were close to each other (about 150 m). Core samples of 100 cm3 volume and 5 cm diameter were taken from two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, and were used to determine the soil water characteristic curve. It was observed that management practices impacted on the physic-chemical properties of soils. pH (in H2O) in tilled soil ranged from 5.80 to 5.91. However soil of orchard soil revealed higher values of pH than tilled soil and ranged from 6.36 to 6.40. The content of organic carbon for tilled soil ranged from 1.13 to 1.17%, but in orchard soil from 1.59 to 1.77%. Tillled soil showed broader range of bulk density 1.38-1.62 mg m-3, than orchard soil 1.33-134 mg m-3. The first-order kinetic reaction model was fitted to the experimental atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates leaching vs. time data. The concentrations of leached chemical compounds revealed linear curves. The correlation coefficients ranged from -0.873 to -0.993. The first-order reaction constants measured for the orchard soils were from 3.8 to 19 times higher than

  9. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: Theoretical modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernyshev, A.V.; Tarasov, P.A.; Semianov, K.A.; Nekrasov, V.M.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Maltsev, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane,

  10. Uptake, transport and distribution of molybdenum in two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under different nitrate/ammonium ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shi-Yu; Sun, Xue-Cheng; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Tan, Qi-Ling; Zhao, Xiao-Hu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of different nitrate sources on the uptake, transport, and distribution of molybdenum (Mo) between two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars, L0917 and ZS11. A hydroponic culture experiment was conducted with four nitrate/ammonium (NO 3 - :NH 4 + ) ratios (14:1, 9:6, 7.5:7.5, and 1:14) at a constant nitrogen concentration of 15 mmol/L. We examined Mo concentrations in roots, shoots, xylem and phloem sap, and subcellular fractions of leaves to contrast Mo uptake, transport, and subcellular distribution between ZS11 and L0917. Both the cultivars showed maximum biomass and Mo accumulation at the 7.5:7.5 ratio of NO 3 - :NH 4 + while those were decreased by the 14:1 and 1:14 treatments. However, the percentages of root Mo (14.8% and 15.0% for L0917 and ZS11, respectively) were low under the 7.5:7.5 treatment, suggesting that the equal NO 3 - :NH 4 + ratio promoted Mo transportation from root to shoot. The xylem sap Mo concentration and phloem sap Mo accumulation of L0917 were lower than those of ZS11 under the 1:14 treatment, which suggests that higher NO 3 - :NH 4 + ratio was more beneficial for L0917. On the contrary, a lower NO 3 - :NH 4 + ratio was more beneficial for ZS11 to transport and remobilize Mo. Furthermore, the Mo concentrations of both the cultivars' leaf organelles were increased but the Mo accumulations of the cell wall and soluble fraction were reduced significantly under the 14:1 treatment, meaning that more Mo was accumulated in organelles under the highest NO 3 - :NH 4 + ratio. This investigation demonstrated that the capacities of Mo absorption, transportation and subcellular distribution play an important role in genotype-dependent differences in Mo accumulation under low or high NO 3 - :NH 4 + ratio conditions.

  11. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  12. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (phaeophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, K.C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Inst., St. Croix, US Virgin Islands); Wheeler, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    NH/sub 4//sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake were measured by continuous sampling with an autoanalyzer. For Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux, NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake followed saturable kinetics (K/sub s/ = 4.9 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 2.85 ..mu..g-at N-g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/). The ammonium uptake data fit a truncated hyperbola, i.e., saturation was not reached at the concentrations used, NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake was reduced one-half in the presence of NH/sub 4//sup +/, but presence of NO/sub 3//sup -/ had no effect on NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake. Darkness reduced both NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake by one-third to one-half. For Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh. NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake followed saturable kinetics; K/sub s/ = 13.1 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 3.05 ..mu..g-at N.g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/. NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake showed saturable kinetics at concentrations below 22 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/(K/sub s/ = 5.3 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 2.38 ..mu..g-at N g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/); at higher concentrations uptake increased linearly with concentration. NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ were taken up simultaneously; presence of one form did not affect uptake of the other.

  13. Chemical preparation of PLZT powders from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    PLZT powders were prepared from an aqueous nitrate solution by three methods. They were fine, chemically homogeneous and amorphous. The particle morphologies, however, were very different due to the different physico-chemical coprecipitation conditions. Traditional method provided fine hydroxide coprecipitates, but they agglomerated strongly during drying. When a small amount of hydrogen peroxide was added prior to hydrolysis it converted the hydroxide coprecipitates into hydrate oxides and/or hydrate peroxides and seems to reduce bridge and non-ridging hydroxo groups in coprecipitates. The effect of shape size and the state of agglomeration are qualitatively explained by the chemistry that the more the linkage of bridge hydroxo group develops in the precipitate, the rigider precipitate becomes and that interparticle surface condensation involving non-bridging hydroxo groups is associated with the aggregation of particles during drying. Particle morphologies and related physical characteristics -'drop' density, 'tap' density, and adsorption-desorption isotherm were quite different between method(2) and (3). The process of precipitation (nucleation, growth and agglomeration in the solution) markedly affected the state of the agglomeration of coprecipitates. Method(3) involving the additive and liquid-gas interface reaction provided the most weakly agglomerated powder. The behavior of crystallization and the development of microstructure during calcination were examined as characterization criteria obtaining sinterable powder. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  16. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172.167 Section 172.167 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Study of precipitation kinetics of vanadium compounds from the solutions of ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fofarov, A.A.; Sukhov, A.A.; Batrakova, L.Kh.; Ostashko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    To select the regime of vanadium deposition from ammonium sulfate solutions the dependence of deposition rate on the concentration of reacting components and conditions of the process course. The maximum deposition rate of vanadium compounds proved to be at pH 2.0-2.2. With an increase in ammonium sulfate content from 0 to 80-100 g/dm 3 the deposition rate decreases by a factor of 2. With an increase in the temperature by each 10 deg C in the temperature range of 70-90 deg C vanadium deposition rate at the same supersaturation increases by a factor of 1.72. Kinetic equation of vanadium deposition in the presence of 80 g/dm 3 ammonium sulfate is obtained

  18. Analyses of ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of solid polymer electrolyte based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose doped ammonium nitrate plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiza, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (2-HEC) doped ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) has been investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The highest ionic conductivity of (1.17±0.01) × 10-3 Scm-1 was obtained for 2-HEC-NH4NO3 plasticized with 16 wt.% EC. Dielectric and modulus study showed non-Debye type of 2-HEC-NH4NO3-EC SPE.

  19. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  20. Sequential diffusion of ammonium and nitrate from soil extracts to a polytetrafluoroethylene trap for 15N determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel diffusion method was used for preparation of NH4+- and NO3--N samples from soil extracts for N-15 determination. Ammonium, and nitrate following reduction to ammonia, are allowed to diffuse to an acid-wetted glass filter enclosed in polytetrafluoroethylene tape. The method was evaluated w......-degrees-C). Owing to the presence of inorganic nitrogen impurities in the potassium chloride, the N-15 enrichments should be corrected for the blank nitrogen content....

  1. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Ether bond effects in quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid-propanol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kohki, Erica; Nakada, Ayumu; Tamatani, Kentaro; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid (IL)-propanol solutions were examined. The ILs contained cations with or without ether bonds; the anion in all the ILs was bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-). The cations without ether groups are tributylmethyl ammonium (N4441+), triethylpentyl phosphonium (P2225+), triethyloctyl phosphonium (P2228+), and tributylmethyl phosphonium (P4441+). The cations containing ether groups are N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium, (N122(2O1)+), triethyl(methoxymethyl) phosphonium (P222(1O1)+), and triethyl(2-methoxyethyl) phosphonium, (P222(2O1)+). Propanol isomer effect was observed to affect the LLEs, reflecting the geometrical factors and hydrophobicities of 1-propanol and 2-propanol. According to Raman spectroscopy, the TFSI- anion conformers in the mixtures were altered in the presence of ether bonds in the cations. The universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) interaction parameters are consistent with significant factors affecting IL-propanol solutions, such as the type of cation (ammonium or phosphonium), ether bonds, TFSI- conformers, and propanol isomer effects.

  3. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions below Danish forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Nitrate in the soil water below the root zone is a pre-condition for nitrate leaching, and it indicates loss of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Nitrate leaching may potentially cause eutrophication of surface water and contamination of ground water. In order to evaluate the extent of nitrate...... at this depth. The range of nitrate concentrations was 0-141 mg NO3-N dm(-3) and the estimated mean value was 1.51 mg NO3--N dm(-3). The concentration was influenced by (1) forest size (concentrations in forests 50 ha), (2) forest-type (afforested arable land...... below the root zone was mostly rather low, indicating that, generally, N saturation has not yet occurred in Danish forest ecosystems. However, median concentrations exceeding drinking water standards (11.3 mg NO3--N dm(-3)) were found at 7% of the sites. Furthermore, 30% of the sites had median...

  4. Comparison of different ecological remediation methods for removing nitrate and ammonium in Qinshui River, Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Zhengkui; Han, Huayang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological remediation is one of the most practical methods for removing nutrients from river ecosystems. In this study, transformation and fate of nitrate and ammonium among four different ecological restoration treatments were investigated by stable 15 N isotope pairing technique combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing technology. The results of 15 N mass-balance model showed that there were three ways to the fate of nitrogen: precipitated in the sediment, absorbed by Elodea nuttallii (E. nuttallii), and consumed by microbial processes (denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)). The results shown that the storage of 15 NH 4 + in sediments was about 1.5 times as much as that of 15 NO 3 - . And much more 15 NH 4 + was assimilated by E. nuttallii, about 2 times as much as 15 NO 3 - . Contrarily, the rate of microbial consuming 15 NO 3 - was higher than converting 15 NH 4 + . As for the group with 15 NO 3 - added, 29.61, 45.26, 30.66, and 51.95 % were accounted for 15 N-labeled gas emission. The proportions of 15 NH 4 + loss as 15 N-labeled gas were 16.06, 28.86, 16.93, and 33.09 % in four different treatments, respectively. Denitrification and anammox were the bacterial primary processes in N 2 and N 2 O production. The abundances of denitrifying and anammox functional genes were relatively higher in the treatment with E. nuttallii-immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (E-INCB) assemblage technology applied. Besides, microbial diversity increased in the treatment with E. nuttallii and INCB added. The 15 NO 3 - removal rates were 35.27, 49.42, 50.02, and 65.46 % in four different treatments. And the removal rates of 15 NH 4 + were 24, 34.38, 48.84, and 57.74 % in treatments A, B, C, and D, respectively. The results indicated that E-INCB assemblage technology could significantly promote the nitrogen cycling and improve nitrogen removal efficiency.

  5. Anion-exchange method of ammonium paratungstate production from sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmogorov, A.G.; Vaneeva, T.D.; Yurkevich, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    An anion exchange method is suggested for producing ammonium paratungstate from soda solutions for industrial testing. The suggested method allows the process cycle ot be reduced as a result of sorption of tungsten on anionite, followed by desorption of tungsten in form of ammonium tungstate, and by the recovery of the anionite by the solution of a mineral acid. The sorption of tungsten has been carried out in columns having the counter-flow gravitational motion, the desorption in a suspended layer of ionite. It has been established that for the sorption of tungsten it is desirable to use AN-80 P anionite, and that it is expedient to carry out the process with the use of solutions having pH=4 to 2.5. The apparatus flowsheet is presented of an enlarged setup for the production of ammonium paratugstate from the solutions of sodium tungstate. As compared with the deposition method, an increase in the yield of tungsten is achieved by a value of 1.3 to 1.5%. The economical efficiency of the developed method amounts to about 330 rubles per ton of tungsten anhydride

  6. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  7. Parameterization of N2O5 reaction probabilities on the surface of particles containing ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bhave

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization was developed for the heterogeneous reaction probability (γ of N2O5 as a function of temperature, relative humidity (RH, particle composition, and phase state, for use in advanced air quality models. The reaction probabilities on aqueous NH4HSO4, (NH42SO4, and NH4NO3 were modeled statistically using data and uncertainty values compiled from seven different laboratory studies. A separate regression model was fit to laboratory data for dry NH4HSO4 and (NH42SO4 particles, yielding lower γ values than the corresponding aqueous parameterizations. The regression equations reproduced 80% of the laboratory data within a factor of two and 63% within a factor of 1.5. A fixed value was selected for γ on ice-containing particles based on a review of the literature. The combined parameterization was applied under atmospheric conditions representative of the eastern United States using 3-dimensional fields of temperature, RH, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The resulting spatial distributions of γ were contrasted with three other parameterizations that have been applied in air quality models in the past and with atmospheric observational determinations of γ. Our equations lay the foundation for future research that will parameterize the suppression of γ when inorganic ammoniated particles are mixed or coated with organic material. Our analyses draw attention to a major uncertainty in the available laboratory data at high RH and highlight a critical need for future laboratory measurements of γ at low temperature and high RH to improve model simulations of N2O5 hydrolysis during wintertime conditions.

  8. Continuing Assessment of the 5-Day Sodium Carbonate-Ammonium Nitrate Extraction Assay as an Indicator Test for Silicon Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Wendy; Friedrich, Russell L; Kim, Sujin; Sturtz, Douglas; Frantz, Jonathan; Altland, James; Krause, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The 5-day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay (5-day method) has been recognized by the American Association of Plant Food Control Officials as a validated test method to identify fertilizers or beneficial substances that provide plant-available silicon (Si). The test method used the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay to quantify percentage Si; however, laboratories may use inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for elemental analysis. To examine the use of either colorimetric or ICP-OES methods for Si determination, the 5-day method was performed on the following Si-containing compounds; wollastonite, sand, biochar, and a basic oven furnace (BOF) slag. Grow-out studies using Zinnia elegans were also performed using varying rates of the wollastonite, biochar, and BOF slag. Our results show using the 5-day method, wollastonite had the highest extracted amounts of silicic acid (H4SiO4) at 4% followed by biochar (2%), BOF slag (1%), and sand (0%). Extraction values calculated using either the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay or ICP-OES for detection of the H4SiO4 had a significant correlation, supporting the application of either detection method for this type of analysis. However, when extracted values were compared to amounts of Si taken up by the plants, the 5-day method overestimated both wollastonite and biochar. While this method is a valid indicator test for determining a soluble Si source, other plant species and methods should be perused to potentially provide more quantitative analyses for plant-available Si content of all materials.

  9. Facile synthesis of ammonium vanadate nanofibers by using reflux in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Hun [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Jun Mo [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Ammonium vanadate nanofibers were synthesized by simple reflux method in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate without relying on surfactants, catalysts, harmful solvents and autoclave. The degree of intercalation by cationic ammonium ions into the crystal structure of vanadium oxide along with its change in chemical composition were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR). The morphological changes toward nanofiber structure, having diameter of 20–30 nm and a few μm length, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of synthetic conditions, such as reaction time and concentration of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), on the crystal structures and morphologies of the resulting products have investigated. As a result, the ammonium vanadate nanofiber was formed in a short reaction time through a simple reflux method and yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate nanofiber (AVFr) was prepared by simple reflux method. • AVFr yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. • The electrical conductivity was improved by the increased amount of ammonium ion. • Sulfate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) play a crucial role in controlling the morphology of nanofiber.

  10. Low concentrations of nitrate and ammonium stimulate nodulation and N-2 fixation while inhibiting specific nodulation (nodule DW g(-1) root dry weight) and specific N-2 fixation (N-2 fixed g(-1) root dry weight) in soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    Nitrate N is a major inhibitor of the soybean/Bradyrhizobium symbiosis in legumes and although this inhibition has been studied for many years, as yet no consensus has been reached on the specific and quantitative interactions between nitrate and ammonium supply and N-2 fixation. The effect of

  11. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang.

  12. Critical experiments on STACY homogeneous core containing 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamane, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shouichi

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate criticality properties of low enriched uranyl nitrate solution treated in the reprocessing facility for LWR fuel cycle, systematic and high precision critical experiments have been performed at the Static Experiment Critical Facility, STACY since 1995. Criticality benchmark data on 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution for single core and multiple core systems have been accumulated using cylindrical and slab type core tanks. This paper overviews mains data and related criticality calculation results using standard criticality safety calculation code system. (author)

  13. Formation of the second organic phase during uranyl nitrate extraction from aqueous solution by 30% tributylphosphate solution in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yhrkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    For extraction systems aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate-30% solution of tributylphosphate in individual paraffins from C 13 to C 17 the influence of the second organic phase of uranyl nitrate concentration in aqueous and organic phases, the length of hydrocarbon chain of paraffin hydrocarbon and temperature from 25 to 50 deg C on formation conditions has been defected. A special method of achieving the conditions of organic phase stratification from three-phase region, involving definition of equilibrium phases composition by density and refractive index, has been elaborated for more precise definition of organic phase homogeneity region. It has been revealed that without addition of nitric acid to uranyl nitrate solution the organic phase homogeneity limits can be achieved solely on paraffins C 15 , C 16 and C 17 and only under conditions similar to equeous phase saturation in terms of uranyl nitrate. 16 refs., 2 figs

  14. Study of rare earth complexing in aqueous nitrate solutions by the extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Shokin, V.V.; Fomin, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    According to the data of the extraction method with the use of 0.5M solution of naphthenic acid in toluene as extragent determined is the composition and calculated are the concentration and thermodynamic constants of stability of Ce(3) and Eu nitrate com lexes, determined are the boundapes of Ce(3) and Eu nitrate complexes existence in aqueous perchlorate-nitrate solutions of sodium salts in the wide range of ion forces (μ=1-7) at (20+-1) deg C

  15. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  16. Electrosynthesis of 3-Nitrophenotiazine. Nitration in Non-Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Perlo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The nitration of Phenothiazine (PHEN in acetonitrile (ACN in the presence of excess NaNO2 has been studied in detail. First, the electrochemical behavior of the reactants was investigated by cyclic voltammetry to determine the electrolysis conditions. Controlledpotential electrolysis was used for the electrosynthesis.

  17. Glyoxal in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions: products, kinetics and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Bayer, Amanda R; Galloway, Melissa M; Korshavn, Kyle J; Fry, Charles G; Keutsch, Frank N

    2011-08-01

    Reactions and interactions between glyoxal and salts in aqueous solution were studied. Glyoxal was found to react with ammonium to form imidazole, imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, formic acid, N-glyoxal substituted imidazole, and minor products at very low concentrations. Overall reaction orders and rates for each major product were measured. Sulfate ions have a strong and specific interaction with glyoxal in aqueous solution, which shifts the hydration equilibria of glyoxal from the unhydrated carbonyl form to the hydrated form. This ion-specific effect contributes to the observed enhancement of the effective Henry's law coefficient for glyoxal in sulfate-containing solutions. The results of UV-vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy studies of solutions of glyoxal with ammonium, methylamine, and dimethylamine salts reveal that light absorbing compounds require the formation of nitrogen containing molecules. These findings have implications on the role of glyoxal in the atmosphere, both in models of the contribution of glyoxal to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the role of nitrogen containing species for aerosol optical properties and in predictions of the behavior of other carbonyls or dicarbonyls in the atmosphere.

  18. Effectiveness of Ammonium-Nitrogen and Nitrate-Nitrogen in Irrigation Water in Paddy Rice without Topdressed Nitrogen at the Panicle Formation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 元輝; 渡辺, 孝賢; Ikeda, Motoki; Watanabe, Takayasu

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium- and nitrate- nitrogen contained in irrigation water during the reproductive growth period of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hinohikari) that did not receive topdressed nitrogen at the panicle formation stage. lrrigation of water containing a low level of nitrogen (7mgNL^-1) did not increase yields so much compared to topdressed nitrogen. lrrigation of water containing a high level of nitrogen (14mgNL^-1) caused substantia...

  19. Mechanistic studies of nitrations and oxidations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmer, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of nitrations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid of 1,2,4-trichloro-5-nitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene have been proposed. The kinetics and products of the nitration, in the title medium, of substantially deactivated benzoic acids and benzaldehydes have been investigated. Kinetics of nitration of some substituted benzoic acids in nitric acid solutions containing dinitrogen pentaoxide or nitronium trifluoro-methanesulphonate (nitronium triflate) have been compared. Rate coefficients for reactions in dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions were generally similar to those from nitronium triflate solutions of the same estimated nitronium ion concentration. Yields of aromatic products of nitration of some benzoic acid derivatives in the nitric acid solutions have been determined. Nitrodecarboxylation of 4-fluorobenzoic acid occurs as a result of nitronium ion attach at C(1). The competition between oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid and nitration in the aromatic ring of some substituted benzaldehydes has been probed by kinetic and product studies. 4-Carboxybenzaldehyde is nitrated but more deactivated substrates are predominantly oxidized. Rapid reversible gem-dinitrate formation occurs in concentrated dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions. The equilibrium extent of formation of [alpha]-deuterio-(4-nitropheny)-dinitratomethane from [alpha]-deuterio-4-nitrobenzaldehyde is reported. 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and the gem-dinitrate are oxidized in processes in which [alpha]-hydrogen loss is at least partially rate determining. The relative rates of oxidation in nitronium triflate solutions suggest that the [alpha]-hydrogen is removed as a hydride ion in that medium. There is evidence for the intrusion of a radical mechanism of nitration in concentrated solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide. (4-Nitrophenyl)dinitratomethane was produced on the addition of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to a solution of dinitrogen pentaoxide in dichloromethane.

  20. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  1. Performance of sulphonic cation exchangers in the recovery of ammonium from basic and slight acidic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeniene, A; Kauspediene, D; Snukiskis, J

    2006-07-31

    Two sulphonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene cation exchangers (gel type Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH and macroporous Purolite C160 MBH) have been investigated for NH(4)(+) ions uptake from the ammonium-rich simulated solutions, corresponding to the caustic condensate of the nitrogen fertilizers production. One component (NH(3) or NH(4)NO(3)) solutions and the mixtures with varying molar ratio of these compounds have been used at the total concentration 0.214 mol/L. Batch and column experiments have been conducted to establish the influence of the matrix structure on the performance of the cation exchangers investigated during the sorption and the desorption. Batch sorption isotherms and breakthrough curves have shown the similar behaviour of the cation exchangers in the removal of NH(4)(+) and NH(3). On decreasing the influent pH from 11.4 to 5.74 a decrease in breakthrough capacity (BC) from 2.57 to 1.93 mol/L was observed. The distribution coefficients (K(d)), calculated from the batch sorption isotherms, are higher for the basic feed solution than for slightly acidic one. Both the degree of the cation exchanger regeneration (N/N(0)) and the efficiency of the NH(4)(+) ions recovery (N(R)), obtained using 0.7 bed volume (BV) of eluent (20% nitric acid) are lower for Purolite C 160 MBH than those for Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH. Using 5 BV of eluent the efficiency of the ammonium recovery amounted to 100% for both cation exchangers investigated. With respect to the efficiency of NH(4)(+) ions sorption and regeneration cation exchangers investigated are applicable for the recovery of ammonium ions from caustic condensate in the nitrogen fertilizers production.

  2. Effect of Ammonium Chloride Solution on the Growth of Phosphorus Gypsum Whisker and Its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouwei Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is the by-product of phosphate of fertilizer or phosphate which causes serious environmental pollution. In this work, a series of phosphogypsum whiskers were prepared using phosphogypsum as raw materials and NH4Cl as additive through the atmospheric water solution method. The results showed that the ammonium chloride solution has a great influence on phosphogypsum whiskers growth and the solubility. The best whisker aspect ratio of phosphogypsum was preferred in 1 mol/L NH4Cl solution, in which the solubility achieved 6.434 mg/mL and the aspect ratio reached 69.29. Besides, NH4Cl was found to have a modified effect on gypsum whiskers’ growth and it can be used to get mesh or dendritic whiskers.

  3. PEG 400/Cerium Ammonium Nitrate Combined with Microwave-Assisted Synthesis for Rapid Access to Beta-Amino Ketones. An Easy-to-Use Protocol for Discovering New Hit Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compound libraries are important requirement in target-based drug discovery. In the present work, a small focused compound library based on β-aminoketone scaffold has been prepared combining microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS with polymer-assisted solution phase synthesis (PASPS and replacing reaction workup standard purification procedures with solid phase extraction (SPE. Specifically, the effects of solvent, such as dioxane, dimethylformamide (DMF, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400, temperature, irradiation time, stoichiometric ratio of reagents, and catalysts (HCl, acetic acid, cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN were investigated to maximize both conversion and yield. The optimized protocol generally afforded the desired products in satisfying yields and purities. The designed library is a part of our current research on sigma 1 receptor modulators, a valuable tool for the identification of novel potential hit compounds.

  4. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  5. Development of an on-line source-tagged model for sulfate, nitrate and ammonium: A modeling study for highly polluted periods in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Qian; Li, Jie; Xu, Jianming; Chen, HuanSheng; Ge, Baozhu; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu

    2017-02-01

    An on-line source-tagged model coupled with an air quality model (Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) was applied to estimate source contributions of primary and secondary sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) during a representative winter period in Shanghai. This source-tagged model system could simultaneously track spatial and temporal sources of SNA, which were apportioned to their respective primary precursors in a simulation run. The results indicate that in the study period, local emissions in Shanghai accounted for over 20% of SNA contributions and that Jiangsu and Shandong were the two major non-local sources. In particular, non-local emissions had higher contributions during recorded pollution periods. This suggests that the transportation of pollutants plays a key role in air pollution in Shanghai. The temporal contributions show that the emissions from the "current day" (emission contribution from the current day during which the model was simulating) contributed 60%-70% of the sulfate and ammonium concentrations but only 10%-20% of the nitrate concentration, while the previous days' contributions increased during the recorded pollution periods. Emissions that were released within three days contributed over 85% averagely for SNA in January 2013. To evaluate the source-tagged model system, the results were compared by sensitivity analysis (emission perturbation of -30%) and backward trajectory analysis. The consistency of the comparison results indicated that the source-tagged model system can track sources of SNA with reasonable accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  7. The dependence of radiolytic H2 generation of the nitrate concentration in high-level solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.; Bibler, N.E.

    1991-11-19

    The rate at which hydrogen is produced from the radiolysis of high-activity waste solutions depends on the radiation dose rate to the solution and the concentration of nitrate ion in solution. At a constant dose rate, the hydrogen generation rate decreases as the nitrate ion concentration increases. Using previously measured rates of hydrogen production, an equation has been derived which calculates the hydrogen generation rate when the nitrate ion concentration is known. The hydrogen generation rate from this equation can be used to more accurately predict hydrogen production in waste tanks than is currently obtained assuming a fixed generation rate. The current fixed rate underestimates the hydrogen produced in dilute waste solutions.

  8. Effect of hydrolysis of N2O5 on nitrate and ammonium formation in Beijing China: WRF-Chem model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Long, Xin; Xu, Ruiguang

    2017-02-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, is a mega city with a population of >20 million. In recent years, the city has experienced heavy air pollution, with particulate matter (PM) being one of its top pollutants. In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to characterize the sources, properties, and processes of PM in Beijing. Despite progress made by previous studies, there are still some important questions to be answered and addressed. The focus of this research is to study the impact of the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N 2 O 5 on the formation of nitrate (NO 3 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) in Beijing. The results show that during heavy pollution days (e.g., during 14-17 September 2015, with PM 2.5 concentration over 100μg/m 3 ), the concentrations of NO 2 and O 3 were high, with maxima of 90 and 240μg/m 3 , respectively, providing high precursors for the formation of N 2 O 5 . In addition, the aerosol and sulfate concentrations were also high, with maxima of 201μg/m 3 and 23μg/m 3 respectively, providing reacting surface for the heterogeneous reaction. As a result, the hydrolysis of N 2 O 5 led to 21.0% enhancement of nitrate (NO 3 - ) and 7.5% enhancement of ammonium (NH 4 + ). It is worth to note that this important effect only occurred in high pollution days (PM 2.5 concentration over 100μg/m 3 ). During low-pollution periods (PM 2.5 concentration ammonium was insignificant (variation rate <5%). This study suggests that during heavy pollution periods, the hydrolysis of N 2 O 5 enhances the level of aerosol pollution in Beijing, and needs to be further studied in order to perform efficient air pollution control and mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  10. Enthalpy of solution of rubidium nitrate in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weintraub, R.; Apelblat, A.; Tamir, A.

    1984-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of solution of RbNO 3 in water at 298.15 K were measured in an LKB calorimeter. The molar enthalpies of solution extrapolated to infinite solution are: (36788 +- 30)J. mol -1 (Alfa) and (36539 +- 52)J.mol -1 (Aldrich). (author)

  11. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  12. Comparision of Chitosan Function as Adsorbent for Nitrate Removal Using Synthetic Aqueous Solution and Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Norisepehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nitrate and nitrite compounds pollution of groundwater resources in recent years which recently their mean concentration due to enhancement of different kind of municipal, industrial and agriculture waste water, were increased. The most common source of nitrates entering the water include chemical fertilizers and animal manure in agriculture, septic tank effluent, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, animal and plant residue analysis on the ground of non-sanitary disposal of solid waste and the use of absorbing wells for sewage disposal. Materials and methods: This experimental study is applied to the nitrate removal using chitosan in laboratory scale at ambient temperature and the design of the system was Batch. Effects of parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent concentration of nitrate on nitrate removal from aqueous solution was studied. Results: Function of chitosan in synthetic aqueous solution and drinking water according to the slurry system results, the optimum condition was obtained at pH=4, 20 min contact time and increasing the initial concentration of nitrate enhance the adsorption capacity of chitosan. Also optimum dosage of adsorbent was obtained at 0.5 g/l. The data obtained from the experiments of adsorbent isotherm were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir equation was found to be the best fitness with the experimental data (R2>0.93. Conclusion: Although efficiency of Nitrate removal in synthetic aqueous solution was better than drinking water, adsorption process using chitosan as an option for the design and selection nitrate removal should be considered in order to achieve environmental standards.

  13. Electrochemical processing of WC-Ni pseudo alloys in sulfuric acid solutions to ammonium paratungstate and nickel(II) sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntyj, O.I.; Ivashkiv, V.R.; Yavorskij, V.T.; Zozulya, G.I.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolysis of a WC-Ni pseudo alloy in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was studied to develop a method for secondary tungsten waste utilization. A flowsheet for production of ammonium paratungstate and nickel(II) sulfate is suggested, in which the process solutions are recycled. The major electrolysis parameters are presented [ru

  14. Radiolysis of concentrated solution of nitrate and formate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickel, Bernard

    1970-08-01

    We have studied the influence of specific scavengers of solvated electron, the potassium nitrate and of OH radical, the sodium formate on the decomposition on water submitted to γ rays. By the analysis of the final products we have been able to determine the radical and molecular yields in function of the concentration of the scavengers and compare their evolution with the theoretical prediction of the spurs model. We have also studied the influence of oxygen and the importance of the direct effect of γ rays on the scavengers. The results show that the yields of the molecular products H 2 and H 2 O 2 and the atomic hydrogen yield decrease in function of the concentration of the scavengers in conformity with the prevision of the spurs model, while the yield of solvated electron and OH radical increases. The total yield of decomposition of water increases until the value of 4,6±0,3 (author) [fr

  15. Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed

  16. Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates from water-salt solutions with n.-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinov, V.A.; Kudrova, A.V.; Valueva, O.V.; Pyartman, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates (Ln=La-Nd, Sm-Gd) from aqueous-salt solutions at 298.15 K was studied using solution of n.-octanol, its concentration 6.31 mol/l. It was ascertained that at Ln(NO 3 ) 3 concentration in aqueous phase below 0.6 mol/l, there is actually no extraction. At higher concentrations of nitrates in aqueous phase the content of lanthanides(III) in organic phase increases in the series La-Gd. Isotherms of extraction were ascertained, its phase equilibria being described mathematically. It is shown that extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates with n.-octanol should be realized from concentrated aqueous solutions [ru

  17. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0...... using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply......–86%) and 440–590 mg Cr kg−1 (removals: 35–51%), being within the 500 mg kg−1 limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential...

  18. On the influence of molecular structure on the conductivity of electrolyte solutions - sodium nitrate in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krienke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the conductivity of sodium nitrate in water are presented and compared with experimental measurements. The method of direct correlation force in the framework of the interionic theory is used for the calculation of transport properties in connection with the associative mean spherical approximation (AMSA. The effective interactions between ions in solutions are derived with the help of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics calculations on the Born-Oppenheimer level. This work is based on earlier theoretical and experimental studies of the structure of concentrated aqueous sodium nitrate solutions.

  19. Cesium absorption from acidic solutions using ammonium molybdophosphate on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.J.; Olson, A.L.; Johnson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent efforts at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have included evaluation of cesium removal technologies as applied to ICPP acidic radioactive waste streams. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) immobilized on a polyacrylonitrile support (AMP-PAN) has been studied as an ion exchange agent for cesium removal from acidic waste solutions. Capacities, distribution coefficients, elutability, and kinetics of cesium-extraction have been evaluated. Exchange breakthrough curves using small columns have been determined from 1M HNO 3 and simulated waste solutions. The theoretical capacity of AMP is 213 g Cs/kg AMP. The average experimental capacity in batch contacts with various acidic solutions was 150 g Cs/kg AMP. The measured cesium distribution coefficients from actual waste solutions were 3287 mL/g for dissolved zirconia calcines, and 2679 mL/g for sodium-bearing waste. The cesium in the dissolved alumina calcines was analyzed for; however, the concentration was below analytical detectable limits resulting in inconclusive results. The reaction kinetics are very rapid (2-10 minutes). Cesium absorption appears to be independent of acid concentration over the range tested (0.1 M to 5 M HNO 3 )

  20. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts...... to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-)

  1. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO 3 - ↔ HCOO - +CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO - + CO 3 - is particularly significant. (author)

  2. Potentiometric determination of free nitric-acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Saey, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    A potentiometric method of determination of the free nitric acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium or thorium nitrates is described. The potentiometric titration is carried out in a mixture of benzene and 1,2-dichloro ethane with a standard solution of trilaurylamine as the titrant. When thorium nitrate is present the metal complex is not dissociated then the titration has a single end-point. In the case of plutonium nitrate the partial dissociation of the plutonium complex corresponds to a second point. The experimental error in duplicate analyses of 50 samples is about 1 per cent for free acid concentrations in the range of 0,03 to 0,1 N and plutonium concentrations between 1 to 5 g/l. (authors) [fr

  3. Polyethylene Glycols as Efficient Catalysts for the Oxidation of Xanthine Alkaloids by Ceric Ammonium Nitrate in Acetonitrile: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shylaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of xanthine alkaloids, such as Xanthine (XAN, hypoxanthine (HXAN, caffeine (CAF, theophylline (TPL, and theobromine (TBR, have been studied with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN using poly ethylene glycols (PEG as catalysts. Reaction obeyed first order kinetics in both [CAN] and [Xanthine alkaloid]. Highly sluggish CAN-xanthine alkaloid reactions (in acetonitrile media even at elevated temperatures are enhanced in presence PEGs (PEG-200, -300, -400, -600. An increase in [PEG] increased the rate of oxidation linearly. This observation coupled with a change in absorption of CAN in presence of PEG, [H–(OCH2–CH2n–O–NH4Ce(NO34(CH3CN] (PEG bound CAN species, is considered to be more reactive than CAN. The mechanism of oxidation in PEG media has been explained by Menger-Portnoy’s enzymatic model.

  4. Study on Mg2+ removal from ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution by an emulsion liquid membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo JianHong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg2+is extracted from ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4 solution by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM using mono-(2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEHPEHEas a carrier, sulfonated liquid polybutadiene (LYF as a surfactant and kerosene as a solvent. To study the extraction efficiency and advantages of the ELM process in the separation of Mg2+,the effects of various operating conditions on the extraction -HEHPEHE volume fraction, reaction temperature, treat ratio (emulsion phase / external phase, phase ratio (membrane phase / internal phase, agitation speed, extraction time, internal phase concentration, surfactant LYF concentration and initial pH of NH4H2PO4 solution are experimentally investigated and discussed. The results show that Mg2+ in NH4H2PO4 solution can be effectively removed by the ELM process. An extraction efficiency of more than 83.1% is attained at the optimized parameters and superior-grade NH4H2PO4can be obtained by two levels of extraction.

  5. LEACHING OF MALACHITE ORE IN AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS AND PRODUCTION OF COPPER OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekmekyapar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malachite ore is one of the most important of oxidized copper ores. Copper production can be performed by using this ore. In this work, the leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonium sulfate solutions was investigated, and metallic copper was recovered by a cementation method from the resulting actual leach solution. Copper (II oxide was prepared by an isothermal oxidation method from the cement copper. In the leaching experiments, the effects of reaction temperature, particle size, and stirring speed on copper leaching from malachite ore were studied. In the cementation experiments, metallic zinc was used as the reductant metal to recover the copper from the solution. Thermal oxidation of cement copper was performed under isothermal conditions. It was found that the leaching rate increased with increasing stirring speed and temperature, and decreased with particle size. It was observed that the leaching reaction fit to diffusion through the product layer. The activation energy of the leaching process was determined to be 25.4 kJ/mol. It was determined that the copper content of the metallic product obtained by the cementation method increased up to 96%. It was found that copper oxide prepared from cement copper had a tenorite structure.

  6. Modeling of critical experiments employing Raschig rings in uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Four critical experiments employing borated glass rings in concentrated uranyl nitrate solution yielded k eff higher by 0. 04 when modeled with a flux-weighted, homogenized cross section set than when modeled with discrete rings. k eff varied by 0.014 for a 10% boron uncertainty and by up to 0.04 for a 10% packing fraction uncertainty

  7. Electronic spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid and in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid have been described. There is a characteristic change in the absorption spectra of Pu v in lithium nitrate solutions. In 2 M-lithium nitrate a new peak at 969 nm and high absorption at 1200 nm are noticed. A decrease in the absorption by about 20% and the appearance of a new shoulder at 1120 nm in 6 M-lithium nitrate are found. There is no change in the spectrum in 4 M-lithium nitrate. The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in the spectral range 200 - 400 nm are interesting. All plutonium ions have an intense band in the region 250 - 260 nm as well as a less intense and rather diffuse band at 320 - 330 nm in lithium nitrate solutions the sharp band at 250 - 260 nm has disappeared. This suggests that this band is very sensitive to the environmental field. The band is probably produced by 5 F q → 5 f q-1 6 d transition as well as electron transfer. It is believed that the spectrum of Pu V at pH 6.5 represents the hydrolysis product Pu O 2 (O H). 9 fig., 4 tab

  8. Kinetic studies of nitrate removal from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Weiwu; Lv, Long

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex was prepared as a feasible adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from an aqueous solution. There was no significant change in terms of nitrate removal efficiency over a wide pH range of 3-11. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. In order to more accurately reflect adsorption and desorption behaviors at the solid/solution interface, kinetic model I and kinetic model II were proposed to simulate the interfacial process in a batch system. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and kinetic model I. The proposed half-time could provide useful information for optimizing process design. Adsorption and desorption rate constants obtained from kinetic model I and kinetic model II were beneficial to understanding the interfacial process and the extent of adsorption reaction. Kinetic model I and kinetic model II implied that nitrate uptake exponentially approaches a limiting value.

  9. A bibliographical review on the radiolysis of uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, Sandra; Mondino, Angel V.

    2004-01-01

    A bibliographical study on the effects of ionizing radiation on uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium was performed, and the state of knowledge on this subject is presented. The main experimental and theoretical results on water, nitric acid and uranium solutions radiolysis are reviewed and critically evaluated. This paper provides a collection of references as an aid to the development of practical applications, and to stimulate new research on fundamental processes in these systems. (author) [es

  10. Improvement of INVS Measurement Uncertainty for Pu and U-Pu Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marlow, Johnna Boulds [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makino, Risa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Nakamura, Hironbu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan)

    2017-04-27

    In the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF), a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution which is recovered from light water reactor (LWR) and advanced thermal reactor (ATR), FUGEN are being stored. Since the solution is designated as a direct use material, the periodical inventory verification and flow verification are being conducted by Japan Safeguard Government Office (JSGO) and International Atomic Agency (IAEA).

  11. Corrosion evaluation of uranyl nitrate solution evaporator and denitrator in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kowa; Uchida, Toyomi; Shirato, Yoji; Isozaki, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) adopted the PUREX method in 1977 and has reprocessed spent nuclear fuel of 1140 tHM (tons of heavy metals) since then. The reprocessing equipment suffers from various corrosion phenomena because of high nitric acidity, solution ion concentrations, such as uranium, plutonium, and fission products, and temperature. Therefore, considering corrosion performance in such a severe environment, stainless steels, titanium steel, and so forth were employed as corrosion resistant materials. The severity of the corrosive environment depends on the nitric acid concentration and the temperature of the solution, and uranium in the solution reportedly does not significantly affect the corrosion of stainless steels and controls the corrosion rates of titanium steel. The TRP equipment that handles uranyl nitrate solution operates at a low nitric acid concentration and has not experienced corrosion problems until now. However, there is a report that corrosion rates of some stainless steels increase in proportion to rising uranium concentrations. The equipment that handles the uranyl nitrate solution in the TRP includes the evaporators, which concentrate uranyl nitrate to a maximum concentration of about 1000 gU/L (grams of uranium per liter), and the denitrator, where uranyl nitrate is converted to UO 3 powder at about 320degC. These equipments are therefore required to grasp the degree of the progress of corrosion to handle high-temperature and high-concentration uranyl nitrate. The evaluation of this equipment on the basis of thickness measurement confirmed only minor corrosion and indicated that the equipment would be fully adequate for future operation. (author)

  12. Molecular recognition of organic ammonium ions in solution using synthetic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Späth

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium ions are ubiquitous in chemistry and molecular biology. Considerable efforts have been undertaken to develop synthetic receptors for their selective molecular recognition. The type of host compounds for organic ammonium ion binding span a wide range from crown ethers to calixarenes to metal complexes. Typical intermolecular interactions are hydrogen bonds, electrostatic and cation–π interactions, hydrophobic interactions or reversible covalent bond formation. In this review we discuss the different classes of synthetic receptors for organic ammonium ion recognition and illustrate the scope and limitations of each class with selected examples from the recent literature. The molecular recognition of ammonium ions in amino acids is included and the enantioselective binding of chiral ammonium ions by synthetic receptors is also covered. In our conclusion we compare the strengths and weaknesses of the different types of ammonium ion receptors which may help to select the best approach for specific applications.

  13. Application of Ozone Related Processes to Mineralize Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyow-San Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH is an anisotropic etchant used in the wet etching process of the semiconductor industry and is hard to degrade by biotreatments when it exists in wastewater. This study evaluated the performance of a system combined with ultraviolet, magnetic catalyst (SiO2/Fe3O4 and O3, denoted as UV/O3, to TMAH in an aqueous solution. The mineralization efficiency of TMAH under various conditions follows the sequence: UV/O3 > UV/H2O2/O3 > H2O2/SiO2/Fe3O4/O3 > H2O2/O3 > SiO2/Fe3O4/O3 > O3 > UV/H2O2. The results suggest that UV/O3 process provides the best condition for the mineralization of TMAH (40 mg/L, resulting in 87.6% mineralization, at 60 min reaction time. Furthermore, the mineralization efficiency of SiO2/Fe3O4/H2O2/O3 was significantly higher than that of O3, H2O2/O3, and UV/H2O2. More than 90% of the magnetic catalyst was recovered and easily redispersed in a solution for reuse.

  14. On the Mechanisms Linking Nitrogen Oxides to Trends in Ammonium Nitrate Aerosol over the Last Decade in the San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusede, S. E.; Zhang, Q.; Parworth, C.; Kim, H.; Shusterman, A.; Saleh, A.; Duffey, K.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Valin, L. C.; Fried, A.; Nowak, J. B.; Crawford, J. H.; Cohen, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) abundances across the U.S. have fallen steadily over the last fifteen years. Patterns in anthropogenic sources result in 2-fold lower NOx on weekends than weekdays largely without co-occurring changes in other emissions. These trends taken together provide a near perfect NOx constraint on the nonlinear chemistry of ozone, on the key oxidants nitrate radical (NO3) and hydroxyl radical (OH), and on secondary aerosol formation. We use this NOx constraint to interpret trends in wintertime PM2.5 over the last decade in San Joaquin Valley, California, a location with severe aerosol pollution and where a large portion of the total aerosol mass is ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). We combine the 12-year routine monitoring record and the air- and ground-based DISCOVER-AQ-2013 datasets to quantify the impact of NOx emission controls on the frequency of wintertime exceedances of the national PM2.5 standard. Nitrate ion (NO3-) is the oxidation product of NO2 and is formed by distinct daytime and nighttime pathways, both of which are nonlinear functions of the NO2 abundance. We present observationally derived decadal trends in both pathways and show that NOx reductions have worked to simultaneously increase daytime and decrease nighttime NH4NO3 production over the last 15 years. The net effect has been a substantial decrease in NH4NO3 via decreased NO3-radical initiated production in the nocturnal residual layer, a layer largely separated from nighttime emissions at the surface. Whereas NO3- production in the nocturnal residual layer drove NH4NO3 chemistry over the last decade, OH-initiated chemistry at the surface is poised to be the most important source of NH4NO3 in the next decade.

  15. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  16. A Solution-Based Approach for Mo-99 Production: Considerations for Nitrate versus Sulfate Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Youker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 is the parent of Technetium-99m, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. The medical community has been plagued by Mo-99 shortages due to aging reactors, such as the NRU (National Research Universal reactor in Canada. There are currently no US producers of Mo-99, and NRU is scheduled for shutdown in 2016, which means that another Mo-99 shortage is imminent unless a potential domestic Mo-99 producer fills the void. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting two potential domestic suppliers of Mo-99 by examining the effects of a uranyl nitrate versus a uranyl sulfate target solution configuration on Mo-99 production. Uranyl nitrate solutions are easier to prepare and do not generate detectable amounts of peroxide upon irradiation, but a high radiation field can lead to a large increase in pH, which can lead to the precipitation of fission products and uranyl hydroxides. Uranyl sulfate solutions are more difficult to prepare, and enough peroxide is generated during irradiation to cause precipitation of uranyl peroxide, but this can be prevented by adding a catalyst to the solution. A titania sorbent can be used to recover Mo-99 from a highly concentrated uranyl nitrate or uranyl sulfate solution; however, different approaches must be taken to prevent precipitation during Mo-99 production.

  17. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Draganic, I.G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.; Sehested, K.

    1986-12-01

    0 2 -free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.001-170 Mrd) or krd pulses of 10 MeV electrons. Formate, oxalate, formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer (M w 14000-16000 daltons) were found to be the main radiolytic products. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ↔ HC00 - + CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction CO 2 - + CO 3 - is particurlarly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained in the γ-radiolysis and by pulsed electron beam experiments gives k(CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ) = (2 ± 0.4)x10 3 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(CO 2 - + CO 3 - ) = (5 ± 1)x10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(NH 2 + = HCO 3 - ) 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and k(NH 2 + CO 3 - ) = (1.5 ± 0.5)x10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . (author)

  18. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts...... of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the gamma-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3- reversible HCOO- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading...... to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-)

  19. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 ions which is achieved in the current study through electronic continuum correction force fields. A detailed analysis of the effects of ion-pairs on the structure and dynamics of water around the hydrated ions is done through classification of water into different subspecies based on their locations around the cations or anions only or bridged between them. We have looked at the diffusion coefficients, relaxation of orientational correlation functions, and also the residence times of different subspecies of water to explore the dynamics of water in different structural environments in the solutions. The current results show that the water molecules are incorporated into fairly well-structured hydration shells of the ions, thus decreasing the single-particle diffusivities and increasing the orientational relaxation times of water with an increase in salt concentration. The different structural motifs also lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion

  20. Complex electronic waste treatment - An effective process to selectively recover copper with solutions containing different ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2016-11-01

    Recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste has been highlighted by the EU directives. The difficulties for recycling are induced by the high complexity of such waste. In this research, copper could be selectively recovered using an ammonia-based process, from industrially processed information and communication technology (ICT) waste with high complexity. A detailed understanding on the role of ammonium salt was focused during both stages of leaching copper into a solution and the subsequent step for copper recovery from the solution. By comparing the reactivity of the leaching solution with different ammonium salts, their physiochemical behaviour as well as the leaching efficiency could be identified. The copper recovery rate could reach 95% with ammonium carbonate as the leaching salt. In the stage of copper recovery from the solution, electrodeposition was introduced without an additional solvent extraction step and the electrochemical behaviour of the solution was figured out. With a careful control of the electrodeposition conditions, the current efficiency could be improved to be 80-90% depending on the ammonia salts and high purity copper (99.9wt.%). This research provides basis for improving the recyclability and efficiency of copper recovery from such electronic waste and the whole process design for copper recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrate-induced photodegradation of atenolol in aqueous solution: kinetics, toxicity and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuefei; Zeng, Chao; Ferronato, Corinne; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Yang, Xi

    2012-07-01

    The extensive utilization of β-blockers worldwide led to frequent detection in natural water. In this study the photolysis behavior of atenolol (ATL) and toxicity of its photodegradation products were investigated in the presence of nitrate ions. The results showed that ATL photodegradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics upon simulated solar irradiation. The photodegradation was found to be dependent on nitrate concentration and increasing the nitrate from 0.5 mML(-1) to 10 mML(-1) led to the enhancement of rate constant from 0.00101 min(-1) to 0.00716 min(-1). Hydroxyl radical was determined to play a key role in the photolysis process by using isopropanol as molecular probe. Increasing the solution pH from 4.8 to 10.4, the photodegradation rate slightly decreased from 0.00246 min(-1) to 0.00195 min(-1), probably due to pH-dependent effect of nitrate-induced .OH formation. Bicarbonate decreased the photodegradation of ATL in the presence of nitrate ions mainly through pH effect, while humic substance inhibited the photodegradation via both attenuating light and competing radicals. Upon irradiation for 240 min, only 10% reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) can be achieved in spite of 72% transformation rate of ATL, implying a majority of ATL transformed into intermediate products rather than complete mineralization. The main photoproducts of ATL were identified by using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) techniques and possible nitrate-induced photodegradation pathways were proposed. The toxicity of the phototransformation products was evaluated using aquatic species Daphnia magna, and the results revealed that photodegradation was an effective mechanism for ATL toxicity reduction in natural waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on deposition of gadolinium from its nitrate solution of zircaloy-2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.C.; Unny, V.K.P.; Vartak, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Gadolinium nitrate solution (25000 ppm) is proposed as a neutron poison in tertiary shut down system of R-5 reactor at Trombay, Bombay. The gadolinium nitrate solution when in contact with the zircaloy tube can get deposited and thus, affect the reactivity of the reactor during operation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate of deposition of gadolinium on zircaloy-2 surfaces at various temperatures and at different periods of time. Studies were also conducted to determine the deposition of gadolinium when exposed to various 60 Co γ-ray irradiation doses. The studies indicated that deposition of gadolinium increases with increase in temperature while there was no increase in rate of deposition by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation upto 440 Mrads. (author)

  3. Understanding the hydrologic control of N cycle: Effect of water filled pore space on heterotrophic nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium mechanisms in unsaturated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, C; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2017-07-01

    Irrigation practice will be effective if it supplies optimal water and nutrients to crops and act as a filter for contaminants leaching to ground water. There is always a scope for improving the fertilizer use efficiency and scheduling of wastewater irrigation if the fate and transport of nutrients particularly nitrogenous compounds in the soil are well understood. In the present study, nitrogen transport experiments for two different agricultural soils are performed under varying saturation 33, 57, 78% water filled pore space for sandy soil 1 and 52, 81 and 96% for loam soil 2. A HYDRUS 2D model with constructed wetland (CW2D) module could simulate aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification well for both soils and estimated the reaction kinetics. A hot spot of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) pathway has been observed at 81% moisture content for a loamy sand soil. The presence of high organic content and reductive soil environment (5.53 C/NO 3 - ratio; ORP=-125mV) results in ammonium accumulation of 16.85mg in the soil. The overall observation from this study is nitrification occurs in a wide range of saturations 33-78% with highest at 57% whereas denitrification is significant at higher water saturations 57-78% for sandy soil texture. For a loamy sand soil, denitrification is dominant at 96% saturation with least nitrification at all saturation studies. The greatest nitrogen losses (>90%) was observed for soil 2 while 30-70% for soil1. The slow dispersive subsurface transport with varying oxygen dynamics enhanced nitrogen losses from soil2 due to lesser soil permeability. This in turn, prevents NO 3 - leaching and groundwater contamination. This type of modeling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal irrigation and fertigation schedules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the hydrologic control of N cycle: Effect of water filled pore space on heterotrophic nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium mechanisms in unsaturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, C.; Nambi, Indumathi M.

    2017-07-01

    Irrigation practice will be effective if it supplies optimal water and nutrients to crops and act as a filter for contaminants leaching to ground water. There is always a scope for improving the fertilizer use efficiency and scheduling of wastewater irrigation if the fate and transport of nutrients particularly nitrogenous compounds in the soil are well understood. In the present study, nitrogen transport experiments for two different agricultural soils are performed under varying saturation 33, 57, 78% water filled pore space for sandy soil 1 and 52, 81 and 96% for loam soil 2. A HYDRUS 2D model with constructed wetland (CW2D) module could simulate aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification well for both soils and estimated the reaction kinetics. A hot spot of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) pathway has been observed at 81% moisture content for a loamy sand soil. The presence of high organic content and reductive soil environment (5.53 C/NO3- ratio; ORP = - 125 mV) results in ammonium accumulation of 16.85 mg in the soil. The overall observation from this study is nitrification occurs in a wide range of saturations 33-78% with highest at 57% whereas denitrification is significant at higher water saturations 57-78% for sandy soil texture. For a loamy sand soil, denitrification is dominant at 96% saturation with least nitrification at all saturation studies. The greatest nitrogen losses (> 90%) was observed for soil 2 while 30-70% for soil1. The slow dispersive subsurface transport with varying oxygen dynamics enhanced nitrogen losses from soil2 due to lesser soil permeability. This in turn, prevents NO3- leaching and groundwater contamination. This type of modeling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal irrigation and fertigation schedules.

  5. Contribution to the use in analysis of ammonium phosphomolybdate- separation of radio-caesium in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Chabidon, M.; Ordinaire, L.

    1964-01-01

    The use in analysis of ammonium phosphomolybdate has been studied for the separation of barium from caesium 137. The cases have been studied of small and medium-sized volumes, and of large volumes of about 100 litres. (authors) [fr

  6. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  7. Densities concentrations of aqueous of uranyl nitrate solutions; densidades concentraciones de soluciones acuosas de nitrato de uranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Fernandez Rodriguez, L.

    1966-07-01

    The ratio density-concentration of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions expressed as U{sub 3}O{sub 8} grams/liter, U grams/liter and hexahydrate uranyl nitrate weight percent at different temperatures, are established. Experimental values are graphically correlated and compared whit some published data. (Author) 2 refs.

  8. Effects of ammonium to nitrate ratio on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency and bioactive phytochemical production of Prunella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yu, Man-Man; Chen, Yu-Hang; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Xia; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Liu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Prunella vulgaris L (Labiatae) is commonly used as a traditional medicinal herb in some Asian and Europe countries. To date, few studies have been conducted to determine the influence of [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratio on growth, physiological development, and bioactive phytochemical accumulation in hydroponically grown P. vulgaris. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency, and bioactive phytochemical production in P. vulgaris. Hydroponically cultivated P. vulgaris were fertilized with five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios in a greenhouse for 85 d. Dried weight of root, stem, leaf and spica, leaf area, photosynthetic efficiency, activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and the concentrations of N, soluble protein, and free amino acids in the leaves, as well as the contents of rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA) in the spicas were measured. Both [Formula: see text] - N and [Formula: see text] - N as the sole source of nitrogen had inhibitory effects on P. vulgaris growth. P. vulgaris fertilized with the 25/75 ([Formula: see text] - N/NO3 - N) ratio had the highest leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll content. The 25/75 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) ratio increased the spica biomass by 1828%, nitrate-reductase (NR) activity by 98%, and soluble protein concentration by 29.45% compared with the 100/0 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) treatment. Additionally, 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 NO3 - N resulted in the highest contents of RA and total flavonoids as well as relatively high contents of UA and OA; therefore, this ratio had the highest yield of RA, UA, OA, and total flavonoids in spicas. The use of 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 [Formula: see text

  9. Superconducting and mechanical properties of the bulk Bi(pb)SCCO system prepared via solid state and ammonium nitrate precipitation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, S., E-mail: safran@science.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Center of Excellence for Superconductivity Research, 50 Year Campus, Golbaşı, Ankara (Turkey); Kılıçarslan, E.; Ozturk, H. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Center of Excellence for Superconductivity Research, 50 Year Campus, Golbaşı, Ankara (Turkey); Alp, M. [Center of Excellence for Superconductivity Research, 50 Year Campus, Golbaşı, Ankara (Turkey); Akdogan, M. [Center of Excellence for Superconductivity Research, 50 Year Campus, Golbaşı, Ankara (Turkey); Abant İzzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Bolu (Turkey); Asikuzun, E.; Ozturk, O. [Kastamonu University, Department of Physics, Kastamonu (Turkey); Kastamonu University, Research and Application Center, Kastamonu (Turkey); Kılıç, A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Center of Excellence for Superconductivity Research, 50 Year Campus, Golbaşı, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of preparation method on superconducting and mechanical properties of Bi(Pb)-2223 bulk samples using Bi{sub 1.85}Pb{sub 0.35}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10±y} stoichiometry. Solid-state reaction and ammonium nitrate precipitation methods have been used for fabrication of the bulk samples. In addition, the effect of annealing time on BSCCO samples have been studied. Structural, electrical, magnetic and microhardness analyses of samples are performed by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), DC resistivity, AC susceptibility and Vickers microhardness test. The critical transition temperature, phase purity, surface morphology and crystallinity of the prepared bulk samples are compared with each other. Elasticity (E), brittleness (B{sub i}), fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and yield strength (Y) values are also determined according to annealing time, applied load and production parameters of materials.

  10. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  11. Evaluation of Controlled Release Urea on the Dynamics of Nitrate, Ammonium, and Its Nitrogen Release in Black Soils of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release urea (CRU is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU, compared with conventional urea, on NO3− and NH4+ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3− and NH4+. CRU can reduce concentrations of NO3− and NH4+, and PCU was more effective in maintaining lower soil NO3−/NH4+ ratios than SCU and U. Parabolic equation could describe the kinetics of NO3− and NH4+ treated with PCU. The Elovich equation could describe the kinetics of NO3− and NH4+ treated with SCU. The binary linear regression model was established to predict N release from PCU because of significant correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3− and NH4+. These results provided a methodology and data support for characterizing and predicting the N release from PCU in black soils.

  12. Direct spectrophotometric analysis of low level Pu (III) in Pu(IV) nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswaran, P.; Suresh Kumar, K.; Kumar, T.; Gayen, J.K.; Shreekumar, B.; Dey, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Among the various methods demonstrated for the conversion of plutonium nitrate to its oxide, the oxalate precipitation process either as Pu (III) or Pu (IV) oxalate gained wide acceptance. Since uranous nitrate is the most successful partitioning agent used in the PUREX process for the separation of Pu from the bulk amount of U, the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation of the purified nitrate solution will not give required decontamination from U. Hence Pu IV oxalate precipitation process is a better option to achieve the end user's specified PuO 2 product. Prior to the precipitation process, ensuring of the Pu (IV) oxidation state is essential. Hence monitoring of the level of Pu oxidation state either Pu (III) or Pu (IV) in the feed solution plays a significant role to establish complete conversion of Pu (III). The method in vogue to estimate Pu(lV) content is extractive radiometry using Theonyl Trifluoro Acetone (TTA). As the the method warrants a sample preparation with respect to acidity, a precise measurement of Pu (IV) without affecting the Pu(III) level in the feed sample is difficult. Present study is focused on the exploration of direct spectrophotometry using an optic fiber probe of path length of 40mm to monitor the low level of Pu(III) after removing the bulk Pu(lV) which interfere in the Pu(III) absorption spectrum, using TTA-TBP synergistic mixture without changing the sample acidity

  13. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank

    2014-11-18

    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  14. Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A; Eriksson, Axel C; Hansen, Anne Maria K; Pagels, Joakim H; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Glasius, Marianne; Worsnop, Douglas R; Riipinen, Ilona; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.

  15. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  16. Plutonium (IV) complexation by nitrate in acid solutions of ionic strengths from 2 to 19 molal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.M.; Veirs, D.K.; Vaughn, R.B.; Cisneros, M.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Titrations of Pu(IV) with HNO 3 in a series of aqueous HClO 4 solutions ranging in ionic strength from 2 to 19 molal were followed using absorption spectrophotometry. The Pu 5f-5f spectra in the visible and near IR range change with complex formation. At each ionic strength, a series of spectra were obtained by varying nitrate concentration. Each series was deconvoluted into spectra f Pu 4+ (aq), Pu(NO 3 ) 3+ and Pu(NO 3 ) 2 2+ complexes, and simultaneously their formation constants were determined. When corrected for the incomplete dissociation of nitric acid, the ionic strength dependence of each formation constant can be described by two parameters, β 0 and Δ var-epsilon using the formulae of specific ion interaction theory. The difficulties with extending this analysis to higher nitrate coordination numbers are discussed

  17. Simultaneous extraction of palladium and technetium from nitrate solutions with tri-n-octylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.; Macasek, F.; Rajec, P.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneous extraction of palladium and technetium from nitrate solutions was investigated using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) solutions in carbon tetrachloride as a heavy, non-flammable diluent. The conditions of technetium extraction being essentially known, the main attention was focussed on the extractions of palladium which was studied in dependence on the concentration of nitric acid, salts (nitrates, chlorides, nitrites) urea and palladium. A strong decrease of Pd extraction with 10% TOA in CCl 4 has been found above a palladium concentration of 10 -4 M but in the presence of chlorides and nitrites a satisfactory high distribution can be preserved. Both Tc and Pd extracted with TOA/CCl 4 can be stripped into dilute ammoniacal solutions. An extraction procedure for the simultaneous isolation of Pd (80% yield) and Tc (99%) from fission product waste solutions (0.20 g Tc and 0.17 g Pd/dm 3 0.5-1.0M HNO 3 ) is proposed. (author)

  18. Solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag and slag–metakaolin cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimova, Nailia R., E-mail: rahimova.07@list.ru [Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Kazan (Russian Federation); Rakhimov, Ravil Z. [Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Kazan (Russian Federation); Osin, Yury N. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Naumkina, Natalia I.; Gubaidullina, Alfiya M. [Central Research Institute for Geology of Industrial Minerals, Kazan (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, Grigory I.; Shaybadullina, Arina V. [Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of an AASC matrix for NaNO{sub 3} solution solidification is stated. • XRD, DTA-TG, and X-ray microtomography experiments were performed. • Crystallization of NaNO{sub 3} reduces the shrinkage of hardened AASC-based waste forms. • Metakaolin shortens the setting time and increases the compressive strength of AASC. - Abstract: The solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag (AASC) and slag–metakaolin cements (AASMC) and the resulting setting times, compressive strengths, dimensional stability, water resistance, hydration products, microstructures, and macroporous network structures were evaluated. The influences of the alkali activator concentration, mineral composition of metakaolin, ratio of slag to slag + metakaolin, and concentration of NaNO{sub 3} on the cement performance were all evaluated in detail. The compressive strength of cemented nitrate solutions with AASC and AASMC aged for 28 days was from 13.4 to 42 MPa depending on the NaNO{sub 3} concentration. X-ray diffractometer, differential thermal analyzer, and electron microscope analyses suggested that NaNO{sub 3} crystallizes in cementitious matrices without reacting with the hydration products of AASC and AASMC. X-ray microtomography showed that the solidified NaNO{sub 3} solution with a salt concentration of 700 g/l and AASC had a denser microstructure without shrinkage microcracks, a smaller macropore volume, and smaller macropore sizes than hardened AASC-based paste mixed with water.

  19. Solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag and slag–metakaolin cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, Nailia R.; Rakhimov, Ravil Z.; Osin, Yury N.; Naumkina, Natalia I.; Gubaidullina, Alfiya M.; Yakovlev, Grigory I.; Shaybadullina, Arina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of an AASC matrix for NaNO 3 solution solidification is stated. • XRD, DTA-TG, and X-ray microtomography experiments were performed. • Crystallization of NaNO 3 reduces the shrinkage of hardened AASC-based waste forms. • Metakaolin shortens the setting time and increases the compressive strength of AASC. - Abstract: The solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag (AASC) and slag–metakaolin cements (AASMC) and the resulting setting times, compressive strengths, dimensional stability, water resistance, hydration products, microstructures, and macroporous network structures were evaluated. The influences of the alkali activator concentration, mineral composition of metakaolin, ratio of slag to slag + metakaolin, and concentration of NaNO 3 on the cement performance were all evaluated in detail. The compressive strength of cemented nitrate solutions with AASC and AASMC aged for 28 days was from 13.4 to 42 MPa depending on the NaNO 3 concentration. X-ray diffractometer, differential thermal analyzer, and electron microscope analyses suggested that NaNO 3 crystallizes in cementitious matrices without reacting with the hydration products of AASC and AASMC. X-ray microtomography showed that the solidified NaNO 3 solution with a salt concentration of 700 g/l and AASC had a denser microstructure without shrinkage microcracks, a smaller macropore volume, and smaller macropore sizes than hardened AASC-based paste mixed with water

  20. Ammonium removal from high-strength aqueous solutions by Australian zeolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Removal of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) particularly from sources which are highly rich in nitrogen is important for addressing environmental pollution. Zeolites, aluminosilicate minerals, are commonly used as commercial adsorbents and ion-exchange medium in number of commercial applications due t...

  1. Role of electrodes in ambient electrolytic decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Seng Koh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solution with electrolytic decomposition method has attracted much attention in recent years due to its efficiencies and practicability. However, the phenomenon has not been well-studied till now. By utilizing mathematical model currently available, the effect of water content and power used for decomposition was studied. Experiment data shows that sacrificial material such as copper or aluminum outperforms inert electrodes in the decomposition of HAN solution. In the case of using copper wire to electrolyse HAN solutions, approximately 10 seconds is required to reach 100 °C regardless of concentration of HAN. In term of power consumption, 100 W–300 W was found to be the range in which decomposition could be triggered effectively using copper wire as electrodes.

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DE NITRATOS Y AMONIO EN MUESTRAS DE SUELO MEDIANTE EL USO DE ELECTRODOS SELECTIVOS NITRATE AND AMMONIUM DETERMINATION IN SOILS USING ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Arango Pulgarín

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar un método alternativo para la cuantificación de diferentes formas de nitrógeno, se determinó la concentración de nitratos (NO3- y amonio (NH4+ por dos métodos: Colorimetría y Electrodo de Ión Selectivo (EIS, en muestras de suelos cultivados con flores o banano en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Se realizaron análisis de regresión y correlación para las concentraciones obtenidas por los dos métodos, que mostraron una asociación altamente significativa entre ellos. La determinación de NO3- mediante la formación de complejo coloreado con brucina ácida o mediante el uso de un electrodo selectivo para nitratos presentó un coeficiente de determinación altamente significativo (R² = 99,2. En forma similar, la determinación de NH4+ basada en la formación de complejo coloreado azul de indofenol ó utilizando el electrodo para amoniaco presentó un valor de R² = 98,4. El uso de electrodos presenta ventajas en comparación con las técnicas colorimétricas, que requieren mucho más tiempo y equipos mas costosos.In order to evaluate an alternative method for quantifying different forms of nitrogen, the concentrations of nitrates (NO3- and ammonium (NH4 were determined by two methods: Colorimetry and Ion Selective Electrode (ISE, in soil samples from soils cultivated with flowers or banana in the department of Antioquia,Colombia. Regression and correlation analyses on the concentrations obtained from the two methods showed highly significant relationships among them. The determination of NO3- by means of colored complexes with brucine acid or by means of the use of an electrode selective for nitrates exhibited a highly significant coefficient of determination (R² = 99.2. In a similar way, determination of NH4 based on the formation of blue colored complexes of indophenol or employing the electrode for ammoniac yielded a value of R² = 98.4. The use of electrodes has advantages over the colorimetric

  3. Extraction of lanthanide(3) nitrates by trialkylmethylammonium di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate solutions in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyaertman, A.K.; Kovalev, S.V.; Keskinov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanide(3) (lanthanum-holmium(3)) nitrates by trialkylmethylammonium di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate solutions in toluene (R 4 NA) at T = 298.15 K and pH = 2 is studied. The extraction isotherms are described with an account of formation of compounds of the (R 4 N) 3 [Ln(NO 3 ) 3 A 3 ] and (R 4 N) 2 [Ln(NO 3 ) 3 A 2 ] composition in the organic phase. The extraction constants indices which grow in the series of lanthanum(3)-europium(3) and then reduce to holmium (3) are calculated [ru

  4. Osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50 o C and at molalities up to 0.2 mol·kg -1 . The data were fitted to three- and four-parameter equations containing limiting-law terms for a 4:1 electrolyte. The variation of the osmotic coefficients as a function of temperature was found to be small. The results are compared to published values for the osmotic coefficients. (author)

  5. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hungate, Bruce A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2011-08-01

    Many thermophiles catalyse free energy-yielding redox reactions involving nitrogenous compounds; however, little is known about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in source water and sediments of two ≈ 80°C springs in the US Great Basin. Ammonia oxidation and denitrification occurred mainly in sediments. Ammonia oxidation rates measured using (15)N-NO(3)(-) pool dilution ranged from 5.5 ± 0.8 to 8.6 ± 0.9 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were unaffected or only mildly stimulated by amendment with NH(4) Cl. Denitrification rates measured using acetylene block ranged from 15.8 ± 0.7 to 51 ± 12 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were stimulated by amendment with NO(3)(-) and complex organic compounds. The DNRA rate in one spring sediment measured using an (15)N-NO(3)(-) tracer was 315 ± 48 nmol N g(-1) h(-1). Both springs harboured distinct planktonic and sediment microbial communities. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that 'Ca. N. yellowstonii'amoA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 3.5-3.9 × 10(8) and 6.4-9.0 × 10(8) copies g(-1) sediment. Potential denitrifiers included members of the Aquificales and Thermales. Thermus spp. comprised springs and suggest that ammonia oxidation may be a major source of energy fuelling primary production. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Compostos nitrogenados e carboidratos em sorgo submetido à salinidade e combinações de nitrato e amônio Nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates in sorghum subjected to salinity and combinations of nitrate and ammonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla Moreira Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de nitrato e amônio no meio, na acumulação de compostos nitrogenados e carboidratos, na presença e ausência de salinidade em plantas de sorgo. Sementes do genótipo CSF 20 foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, em solução nutritiva com três concentrações de nitrato e amônio (100% NO3-: 0% NH4+, 75% NO3-: 25% NH4+ e 0% NO3-: 100% NH4+, na presença e ausência de salinidade. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de nitrato nas folhas e colmo, nos tratamentos 100:0 e 75:25. O amônio acumulou-se mais nas plantas com NaCl, nas folhas e colmo. Os teores de aminoácidos livres totais nas folhas não se alteraram, mas, no colmo, aumentaram na presença de sal e aumento do amônio. A concentração de prolina livre nas folhas e colmo elevou-se nas plantas sob salinidade. O conteúdo de nitrogênio total foi maior nas folhas, entretanto não houve grandes alterações com a presença do sal. A concentração de carboidratos solúveis totais foi maior nas plantas tratadas com sal, exceto no colmo 0:100. Nas folhas, o teor de sacarose foi reduzido na presença do NaCl e aumento de amônio, enquanto, no colmo, foi maior no tratamento 75:25 com NaCl. O teor de amido não sofreu alterações com as diferentes combinações nas formas de N e salinidade. Conclui-se que combinações de NO-3 e NH4+ no meio afetam a acumulação de compostos nitrogenados e carboidratos em folhas e colmo, com presença ou ausência de salinidade, em plantas de sorgo forrageiro.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrate and ammonium in the medium, on the accumulation of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates, in the presence and absence of salinity in sorghum plants. CSF 20 genotype sorghum seeds, were grown in the greenhouse and supplied with a nutritive solution at three different concentrations of nitrate and ammonium (100% NO3-: 0% NH4+, 75% NO3-: 25% NH4+ e 0% NO3

  7. Air-liquid interfaces of aqueous solutions containing ammonium and sulfate: Spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.; Allen, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 8861-8872 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 644 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE0209719; NSF(US) CHE0134131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ammonium * sulfate * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  8. Thermodynamics and nucleation mechanism of ammonium jarosite in sulfuric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, PengFei; Zhang, YiFei; Wang, Li; You, ShaoWei; Bo, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Jarosite process is one of the most widely used methods in removing Fe, but in which the nucleation mechanism of ammonium jarosite has not been reported. Solubilities of the ammonium jarosite crystals under different Fe2(SO4)3 and (NH4)2SO4 concentrations and under different temperatures were measured, and the experiments of induction periods were systematically investigated in different temperatures (348 k, 358 k and 368 k) and H2SO4 concentrations (9 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 12.6 g/L) by reaction crystallization process based on the thermodynamic equilibrium data. According to the model of classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension and the surface entropy factors in different conditions were calculated as 1.21 mJ/m2, 1.85 mJ/m2, 1.71 mJ/m2 and 1.51, 1.27, 1.17. The SEM photographs of (H3O, NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 approved that the ammonium jarosite crystals were clearly grown by the two-dimensional nucleation mechanism and/or the spiral growth mechanism. But the growth mechanism of (H3O, NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 had been determined to be the continuous growth by the surface entropy factor.

  9. A STUDY OF SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION IN DRESSING OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kishore Bara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic foot ulcer is very common now a days. It ranges from 15% to 25%. Various methods and dressing agents have been tried for dressing. In this study, silver nitrate in solution form as a dressing agent has been tried. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted at MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Odisha. Here, a total of 100 number of patients having diabetic foot ulcer were studied and consent for various procedures were obtained from them. Data regarding granulation tissue formation, pus culture and sensitivity report, skin graft acceptance and hospital stay were analysed in tabular manner. RESULTS Among 100 study subjects, 50 were taken as control group and 50 as study group. The granulation tissue formation on 14th day was 95% in study group and 82% in control group. Successful skin graft uptake was 94% in study group and 80% in control group. Hospital stay in study group was 25.6 ± 3.4 days and 35.3 ± 7.2 days. Pus culture sensitivity test on day 14 was positive in 6 cases in study group and 12 cases in control group. CONCLUSION Foot ulcer is a common problem worldwide, among which diabetic foot ulcer is the commonest one. Various modalities of dressing methods and materials are available, but in my study silver nitrate in the form of solution form is a better option as compared to others.

  10. Method of removing radioactive substances in the state of fine particles and ions in ammonium fluoride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoku, Takeshi; Uchikoshi, Tsuguo; Asano, Toichi; Yoshiwara, Koichi; Tezuka, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To recover super-fine particles of ammonium diuranate (ADU), dissolved uranium ions and β-radioactive nuclides of uranium which are contained in the radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enrichment plants. Constitution: A cationic surface active agent is added to a solution discharged from enrichment plants thus causing ADU particles to be bonded to the cationic surface active agent and attached to foams introduced into the solution, whereby the ADU particles are completely recovered through separation by floating. Thereafter, the clean solution after removal of suspended particles is passed through an ion exchange resin to remove dissolved uranium ions and β-radioactive nuclides which are daughter nuclides of uranium. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  12. Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    explosives. Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2013, 42, 35-48. 3. Steinkamp, F. L.; Giordano, B.; Collins, G.; Rose-Pehrsson, S., Volatile...Ambient Air. Analytical Chemistry 1982, 54 (3), 358-364. 5. Field, C. R.; Giordano, B. C.; Rogers, D. A.; Lubrano, A. L.; Rose-Pehrsson, S. L... Analytical Chemistry 1973, 45 (6), 936-943. 8. Cody, R. B.; Laramee, J. A.; Durst, H. D., Versatile new ion source for the analysis of materials in open

  13. Effect of uranyl nitrate and free acid concentration in feed solution of gelation on UO2 kernel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Wardaya; Widarmoko, A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of uranium and free nitric acid concentration of uranyl nitrate as feed of gelation process on quality of UO 2 kernel was done.The investigation is to look for some concentration of uranyl nitrate solutions those are optimum as feed for preparation of gelled UO 3 . Uranyl nitrate solution of various concentration of uranium (450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700 g/l) and free nitric acid of (0.9; 1.0; 1.1 N) was made into feed solutions by adding urea and HMTA with mole ratio of urea/uranium and HMTA/uranium 2.1 and 2.0. The feed solutions were changed into spherical gelled UO 3 by dropping was done to get the optimum concentrations of uranyl nitrate solutions. The gelled UO 3 was soaked and washed with 2.5% ammonia solution for 17 hours, dried at 70 o C, calcined at 350 o C for 3 hours then reduced at 850 o C for 3 hours. At every step of the steps process the colour and percentage of well product of gelled UO 3 were noticed. The density and O/U ratio of end product (UO 2 kernel) was determined, the percentage of well product of all steps process was also determined. The three factor were used to chose the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate solution. From this investigation it was concluded that the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate was 600 g/l uranium with free nitric acid 0,9 - 1,0 N, the percentage of well product was 97% density of 6.12 - 4.8 g/cc and O/U ratio of 2.15 - 2.06. (author)

  14. Efeito da homeopatia Ammonium Carbonicum na minimização da lixiviação de nitrato Effect of the homeopathy Ammonium Carbonicum in the minimization of nitrate leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cardoso Lisboa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solução homeopática Ammonium Carbonicum em duas dinamizações, CH3 e CH30, sobre a lixiviação de NO-3. A hipótese inicial foi a de que essas soluções homeopáticas atuariam na microbiota do solo otimizando a utilização de N pela planta. Esse estudo foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação e utilizaram-se amostras deformadas do horizonte A de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico muito argiloso, 00,15 m, localizado no campus da UFLA. As colunas de solo foram semeadas com milho (Zea mays L. e tinham 0,20 x 0,20 m. A irrigação e medição do volume lixiviado foi realizada diariamente. A aplicação dos tratamentos homeopáticos foi realizada via irrigação. As análises do lixiviado foram feitas duas vezes por semana. No lixiviado, mediram-se os teores de NO-3 e NH+4 Após 93 dias, as colunas foram seccionadas em camadas de 0,05 m e as amostras, analisadas quanto à fertilidade, incluindo NO-3, NH+4 e N total. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, num esquema duplo-cego com placebo. O efeito da solução homeopática na minimização da lixiviação deNO-3 não foi relevante nas condições deste estudo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the homeopathic solution Ammonium Carbonicum in two dynamizations CH3 and CH30 on NO-3 leaching. The early hypothesis was that those homeopathic solutions would act upon soil microbiota optimizing the use of N by the plant. This study was conducted in greenhouse and samples of the A horizon of a very clayey typic dystroferric Red Latosol, 00.15m, situated on the UFLA campus were utilized. The soil columns were sowed with corn (Zea mays L. and were 0.20 x 0.20 m. Irrigation and leached volume measurement was performed daily. The application of the homeopathic treatments was accomplished via irrigation. The analyses of the leachate were done twice a week. In the leachate, the contents of NO-3 and NH+4 were

  15. Effect of diluent on extraction of uranyl nitrate from nitric acid solution by tri-n-octylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takashi; Ukon, Toshiaki; Fukutomi, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The distribution ratios in the extraction equilibriums of uranylnitrate from 3 M HNO 3 by tri-n-octylamine (TOA) nitrate salt in nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, nitrobenzene-benzene and benzene-cylohexane mixtures have been determined in varying the concentrations of uranyl nitrate and TOA nitrate salt. The extraction mechanisms have been discussed in detail based on the law of mass action. It has been concluded that the extractions of uranyl nitrate by TOA nitrate salt in nitrobenzene, 74% nitrobenzene-benzene and 49% nitrobenzene-benzene mixture are represented by the equation TOAHNO 3 (org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) = TOAHUO 2 (NO 3 - ) 3 (org), while the extractions of uranyl nitrate by TOA nitrate salt in chlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, benzene-cyclohexane mixtures and 24% nitrobenzene-benzene mixture are represented by the equation 2 TOAHNO 3 (org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) = TOAHUO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 TOAHNO 3 (org). In the latter the extraction equilibrium constants increase in the order of chlorobenzene < benzene < toluene < cyclohexane and with decreasing of the volume fraction of benzene in benzene-cyclohexane mixtures. The effects of diluent have been discussed in detail on the basis of the Hildebrand-Scatchard theory of regular solutions. (author)

  16. Determination of uranium in uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranyl nitrate solutions by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, H.L.; McElhaney, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple, fast method for the determination of uranium in uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranyl nitrate solutions has been adapted from the Davies-Gray volumetric method to meet the needs of Y-12. One-gram duplicate aliquots of uranium metal or uranium oxide are dissolved in 1:1 HNO 3 and concentrated H 2 SO 4 to sulfur trioxide fumes, and then diluted to 100-mL volume. Duplicate aliquots are then weighed for analysis. For uranyl nitrate samples, duplicate aliquots containing between 50 and 150 mg of U are weighed and analyzed directly. The weighed aliquot is transferred to a Berzelius beaker; 1.5 M sulfamic acid is added, followed in order by concentrated phosphoric acid, 1 M ferrous sulfate, and (after a 30-second interval) the oxidizing reagent. After a timed 3-minute waiting period, 100 mL of the 0.1% vanadyl sulfate-sulfuric acid mixture is added. The sample is then titrated past its endpoint with standard potassium dichromate, and the endpoint is determined by second derivative techniques on a mV/weight basis

  17. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  18. Physicochemical study of the alteration surface of concrete exposed to ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauberthie, Raoul; Rendell, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The storage of chemicals in concrete silos often presents durability problems due to chemical attack, the high concentration encountered inevitably causes severe conditions. The aim of this paper is to examine the physicochemical changes that occur in concrete exposed to ammonium salts, notably ammonium sulphate and nitrate, which are noted for their aggressivity. The modification to mortar surfaces is examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and with SEM. Mortar immersed in ammonium sulphate is covered with gypsum needle-like crystals and undergoes rapid cracking when removed from the solution and washed. In the case of mortars immersed in ammonium nitrate solutions, there is rapid decalcification, accompanied by strength loss, due to the solubilization of calcium. It is also observed that the mortar surface is covered with rhombic calcite, which is attributed to the reaction between liberated calcium and CO 2 in the water

  19. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  20. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, M. A.; Proud, S. R.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  1. Nitrato de amônio e nitrato de potássio no desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões somáticos de pupunheiras Ammonium nitrate and potassium nitrate on in vitro peach palm somatic embryos development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Lobo dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A pupunheira tem se mostrado boa alternativa à exploração extrativista de espécies como juçara e açaí. Porém, quando produzida via sementes apresenta plantio heterogêneo, o que torna a micropropagação ótima alternativa para seu cultivo em larga escala. O experimento objetivou avaliar a influência da interação entre nitrato de amônio e nitrato de potássio no enraizamento de microplantas obtidas a partir do desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões somáticos de pupunheiras, visando otimizar seu protocolo de micropropagação. Os embriões foram inoculados em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de NH4NO3 e KNO3. Aos 120 e 240 dias de cultivo, foram avaliados parâmetros morfofisiológicos do desenvolvimento radicular. Aos 120 dias, nas concentrações mais baixas de nitrogênio, houve estímulo ao crescimento das raízes e a maior ramificação radicular ocorreu com baixas concentrações de NH4NO3 e altas de KNO3. Aos 240 dias, notou-se redução do crescimento radicular e raízes finas prevalecentes. Conclui-se que até 120 dias as microplantas devem ser mantidas em meio com concentrações menores de NH4NO3 e maiores de KNO3 que as empregadas no meio MS, voltando para as concentrações usuais após esse período.Pejibaye is a good alternative for the extractive exploration of species such as juçara and açaí. However, when it is produced by seeds its planting is heterogeneous, which makes micropropagation a good alternative for cultivation in large scale. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the interaction between ammonium nitrate and potassium nitrate on peach palm somatic embryos rooting in vitro cultivated, for optimization of the micropropagation protocol. The embryos were inoculated in MS medium with different concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3. Morphophisyologic parameters of root development were measured at 120 and 240 days of cultivation. At 120 days, at lower nitrogen concentrations, roots were stimulated

  2. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Cellulose based Fabrics treated with Silver Nitrate Solution using Plasma Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Peran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain antibacterial properties, the possibility of deposition of silver particles from silver nitrate (AgNO3 solutions by plasma deposition process using argon as a carrier gas (PDP-Ar was explored. Hexamethyldisiloxane and acrylic acid were used as precursors and were deposited by plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD. The processes were carried out on lyocell and modal fbrics and antimicrobial efficacy was determined on E. coli and S. aureus using time kill assay method. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC show that higher antimicrobial efficacy on E. coli is exhibited by the solution of (AgNO3 in ethylene-glycol (0.066 μg/ml rather than in absolute ethanol (0.265 μg/ml. For S. aureus, minimal inhibitory concentrations of AgNO3 solutions in both absolute ethanol and ethylene-glycol as solvents are obtained at the same value (0.132 μg/ml. Overall, the best antibacterial eff ect for both modal and lyocell samples has been achieved against E. coli using treatments with precursors (AAC and HMDSO and Ag-NO3 in ethylene-glycol as solvent, with prolonged incubation time.

  3. Separation of radio cesium from PUREX feed solution by sorption on composite ammonium molybdo phosphate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Achuthan, P.V.; Jain, S.; Janardanan, C.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composite AMP exchanger was developed and evaluated for separation of radio cesium from dissolver solutions of PUREX process using a column experiment. The composite shows excellent sorption of radio cesium from dissolver solutions without any loss of plutonium and uranium. The removal of radio cesium from dissolver solutions will help in lowering the degradation of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in the solvent extraction process and will also help in reducing the radiation related problems. (author)

  4. Annual report of STACY in 1995. 600mm diameter cylindrical core and 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sono, Hiroki; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1997-03-01

    STACY, a critical assembly for static criticality safety experiments in NUCEF, had achieved the first criticality on February 23, 1995, with a 600mm diameter cylindrical core tank and 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution. Since then, 56 experiments were performed with various conditions of fuel concentration and reflecting conditions: bare and water. Operation data of STACY in 1995 are summarized in this report. (author)

  5. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  6. Extraction of uranyl nitrate from aqueous solution by dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takashi; Ohno, Fumiaki; Fukutomi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of uranyl nitrate from aqueous solution by dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6(DCC) in cyclohexane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene and nitrobenzene has been studied in varying the concentrations of DCC and uranyl nitrate. The extraction equilibria have been discussed in detail based on the law of mass action, and it has been found that the extractions in cyclohexane, toluene and benzene are represented by the equation 2 DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), and the extraction in chlorobenzene is described by the equations DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) and 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), and the extraction in nitrobenzene is expressed by the equations DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) and DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) = DCC UO 2 NO 3 + (org) + NO 3 - (org). The equilibrium constants of the reaction 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) increase in the order of cyclohexane < toluene < benzene < chlorobenzene < nitrobenzene. The enthalpy and entropy changes for the extraction reactions into benzene and nitrobenzene were determined from the change of the extraction equilibrium constants with temperature. (author)

  7. Studies on the effect of Pu and fission products on extraction selectivity of polymeric composite of ammonium phosphomolybdate towards 137Cs from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.C.; Pathak, S.K.; Jambunathan, U.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Kumar, Manmohan; Bajaj, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine particle size of ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) though selective sorbent for Cs form acidic solution, has limitation due to its incompatibility with column operation under practical conditions. A polymeric composite containing ammonium Phospho molybdate(AMP) developed indigenously in granular form, has shown encouraging results for Cs uptake from acidic solutions. Present investigation describes experimental observations carried out to find out the effect of presence of Pu and fission products on the 137 Cs uptake. The polymeric material shown some tendency for sorption of Pu which is found to decrease with increasing acidity. It has great selectivity with respect to other fission products like cerium, zirconium, and ruthenium. (author)

  8. Presence of nitrate NO 3 a ects animal production, photocalysis is a possible solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Molina, Heli; Barba-Ortega, J.; Joya, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Farmers and ranchers depend on the successful combination of livestock and crops. However, they have lost in the production by nitrate pollution. Nitrate poisoning in cattle is caused by the consumption of an excessive amount of nitrate or nitrite from grazing or water. Both humans and livestock can be affected. It would appear that well fertilised pasture seems to take up nitrogen from the soil and store it as nitrate in the leaf. Climatic conditions, favour the uptake of nitrate. Nitrate poisoning is a noninfectious disease condition that affects domestic ruminants. It is a serious problem, often resulting in the death of many animals. When nitrogen fertilizers are used to enrich soils, nitrates may be carried by rain, irrigation and other surface waters through the soil into ground water. Human and animal wastes can also contribute to nitrate contamination of ground water. A possible method to decontaminate polluted water by nitrates is with methods of fabrication of zero valent iron nanoparticles (FeNps) are found to affect their efficiency in nitrate removal from water.

  9. Transient behavior of 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution at criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Ken; Ohno, Akio; Sakuraba, Koichi; Aizawa, Eiju; Morita Toshio

    1999-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started the supercritical experiment program using a 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution focusing on safety research in reprocessing plants with the Transient Criticality Experiments Facility (TRACY) in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). The purpose of the TRACY program is to obtain data both on nuclear and thermal-fluidic transient characteristics and on the confinement capabilities of radioactive materials in a postulated criticality accident in reprocessing plants. In the experiment, fuel composition, reactivity insertion method, reactivity insertion rate, total insertion reactivity and initial power can be varied for the experiment parameters. In the supercritical experiment, excess reactivity can be inserted up to 3dollars by withdrawal of a transient rod continuous feed of the solution fuel to the TRACY core tank. In the transient experiment with step reactivity insertion of 2.9dollars, peak power and peak pressure of the core obtained 1400 MW and 0.85 MPa, respectively. In this paper, we will present the outline of TRACY, the power and core pressure behavior changing the insertion reactivities with step reactivity insertion, and the peak power changing the reactivity insertion rate and initial power level with ramp reactivity insertion. (author)

  10. Critical Parameters of Complex Geometry Intersecting Cylinders Containing Uranyl Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Robert Emil; Briggs, Joseph Blair

    1999-06-01

    About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a "tree") having long, thin arms (or "branches") extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes; and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves when each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year.

  11. Critical Parameters of Complex Geometries of Intersecting Cylinders Containing Uranyl Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. B. Briggs (INEEL POC); R. E. Rothe

    1999-06-14

    About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a ''tree'') having long, thin arms (or ''branches'') extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes, and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves with each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year.

  12. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented and the most common applications are listed, Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution.

  13. Evaluation of the mixtures ammonium phosphate/magnesium nitrate and palladium nitrate/magnesium nitrate as modifiers for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in mineral water by GFAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Filho Volnei R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for the simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in mineral water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA and a longitudinal Zeeman-effect background correction system. The electrothermal behavior of analytes during pyrolysis and atomization steps was studied without modifier, in presence of 5 mug Pd and 3 mug Mg(NO32 and in presence of 50 mug NH4H2PO4 and 3 mug Mg(NO32. A volume of 20 muL of a 0.028 mol L-1 HNO3 solution containing 50 mug L-1 Ni and Pb, 10 mug L-1 Cr and 5 mug L-1 Cd was dispensed into the graphite tube at 20 °C. The mixture palladium/magnesium was selected as the optimum modifier. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were fixed at 1000 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. The characteristic masses were calculated as 2.2 pg Cd, 10 pg Cr, 42 pg Ni and 66 pg Pb and the lifetime of the graphite tube was around 600 firings. Limits of detection based on integrated absorbance were 0.02 mug L-1 Cd, 0.94 mug L-1 Cr, 0.45 mug L-1 Ni and 0.75 mug L-1 Pb, which exceeded the requirements of Brazilian Food Regulation that establish the maximum permissible level for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb at 3 mug L-1, 50 mug L-1, 20 mug L-1 and 10 mug L-1, respectively. The recoveries of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb added to mineral water samples varied within the 93-108%, 96-104%, 87-101% and 98-108% ranges, respectively. Results of analysis of standard reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology: 1640-Trace Elements in Natural Water; 1643d-Trace Elements in Water were in agreement with certified values at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Electrochemical and AFM study of nickel nucleation mechanisms on vitreous carbon from ammonium sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujicic, Darko; Pesic, Batric

    2006-01-01

    Reaction and nucleation mechanisms of nickel in ammoniacal solutions have been investigated as a function of nickel concentration, solution pH, deposition potential, temperature and conditioning potential. Electrochemical mechanisms of nickel reduction were found to be pH dependent, while their kinetics was concentration dependent. A surface film formed by anodic oxidation passivates nickel clusters preventing their further oxidation. Nickel nucleation on vitreous carbon, which proceeds according to the progressive nucleation model, shows a large degree of inhibition at both pH 6 and pH 9. Cluster sizes were larger when electrodeposition was carried out from solutions with higher nickel concentrations. The clusters were also larger at more negative deposition potentials and at higher solution pH. Cluster population density increased with the increasing solution temperature. Different activation energies for the nickel-aquo and nickel-ammino complexes calculated from Arrhenius diagram indicate that electroreduction of nickel-ammino complex is energetically more demanding. All electrochemical results were further verified by the atomic force microscopy investigations

  15. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei; Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao

    2016-03-05

    A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0 ∼ 9.0, and the presence of PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)=0.997-0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R(2)=0.953-0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118 ∼ 147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of composite materials based on various extractants for isolation of lanthanides(III) nitrates from multicomponent aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Pyartman, A.K.; Kesnikov, V.A.; Pleshkov, M.A.; Exekov, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In present work we obtained samples of composite materials mentioned containing tributylphosphate (TBP) and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate (TAMAN). Extraction of lanthanides(III) nitrates of cerium group from multicomponent aqueous solutions by means of these materials was studied. Some systems with different concentration of sodium nitrate up to 5 mol/l and the same systems containing additions of sodium chloride or sulfate along with sodium nitrate was investigated, isotherm of extraction being obtained for all cases. Also we compared in identical conditions extraction process when liquid extractants were used and process with composite materials. It was found that traditional extraction systems and systems based on composite extractants demonstrated almost the same extraction properties in respect to lanthanides(III) nitrates. Extraction isotherms observed in identical conditions and being shown in the same coordinates had no difference with taking into account errors of experiment. This fact allow to use the same mathematical model for those systems. For systems studied it was generated mathematical model that is able to describe extraction process when component concentration vary in wide range, with assumption being used that ratio activity coefficients in organic phase stay constant. (authors)

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time on the leaching degree of zinc were investigated and kinetic analysis of the process was accomplished. With temperature increasing from 60 to 90°C, the zinc leaching increased from 25.23% to 71.66% after 2 hours, i.e. from 59.40% to 99.83% after 4 hours. The selected kinetic model indicated that the diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during the sphalerite leaching. The activation energy was determined to be 55 kJ/mol in the temperature range 60-90°C. XRD, light microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses of the complex concentrate and leach residue confirmed formation of elemental sulphur and diffusion-controlled leaching mechanism.

  18. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry. (JMT)

  19. Stability constant determinations for technetium (IV) complexation with selected amino carboxylate ligands in high nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, Trevor; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    The stability constants for Tc(IV) complexation with the ligands IDA, NTA, HEDTA, and DTPA were determined in varied nitrate concentrations using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The determined log β{sub 101} stability constants at 0.5 M NaNO{sub 3} were found to be 9.2±0.3, 10.3±0.3, and 15.3±0.3 for IDA, NTA, and HEDTA, respectively. The log β{sub 111} stability constant for DTPA was determined to be 22.0±0.6. These determined stability constants show a slight decrease in magnitude as a function of increasing NaNO{sub 3} concentration. These stability constants were used to model the total dissolution of Tc(IV) in acidic aqueous solutions in the presence of each ligand. The results of these predictive models indicate that amino carboxylic ligands have a high potential for increasing the aqueous dissolution of Tc(IV); at pH 2.3, 0.01 M ligand yield dissolved Tc(IV) concentrations of 1.42.10{sup -5} M, 1.33.10{sup -5} M, 6.07.10{sup -6} M, 9.65.10{sup -7} M, for DTPA, HEDTA, NTA, and IDA, respectively.

  20. Complex crystallographic study of potassium sulfate-ammonium sulfate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punin, Yu.O.; Smetannikov, O.G.; Zhogin, A.N.; Demidova, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    The variation in the morphological, optical, and crystallochemical characteristics of a continuous series of (NH 4 ,K) 2 SO 4 solid solutions have been considered. It has been established that both habit and optical sign of the crystals of these solid solutions change twice. In the composition range studied, the unit-cell parameters have two anomalous ranges of their variation: the dependences of a and c on the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 content show the inflections at 8-13 mol%(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , whereas the dependences of a and b on the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 content show the discontinuities at 43-60 mol%(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The comparison of the experimental and theoretical intensity ratios, I 002 /I 013 , shows that crystals with different degree of order with respect to K + and the (NH 4 ) + cations can exist. The results obtained indicate that the (K,NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solid solutions are far from being ideal, which is seen from the nonlinear variation of the properties studied for crystals of different compositions. The phase diagram of the system has been refined

  1. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huizar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Rivera, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH4)2SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR) were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the activ...

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid-vapor equilibrium data for nitric acid and nitric acid-plutnonium nitrate-water solutions were examined to develop correlations covering the range of conditions encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The scanty available data for plutonium nitrate solutions are of poor quality but allow an order of magnitude estimate to be made. A formal thermodynamic analysis was attempted initially but was not successful due to the poor quality of the data as well as the complex chemical equilibria involved in the nitric acid and in the plutonium nitrate solutions. Thus, while there was no difficulty in correlating activity coefficients for nitric acid solutions over relatively narrow temperature ranges, attempts to extend the correlations over the range 25 0 C to the boiling point were not successful. The available data were then analyzed using empirical correlations from which normal boiling points and relative volatilities can be obtained over the concentration ranges 0 to 700 g/l Pu, 0 to 13 M nitric acid. Activity coefficients are required, however, if estimates of individual component vapor pressures are needed. The required ternary activity coefficients can be approximated from the correlations

  3. Teores de nitrato (NO3- e amônio (NH4+ nas águas do aqüífero Barreiras nos bairros do Reduto, Nazaré e Umarizal - Belém/PA Nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ contents in the Barreiras aquifer waters in the districts of Reduto, Nazaré and Umarizal - Belém, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Maria Tinôco Cabral

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the occurrence of nitrate and ammonium in the Barreiras aquifer in the metropolitan area of Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The results show that some wells display ammonium and nitrate concentrations above or close to the limits of water potability regulations. The main cause of the pollution of these waters is related the local disposal of domestic effluents and/or leakage from pipes of old sewage systems.

  4. Solution Properties of Amphoteric Random Copolymers Bearing Pendant Sulfonate and Quaternary Ammonium Groups with Controlled Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, Rina; Yusa, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-05

    Amphoteric random copolymers P(AMPS/APTAC50) x , where x = 41, 89, and 117, composed of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS) and 3-acrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride (APTAC) were prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization. P(AMPS/APTAC50) x can dissolve in pure water to form small interpolymer aggregates. In aqueous solutions of NaCl, P(AMPS/APTAC50) x can dissolve in the unimer state. Amphoteric random copolymer P(AMPS/APTAC50) c with high molecular weight was prepared via conventional free-radical polymerization. Although P(AMPS/APTAC50) c cannot dissolve in pure water, it can dissolve in aqueous solutions of NaCl. In amphoteric random copolymers with high molecular weight, the possibility of continuous sequences of monomers with the same charge may increase, which may cause strong interactions between polymer chains. When fetal bovine serum (FBS) and polyelectrolytes were mixed in phosphate-buffered saline, the hydrodynamic radius and light-scattering intensity increased. There was no interaction between P(AMPS/APTAC50) x and FBS because corresponding increases could not be observed.

  5. The extraction of zinc and other minor metals from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer, S.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study is made of the extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 for the zinc and minor metal extraction from aqueous concentrated ammonium chloride solutions, as those of the leaching liquors of the CENIM-LNETI process. Extraction equilibrium data for zinc are presented as extraction isotherms at constant pH and at a temperature of 50 °C. Zinc extraction and coextraction of minor metal ions as Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni and Hg are studied. Mercury does not extract from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions. Cyanex 272 shows a better selectivity for zinc with regard to the minor metals than D2EHPA, which is especially remarkable for calcium, the most coextracted element by D2EHPA. Nickel and cadmium coextraction is negligible for both extractants. The possible use of the Cyanex 272 as an alternative to D2EHPA is considered.

    Se realiza un estudio comparativo del comportamiento del D2EHPA y del Cyanex 272 durante la extracción del cinc y otros metales minoritarios de soluciones acuosas concentradas de cloruro amónico, como las de las soluciones de lixiviación del proceso CENIM-LNETI. Se presentan los datos de equilibrio de extracción del cinc en forma de isotermas de extracción a una temperatura de 50 °C y pH constante y se estudia la coextracción de los metales minoritarios Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni y Hg. El mercurio no se extrae de las soluciones concentradas de cloruro amónico. La selectividad del Cyanex 272 para el cinc respecto de esos metales minoritarios es mejor que la del D2EHPA, siendo verdaderamente notable para el calcio, que es la impureza que más se coextrae con el D2EHPA. La coextracción de níquel y de cadmio es muy pequeña para ambos extractantes. Se considera la posibilidad del uso alternativo del Cyanex 272 en lugar del D2EHPA.

  6. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Mendoza-Huizar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH42SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the active sites on the surface. The ΔG energy calculated for the formation of stable nucleus was 8.21x10-21 J/nuclei. The AFM study indicated the formation of small clusters of 50-400 nm in diameter and 2-120 nm in height.

  7. Determination of halogens, silicon, phosphorus, carbon, sulfur, tributyl phosphate and of free acid in uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Van Vinh

    2003-01-01

    High-purity uranium compounds are widely used in nuclear field in the form of uranyl nitrate or uranium oxides. In production of uranium material the estimation and the control of products quality is necessary and very important. Halogens was separated from uranium compounds by steam distillation and they were later determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for Cl - , Br - , I - ions. Br - was also determined by spectrophotometric and iodide by the individual pulse polarography. Silicon and phosphorus in uranyl nitrate solutions were determined by the photometric method. Sulfur was determined as sulfate form by the measurement of turbidity by the titrimetry. TBP in kerosene and free acid in aqueous solution were determined by the titration. (author)

  8. Absorption and biokinetics of U in rats following an oral administration of uranyl nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Touche, Y.D.; Willis, D.L.; Dawydiak, O.I.

    1987-08-01

    The absorption of U within the male Wistar rat was determined following oral gavage with uranyl nitrate solutions at seven different dosages. Gavage levels ranged from 0.003 to 45 mg U per kilogram body weight. Uranium tissue burdens were determined at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 96 and 240 h following gavage. Blood, kidney, liver and bone were analyzed for U content using neutron activation followed by delayed neutron counting. Uranium rapidly localized in the kidneys and bone following ingestion. Bone was found to be the primary tissue of deposition. Skeletal and kidney burdens closely paralleled each other from 15 min to 10 d after oral gavage. Uranium burdens in the blood reached a maximum within 30 min but declined rapidly thereafter. Burdens of all tissues were well correlated with each other and with dosage at all dose levels. Equations relating body burdens with blood levels were developed and found to be useful for predicting body burdens for the initial 8 h following gavage. Gastrointestinal absorption (f1) was 0.6-2.8% over the range of U administered. Movement of U through the GI tract was assessed at two dosages. The transit time of U through the GI tract was approximately 48 h. Uranium loss from the stomach was described as a power function of time. The maximum value in the small intestine was attained within 2 h, and thereafter its rapid loss was linear up to 8 h. A minor residual loss component from the small intestine was evident beyond 8 h post-gavage.

  9. Determination of total and extractable hydrogen peroxide in organic and aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in uranyl nitrate solutions is reported. The method involves the measurement of the absorbance at 520 mm of a vanadyl peroxide species. This species was formed by the addition of a reagent consisting of vanadium (V) (50 mmol x dm -3 ) in dilute sulphuric acid (2 mol x dm -3 H 2 SO 4 ). This reagent, after dilution, was also used as an extractant for organic phase samples. The method is simple and robust and tolerant of nitric acid and U(VI). Specificity and accuracy were improved by the application of solid phase extraction techniques to remove entrained organic solvents and Pu(VI). Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to clean-up aqueous samples or extracts which were contaminated with entrained solvent. A solid phase extraction system based upon an extraction chromatography system was used to remove Pu(IV). Detection limits of 26 μmol x dm -3 (0.88 μg x cm -3 ) or 7 μmol x dm -3 (0.24 μg x cm -3 ) for, respectively, a 1 and 4 cm path length cell were obtained. Precisions of RSD = 1.4% and 19.5% were obtained at the extremes of the calibration curve (5 mmol x dm -3 and 50 μmol x dm -3 H 2 O 2 , 1 cm cell). The introduction of the extraction and clean-up stages had a negligible effect upon the precision of the determination. The stability of an organic phase sample was tested and no loss of analyte could be discerned over a period of at least 5 days. (author)

  10. CONCENTRATED CALCIUM NITRATE IS AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR MINERAL NUTRITION OF VEGETABLES GROWN THROUGH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Grebennikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basis water-soluble fertilizers that are used in greenhouse enterprises is  a Calcium  nitrate,  where  its production  and demand raise. At present time, calcium nitrate is produced  in a granulated and crystaline   form consisted of tetrahydrate, dihydrate and concentrated variants. These forms  are significantly distinguished  by their  chemical  composition.  Besides the  basic  form  of nitrogen – nitrate – there is ammoniacal nitrogen in the composition of Calcium nitrate that is found to be undesirable element, particularly with drip irrigation system in the  greenhouse. The new  product,  calcium  nitrate  has been worked out with minimal content of ammoniacal nitrogen  at  URALCHIM. The study  showed  the  advantages of the product for such characteristics as solubility and time of dissolving. It dissolves 3.4-7 time faster than those of tetrahydrate and dihydrate analogues. At present time, the concentrated  calcium  nitrate is used in many greenhouse  industrial  complexes  and  enterprises,  and has shown its efficiency in practice.

  11. Influence of microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in synthetic caustic-nitrate nuclear waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafian, P.G.

    1975-12-01

    The influence of alloy microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in caustic-nitrate synthetic nuclear waste solutions was studied. An evaluation was made of the effect of heat treatment on a representative material (ASTM A 516 Grade 70) used in the construction of high activity radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River Plant. Several different microstructures were tested for susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Precracked fracture specimens loaded in either constant load or constant crack opening displacement were exposed to a variety of caustic-nitrate and nitrate solutions. Results were correlated with the mechanical and corrosion properties of the microstructures. Crack velocity and crack arrest stress intensity were found to be related to the yield strength of the steel microstructures. Fractographic evidence indicated pH depletion and corrosive crack tip chemistry conditions even in highly caustic solutions. Experimental results were compatible with crack growth by a strain-assisted anodic dissolution mechanism; however, hydrogen embrittlement also was considered possible

  12. Influence of ammonium hydroxide solution on LiMn2O4 nanostructures prepared by modified chemical bath method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koao, Lehlohonolo F.; Motloung, Setumo V.; Motaung, Tshwafo E.; Kebede, Mesfin A.

    2018-04-01

    LiMn2O4 (LMO) powders were prepared by modified chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by varying ammonium hydroxide solution (AHS). The volume of the AHS was varied from 5 to 120 mL in order to determine the optimum volume that is needed for preparation of LMO powders. The effect of AHS volume on the structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties of LMO powders was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the LMO powders correspond to the cubic spinel LMO phase. It was found that the XRD peaks increased in intensity with increasing volume of the AHS up to 20 mL. The estimated average grain sizes calculated using the XRD patterns were found to be in the order of 66 ± 1 nm. It was observed that the estimated average grain sizes increased up to 20 mL of AHS. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed that the AHS volume does not influence the surface morphology of the prepared nano-powders. Elemental energy dispersive (EDS) analysis mapping conducted on the samples revealed homogeneous distribution of Mn and O for the sample synthesized with 120 mL of AHS. The UV-Vis spectra showed a red shift with an increase in AHS up 20 mL. The cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle testing confirmed that 20 mL of AHS has superior lithium ion kinetics and electrochemical performance.

  13. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei; Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scheme of mechanism for HCl and NaCl regeneration of MAB-CS. - Highlights: • Magnetic amine-crosslinked bio-adsorbent was prepared for nitrate uptake. • The characters of adsorbent were determined by VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. • This novel bio-adsorbent could achieve rapid separation from effluents. • Chemical regeneration of the saturated magnetic bio-adsorbent was conducted. • The adsorption followed the pseudo second order model and Langmuir model. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0∼9.0, and the presence of PO 4 3− and SO 4 2− would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R 2 = 0.997–0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R 2 = 0.953–0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118∼147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  14. Continuous Silicate Utilization Over Multiple 14L:10D Day:Night Cycles Confirms Night Metabolism in Lake Michigan Diatom Enrichments Using Either Nitrate or Ammonium as a Nitrogen Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderling, M.; Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are single-celled organelle containing eukaryotes living in "glass houses". As diatoms only take up silica when they replicate, measuring the amounts of dissolved and particulate silicate were an important aspect of this study. Silica was used as a proxy of the diatom reproduction. Depending on growth conditions, some algal species divide throughout the day and night; this suggests that protein synthesis can be an important component of algal night metabolism and hence nitrogen utilization. The goal of this experiment was to measure the amount of night protein synthesis occurring in a culture of diatoms from Lake Michigan. Diatoms were enriched with light for energy and excess nutrients—including phosphate, silicate, nitrate and limited ammonium for some—along with use of physical separation methods. Growing conditions were prepared in a way which anticipated the diatoms would synchronize to a 14:10 day/night cycle and store energy, during their day phase, to use for night protein synthesis and replication. Their growth was monitored by taking samples before and after the transitions of light to dark along with midday and midnight samples. Assays of dissolved and particulate silicate were used to measure utilization, which confirmed their nighttime growth. As hypothesized, the diatoms had significant growth during their night phase. There were decreases in the nighttime dissolved silicate and increases in the nighttime particulate silicate. When available, the diatoms preferred to use ammonium instead of nitrate. Cell division during the night phase indicated sufficient daytime energy storage to fuel night protein synthesis and cell replication. Uptake of nutrients occurred at night almost as if the "sun" did not set. There was continuous growth of this photosynthetic community.

  15. Ammonium removal from aqueous solutions by clinoptilolite: determination of isotherm and thermodynamic parameters and comparison of kinetics by the double exponential model and conventional kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ismail

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption isotherm, the adsorption kinetics, and the thermodynamic parameters of ammonium removal from aqueous solution by using clinoptilolite in aqueous solution was investigated in this study. Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium tests have been analyzed by four two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)) and four three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Sips, Toth and Khan) isotherm models. D-R and R-P isotherms were the models that best fitted to experimental data over the other two- and three-parameter models applied. The adsorption energy (E) from the D-R isotherm was found to be approximately 7 kJ/mol for the ammonium-clinoptilolite system, thereby indicating that ammonium is adsorbed on clinoptilolite by physisorption. Kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing the nth-order kinetic model, the modified second-order model and the double exponential model, and each model resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of above 0.989 with an average relative error lower than 5%. A Double Exponential Model (DEM) showed that the adsorption process develops in two stages as rapid and slow phase. Changes in standard free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) of ammonium-clinoptilolite system were estimated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients.

  16. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu, E-mail: 13629752655@163.com

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A conversion coating was prepared on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by chemical treatment. • The formation of conversion coating is the result of combined action of phytic acid and NH{sub 4}F. • The pH value of mixed solution plays a critical role in the formation process of conversion coating. - Abstract: Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  17. Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate Ions from an Aqueous Solution by Fe-Mg-Type Hydrotalcites at Different Molar Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kariya, Yukine; Nagahashi, Eri; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we prepared Fe-Mg-type hydrotalcites (Fe-HT3.0 and Fe-HT5.0) with different molar ratios and evaluated their adsorption capability for nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution. Fe-HT is a typical hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide. Adsorption isotherms, as well as the effects of contact time and pH were investigated, and it was found that Fe-HT can adsorb larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate ions than Al-HT (normal-type hydrotalcite). Adsorption isotherm data were fitted to both Freundlich (correlation coefficient: 0.970-1.000) and Langmuir (correlation coefficient: 0.974-0.999) equations. Elemental analysis and binding energy of Fe-HT surface before and after adsorption indicated that the adsorption mechanism was related to the interaction between the adsorbent surface and anions. In addition, the ion exchange process is related to the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature (7-25°C). The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The effect of pH on adsorption was not significant, which suggested that Fe-HT could be used over a wide pH range (4-12). These results indicate that Fe-HT is a good adsorbent for the removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution.

  18. Resposta do arroz irrigado ao suprimento de amônio e nitrato Rice growth as affected by combined ammonium and nitrate supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquel Jonas Holzschuh

    2009-10-01

    , conclui-se que o NH4+ é tóxico para o arroz em concentrações elevadas. A presença de NO3- é imprescindível para aumentar a absorção de N, melhorando o crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta e a absorção de cátions.In rice cultivated under flooded conditions, the anaerobic condition favors the formation of NH4+ in the soil, and is therefore considered the main available N source for this crop. However, the process of O2 transport through the aerenchyma and its release by roots, create a favorable environment for nitrification in the plant rizosphere. Nitrification intensity determines the proportions between available NH4+ and NO3- . In this case, it is believed that the presence of NO3- can favor rice growth and simultaneously avoid NH4+ toxicity. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different proportions between NH4+ and NO3- in nutrient solution on rice growth. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse, from September to November 2007, in a nutrient solution with the following NH4+ and NO3- proportions: 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75, in a 10.0 mmol L-1 N concentration. The plots were fulfilled with a inert substrate to create conditions to root growth. The genotypes IRGA 417 and Sasanishiki were compared and the biomass production, root length, root distribution and the N, Ca, Mg and K uptake were evaluated. The presence of NH4+ in the 100:0, 75:25 proportions resulted in plant toxicity, however, as the NO3- proportion increased, toxicity was reduced. The combined supply of NH4+ and NO3- increased biomass production compared to solely NH4+ supply. The rice root system of the two cultivars developed mainly in the 0-10 cm layer and the - greatest root length was observed in the treatment NH4+ 75:25 NO3- for IRGA 417. The presence of NH4+ in soil solution affected negatively calcium absorption, whereas no affect was observed on N, Mg or K absorption. The total absorbed N, K, and Ca indicated a higher absorption efficiency with the combined

  19. Comparative study of crystalline silico-titanate and composition of ammonium molybdophosphate - polyacrylonitrile as sorbents for cesium separation from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, T.A.; Romanovskij, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline silico-titanate (UOP) and ammonium molybdophosphate - polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) are tested as sorbents for purification from cesium of concentrated acid wastes of Idaho National Engineering and Ecological Laboratory (INEEL). Using solutions simulating concentrated wastes isotherms of sorption equilibrium are built. Experiments on nonequilibrium sorption are done in columns with 1.5 cm 3 volume with flow rate 5, 10, and 20 1/h. Results obtained are compared for two sorbents [ru

  20. Understanding the nitrate coordination to Eu3+ ions in solution by potential of mean force calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvail, M.; Guilbaud, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    Coordination of nitrate anions with lanthanoid cations (Ln 3+ ) in water, methanol and octanol-1 has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with explicit polarization. Potential of mean force (PMF) profiles have been calculated for a mono-complex of lanthanoid nitrate (Ln(NO 3 ) 2+ ) in these solvents using umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics. In pure water, no difference in the nitrato coordination to lanthanoids (Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ and Dy 3+ ) is observed, i.e. the nitrate anion prefers the monodentate coordination, which promotes the salt dissociation. Then, the influence of the nature of the solvating molecules on the nitrato coordination to Eu 3+ has been investigated. PMF profiles point out that both monodentate and bidentate coordinations are stable in neat methanol, while in neat octanol, only the bidentate one is. MD simulations of Eu(NO 3 ) 3 in water-octanol mixtures with different concentrations of water have been then performed and confirm the importance of the water molecules' presence on the nitrate ion's coordination mode. (authors)

  1. Growth kinetics for the precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from aqueous zirconium and tin bearing solutions by the addition of ammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chipman, N.A. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1989-09-11

    The precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluorozirconate occurs rapidly upon addition of ammonium hydroxide. Experimental data indicate growth and nucleation rates between 0.06 and 0.28 microns/minute and around 10 {times} 107 number/L-min, respectively. Experiments with a mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer for concentrations of reactants of about 0.05 M ammonium hexafluorozirconate precipitating with 0.002 M ammonium hydroxide showed apparent nonlinear growth rates in some cases but not others. Batch studies indicated that growth rate dispersion is probably not present. When the AFL nonlinear model was used to fit the data, the power coefficient obtained was greater than 1, in disagreement with theory. In addition, for some of the data ``S`` shaped curves of the logarithm of the cumulative number greater than versus size were obtained. These curves can not be fit by the AFL model. A program developed at the University of Arizona was used to simulate the crystallization runs. The program results indicated that some of the nonlinear behavior may be attributed to transient conditions. Experimental data also illustrated this behavior. The effect of trace amounts of tin fluoride (0.008 M) on the nucleation and growth kinetics was also evaluated. For some residence times, the presence of tin resulted in reduced median particle diameters, higher growth rates, and lower number counts.

  2. Structural and vibrational study of 2-MethoxyEthylAmmonium Nitrate (2-OMeEAN): Interpretation of experimental results with ab initio molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L.; Bovi, D.; Guidoni, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm −1 ), where the vibrational motions involve the NH 3 + group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm −1 where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν 3 ) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D 3h symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.

  3. Structural and vibrational study of 2-MethoxyEthylAmmonium Nitrate (2-OMeEAN): Interpretation of experimental results with ab initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bovi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guidoni, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm{sup −1}), where the vibrational motions involve the NH{sub 3}+ group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm{sup −1} where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν{sub 3}) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D{sub 3h} symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.

  4. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Atmospheric behaviour of ammonia and ammonium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asman, W.A.H.

    1987-01-01

    1.4.1 Scope of this thesis

    A few models for ammonia and ammonium exist. Russell et al. (1983) made a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model describing the transport and formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol for California. They did not take reactions of ammonia and sulphuric acid

  6. Critical experiment program of heterogeneous core composed for LWR fuel rods and low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Shouichi; Nakamura, Takemi

    2003-01-01

    In order to stimulate the criticality characteristics of a dissolver in a reprocessing plant, a critical experiment program of heterogeneous cores is under going at a Static Critical Experimental Facility, STACY in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI. The experimental system is composed of 5w/o enriched PWR-type fuel rod array immersed in 6w/o enriched uranyl nitrate solution. First series of experiments are basic benchmark experiments on fundamental critical data in order to validate criticality calculation codes for 'general-form system' classified in the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook, JCSHB. Second series of experiments are concerning the neutron absorber effects of fission products related to the burn-up credit Level-2. For demonstrating the reactivity effects of fission products, reactivity effects of natural elements such as Sm, Nd, Eu and 103 Rh, 133 Cs, solved in the nitrate solution are to be measured. The objective of third series of experiments is to validate the effect of gadolinium as a soluble neutron poison. Properties of temperature coefficients and kinetic parameters are also studied, since these parameters are important to evaluate the transient behavior of the criticality accident. (author)

  7. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  8. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  9. Polyaniline-silver composites prepared by the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate in solutions of sulfonic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, Patrycja; Trchova, Miroslava; Prokes, Jan; Varga, Martin; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Aniline was oxidized with silver nitrate in aqueous solutions of sulfonic acids: camphorsulfonic, methanesulfonic, sulfamic, or toluenesulfonic acids. Polyaniline-silver composites were produced slowly in 4 weeks in good yield, except for the reaction, which took place in sulfamic acid solution, where the yield was low. Polyaniline in the emeraldine form was identified with UV-visible, FTIR, and Raman spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the silver content, which was close to the theoretical prediction of 68.9 wt.%. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of silver nanoparticles of ca 50 nm average sizes as the dominating species, and hairy polyaniline nanorods having diameter 150-250 nm accompanied them. The highest conductivity of 880 S cm -1 was found with the composite prepared in methanesulfonic acid solution. Its conductivity decreased with temperature increasing in the 70-315 K range, which is typical of metals such as silver. The conductivity of composites prepared in solutions of other acids was lower and increased with increasing temperature. Such dependence is typical of semiconductors, reflecting the dominating role of polyaniline in the conductivity behaviour. It is proposed that interfaces between the polyaniline matrix and dispersed silver nanoparticles play a dominating role in macroscopic level of conductivity.

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  11. Direct and indirect photodegradation of estriol in the presence of humic acid, nitrate and iron complexes in water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Kai [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Zuo, Yuegang, E-mail: yzuo@umassd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The photochemical behavior of a natural estrogen estriol (E3) was investigated in the presence of the natural photoreactive constituents including nitrate, iron(III), and humic acid (HA). The direct photodegradation of E3 increased with increasing incident light intensity, decreasing initial concentration of E3 and increasing pH in the range of 6.0 to 10.0. The direct photodegradation of the deprotonated speciation of E3 was much faster than that of its protonated form. The presence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and iron(III) promoted the photochemical loss of E3 in the aqueous solutions. The quenching experiments verified that hydroxyl radicals were predominantly responsible for the indirect photodegradation of E3. HA could act as photosensitizer, light screening agent and free radical quencher. For the first time, the enhancement or inhibition effect of HA on photodegradation was found to depend on the irradiation light intensity. HA enhanced the photodegradation of E3 under sunlight or weak irradiation of simulated sunlight. In contrast, under high irradiation light intensity, HA inhibited the photodegradation. The hydroxylation photoproducts were identified using GC-MS and the photodegradation pathway of E3 was proposed. - Highlights: • Direct and indirect photodegradation of estriol (E3) were first investigated. • The direct photodegradation of E3 increased with increasing pH of the solutions. • The light intensity affected the photosensitization effect of humic acid. • Nitrate and iron(III) promoted the photodecomposition of estriol in water. • The ·OH oxidation products of E3 was first determined.

  12. Coupled in situ Ammonium and Nitrate analyses of a tidally dominated estuary: New developments from the Elkhorn Slough Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P. J.; Plant, J.; Johnson, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    For nearly nine years the Elkhorn Slough Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory (LOBO) network of moorings has been delivering freely available hourly data to the web in near real time. Each mooring hosts a suite of instruments including an ISUS nitrate sensor. In addition to providing valuable information on ecosystem scale processes, the moorings serve as ideal test platforms for novel in situ chemical sensors & analyzers developed by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The recent addition of a newly developed in situ NH4+ analyzer, the DigiScan-II, has provided additional insights into N cycling mechanisms within the slough. The analysis method estimates NH4+ concentration via base conversion to NH3 gas and diffusion across a membrane into an acid carrier stream with subsequent conductivity detection. Although this new NH4+ analyzer is reagent based, it was developed to be relatively cheap, robust, and configurable for a range of deployment options and requires minimal, infrequent maintenance that is ultimately governed by battery life. The fundamental DigiScan-II platform can also be used for other analyses of interest, such as PO4 or CT (total inorganic carbon), by swapping the necessary reagents and components and by making minor code modifications. For deployment in Elkhorn Slough, the NH4+ DigiScan-II was configured for mid-scale concentration detection with a linear calibration range of 30.0 μM NH4+. The flux of different forms of bioavailable DIN through the system is driven by runoff inputs, tidal exchange, and biological processing. Large inputs of NO3- are sourced from the agriculturally influenced Old Salinas River (OSR), which enters the Slough near the estuary mouth and confluence with Monterey Bay. Rising ocean tides force this eutrophied water mass up into the slough where it is accessed by various biological communities during the course of the tidal period. Mass balance estimates suggest there is an imbalance between the amount of NO3

  13. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Neutron structural, X-ray powder and vibrational studies of the mixed solid solution rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktari, L.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W.; Cousson, A.

    2009-01-01

    At room temperature the rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate salt Rb 1.12 (NH 4 ) 0.88 SO 4 .Te(OH) 6 (RbNST) has been prepared using the reaction of the rubidium sulfate, ammonium sulfate and telluric acid. Its structure has been determined from single crystal using neutron diffraction data. The RbNST crystal is monoclinic structure with P2 1 /a space group. The parameters are: a = 11.440(9) A, b = 6.640(7) A, c = 13.700(1) A, β = 106.90(7) deg. and Z = 4. The main result is the presence of two different and independent anionic groups (TeO 6 6- and SO 4 2- ) in the same crystal. The structure is like built by planes of pure SO 4 tetrahedra and pure TeO 6 octahedra altering with Rb + and NH 4 + cations statistically disordered on one atomic position. Differential scanning calorimetry traces show one anomaly at 418 K, two epaulments at 483 and 510 K corresponding to three phase transitions and one strong peak at 517 K dealing with the decomposition of the salt. Raman scattering and X-ray powder diffraction measurements on RbNST material, taken between 300 and 620 K are reported in this paper. The spectrums confirm and characterize clearly these phase transitions detected by DSC.

  15. Electrochemical studies of plutonium(IV) complexes in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Yun; Asakura, Toshihide; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry has been used to investigate the behavior of plutonium (IV) in 1-7 M HNO 3 solutions. These Pu(IV) complexes were found to be reduced quasi-reversibly to Pu(III) species. The formal redox potentials (E 0 ) for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couples were determined to be +0.721, +0.712, +0.706, +0.705, +0.704, 0.694, and +0.696 V (vs. Ag/AgCl(SSE)) for Pu(IV) complexes in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 M HNO 3 solutions, respectively. These results indicate that the reduction product of Pu(IV) is Pu(III), which is considerably stable in HNO 3 solution. (author)

  16. Cementation of nitrate solutions by alkali-activated slag-metakaolin cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, N.R.; Rakhimov, R.Z.; Naumkina, N.I.; Gubaidullina, A.M.; Yakovlev, G.I.; Shaybadullina, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considered the feasibility of solidification of liquid salt wastes by NaNO 3 solutions of concentration 100-700 g/l by alkali-activated slag (AASC) and alkali-activated slag-meta-kaolin cements (AASMC). The AASC (activated by 5% Na 2 O) and AASMC (activated by 5% Na 2 O and introduced with 5% of MK) mixed with NaNO 3 solutions were more effective in comparison with Portland cement. The compressive strength of hardened AASC and AASMC pastes was 1.6-12. and 7- 21 MPa in 3-day age and 13.4-31 and 20-37 MPa in 28-day age, respectively, depending on concentration of NaNO 3 solution. The incorporation of 3-5% meta-kaolin in AASC: (i) increased the compressive strength of hardened AASMC pastes up to 50% depending on the type of meta-kaolin, (ii) shortened setting times of fresh AASMC pastes

  17. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For most of the cultivated crops, nitrate is the major source of nitrogen. Most steps in the nitrate assimilatory pathway are nitrate inducible. In this study, Cucurbita pepo were grown in washed sand per pot at three potassium and sodium nitrate supplies (25, 50 and 100 mM) to investigate the effects of nitrate salts supply on ...

  18. The corrosion inhibition of pure zinc in NH{sub 4}Cl aqueous solutions by N-Alkyl quaternary ammonium bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branzoi, V.; Pilan, Luisa; Pruna, Alina [University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Calea Grivitei, 132, Bucharest (Romania); Branzoi, Florina [Institute of Physical Chemistry Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei, 202, Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion of zinc in NH{sub 4}Cl solutions of different concentrations has been studied by potentiostatic and potentiodynamic methods and by impedance measurements. The results obtained in a potential region near the zinc corrosion potential showed that the cathodic reaction of hydrogen discharge does not fit a simple exponential law because the Tafel coefficient appears to be electrode potential dependent. At low overvoltages, in the anodic region, the corrosion process is under activation control, while at high overvoltages the process is under diffusion control. N-dodecyl, n-tetra-decyl and n-hexa-decyl ammonium bromides were used as organic inhibitors. The potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization studies and EIS measurements showed that each quaternary ammonium salt inhibits the corrosion of pure zinc in 1M NH{sub 4}Cl at 30 deg. C. The inhibition efficiency of the cations was discussed on the basis of Coulomb adsorption behaviour, using molecular coverage areas and polar substituent constant. The inhibition efficiency obtained from the corrosion currents was found to increase linearly with an increase in the molecular coverage area (A) for the series of tetra-alkyl ammonium ions. The efficiency of the cations increased with an increase in the positive charge of the nitrogen atom, which was due to the inductive effect of the electron-attractive groups. This effect on the Coulomb adsorption of the cations was, however, far less than that of the electron donating groups on the chemisorption of un-protonated amines. The steric requirements for the adsorption of the quaternaries with branched alkyl chains were small. Each organic compound exhibits Langmuir behaviour and inhibition increases with increasing alkyl chain length. This is attributed to cohesive Van der Waals forces between the positive head groups co-adsorbed with bromide ions on the positively charged zinc surface. (authors)

  19. The system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water. Extraction by water in spray and packed columns from uranyl nitrate-either solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.

    1960-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the one published in Chemical Engineering Progress. Symposium Series, 50, n. 12, 127 (1954). New runs for spray columns, are given and other concentrations in uranyl nitrate for the packed columns. New correlations for the overall H.T.U. are also given. The individual H.T.U. have been grapycally calculated and show that the film resistances have similar values, being independent of the concentration of the ether phase. (Author) 24 refs

  20. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of the removal of ammonium ions from aqueous solution by rice husk ash-synthesized zeolite Y and powdered and granulated forms of mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Alias Mohd; Keat, Lee Kian; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Nizam, Nik Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions using zeolite NaY prepared from a local agricultural waste, rice husk ash waste was investigated and a naturally occurring zeolite mordenite in powdered and granulated forms was used as comparison. Zeolite NaY and mordenite were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and the total cation exchange capacity (CEC). CEC of the zeolites were measured as 3.15, 1.46 and 1.34 meq g -1 for zeolite Y, powdered mordenite and granular mordenite, respectively. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium data for the removal of NH 4 + ions were examined by fitting the experimental data to various models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order reaction. The equilibrium pattern fits well with the Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity for zeolite Y (42.37 mg/g) was found to be higher than that powdered mordenite (15.13 mg/g) and granular mordenite (14.56 mg/g). Thus, it can be concluded that the low cost and economical rice husk ash-synthesized zeolite NaY could be a better sorbent for ammonium removal due to its rapid adsorption rate and higher adsorption capacity compared to natural mordenite.

  1. Refining method for bismuth nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shigeyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of separating and removing α ray emitting nuclides present in an aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate by an industrially convenient method. A nitric acid concentration in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate in which α ray emitting nuclides are dissolved is lowered to coprecipitate the bismuth oxynitrate and the α ray emitting nuclides. The coprecipitation materials are separated from the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate to separate the α ray emitting nuclides dissolved in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate thereby refining the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate. (T.M.)

  2. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel...... halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  3. Investigation of interaction of cadmium nitrate with sodium hydroxide in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunner, Eh.A.; Mel'nichenko, L.M.; Yakhkind, N.D.; Vel'mozhnyj, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The methods of physiochemical analysis (measurement of Cd 2+ and OH - residual concentrations, refraction index and liquid phase density) as well as X-ray phase analysis of precipitations have been used to study the interaction of Cd(NO 3 ) 2 with NaOH in isomolar series of mixtures of reagent solutions and in mixtures with constant content of Cd 2+ ions at variable OH - ion concentration. It has been found that depending on reagents relations weakly-soluble interaction products are Cd 3 (OH) 5 NO 3 or Cd(OH) 2

  4. Enhanced electrical stability of nitrate ligand-based hexaaqua complexes solution-processed ultrathin a-IGZO transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C.; Baek, Y.; Lee, B. M.; Kim, K. H.; Rim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report solution-processed, amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide-based (a-IGZO-based) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Our proposed solution-processed a-IGZO films, using a simple spin-coating method, were formed through nitrate ligand-based metal complexes, and they were annealed at low temperature (250 °C) to achieve high-quality oxide films and devices. We investigated solution-processed a-IGZO TFTs with various thicknesses, ranging from 4 to 16 nm. The 4 nm-thick TFT films had smooth morphology and high-density, and they exhibited excellent performance, i.e. a high saturation mobility of 7.73  ±  0.44 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, a sub-threshold swing of 0.27 V dec‑1, an on/off ratio of ~108, and a low threshold voltage of 3.10  ±  0.30 V. However, the performance of the TFTs degraded as the film thickness was increased. We further performed positive and negative bias stress tests to examine their electrical stability, and it was noted that the operating behavior of the devices was highly stable. Despite a small number of free charges, the high performance of the ultrathin a-IGZO TFTs was attributed to the small effect of the thickness of the channel, low bulk resistance, the quality of the a-IGZO/SiO2 interface, and high film density.

  5. Bioprocessing of seleno-oxyanions and tellurite in a novel Bacillus sp. strain STG-83: A solution to removal of toxic oxyanions in presence of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Ghazvini, Parisa Tajer Mohammad; Khajeh, Khosro; Gharavi, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Bioremediation of toxic nonmetal and metalloid oxyanions is of great interest. In this study, among 148 bacterial isolates from two types of polluted water, strain STG-83 showed maximum oxyanion reduction and resistance ability. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of STG-83 showed that the strain is closely related to Bacillus pumilus and morphological and biochemical tests confirmed the result. The strain was nitrate negative, but it could reduce half of tellurite in solution containing 1-mM concentration and completely reduced selenite and selenate in solutions containing 1-mM concentrations. Both reduction to elemental form and volatilization occurred in case of all oxyanions tested, according to hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy and proton induced X-ray emission analytical methods. The strain was able to tolerate remarkably high concentrations of selenite (640 mM), selenate (320 mM), and tellurite (1250 μM); and tolerance to tellurite increased in presence of selenite and selenate. Biochemical tests and zymogram of extracted culture solutions on gel electrophoresis showed that the strain was nitrate negative and therefore nitrate did not interfere with reduction of other oxyanions. Thus, the strain opens up good opportunities for the bioremediation of polluted waters in natural environment, since nitrate usually inhibits or decelerates reduction of the mentioned toxic oxyanions.

  6. Bioprocessing of seleno-oxyanions and tellurite in a novel Bacillus sp. strain STG-83: a solution to removal of toxic oxyanions in presence of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Ghazvini, Parisa Tajer Mohammad; Khajeh, Khosro; Gharavi, Sara

    2009-06-15

    Bioremediation of toxic nonmetal and metalloid oxyanions is of great interest. In this study, among 148 bacterial isolates from two types of polluted water, strain STG-83 showed maximum oxyanion reduction and resistance ability. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of STG-83 showed that the strain is closely related to Bacillus pumilus and morphological and biochemical tests confirmed the result. The strain was nitrate negative, but it could reduce half of tellurite in solution containing 1-mM concentration and completely reduced selenite and selenate in solutions containing 1-mM concentrations. Both reduction to elemental form and volatilization occurred in case of all oxyanions tested, according to hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy and proton induced X-ray emission analytical methods. The strain was able to tolerate remarkably high concentrations of selenite (640 mM), selenate (320 mM), and tellurite (1250 microM); and tolerance to tellurite increased in presence of selenite and selenate. Biochemical tests and zymogram of extracted culture solutions on gel electrophoresis showed that the strain was nitrate negative and therefore nitrate did not interfere with reduction of other oxyanions. Thus, the strain opens up good opportunities for the bioremediation of polluted waters in natural environment, since nitrate usually inhibits or decelerates reduction of the mentioned toxic oxyanions.

  7. Mechanism of the extraction of nitric acid and water by organic solutions of tertiary alkyl-amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourisse, D.

    1966-06-01

    The micellar aggregation of tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrates in low polarity organic solvents has been verified by viscosity, conductivity and sedimentation velocity measurements. The aggregation depends upon the polarity of solvent, the length of the alkyl radicals and the organic concentration of the various constituents (tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate, tri-alkyl-amine, nitric acid, water). The amine salification law has been established and the excess nitric acid and water solubilities in the organic solutions have been measured. Nitric acid and water are slightly more soluble in micellar organic solutions than in molecular organic solutions. A description of excess nitric acid containing tri-alkyl-ammonium nitrate solutions is proposed. (author) [fr

  8. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); free acid by titration in an oxalate solution; free acid by iodate precipitation-potentiometric titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; chloride by thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; sulfate by barium sulfate turbidimetric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium), and tantalum by spectrochemical method; simple preparation by spectrographic analysis for general impurities

  9. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .... Lubbock, Texas--Thursday, October 13, 2011, 10 a.m.-2 p.m., Holiday Inn Hotel & Towers, 801 Avenue Q...., DoubleTree Hotel Sacramento, 2001 Point West Way, Sacramento, CA 95815, Capitol Ballroom, Salon B/C.... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma--Thursday, October 27, 2011, 10 a.m.-2 p.m., Sheraton Oklahoma City Hotel, 1 North...

  10. Reuse of Ammonium Nitrate - Wet Air Oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    ... it. AN is commonly used as a fertilizer (80 percent of AN produced) and an oxidizer. Owing to the high demand and wide availability of AN for its most common use, the commercial cost is very low...

  11. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... significant changes, if any, in the supply and demand conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... Subject Merchandise, a U.S. or foreign trade or business association, or another interested party...

  12. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... nitrate salts supply on nitrate accumulation, amino acid biosynthesis, total protein production, nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate biosynthesis in the roots and leaves of the plants. The results indicate that both sodium and potassium nitrate supplementation had stimulatory effects on all of the.

  13. Effect of temperature on the extraction of europium (III) bymixtures of neutral phosphoro-organic extractants from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchlin, E.B.; Khmuran, M.A.; Mikhailichenko, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been made of the distribution of microquantities of europium (III) on extraction with neutral phosphoorganic compounds-tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), diisooctylmethyl phosphonate (DIOMP),trialkylphosphine oxide with dissimilar radicals (PODR), or mixtures thereof-from a solution of 2 mole/liter NH 4 NO 3 and 0.01 mole/liter HNO 3 , in the temperature range 20-60 0 C. A temperature rise results in a decrease of the distribution coefficients of the europium on extraction by all of the extractants tested and their mixtures, and also in a reduction of the synergistic effect in extraction by mixtures of the extractants. Based on an investigation of the temperature dependences of the distribution constants of europium nitrate upon extraction by TBP, DIOMP, PODR, or their mixtures, values have been determined for the enthalpy, free energy, and entropy of extraction. It is shown that the enthalpy (-ΔH) increases in the order TBP< DIOMP< PODR. In an extraction with mixed extractants, the enthalpy has a value intermediate between those with the individual extractants. The entropy of extraction (-ΔS) increases in the reverse order PODR< DIOMP< TBP

  14. Effect of Stabilized Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on Nitrate Removal from Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nooralivand

    2016-02-01

    method. CMC-NZVI suspensions of nanoparticle in aqueous solution (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.001MKCl were pumped into the sand column during the injection of nitrate solution. During transport experiment, the flask containing CMC-ZVIN suspension was sonicated using a 50 KH ultrasonicator (DSA100-SK2 to prevent particle agglomeration and ensure homogeneity of the suspensions. In these experiments pore water velocity was 0.16 mms-1. Nitrate and Nitrite concentrations in the samples were measured using UV-VIS.HACH DR 5000 spectrophotometer at wavelengths 220 and 530nm, respectively, and ammonium concentration was measured by Kjeldahl method. All chemicals used in this research were of chemical grades and all solutions were prepared using deionized water (DI. Results and Discussion: Effect of nanoparticles and nitrate concentration on nitrate reduction by stabilized nanoparticle in sand column was investigated. The Results of study indicating at the first of reaction in both cases rate and amount of nitrate reduction was increased gradually. But over time, due to saturation capacity of nanoparticles at higher concentrations of nitrate, reduction speed and amount of reduction was constant approximately. The result showed that increasing dosage of nanoparticles and decreasing the influent nitrate concentration would increase percentage of nitrate reduction. Maximum percentage of reduction (82.56% were observed at nanoparticles concentration=3 gl-1 and high initial nitrate concentration=150 mgl-1 and minimum percentage of reduction (63.94% were observed at nanoparticles concentration=1 gl-1 and high initial nitrate concentration=150 mgl-1. After the end of experiment time, amount of observed ammonium and nitrite was a few in the drainage water of sand column. During the reaction nitrate reduction by nano-particles, H + was used and OH- was produced therefore through reaction, environment pH increased continuously. In conditions of alkaline, ammonium release in the form of N2. Therefore

  15. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.

    2010-01-01

    . Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...

  16. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  17. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. An investigation to compare the performance of methods for the determination of free acid in highly concentrated solutions of plutonium and uranium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been carried out to compare the performance of the direct titration method and the indirect mass balance method, for the determination of free acid in highly concentrated solutions of uranium nitrate and plutonium nitrate. The direct titration of free acid with alkali is carried out in a fluoride medium to avoid interference from the hydrolysis of uranium or plutonium, while free acid concentration by the mass balance method is obtained by calculation from the metal concentration, metal valency state, and total nitrate concentration in a sample. The Gran plot end-point prediction technique has been used extensively in the investigation to gain information concerning the hydrolysis of uranium and plutonium in fluoride media and in other complexing media. The use of the Gran plot technique has improved the detection of the end-point of the free acid titration which gives an improvement in the precision of the determination. The experimental results obtained show that there is good agreement between the two methods for the determination of free acidity, and that the precision of the direct titration method in a fluoride medium using the Gran plot technique to detect the end-point is 0.75% (coefficient of variation), for a typical separation plant plutonium nitrate solution. The performance of alternative complexing agents in the direct titration method has been studied and is discussed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    2016-11-15

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  20. Modelling of flame temperature of solution combustion synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), an important bio-ceramic was successfully synthesized by combustion in the aqueous system containing calcium nitrate-di-ammonium hydrogen orthophosphate-urea. The combustion flame temperature of solution combustion reaction depends on various process parameters, and it plays a significant ...

  1. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Alumina and Modified by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of an effective method regarding chromium removal from the environment is of great importance. Therefore, the present study aimed to examiner magnetic nanoparticles coated with alumina modified by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB in the removal of Cr6+ through magnetic solid phase extraction method. Materials & Methods: At first, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, coated with alumina, modified with CTAB and characterized with suitable instruments. The factors affecting the process of chromium removal were investigated, including the concentration of CTAB, the pH, the amount of nanoparticles, the sample volume, a proper eluent, the adsorption and desorption time, and the effect of interfering ions. Moreover, the chromium concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS technique. The adsorption isotherm, adsorption capacity, and recoverability of the adsorbent were further examined. Results: The modified magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated to be homogeneous, spherical, with a size lower than 20 nanometer having a magnetic property. The optimal conditions for chromium removal entailed 7*10-6 mol/L concentration of CTAB, pH range of 6-8, 0.1 g of the nanoparticles, 10 mL volume of the chromium sample (5 &mug mL-1, nitric acid 2 M as a suitable eluent, 15 minutes of adsorption and desorption, and no interference of interfering ions in the process of chromium separation. The process efficiency under optimal conditions was determined to be over 95%, which this process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption capacity proved to be 23.8 mg/g. Reusing after four times of adsorbent recovering was effective in the chromium removal (80%. The method accuracy for five measurement times was 4.155% and the method’s LOD was 0.081 mg/L. Conclusion: The method enjoys the benefits of convenient preparation of the adsorbent, high selectivity, high accuracy, short process

  2. Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solutions by Starch Stabilized nano Zero-Valent Iron(nZVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Yaghmaeian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nitrate is one of the inorganic anions derived as a result of oxidation of elemental nitrogen. Urban and industrial wastewater, animal and vegetable waste products in large cities that have organic nitrogen are excreted along the soil. The primary risk of Nitrate in drinking water occurs when nitrate in the gastrointestinal tract switch to nitrite. Nitrite causes the oxidation of iron in hemoglobin of red blood cells, result in red blood cells could not carry the oxygen, a condition called methemoglobinemia. Therefore, achieving the new technologies for nitrate removal is necessary. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at laboratory Scale in non-continuous batches. Stabilized adsorbent was produced through reducing Iron sulfate by sodium borohydride (NaBH4 in presence of Starch (0.2W % as a stabilizer. At first, the effect of various parameters such as contact time (10-90min, pH (3-11, adsorbent dose (0.5-3 g/L and initial concentration of arsenate (50-250 mg/L were investigated on process efficiency. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model equilibrium constant, were calculated. Residual nitrate were measured by using the DR5000 spectrophotometer. Results: The optimum values based on RSM for pH, absorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of nitrate were 5.87, 2.25 g/L, 55.7 min, and 110.35 mg/L respectively. Langmuir isotherm with R2= 0.9932 for nitrate was the best graph for the experimental data. The maximum amount of nitrate adsorption was 138.88mg/g. Conclusion: Stabilized absorbent due to have numerous absorption sites and Fe0 as a reducing agent could have great potential in nitrate removal from water.

  3. Two-stage Sequential Electrochemical Treatment of Nitrate Brine Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiefei; Kupferle, Margaret J. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: Margaret.Kupferle@uc.edu

    2008-08-15

    Nitrates in concentrated brines can be electrochemically reduced in the cathodic chamber of a split-cell electrochemical reactor with formation of ammonium (and small amounts of nitrite). Fortunately, ammonium may be electrochemically oxidized to nitrogen gas in the anodic reaction chamber if a coupled sequential process is used. The presence of chloride in the brine waste is an important consideration in oxidative electrochemical processes, however, because it cycles through oxidized and reduced states at the electrode surfaces and in the bulk solution. Electrochemical oxidation converts chloride ions to 'active chlorine' species with additional oxidizing capability (chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite - essentially bleach), as well as to chlorates, depending on the reaction conditions. The production of these active species improves treatment performance in the ammonium oxidation phase since oxidation is no longer limited to the electrode surface. However, the process must be engineered to minimize loss of process efficiency due to parasitic side reactions (chloramines and chlorate). In this study, two-stage batch electrolysis was conducted using a three-electrode (copper anode, platinum-coated titanium cathode, silver/silver chloride reference) electrochemical cell, with the anodic and cathodic chambers separated by a Nafion 117 membrane. Treatment of nitrate and ammonium was tested with and without the presence of chloride in the waste. No significant difference was observed in cathodic nitrate reduction with chloride present or absent. However, the presence of chloride in the solution favored overall soluble nitrogen elimination upon oxidation. Increasing applied current increased production of undesirable byproducts (especially chlorate)

  4. Producing ammonium uranate in spherical particulate form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugua, J.

    1984-01-01

    A novel easily handled substantially particulate ammonium uranate with a mean diameter between 30 and 150 micrometers, an apparent untamped bulk density of 2 to 2.8 g/cm 3 , and a flowability measured on the Carr scale equal to or greater than 95, with a low sulfate ion content between 0.5 and 1%, is calimed together with a fluidized bed process for preparing such ammonium uranate by precipitation of a super-saturated solution of ammonium uranate. The ammonium uranate is obtained by reacting a uranium sulfate solution and an ammoniacal solution, operating at a pH of about 6.6 to 7.2

  5. Ammonium hydroxide treatment of Aβ produces an aggregate free solution suitable for biophysical and cell culture characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Pathologically it is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neuronal loss within the brain tissue of affected individuals. It is now widely hypothesised that fibrillar structures represent an inert structure. Biophysical and toxicity assays attempting to characterize the formation of both the fibrillar and the intermediate oligomeric structures of Aβ typically involves preparing samples which are largely monomeric; the most common method by which this is achieved is to use the fluorinated organic solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP. Recent evidence has suggested that this method is not 100% effective in producing an aggregate free solution. We show, using dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and small angle X-ray scattering that this is indeed the case, with HFIP pretreated Aβ peptide solutions displaying an increased proportion of oligomeric and aggregated material and an increased propensity to aggregate. Furthermore we show that an alternative technique, involving treatment with strong alkali results in a much more homogenous solution that is largely monomeric. These techniques for solubilising and controlling the oligomeric state of Aβ are valuable starting points for future biophysical and toxicity assays.

  6. Mg-Cu-Al layered double hydroxides based catalysts for the reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Tatjana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary waste and bacterial contamination in physico-chemical and biological separation processes used today for nitrate removal from ground water make novel catalytic technologies that convert nitrates to unharmful gaseous nitrogen, very attractive for scientific research. The Mg-Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH based catalysts with different Mg/Al ratio were investigated in water denitrification reaction in the presence of hydrogen and with solely copper as an active phase. Since LDHs have ion exchange properties and their derived mixed oxides possess memory effect (restoration of layered structure after thermal decomposition, their adsorption capacity for nitrates was also measured in the same model system. All studied samples showed nitrate removal from 23% to 62% following the decrease in Al content, as well as the substantial adsorption capacity ranging from 18% to 38%. These results underlie the necessity to take into account the effects of the adsorption in all future investigations.

  7. Kinetics of conversion of celestite to strontium carbonate in solutions containing carbonate, bicarbonate and ammonium ions and dissolved ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraga Mert; Kahruman Cem

    2014-01-01

    Celestite concentrate (SrSO4) has been converted to SrCO3 in solutions containing CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ ions and dissolved ammonia. The effects of stirring speed, CO32- ion concentration; temperature and particle size of SrSO4 on the reaction rate were investigated. It was found that the conversion of SrSO4 was increased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle size, while the reaction rate was decreased with increasing the CO32- ion concen...

  8. Ion exchange separation of nitrate from uranium compounds and its determination by spectrophotometry and ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure for the separation of nitrate from uranium compounds by retaintion of uranyl ion on a cationic ion exchanger and its determination in the effluent is described. Nitrate is analysed by the spectrometric method with 1-phenol-2,4-dissulphonic acid. This determination covers the 1 to 10 μg NO - 3 /mL range and requires an amount of 10 to 100 μg NO - 3 . The main interference is uranium (VI) due its own intense yellow color. This difficulty is overcome by the complete separation of UO 2 ++ with the cationic resin. Alternatively, the ion chromatography technique is used for the determination of nitrate in the effluent of the cationic resin. The determination was easily made by the comparison of the nitrate peak hights of the analyte and the standard solutions. The ion chromatography method is very sensitive (0,3 μg NO - 3 /mL), reproducible and suitable for routine analysis and permits the determination of fraction of part per million of nitrate in uranium. The results of nitrate determination using both spectrophotometric and ion chromatography techniques are compared. The method is being routinely applied for the quality control of uranium compounds in the fuel cycle, specially uranium oxide, ammonium diuranate, uranium peroxide and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. (Author) [pt

  9. Efeito do nitrato e amônio sobre o crescimento e eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio em mandioca Effect of nitrate and ammonium on growth and efficiency of nitrogen use by cassava plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se o presente estudo visando-se avaliar o efeito da fonte nitrogenada sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca e a absorção, distribuição e utilização de nitrogênio em mandioca. Para a instalação do experimento utilizou-se a variedade Cigana preta, cultivada em solução nutritiva e em vasos com capacidade para 11,0 L. O nível de nitrogênio na solução foi de 12 mol m-3 e os tratamentos consistiram de cinco proporções de NO3-:NH4+ , conforme segue: 12:0, 9:3, 6:6, 3:9 e 0:12 mol m-3. No encerramento do experimento, que ocorreu 90 dias após o plantio, verificou-se que as menores quantidades de massa seca total foram obtidas para as plantas cultivadas tendo apenas nitrato ou amônio como fonte de nitrogênio. Nesse aspecto, o amônio foi mais prejudicial ao crescimento do que a fonte nítrica. A concentração de NH4+ livre no tecido vegetal foi maior para as raízes de absorção, seguida pelas folhas e raízes de armazenamento. A eficiência de absorção de nitrogênio foi maior para as plantas cultivadas sob as maiores proporções de NH4+. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cultura da mandioca cresce melhor quando ocorrer na solução de crescimento uma mistura de NO3- e NH4+, principalmente nas proporções de 9:3 e 6:6 mol m-3.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen source on dry mass accumulation and absorption, distribution and also use of nitrogen by cassava plants. Cigana Preta cultivar plants were grown in nutrient solutions set up in 11.0 L containers. Nitrogen concentration in solutions was 12 mol m-3. Treatments included five combinations of NO3-:NH4+ , that is, 12:0, 9:3, 6:6, 3:9 and 0:12 mol m-3. Aftert 90 days the dry mass was determined. The lowest total dry mass values were obtained for plants grown with just nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen source. In this sence, ammonium affected growth more than the nitric source. The concentration of free NH4+ was higher for absorption in roots

  10. Kinetics of conversion of celestite to strontium carbonate in solutions containing carbonate, bicarbonate and ammonium ions and dissolved ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraga Mert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestite concentrate (SrSO4 has been converted to SrCO3 in solutions containing CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ ions and dissolved ammonia. The effects of stirring speed, CO32- ion concentration; temperature and particle size of SrSO4 on the reaction rate were investigated. It was found that the conversion of SrSO4 was increased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle size, while the reaction rate was decreased with increasing the CO32- ion concentration. However, there was no effect of the stirring speed on the reaction rate. The conversion reaction was under chemical reaction control and the Shrinking Core Model was suitable to explain the reaction kinetics. The activation energy for the conversion reaction was found to be 41.9 kJ mol-1. The amounts of the elements in the reaction solution were determined quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The characterization of the solid reactant and product was made using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analytical techniques.

  11. Adsorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by glycidylmethacrylate-grafted-densified cellulose with quaternary ammonium groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T. S.; Nima, J.; Divya, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    This study successfully synthesized a new adsorbent by ethylation of glycidylmethacrylate grafted aminated titanium dioxide densified cellulose (Et-AMPGDC), to remove chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized by the FTIR, XRD, SEM and TG-DTG measurements. Batch adsorption technique using Et-AMPGDC was applied for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution and waste water. The contact time necessary to attain equilibrium and the optimum pH were found to be 1 h and 4.5, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of Cr(VI) ions was described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and the adsorption process was reflected by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated to be 123.60 mg/g. The electroplating industrial wastewater samples were treated with Et-AMPGDC to demonstrate its efficiency in removing Cr(VI) from wastewater. Almost complete removal was possible with 100 mg of the adsorbent from 50 mL of wastewater sample. Desorption efficiency was achieved by treatment with 0.1 M NaOH and five adsorption-desorption cycles were performed without significant decrease in adsorption capacity.

  12. Effect molybdenum (5, 6) compounds on hydrolysis and reorganization rates of ammonium and potassium triphosphates in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskaya, L.I.; Prodan, E.A.; Lesnikovich, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of thin-layer chromatography was used to investigate the kinetics of hydrolytic decomposition of triphosphate-anion in aqueous solutions of M 5 P 3 O 10 -(NH 4 ) 6 xMo 7 O 24 -H 2 O systems (M - NH 4 , pH 5.9-6.4; M - K, pH 6.5-6.8) and (NH 4 ) 5 P 3 O 10 -(NH 4 ) 2 MoOCl 5 -H 2 O system (pH 2.5 and 4.5) at 20 deg C and 0.2 mol% concnetration. It is shown that oxoions Mo 5 produce less accelerating effect on hydrolysis, as compared to Mo 6 oxoions, and are able to initiate anion reorganization with formation of tetraphosphate under certain conditions

  13. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute

    2006-01-01

    nitrate conversion from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In situ microsensor profiling in stagnant sludge revealed the typical stratification of nitrate reduction on top of sulfate reduction. Increasing the bulk nitrate concentration lead to a downward shift....... The interaction of these processes is less understood. Our aim was to investigate the functional interaction of nitrate reduction, denitrification and sulfate reduction in an anaerobic marine sludge. We hypothesize that sulfide (from sulfate reduction) (i) causes incomplete denitrification, and (ii) directs...... of the nitrate-sulfide transition zone; within this zone, N2O accumulated to 260 µM. Batch incubations of sludge with sulfide and 15N-nitrate showed the formation of ammonium at the expense of N2 with increasing sulfide concentrations; an indication of the predicted shift from denitrification to DNRA. However...

  14. Cr(VI) sorption behavior from aqueous solutions onto polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt: Kinetics and thermodynamics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barassi, Giancarlo; Valdes, Andrea; Araneda, Claudio; Basualto, Carlos; Sapag, Jaime; Tapia, Cristian [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile); Valenzuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvalenzu@uchile.cl [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-15

    This work studies the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from an aqueous acid solution on hydrophobic polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt-type extractant immobilized in their pore structure. The microcapsules were synthesized by adding the extractant Aliquat 336 during the in situ radical copolymerization of the monomers styrene (ST) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The microcapsules, which had a spherical shape with a rough surface, behaved as efficient adsorbents for Cr(VI) at the tested temperatures. The results of kinetics experiments carried out at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process fits well to a pseudo-second-order with an activation energy of 82.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming that the sorption process is controlled by a chemisorption mechanism. Langmuir's isotherms were found to represent well the experimentally observed sorption data. Thermodynamics parameters, namely, changes in standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup 0}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup 0}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup 0}), are also calculated. The results indicate that the chemisorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. The entropy change value measured in this study shows that metal adsorbed on microcapsules leads to a less chaotic system than a liquid-liquid extraction system.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of Si in tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and TMAH:Triton-X-100 solutions under white light effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Elizabeth M.; Cunnane, Vincent J.

    2002-03-01

    An experimental study of the electrochemical characteristics of the silicon/tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) junction under dark and white light conditions are investigated for both n- and p-type Si. The presence of Triton-X-100 (TX100) in the TMAH solution under white light conditions is also studied. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) are employed to study the white light effects on the etching characteristics of silicon in TMAH and TMAH:TX100. It was found that the passivation peak potential shifted significantly for both n- and p-type Si under white light conditions. The positions of the flatband potential for n- and p-type Si were predicted by CV under illumination. Finally, etch rate studies and preliminary surface roughness measurements were performed on p(100) Si in TMAH under both dark and white light conditions. These latter studies concluded that a reduction in the vertical surface roughness occurred in the presence of white light.

  16. Pyrolysis preparation of WO3 thin films using ammonium metatungstate DMF/water solution for efficient compact layers in planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jincheng, Zhang; Chengwu, Shi; Junjun, Chen; Chao, Ying; Ni, Wu; Mao, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films were firstly prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis methods using the ammonium metatungstate ((NH4)6H2W12O40) DMF/water solution, and successfully applied as the efficient compact layers for the planar perovskite solar cells. The influence of the WO3 film thickness and the rinsing treatment of CH3NH3PbI3 thin film with isopropanol on the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cells was systematically investigated. The results revealed that the perovskite solar cell with a 62 nm thick WO3 compact layer achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.72%, with a short circuit photocurrent density of 17.39 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.58 V and a fill factor of 0.57. The photoelectric conversion efficiency was improved from 5.72% to 7.04% by the isopropanol rinsing treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472071, 512720616, 51072043), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CBA00700).

  17. Ammonium conversion in liquid organic fertilisers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Streminska, M.; Vermeulen, T.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid organic fertilisers allow growers to abandon the use of conventional de novo (mined or synthesised) fertilisers without major technological adaptions to the cultivation system. In prior experiments the conversion by aerobic substrate born bacteria of ammonium into nitrate was plant growth

  18. Porównawcze badania nad występowaniem bakterii w hydroponicznych uprawach sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. z azotanowaą i amonową formą azotu w pożywce [Comparative studies on the occurrence of bacteria in hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. enriched with nitrate or ammonia forms of nitrogen in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment demonstrated the greatest number of bacteria on the surface of roots immersed in nutrient solution, next on the epidermis of the parts of roots remaining in the air space above the nutrient solution and on the roots growing in the seed-bed; a smaller number in the seed-bed itself and the smallest number in the nutrient solution. The population of bacteria consisted of up to 90% short rod of bacilli. The total number of bacteria in hydroponic culture with ammonium was higher than in that with nitrate. As a rule the bacteria belonging to the separate physiological groups, participating in nitrogen metabolism (ammonifying, proteolytic, proteinizing, denitrifying and oligonitrophilic bacteria appeared to be more numerus in the culture with ammonium than in that with nitrate. The growth of plants in hydroponic culture with ammonium was weaker than in that with nitrate.

  19. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by Anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Sliekers, O.; Lavik, G.; Schmid, M.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Kuenen, J.G.; Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions1. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean2. Here we

  20. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khan, Z.; Ashgar, A.; Danish, M. I.; Qazi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, ph, temperature, and contact time were determined for removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at ph 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at ph 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m 2 /g), and high adsorption capacity.

  1. Uptake and elimination kinetics of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate by Raphidocelis subcapitata: The influence of silver behaviour in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Goodhead, Rhys M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Moeger, Julian; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Raphidocelis subcapitata is a freshwater algae species that constitutes the basis of many aquatic trophic chains. In this study, R. subcapitata was used as a model species to investigate the kinetics of uptake and elimination of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in comparison to silver nitrate

  2. On thermodynamics of rhenium ion exchange sorption by strong-base anionite from nitrate-sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Pak, V.I.; Siracheva, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The apparent thermodynamic parameters of the process of rhenium absorption by strong-base anionites from nitrate-sulfate media in the range of low degrees of filling the sorbents with perrhenate ions are estimated. On the basis of studying the temperature dependence of ion-exchange rhenium sorption it is shown that this process is accompanied by heat release and entropy reduction

  3. Um método de investigação da assimilação heterotrófica do amônio e nitrato por organismos planctônicos A method for investigating the heterotrophic assimilation of ammonium and nitrate through planktonic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Bianchini-Júnior

    2000-05-01

    ammonium and nitrate is investigated for various predetermined concentrations of water samples extracted from the upper subsurface of the littoral zone of a small reservoir (Lake IAG in São Paulo, Brazil ( 23º39’ S and 46º37’ W. Five concentrations were predetermined for added ammonium: 300; 370; 440; 650; 1280 µg.N.L-1 and nitrate: 340; 590; 890; 1090; 1590 µg.N.L-1. The samples were maintained under dark and oxygenated at a controlled temperature of 20ºC ± 1ºC, for the period of 9 days for ammonium and 11 days for nitrate. Once a day the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in the flasks were analyzed colorimetric method. The highest uptake rate occurred at the initial concentrations of 300 µg.N.L-1 (k = 0,23 day-1 and 340 µg.N.L-1 (k = 0,25 day-1 for ammonium and nitrate respectively. These results indicate that the latter concentrations are close to the ideal conditions for assimilation of ammonium and nitrate by the microorganisms in the system. It is suggested therefore that these are the concentrations at which incubation processes should be started. In addition, concentrations above 500 µg.N.L-1 for ammonium and 600 µg.N.L-1 for nitrate are likely to cause inhibition of the assimilation process. The data do not follow a simple Michaelis-Menten equation, probably because some inhibition in the assimilation occurred.

  4. Contribution to the characterization of the ideality deviation of concentrated solutions of electrolytes: application to the case plutonium and uranium (IV) nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a base of binary data referring to the plutonium and uranium nitrates (IV) activity coefficients, which will permit to take account the medium effects in the process of liquid-liquid extraction set in action during the reprocessing of irradiated combustibles in a more scrupulous way. The first chapter sticks to establish the problematic of acquisition of actinides binary data at an oxidation state (IV) linked to two characteristics of this type of electrolyte its radioactive properties and its chemical properties. Its chemical properties bring us to define the fictitious binary data and to use an approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions, on the measurements of water activity of ternary or quaternary mixtures of the actinide, in nitric acid medium and on the binary data of nitric acid. The second chapter intended to propose reliable binary data concerning nitric acid. The validation of acquisition of fictitious binary data method suggested is undertaken. The electrolyte test is the thorium nitrate (IV). The very encouraging results has determined the carrying out of this work of research in that way. The third chapter is based on the experimental acquisition of uranium and plutonium nitrates (IV) binary data. It emphasises the importance given to the preparation of the studied mixtures which characteristics, very high actinide concentrations and low acidities, make them atypical solutions and without any referenced equivalents. The last chapter describes the exploitation which was made of the established binary data. The characteristic parameters of Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and U(NO 3 ) 4 of Pitzer model and of the specific interaction theory has been appraised. Then the application of' the concept of simple solutions to the calculation of the density or quaternary mixtures like Pu(NO 3 ) 4 / UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 /HNO 3 / H 2 O was proposed. (author)

  5. Consequences of variation in stream-landscape connections for stream nitrate retention and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, A. M.; Helton, A. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic and material connections among streams, the surrounding terrestrial landscape, and groundwater systems fluctuate between extremes in dryland watersheds, yet the consequences of this variation for stream nutrient retention and export remain uncertain. We explored how seasonal variation in hydrologic connection among streams, landscapes, and groundwater affect nitrate and ammonium concentrations across a dryland stream network and how this variation mediates in-stream nitrate uptake and watershed export. We conducted spatial surveys of stream nitrate and ammonium concentration across the 1200 km2 Oak Creek watershed in central Arizona (USA). In addition, we conducted pulse releases of a solution containing biologically reactive sodium nitrate, with sodium chloride as a conservative hydrologic tracer, to estimate nitrate uptake rates in the mainstem (Q>1000 L/s) and two tributaries. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations generally increased from headwaters to mouth in the mainstem. Locally elevated concentrations occurred in spring-fed tributaries draining fish hatcheries and larger irrigation ditches, but did not have a substantial effect on the mainstem nitrogen load. Ambient nitrate concentration (as N) ranged from below the analytical detection limit of 0.005 mg/L to 0.43 mg/L across all uptake experiments. Uptake length—average stream distance traveled for a nutrient atom from the point of release to its uptake—at ambient concentration ranged from 250 to 704 m and increased significantly with higher discharge, both across streams and within the same stream on different experiment dates. Vertical uptake velocity and aerial uptake rate ranged from 6.6-10.6 mm min-1 and 0.03 to 1.4 mg N m-2 min-1, respectively. Preliminary analyses indicate potentially elevated nitrogen loading to the lower portion of the watershed during seasonal precipitation events, but overall, the capacity for nitrate uptake is high in the mainstem and tributaries. Ongoing work

  6. Annual report of STACY operation in F.Y. 1997. 280mm thickness slab core {center_dot} 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Seiji; Sono, Hiroki; Hirose, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-06-01

    Fifty-three times critical experiments (run number R0104 to R0156) with STACY in NUCEF, were performed in F.Y. 1997. During these experiments, 10% enriched uranyl nitrate solution was used as fuel, and core configuration was 280mm thickness and 1.5m height slab core tank with various rectangular solid reflectors; ordinary or borated concrete, polyethylene and so on, to measure mainly reactivity worth by changes of reflecting material and its thickness. Operation data of STACY in F.Y. 1997 are summarized in this report. (author)

  7. Kinetics and selectivity of the oxidation of methylbenzenes in Co(III)-CH3COOH-CF3COOH solutions. Comparison with nitration and hydroxylation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, E.S.; Lobachev, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data have been obtained concerning the kinetics, substrate selectivity, and kinetic isotope effect for the first stage in the oxidation of a series of arenes, from benzene to hexamethylbenzene, by Co(III) acetate in CH 3 COOH-CF 3 COOH (1.9 M) solutions at 25 degree C. A similarity was noted between substrate selectivity for reactions of alkylbenzenes with Co(III) and electrophilic nitration reactions, which occur via an electron transfer step. It was also found that substrate selectivity for these reactions differs significantly from that found for electrophilic hydroxylation reactions, which occur via an intermediate slow step involving σ-complex formation

  8. A novel quaternized chitosan-melamine-glutaraldehyde resin for the removal of nitrate and phosphate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Appunni; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-03-01

    A terpolymer of chitosan-melamine-glutaraldehyde was prepared for the first time and it was quaternized with glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC). The quaternized chitosan-melamine-glutaraldehyde resin (QCMGR) was found to be effective for the removal of nitrate and phosphate oxyanions. The resin was characterised with FTIR, SEM, EDAX, TGA, DTA, XRD and water regain property. Batch method was followed to optimise the conditions for the removal of nitrate and phosphate. Chemical kinetics of the adsorption was well fitted by pseudo-second order and particle diffusion models and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well. The nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacity of QCMGR from 1000 mg/L respective solutions were 97.5 and 112.5mg/g, respectively. Nitrate and phosphate anions adsorbed effectively on QCMGR by replacing Cl(-) ions at the quaternary ammonium group by exchange mechanism. Even after 10th regeneration cycle the adsorbent fully retained its adsorption efficiency. Nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency of QCMGR was also tested by column method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on effect of process parameters and mixing on morphology of ammonium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhankar Manna; Chandrabhanu Basak; Thakkar, U.R.; Shital Thakur; Roy, S.B.; Joshi, J.B.; Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium diuranate (ADU) is an important intermediate for the production of uranium base fuel. Controlling morphology of crystalline ADU powders is very important as it is retained by its subsequent products. Because of the high level of supersaturation, the involved mechanisms of precipitation like primary nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation and breakage occur simultaneously and they control the morphology. Effects of concentration of uranyl nitrate solution, temperature and the mixing intensity have been investigated on the morphology, crystal structure and the other physical properties of ADU. Effect of temperature is found to be more dominant for controlling morphology. (author)

  10. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Adamantane Containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt-type Cationic Surfactants: Hydrocarbon-based, Fluorocarbonbased and Bola-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Okada, Mari; Matsuoka, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium salt-type cationic surfactants with an adamantyl group (hydrocarbon-type; C n AdAB, fluorocarbon-type; C m F C 3 AdAB, bola-type; Ad-s-Ad, where n, m and s represent hydrocarbon chain lengths of 8-16, fluorocarbon chain lengths of 4-8, and spacer chain length of 10-12) were synthesized via quaternization of N, N-dimethylaminoadamantane and n-alkyl bromide or 1, n-dibromoalkane. Conductivity and surface tension were measured to characterize the solution properties of the synthesized adamantyl group-containing cationic surfactants. In addition, the effects of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chain lengths and spacer chain length between headgroups on the measured properties were evaluated by comparison with those of conventional cationic surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of C n AdAB and Ad-s-Ad was 2/5 of that for the corresponding conventional surfactants C n TAB and bola-type surfactants with similar number of carbons in the alkyl or alkylene chain; this was because of the increased hydrophobicity due to the adamantyl group. A linear relationship between the logarithm of CMC and the hydrocarbon chain length for C n AdAB was observed, as well as for C n TAB. The slope of the linear correlation for both surfactants was almost the same, indicating that the adamantyl group does not affect the CMC with variations in the hydrocarbon chain length. Similar to conventional surfactants C n TAB, the hydrocarbon-type C n AdAB is highly efficient in reducing the surface tension of water, despite the large occupied area per molecule resulting from the relatively bulky structure of the adamantane skeleton. On the other hand, the bola-type Ad-s-Ad resulted in increased surface tension compared to C n AdAB, indicating that the curved chain between adamantyl groups leads to poor adsorption and orientation at the air-water interface.

  11. Preliminary analyses of critical experiments using 10% enriched uranium nitrate solution with the 800mm-diameter cylindrical tank of STACY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, Hiroki; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Ohno, Akio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-05-01

    STACY, the static experiment critical facility in NUCEF, has the plan of a series of critical experiments using 10% enriched uranium nitrate solution with the 800mm-diameter cylindrical tank. The main purpose of these experiments is to measure the critical solution height and the temperature coefficient of reactivity by varying concentration of uranium and temperature of the fuel solution. Prior to these experiments, it is needed to make a diluting program of the solution, which is utilized to adjust the concentration of uranium, and to estimate the reactivity effect caused by temperature change. Therefore, such neutronic characteristics as critical solution height, height differential reactivity and kinetics parameters, were calculated with computational codes. In these preliminary analyses, simplified formulas to evaluate the above neutronic characteristics were also obtained by the least squares method applied to the results of computations. These formula well agree with computations within 0.1% up to 3.5%, so that they are useful to make detailed plans for the experiments and the reactor operation. Then, the temperature coefficient of reactivity is estimated at 3.85cent/degC, approximately. (author)

  12. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  13. Recovery of ammonium alum from waste solutions with a varying ratio of NH4 to Al in groundwater remediation after underground uranium leaching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostomská, Věra; Hostomský, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 147, 1-2 (2007), s. 342-349 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : ammonium aluminium sulphate * gypsum * crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2007

  14. Synergistic Extraction of Copper from Nitrate Solutions Using β-Hydroxy-Naphthaldoxime and Organophosphorus Compounds into Carbon-Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pulak; Basu, Sukalyan

    2011-12-01

    The extraction behavior of Cu(II) from an aqueous nitrate medium employing β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated in the presence of several organophosphorus donors like tri-octyl phosphine oxide, tri-butyl phosphine oxide, and tri-butyl phosphate at pH 1.5. The concentration of the metal was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Synergism was observed when neutral donor was added because of the formation of the adduct [Cu(L)2.(S)] in CCl4 (S denotes neutral donor). The equilibrium constants of the binary system using β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime and the ternary system involving another addition of an organophosphorus compound were calculated from the extraction date obtained. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants was also investigated to evaluate standard enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (Δ S°), and free energy (Δ G°) of the reactions proposed.

  15. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet ALPASLAN; Süleyman TABAN; Ali İNAL; A. Cihat KÜTÜK; İbrahim ERDAL

    1996-01-01

    The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3), and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3), respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with...

  16. Treatment of uranyl nitrate and flouride solutions; Tratamiento de soluciones que contienen nitrato de uranilo y fluoruros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-07-01

    A theoretical study on the fluoride complexes contained in uranyl and aluminium solutions has been carried out. Likewise concentration limits and Duhring diagrams for those solutions have been experimentally established. As a result, the optimum operation conditions for concentration by evaporation in the treatment plant, have been deduced. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. A method for the determination of free nitric acid in aqueous plutonium nitrate solutions - potassium fluoride method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Plutonium IV and VI, and certain other hydrolysable metals which may be present, are converted to non-interfering species by the addition of the sample to potassium fluoride solution. The free acid is then titrated with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. (author)

  18. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed...

  19. Leaching of lead by ammonium salts and EDTA from Salvinia minima biomass produced during aquatic phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Roberto Aurelio [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo Qro., 76700 Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: ndahi2000@yahoo.com; Meas, Yunny [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo Qro., 76700 Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: yunnymeas@cideteq.mx; Citlalli Gama, Silvia; Ortega Borges, Raul [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo Qro., 76700 Mexico (Mexico); Olguin, Eugenia J. [Instituto de Ecologia (INECOL), Apdo. Postal 63, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000 (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    Plant biomass harvested after heavy-metal phytoremediation must be considered as a hazardous waste that should be contained or treated appropriately before disposal or reuse. As a potential method to detoxify the biomass and to convert this material to a suitable fertilizer or mulch, leaching of lead (Pb) from Salvinia minima biomass was studied by testing water, several aqueous ammonium salts, and EDTA solution as lead extractants. The research was carried out in two phases: (i) a leaching study to determine the lead-extraction efficiency of the different leachants, and (ii) a thermodynamic analysis to identify the likely reactions and stable Pb(II) species formed in the leaching systems of the most efficient leachants. Experimentally, lead concentrations measured in leached biomass and in leachates were significantly different among the various leachants. It was determined that the extraction strength of the leachants followed the order: EDTA > ammonium oxalate > water {approx} ammonium nitrate > ammonium acetate, achieving Pb extraction efficiencies of 99%, 70%, 7.2%, 6.9% and 1.3%, respectively, in single-stage extractions. The thermodynamic study indicated that the dominant species produced by the leaching process should be the soluble species PbEDTA{sup 2-} for EDTA system, and the insoluble Pb(COO){sub 2S} precipitate for the oxalate system.

  20. Response surface methodology (RSM and its application for optimization of ammonium ions removal from aqueous solutions by pumice as a natural and low cost adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Masoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the adsorption of ammonium ions onto pumice as a natural and low-cost adsorbent. The physico-chemical properties of the pumice granular were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Modeling and optimization of a NH4+ sorption process was accomplished by varying four independent parameters (pumice dosage, initial ammonium ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time using a central composite design (CCD under response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of NH4+ (70.3% were found to be 100 g, 20 mg/l, 300 rpm and 180 min, for pumice dosage, initial NH4+ ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time. It was found that the NH4+ adsorption on the pumice granular was dependent on adsorbent dosage and initial ammonium ion concentration. NH4+ was increased due to decrease the initial concentration of NH4 and increase the contact time, mixing rate and amount of adsorbent.

  1. Sulfate and nitrate levels in aqueous, atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of sulfates and nitrates in marine aerosol particles is investigated. A simulation of the growth and chemical reactions of an aerosol particle composed initially of an equilibrium mixture of NaCl and MgCl 2 and exposed to SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , NH 3 and H 2 SO 4 vapor is used to predict the relative compositions of sulfates, nitrates and ammonium, assuming gas-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation and liquid-phase nitrate formation. Results indicate an increase in nitrate concentration and a decrease in sulfate and ammonium concentrations with increasing particle radius and a near-stoichiometric ratio of nitrate and sulfate to ammonium. The noted deviations of this ratio from those observed experimentally are considered to indicate the relative importances of liquid-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation at various locations

  2. Use of combined ion exchangers on the basis of KU-23 and KM-2p cation exchangers for purification of ammonium molybdate and tungstate solutions from phosphate, arsenate, and silicate impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Majorov, D.Yu.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Taushkanov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Tracer technique ( 32 P) and elementary analysis, potentiality of using combined ionites on the basis of macroporous cation-exchange resins KU-23 or KM-2p and hydrated zirconium oxide for purification of concentrated solutions of ammonium molybdate and tungstate from phosphate-, arsenate-, and silicate-ions impurities was studied. High selectivity of the combined ionites towards impurity ions was ascertained, which permits reducing the content of impurities by a factor of 50-100 compared with the initial one [ru

  3. Behavior of tri(n-butyl)ammonium bis[citrato(3-)-O1,O3,O6]silicate in aqueous solution: analysis of a sol-gel process by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Oliver; Burschka, Christian; Schwahn, Dietmar; Tacke, Reinhold

    2005-04-04

    The racemic hexacoordinate silicon(IV) complex tri(n-butyl)ammonium bis[citrato(3-)-O1,O3,O6]silicate (1) was synthesized by treatment of Si(OMe)4 with 2 molar equiv of citric acid and 2 molar equiv of N(n-Bu)3. The corresponding germanium analogue, tri(n-butyl)ammonium bis[citrato(3-)-O1,O3,O6]germanate (5; structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction), was obtained analogously, starting from Ge(OMe)4. Upon dissolution in water, the lambda6Si-silicate dianion of 1 hydrolyzes spontaneously (formation of Si(OH)4 and citric acid), whereas the lambda6Ge-germanate dianion of 5 was found to be stable in water. Aqueous "solutions" of 1, with concentrations that are significantly higher than the saturation concentration of Si(OH)4, look absolutely clear over a period of several weeks; however, in reality, these solutions are sols with very small particles that slowly grow with time and finally form a gel that precipitates. This sol-gel process was monitored by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For reasons of comparison, an aqueous solution of the hydrolytically stable germanium compound 5 was also studied by the SANS technique.

  4. Ammonium removal pathways and microbial community in GAC-sand dual media filter in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Xie, Shuguang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhiyu; Ding, Wei; Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A GAC-sand dual media filter (GSF) was devised as an alternative solution for drinking water treatment plant to tackle the raw water polluted by ammonium in place of expensive ozone-GAC processes or bio-pretreatments. The ammonium removal pathways and microbial community in the GSFs were investigated. The concentrations of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen were monitored along the filter. Total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) loss occurred during the filtration. For 1 mg ammonium removal, the TIN loss was as high as 0.35 mg, DO consumption was 3.06 mg, and alkalinity consumption was 5.55 mg. It was assumed that both nitrification and denitrification processes occur in the filters to fit the TIN loss and low DO consumption. During the filtration, nitritation, nitrification and nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes probably occur, while traditional nitrification and denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes may occur. In the GSFs, Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira are likely to be involved in nitrification processes, while Novosphingobium, Comamonadaceae and Oxalobacteraceae may be involved in denitrification processes.

  5. Assessing submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and nitrate fluxes in highly heterogeneous coastal karst aquifers: Challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Andreo, Bartolomé; Prieto, Jorge; García-Orellana, Jordi; Rodellas, Valentí

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater discharge in coastal karst aquifers worldwide represents a substantial part of the water budget and is a main pathway for nutrient transport to the sea. Groundwater discharge to the sea manifests under different forms, making its assessment very challenging particularly in highly heterogeneous coastal systems karst systems. In this study, we present a methodology approach to identify and quantify four forms of groundwater discharge in a mixed lithology system in southern Spain (Maro-Cerro Gordo) that includes an ecologically protected coastal area comprised of karstic marble. We found that groundwater discharge to the sea occurs via: (1) groundwater-fed creeks, (2) coastal springs, (3) diffuse groundwater seepage through seabed sediments, and (4) submarine springs. We used a multi-method approach combining tracer techniques (salinity, 224Ra, and 222Rn) and direct measurements (seepage meters and flowmeters) to evaluate the discharge. Groundwater discharge via submarine springs was the most difficult to assess due to their depth (up to 15 m) and extensive development of the springs conduits. We determined that the total groundwater discharge over the 16 km of shoreline of the study area was at least 11 ± 3 × 103 m3 d-1 for the four types of discharge assessed. Groundwater-derived nitrate (NO3-) fluxes to coastal waters over ∼3 km (or 20%) in a highly populated and farmed section of Maro-Cerro Gordo was 641 ± 166 mol d-1, or ∼75% of the total NO3- loading in the study area. We demonstrate in this study that a multi-method approach must be applied to assess all forms of SGD and derived nutrient fluxes to the sea in highly heterogeneous karst aquifer systems.

  6. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M; Keuskamp, Joost A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  8. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike eBalk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests.The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  9. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2015-03-02

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  10. Reactivity effects of neutron isolator in two-slab tank array containing low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonoike, Kotaro; Okubo, Kiyoshi; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Onodera, Seiji; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    With a neutron interactive core configuration of two core tanks, reactivity characteristics was evaluated by measuring the critical solution levels for the polyethylene and the concrete isolators installed between the tanks. Methodology to evaluate an enough thickness of those materials, with which each tank is isolated from the viewpoint of neutron interaction, was studied utilizing the experimentally evaluated reactivity characteristics. (author)

  11. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  12. Effects of structural and textural grain characteristics on leaching of sulphide minerals from a polymetallic concentrate by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of structural and textural characteristics of sulfide minerals on their leaching from a polymetallic concentrate by sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate solution is presented. The starting material was Pb–Zn–Cu sulphide polymetallic concentrate enriched during the flotation of a polymetallic ore in the "Rudnik" flotation plant (Rudnik – Serbia. Leaching experiments were carried out in a closed glass reactor, which provides stable hermetic conditions and allows heating at constant temperature. Chemical, XRD, qualitative and quantitative microscopic and SEM/EDX analyses were used to characterizes samples of the polymetallic concentrate and leach residue. It was determined that chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and quartz were present in the polymetallic concentrate. The content of sulphide minerals was 69.5%, of which 60.9% occurred as liberated grains: 88.3% of chalcopyrite, 59.3% of sphalerite, 25.1% of galena and 51.6% of pirrhotite. The rest of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pirrhotite grains were in the forms of inclusions, impregnations, and simple and complex intergrowths. During the leaching process by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution, it was shown previously that the leaching rate of sulphide minerals decreased with time while a part of the sulphide minerals remained in the leach residue. After leaching at 80°C for 120 min, the yields were 69.8, 82.7 and 67.1% for Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively. Lead, in the form of insoluble anglesite, remained in the leach residue. In addition to the anglesite, unleached sulfide minerals and quartz, elemental sulfur was found in the solid residue. The content of sulphide minerals was 35% of which 33.7% minerals occur independently. In specific, 54.7% of chalcopyrite, 31.9% of sphalerite, 8.2% of galena and 37.6% of pyrrhotite appear as separate grains with highly corroded surfaces. Therefore, the structural assembly of sulphide grains in the

  13. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Abdel-Hakim T.; Cheira, Mohamed F.; Gado, Hady S.; Soliman, Madiha H.; Akl, Hesham M.

    2017-01-01

    The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate soluti...

  14. Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Sorption of Ammonium in the Soil-Water Environment in Agricultural Areas of Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sieczka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of nitrogen compounds is necessary in ascertaining their fate in the soil-water environment. This paper presents a laboratory “batch” experiment for determining the sorption parameters of ammonium in the soil-water environment. Three agricultural soils (silt loam, loam, and sand with different contents of the clay fraction, significantly affecting the range of the adsorption of contaminants on the surface of solid particles, were chosen as research material. Considering the composition of ammonium nitrate (a commonly used fertilizer in Poland, ammonium solutions with a concentration of 0–52 mg NH4+/L were used as markers. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the mechanisms of ammonium adsorption. Experimental data obtained from the equilibrium tests have been analysed using two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson, Hill, Sips models. In order to adjust the parameters of the considered isotherms to the experimental data, the method of minimization of the sum of squared errors was used. Additionally, the maximum sorption capacities and reduction ratios of ammonium versus time were assessed. It was observed that the presence of silt loam and loam in the soil profile can increase the possibility of ammonium adsorption up to almost 20%. Taking into consideration the results of the batch tests, it was concluded that ammonium adsorption attains equilibrium within 48 h. Experimental data was best followed by the pseudo-second order equation and the adsorption isotherm conformed to the Redlich-Peterson model for loam and sand.

  15. Enhanced Selectivity of the Separation of CO2 from N2 during Crystallization of Semi-Clathrates from Quaternary Ammonium Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri J.-M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CO2 mitigation is crucial environmental problem and a societal challenge for this century. CO2 capture and sequestration is a route to solve a part of the problem, especially for the industries in which the gases to be treated are well localized. CO2 capture by using hydrate is a process in which the cost of the separation is due to compression of gases to reach the gas hydrate formation conditions. Under pressure, the water and gas forms a solid that encapsulates preferentially CO2. The gas hydrate formation requires high pressures and low temperatures, which explains the use of thermodynamic promoters to decrease the operative pressure. Quaternary ammoniums salts represent an interesting family of components because of their thermodynamic effect, but also because they can generate crystals that are easily handled. In this work, we have made experiments concerning the equilibrium of (CO2, N2 in presence of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide (TBAB which form a semi-clathrate hydrate. We propose equilibrium data (pressure, temperature in presence of TBAB at different concentrations and we compare them to the literature. We have also measured the composition of the hydrate phase in equilibrium with the gas phase at different CO2 concentrations. We observe that the selectivity of the separation is dramatically increased in comparison to the selectivity of the pure water gas clathrate hydrate. We observe also a benefice on the operative pressure which can be dropped down to the atmospheric pressure.

  16. Vapor pressure of heat transfer fluids of absorption refrigeration machines and heat pumps: Binary solutions of lithium nitrate with methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarov, Javid T.

    2005-01-01

    Vapor pressure p of LiNO 3 + CH 3 OH solutions at T = (298.15 to 323.15) K was reported, osmotic φ and activity coefficients γ; and activity of solvent a s have been evaluated. The experiments were carried out in molality range m = (0.18032 to 5.2369) mol . kg -1 . The Antoine equation was used for the empiric description of experimental vapor pressure results. The Pitzer-Mayorga model with inclusion of Archer's ionic strength dependence of the third virial coefficient was used for the description of calculated osmotic coefficients. The parameters of Archer extended Pitzer model were used for evaluation of activity coefficients

  17. The study of kinetics of uranyl nitrate extraction and reextraction, di-n-butylphosphoric acid reextraction in the flow mixer in the system aqueous solutions - tri-n-butyl phosphate in diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepetil'nikov, N.N.; Timofeev, A.N.; Kharitonov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetics of uranyl nitrate and HNO 3 extraction and reextraction in a flow-type mixer for the system 30 vol.% TBP in extractant dearomatized diluent (EDD) was studied. Kinetics of dibutylphosphate acid reextraction was considered and the influence of uranium and zirconium presence on the process was investigated. It is shown that in laboratory mixer of continuous action in case of phase contact duration of 1 min. in system 30 % solution of TBP in EDD extraction sufficiently similar to equilibrium extraction of uranyl nitrate and nitric acid during their extraction and reextraction is achieved

  18. Determination of free acid in highly concentrated organic and aqueous solutions of plutonium (IV) and uranium (VI) nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Lacour, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter in the nuclear reprocessing control. The accuracy on the determination of free acidity is not really required in the nuclear reprocessing control itself but is necessary for certain types of analysis such as spectrophotometry (Pu (VI), Am (III),...), density determinations. A new titripotentiometric method for free acidity determination in concentrated U(VI) and Pu(IV) solutions is presented. This method is based on the complexing properties of dipicolinic acid (pyridine 2.6 dicarboxylic acid) and medium effect with H 2 O/DMSO mixture. This method can be used either in organic or aqueous phases with ratio /H + I/ metal ≥ 5.10 -2 and a relative standard deviation of 1%

  19. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Increased ammonium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3)) in the brain is a significant factor in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, which involves altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. In glial cell cultures and brain slices, glutamate uptake either decreases or increases following acute ammonium expos...

  20. Novel solidified reverse micellar solution-based mucoadhesive nano lipid gels encapsulating miconazole nitrate-loaded nanoparticles for improved treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenechukwu, Franklin Chimaobi; Attama, Anthony Amaechi; Ibezim, Emmanuel Chinedum

    2017-09-01

    To develop and evaluate solidified-reverse-micellar-solution (SRMS)-based oromucosal nano lipid gels for improved localised delivery of miconazole nitrate (MN). Phospholipon ® 90G and Softisan ® 154 (3:7) were used to prepare SRMS by fusion. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, 0.25-1.0% w/w MN) formulated with the SRMS by high shear homogenisation were employed to prepare mucoadhesive nano lipid gels. Physicochemical characterisation, drug release in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) (pH 6.8) and anti-candidal activity were carried out. The SLNs were spherical nanoparticles, had mean size of 133.8 ± 6.4 to 393.2 ± 14.5 nm, low polydispersity indices, good encapsulation efficiency (EE) (51.96 ± 2.33-67.12 ± 1.65%) and drug loading (DL) (19.05 ± 2.44-24.93 ± 1.98%). The nano lipid gels were stable, spreadable, pseudoplastic viscoelastic mucoadhesive systems that exhibited better prolonged release and anti-candidal properties than marketed formulation (Daktarin ® oral gel) (p < 0.05). This study has shown that SRMS-based nano lipid gels could be employed to prolong localised oromucosal delivery of MN.

  1. Comparison of nanostructured silver-modified silver and carbon ultramicroelectrodes for electrochemical detection of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Hamid R; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2015-09-10

    We report the use of silver (Ag)-modified carbon and Ag ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for electrochemical detection of nitrate. We investigated several methods for electrodeposition of Ag; our results show that the addition of a complexation agent (ammonium sulfate) in the Ag deposition solution is necessary for electrodeposition of nanostructured Ag that adheres well to the electrode. The electrodeposited Ag on both types of electrodes has branch-like structures that are well-suited for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate. The use of UMEs is advantageous; the sigmoidal-shaped cyclic voltammogram allows for sensitive detection of nitrate by reducing the capacitive current, as well as enabling easy quantification of the nitrate reduction current. Both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the electrodes; and independent of the electrochemical interrogation technique, both UMEs were found to have a wide linear dynamic range (4-1000 μM) and a low limit of detection (3.2-5.1 μM). More importantly, they are reusable up to ∼100 interrogation cycles and are selective enough to be used for direct detection of nitrate in a synthetic aquifer sample without any sample pretreatment and/or pH adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Micellization Thermodynamics of Pluronic P123 (EO20PO70EO20 Amphiphilic Block Copolymer in Aqueous Ethylammonium Nitrate (EAN Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers (commercially available as Pluronics or Poloxamers can self-assemble into various nanostructures in water and its mixtures with polar organic solvents. Ethylammonium nitrate (EAN is a well-known protic ionic liquid that is expected to affect amphiphile self-assembly due to its ionic nature and hydrogen bonding ability. By proper design of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC experiments, we determined the enthalpy and other thermodynamic parameters of Pluronic P123 (EO20PO70EO20 micellization in aqueous solution at varied EAN concentration. Addition of EAN promoted micellization in a manner similar to increasing temperature, e.g., the addition of 1.75 M EAN lowered the critical micelle concentration (CMC to the same extent as a temperature increase from 20 to 24 °C. The presence of EAN disrupts the water solvation around the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules through electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding, which dehydrate PEO and promote micellization. At EAN concentrations lower than 1 M, the PEO-PPO-PEO micellization enthalpy and entropy increase with EAN concentration, while both decrease above 1 M EAN. Such a change can be attributed to the formation by EAN of semi-ordered nano-domains with water at higher EAN concentrations. Pyrene fluorescence suggests that the polarity of the mixed solvent decreased linearly with EAN addition, whereas the polarity of the micelle core remained unaltered. This work contributes to assessing intermolecular interactions in ionic liquid + polymer solutions, which are relevant to a number of applications, e.g., drug delivery, membrane separations, polymer electrolytes, biomass processing and nanomaterial synthesis.

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Sliekers, A. Olav; Lavik, Gaute; Schmid, Markus; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific `ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.

  4. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  5. Pulmonary effects of ultrafine and fine ammonium salts aerosols in healthy and monocrotaline-treated rats following short-term exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spoor, S.M.; Boere, A.J.F.; Bree, L. van; Dormans, J.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a 3-day inhalation exposure to model compounds for ambient particulate matter were investigated: ammonium bisulfate, ammonium ferrosulfate, and ammonium nitrate, all components of the secondary aerosol fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM), and carbon black

  6. Characterization of the deviation of the ideality of concentrated electrolytic solutions: plutonium 4 and uranium 4 nitrate salts study; Contribution a la caracterisation de l'ecart a l'idealite des solutions concentrees d'electrolytes: application aux cas de nitrates de plutonium (4) et d'uranium (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrin, N

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to establish a new binary data base by compiling the activity coefficients of plutonium and uranium at oxidation state +IV to better account for media effects in the liquid-liquid extraction operations implemented to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. Chapter 1: first reviews the basic thermodynamic concepts before describing the issues involved in acquiring binary data for the tetravalent actinides. The difficulties arise from two characteristics of this type of electrolyte: its radioactive properties (high specific activity requiring nuclearization of the experimental instrumentation) and its physicochemical properties (strong hydrolysis). After defining the notion of fictive binary data, an approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions is described in which the activity coefficient of an aqueous phase constituent is dependent on two parameters: the water activity of the system and the total concentration of dissolved constituents. The method of acquiring fictive binary electrolyte data is based on water activity measurements for ternary or quaternary actinide mixtures in nitric acid media, and binary data for nitric acid. The experimental value is then correlated with the characteristics of the fictive binary solution of the relevant electrolyte. Chapter 2: proposes more reliable binary data for nitric acid than the published equivalents, the disparities of which are discussed. The validation of the method described in Chapter 1 for acquiring fictive binary data is then addressed. The test electrolyte, for which binary data are available in the literature, is thorium(IV) nitrate. The method is validated by comparing the published binary data obtained experimentally for binary solutions with the data determined for the ternary Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O system investigated in this study. The very encouraging results of this comparison led us to undertake further research in this area. Chapter 3 discusses

  7. Índice de uniformidade de distribuição do amônio, nitrato, potássio e fósforo, em Latossolos sob condições de fertigação Uniformity distribution index of ammonium, nitrate, potassium and phosphorus in fertigated Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme K. Donagemma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizada de forma inadequada, a fertigação pode levar à salinização do solo ou lixiviação dos nutrientes, com a consequente contaminação do lençol freático. Neste sentido, se propõe, no presente estudo, um índice para determinar a uniformidade de distribuição de amônio, nitrato, potássio e fósforo, ao longo de colunas de Latossolos fertigadas, com o objetivo de nortear o manejo adequado da fertigação. Este índice foi calculado a partir de dados coletados em um ensaio de laboratório, seguindo-se um fatorial 4 x (1 + 6, ou seja, quatro Latossolos de Minas Gerais (dois Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos distróficos, um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico e um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, uma testemunha (aplicação de água deionizada e seis formas de aplicação de 1 mmol c de N-NH4+, 1 mmol c de N-NO3-, 2 mmol c de K e 2 mmol c dm-3 de P. Calcularam-se os coeficientes de variação para o teor de cada nutriente, ao longo das colunas e a relação entre o teor médio e o maior teor do nutriente (índice de uniformidade de distribuição de nutrientes considerando-se o solo e o tratamento. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a relação maior teor, teor médio é um índice de uniformidade de distribuição de nutrientes adequado para avaliar a movimentação de íons com maior mobilidade no solo, como nitrato, amônio e potássio. O coeficiente de variação é menos adequado para mostrar a uniformidade de distribuição dos nutrientes.Fertigation if conducted inadequately may cause soil salinization and consequently leaching of nutrients can pollute ground water. An index is proposed to determine the uniformity of distribution of ammonium, nitrate, potassium and phosphorus in columns of fertigated Oxisols, which relates the highest content of the nutrient in a column segment with the mean nutrient content in the experimental unit. The higher the index value, the more irregular is the nutrient distribution. This index was calculated

  8. Cover crops affecting levels of ammonium and nitrate in the soil and upland rice developmentPlantas de cobertura afetando os níveis de nitrato e amônio no solo e o desenvolvimento do arroz de terras altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems (NTS increases the levels of organic matter and could increase the nitrogen content of the soil, contributing to reduce fertilizers costs. The knowledge of these processes is fundamental for deciding whether cover crops can be effectively incorporated into the agricultural production system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crop species on the levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil in early upland rice development, as well upland rice yield. A field experiment was performed and treatments consisted of growing rice on five cover crops (Panicum maximum, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha, millet and fallow in an NTS and two control treatments (Brachiaria brizantha and fallow under a conventional tillage system, CTS, (one plowing and two disking. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with three replications. The soil samples were collected during a period of six weeks (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days in relation to upland rice sowing. The cover crops Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum and Brachiaria ruziziensis in the NTS and B. brizantha fallow incorporated into the CTS favored higher levels of nitrate in the soil. In contrast, B. brizantha and fallow in the CTS and millet and P. maximum in the NTS favored the buildup of high levels of ammonium in the soil. The treatments under the plowed cover crops millet and fallow allowed for a higher upland rice yield. The tillage system and nature of the cover crops could be used to achieve the desired levels and forms of nitrogen in soil. O uso de plantas de cobertura no sistema plantio direto (SPD aumenta os níveis de matéria orgânica e pode ajudar a aumentar os teores de nitrogênio no solo contribuindo para reduzir os custos de fertilizantes. O conhecimento desse processo é fundamental para que as plantas de cobertura possam ser efetivamente incorporadas aos sistemas de produção agrícola. O

  9. Electrochemically and Bioelectrochemically Induced Ammonium Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K.; Andersen, Stephen J.; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems. PMID:25651406

  10. Knowledge Representation of Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor Voltage Response for Potassium Ion Concentration Detection in Mixed Potassium/Ammonium Ion Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wan F.H. Abdullah; Masuri Othman; Mohd A.M. Ali; Md S. Islam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) is a metal-oxide field-effect transistor-based sensor that reacts to ionic activity at the electrolye/membrane/gate interface. The ionic sensor faces issue of selectivity from interfering ions that contribute to the sensor electrical response in mixed solutions. Approach: We present the training data collection of ISFET voltage response for the purpose of post-processing stage neural network supervised learning. The role of ...

  11. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  12. Nitrate removal by electro-bioremediation technology in Korean soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo

    2009-01-01

    The nitrate concentration of surface has become a serious concern in agricultural industry through out the world. In the present study, nitrate was removed in the soil by employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics. The abundance of Bacillus spp. as nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated and identified from the soil sample collected from a greenhouse at Jinju City of Gyengsangnamdo, South Korea. The nitrate reducing bacterial species were identified by 16 s RNA sequencing technique. The efficiency of bacterial isolates on nitrate removal in broth was tested. The experiment was conducted in an electrokinetic (EK) cell by applying 20 V across the electrodes. The nitrate reducing bacteria (Bacillus spp.) were inoculated in the soil for nitrate removal process by the addition of necessary nutrient. The influence of nitrate reducers on electrokinetic process was also studied. The concentration of nitrate at anodic area of soil was higher when compared to cathode in electrokinetic system, while adding bacteria in EK (EK + bio) system, the nitrate concentration was almost nil in all the area of soil. The bacteria supplies electron from organic degradation (humic substances) and enhances NO 3 - reduction (denitrification). Experimental results showed that the electro-bio kinetic process viz. electroosmosis and physiological activity of bacteria reduced nitrate in soil environment effectively. Involvement of Bacillus spp. on nitrification was controlled by electrokinetics at cathode area by reduction of ammonium ions to nitrogen gas. The excellence of the combined electro-bio kinetics technology on nitrate removal is discussed.

  13. Efeito da disponibilidade de nitrato em solução nutritiva sobre a absorção de nitrogênio e atividade enzimática de duas cultivares de arroz Effect of nitrate availability in nutrient solution on nitrogen uptake and enzimatic activity of two rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marques dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas cultivares de arroz, Piauí (tradicional e IAC-47 (melhorada, foram colocadas em solução nutritiva contendo 20 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até 32 dias após a germinação (DAG. Depois disso, um grupo de plantas passou a receber 200 mg de N-NO3- L-1, enquanto o outro continuou recebendo 20 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até os 42 DAG. De 42 até os 56 DAG, todas as plantas receberam 5 mg de N-NO3- L-1 até o fim do ciclo. Esses tratamentos foram empregados visando simular o fluxo sazonal de nitrato existente nos solos de regiões tropicais. As plantas foram coletadas aos 133 DAG e separadas em folha bandeira, folha 2, colmos e raízes. Foram determinados os teores de N na forma de aminoácidos, nitrato e amônio, açúcares solúveis, atividades da nitrato redutase (NR e glutamina sintetase (GS. O fluxo sazonal de nitrato influenciou significativamente a absorção e o uso de N. As variedades estudadas foram responsivas de maneira diferenciada em relação ao acúmulo e à translocação de N, quando submetidas ao fluxo sazonal de nitrato. A cultivar Piauí parece acumular mais NO3- em seus tecidos na fase inicial do seu ciclo, podendo permitir sua posterior translocação. A folha bandeira e folha 2 parecem atuar como local preferencial de acúmulo de N, sendo este acúmulo mais intenso na cultivar Piauí.Two rice cultivars, Piaui (a landrace and IAC-47 (an improved variety, were grown in nutrient solution containing 20 mg nitrate (N-NO3- L-1 up to 32 days after germination (DAG. After this, a group of plants received 200 mg N-NO3- L-1, while the other was kept at 20 mg N-NO3- L-1 up to 42 DAG. From 42 until 56 DAG, all plants received 5 mg N-NO3- L-1 until the end of the cycle. These treatments were applied with the objective to simulate nitrate flush in tropical regions. Plants were collected at 133 DAG and separated in to leaf flag, leaf 2, stem and roots. N contents in amino acids, nitrate and ammonium forms, soluble sugars, nitrate reductase (NR and

  14. Distribuição do amônio, nitrato, potássio e fósforo em colunas de latossolos fertirrigadas Distribution of ammonium, nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus in columns of fertigated latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Kangussu Donagemma

    2008-12-01

    nutrients. Mobility was in the following order: NO3- > NH4+ > K+ > H2PO4-, on soils LVAd1, LVAd2 and LVd. For the soil LVdf, the order was: NH4+ > NO3- > K+ > H2PO4- . And the risk of contamination of groundwater caused by NO3-: LVAd1 > LVAd2 > LVdf > LVd. The amount of water added to the column, lower than half pore per volume, was not sufficient to displace H2PO4-beyond the first ring. Regarding the other ions studied, localization at a higher depth when applied as a single pulse, was verified with a higher pulse concentration (D > D1/2 > D1/3 and with a greater irrigation lamina following its application (F2D > F3D > F 4D and F2D1/2F3D1/2 > F3D1/2F4D1/2 . The results shows that the differential mobility of (N-NNO3- e NH4+ and K+ would require a careful dosage of these nutrients in the solution to prevent nitrogen losses due to leaching, or excessively superficial localization of potassium. The extremely low mobility of H2PO4- shows that fertigation would not be an appropriate technique for incorporation of this mineral into soil for crop fertilization purposes.

  15. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  16. Investigations of the sorption of cesium from acid solutions by various inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been made to investigate the suitability of various inorganic sorbents for separating and obtaining cesium from acid solutions. In greater details, the distribution coefficients of cesium from nitric acid and ammonium nitrate solution were determined. To determine the saturation capacities it was necessary to plot the isotherms of adsorption from 0.5 N and 3.1 N nitric acid. Experimental sorption from a model solution, of which the composition was equal to that of the liquid Purex waste, enabled the suitability of the various exchangers for obtaining cesium from fission product solutions to be determined. From the results obtained it is apparent that ammonium phosphomolybdate is best suited for obtaining cesium from acid fission product solutions. (orig.)

  17. Effects of continuous addition of nitrate to a thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The biodegradation of complex organic matter is regulated partially by the ability to dump electrons which build up in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The effects of the continuous addition of the oxidant, nitrate, were investigated on a single-stage, thermophilic, anaerobic digester. The digester acclimated rapidly to nitrate addition. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in a constant inhibition of total gas (30%) and methane production (36%). Reduction in total gas and methane production was accompanied by increases in sludge pH and acetate, propionate, and ammonium ion pools. Effluent particle size distribution revealed a shift to smaller particle sizes in the nitrate-pumped sludge. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in lower numbers of methanogens and sulfate reducers in the sludge, with increases in nitrate-reducing and cellulose-degrading microorganisms. These findings indicate that added nitrate underwent dissimilatory reduction to ammonium ion, as determined from gas analysis, ammonium pools, and 15 N-nitrate-label experiments. Continuous nitrate addition to a single-phase digestion system was determined to inhibit methane production from biomass and wastes. Thus for the single-stage digestion system in which maximum methane production is desired, the addition of nitrate is not recommended. However, in a multistage digestion system, the continuous addition of nitrate in the primary stage to increase the rate and extent of degradation of organic matter to volatile fatty acids, which then would serve as feed to a second stage, may be advantageous

  18. Nitrate and ammonia as nitrogen sources for deep subsurface microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heini eKutvonen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the N-utilizing bacterial community in anoxic brackish groundwater of the low and intermediate level nuclear waste repository cave in Olkiluoto, Finland, at 100 m depth using 15N-based stable isotope probing (SIP and enrichment with 14/15N-ammonium or 14/15N-nitrate complemented with methane. 28 days of incubation at 12°C increased the concentration of bacterial 16S rRNA and nitrate reductase (narG gene copies in the substrate amended microcosms simultaneously with a radical drop in the overall bacterial diversity and OTU richness. Hydrogenophaga/Malikia were enriched in all substrate amended microcosms and Methylobacter in the ammonium and ammonium+methane supplemented microcosms. Sulfuricurvum was especially abundant in the nitrate+methane treatment and the unamended incubation control. Membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes (narG from Polarimonas sp. were detected in the original groundwater, while Burkholderia, Methylibium and Pseudomonas narG genes were enriched due to substrate supplements. Identified amoA genes belonged to Nitrosomonas sp. 15N-SIP revealed that Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales clades belonging to the minority groups in the original groundwater used 15N from ammonium and nitrate as N source indicating an important ecological function of these bacteria, despite their low number, in the groundwater N cycle in Olkiluoto bedrock system.

  19. Rice growth as affected by combined ammonium and nitrate supply

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuh, Marquel Jonas; Bohnen, Humberto; Anghinoni, Ibanor; Meurer, Egon José; Carmona, Felipe de Campos; Costa, Sérgio Ely Valadão Gigante de Andrade

    2009-01-01

    No arroz cultivado sob alagamento, ocorre a elevação dos teores de NH4 + no solo, sendo assim considerada a principal fonte de N para a cultura. Entretanto, o O2 transportado pelo aerênquima e liberado pelas raízes cria um ambiente favorável à nitrificação na rizosfera, determinando a formação de proporções entre amônio e NO3 - disponíveis. Nesse caso, acredita-se que o NO3 - pode favorecer o desenvolvimento da cultura e ao mesmo tempo evitar a toxidez por NH4 + no solo alagado. Este trabalho...

  20. Evaluating Ammonium, Nitrate and Sulfate Aerosols in 3-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The effect aerosols have on climate and air quality is a func-on of their chemical composi-on, concentra-on and spa-al distribu-on. These parameters are controlled by emissions, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, where thermodynamics plays a key role, transport, which includes stratospheric-­- tropospheric exchange, and deposi-onal sinks. In this work we demonstrate the effect of some of these processes on the SO4-NH4­-NO3 system using the GISS ModelE2 Global Circula-on Model (GCM).

  1. On the ecology of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    The anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in the environment exceed the input by natural processes and impact the global nitrogen cycle considerably . Human meddling in the N-cycle occurs mainly in agricultural ecosystems. Loss of nitrogen from the agricultural soils, other than crop harvest, can have

  2. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  3. Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Simon, J; Rowley, G; Bedmar, E J; Richardson, D J; Gates, A J; Delgado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released. This aim is particularly important in the context of the ever expanding population and subsequent increased burden on the food chain. More than two-thirds of N2O emissions from soils can be attributed to bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes. In ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, N2O is formed through the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. In denitrifiers, nitrate is reduced to N2 via nitrite, NO and N2O production. In addition to denitrification, respiratory nitrate ammonification (also termed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) is another important nitrate-reducing mechanism in soil, responsible for the loss of nitrate and production of N2O from reduction of NO that is formed as a by-product of the reduction process. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the environmental, regulatory and biochemical control of N2O emissions by nitrate-reducing bacteria and point to new solutions for agricultural GHG mitigation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Manipulation of Contents of Nitrate, Phenolic Acids, Chlorophylls, and Carotenoids in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) via Contrasting Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer When Grown in a Controlled Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Othman; Siervo, Mario; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to use different nitrogen fertilizer regimes to produce Butterhead lettuce with such large differences in nitrate content that they could be used as treatment and placebo to study the effect of inorganic nitrate on human health. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 27/23 °C day/night with a relatively low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 150 μmol m -2 s -1 for 14 h day -1 and nitrogen supplies ranging from 26 to 154 ppm of N as ammonium nitrate in the fertigation solution. This resulted in contrasting high (∼1078 mg nitrate 100 g -1 FW) or low (∼6 mg 100 g -1 ) nitrate contents in the leaves. Contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls in fresh weight did not differ significantly between the highest and the lowest N-supply levels. However, increased nitrogen supply reduced contents of phenolic compounds from 154 to 22 mg 100 g -1 FW, dry matter content from 8.9% to 4.6%, and fresh weight per plant from 108.52 to 47.57 g/plant FW (all P < 0.001). Thus, while fertilizer treatments can provide lettuce with substantially different nitrate contents, maintaining similar pigment contents (color), they also strongly influence the contents of phenolic acids and flavones.

  5. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  6. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  7. Impact of the electron donor on in situ microbial nitrate reduction in Opalinus Clay: results from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyen, N.; Smets, S. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Small, J. [National Nuclear Laboratory NLL, Warrington (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-04-15

    At the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), an in situ experiment is being carried out to examine the fate of nitrate leaching from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste, in a clay host rock for geological disposal. Such a release of nitrate may cause a geochemical perturbation of the clay, possibly affecting some of the favorable characteristics of the host rock. In this in situ experiment, combined transport and reactivity of nitrate is studied inside anoxic and water-saturated chambers in a borehole in the Opalinus Clay. Continuous circulation of the solution from the borehole to the surface equipment allows a regular sampling and online monitoring of its chemical composition. In this paper, in situ microbial nitrate reduction in the Opalinus Clay is discussed, in the presence or absence of additional electron donors relevant for the disposal concept and likely to be released from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste: acetate (simulating bitumen degradation products) and H{sub 2} (originating from radiolysis and corrosion in the repository). The results of these tests indicate that - in case microorganisms would be active in the repository or the surrounding clay - microbial nitrate reduction can occur using electron donors naturally present in the clay (e.g. pyrite, dissolved organic matter). Nevertheless, non-reactive transport of nitrate in the clay is expected to be the main process. In contrast, when easily oxidizable electron donors would be available (e.g. acetate and H{sub 2}), the microbial activity will be strongly stimulated. Both in the presence of H{sub 2} and acetate, nitrite and nitrogenous gases are predominantly produced, although some ammonium can also be formed when H{sub 2} is present. The reduction of nitrate in the clay could have an impact on the redox conditions in the pore-water and might also lead to a gas-related perturbation of the host rock, depending on the electron donor used during denitrification

  8. Criticality parameters for uranyl nitrate or plutonium nitrate systems in tributyl phosphate/kerosine and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the calculated values of smallest critical masses and volumina and neutron physical parameters for uranyl nitrate (3, 4, 5% U-235) or plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240), each in a 30 per cent solution of tributyl phosphate (TBP)/kerosine. For the corresponding nitrate-water solutions, newly calculated results are presented together with a revised solution density model. A comparison of the data shows to what extent the criticality of nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems can be assessed on the basis of nitrate-water parameters, revealing that such data can be applied to uranyl nitrate/water systems, taking into account that the smallest critical mass of uranyl nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems, up to a 5 p.c. U-235 enrichment, is by 4.5 p.c. at the most smaller than that of UNH-water solutions. Plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240) in the TBP/kerosine solution will have a smallest critical mass of up to 7 p.c. smaller, as compared with the water data. The suitability of the computing methods and cross-sections used is verified by recalculating experiments carried out to determine the lowest critical enrichment of uranyl nitrate. The calculated results are well in agreement with experimental data. The lowest critical enrichment is calculated to be 2.10 p.c. in the isotope U-235. (orig.) [de

  9. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  10. Effect of ionic strength of aqueous salt solutions in a liquid scintillation system on tritium counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.; Abd-elwahid, A.; Khachadoorian, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of the counting efficiency of tritium dissolved in aqueous salt solutions as a function of salt ionic strength has been studied. The scintillation system used was POPOP/PPO/Triton x 100/toluene mixture. The quenching effect of the following salts have been investigated 1. Group I and group II metal chlorides and nitrates. 2. Different halides of potassium. 3. Different ammonium salts. 4. Different sodium oxychlorides

  11. Investigation of electric discharge treatment of water for ammonium nitrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, O.B.; Shubin, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of water purification from ammonium nitrogen using pulsed electric discharge in water-air mixtures was investigated. The model solution of chlorous ammonium was used in experiments. The concentration of ions ammonium was about 300 mg/l. Achieved reduction of ammonium concentration was about 35%. In this paper the mechanism of this process is discussed. The ways to increasing efficiency of this method are proposed

  12. Measurement of bulk etch rates for poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate (PADC) and cellulose nitrate in a broad range of concentration and temperature of NaOH etching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsdorf, D.; Hunger, M.; Starke, S.; Weickert, F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the dependence of the bulk etch rate v B for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) on the concentration c and the temperature T of the NaOH etching solution has been studied for material types PADC and cellulose nitrate. As commonly applied exponents of PADC and cellulose nitrate material, the commercial products CR-39 and LR-115 were investigated. The concentration and temperature have been varied in the ranges 0.5moll -1 -1 and 313 -1 and T between 313 and 333K for cellulose nitrate, respectively. The application of a simple Arrhenius-law of chemical reactions fails in the interpretation of the dependence on the concentration. A constant activation energy cannot describe the behaviour of v B (c,T) over the whole range of concentration. To understand the deviation, more qualified models treating the superposition of chemical and physical processes including reaction kinetics and material transport phenomena by diffusion have to be developed and tested

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel must be moored bow to seaward, and must be maintained in a mobile status during loading, unloading... wire towing hawsers, each having an eye splice, lowered to the water's edge, one at the bow and the other at the stern. [Amdt. 176-30, 55 FR 52706, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66282, Dec. 20, 1991...

  14. Atomic structure of nitrate-binding protein crucial for photosynthetic productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2006-06-27

    C) that regulates transport (4). NrtA binds both nitrate and nitrite (Kd = 0.3 mM) and is necessary for cell survival when nitrate is the primary nitrogen source (5). The role of NrtA is to scavenge nitrate/nitrite from the periplasm for delivery to the membrane permease, NrtB. The passage of solute through the transmembrane pore is linked to ATP hydrolysis by NrtC and NrtD. NrtD consists of a single ATPase domain. In contrast, NrtC contains both an ATPase domain and a Cterminal solute-binding domain that shares 50% amino acid sequence similarity with NrtA, and is required for the ammonium-mediated inhibition of nitrate transport (6, 7). Aside from the homologous transporter for bicarbonate, CmpABCD, there are no other known examples of ABC transporters that have an ATPase/solute-binding fusion component. The specificity of the nitrate transporter is conferred by NrtA (4). NrtA is ~49% identical (60% similar) in amino acid sequence to the bicarbonate receptor CmpA. In its entirety, it does not have significant homology to any other known protein. To elucidate the molecular determinants of nitrate specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the Synechocystis 6803 NrtA to 1.5 Å. While the general shape of NrtA is akin to that of other solute binding proteins, NrtA clearly represents a new and unique structural variant of these ‘C clamp’ proteins. From this structure and sequence alignments of other bicarbonate and nitrate transporters, the molecular basis for solute selectivity is clear and suggests that regulatory domains of both icarbonate and nitrate transport systems bind nitrate. Based on these findings, a model is presented that 4 demonstrates how such synergistic regulation of bicarbonate and nitrate transport is important in conserving energy during the process of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation.

  15. Nitrogen uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    The uptake of ammonium, nitrate, amino acids and urea was examined in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary and adjacent area in the North Sea during February 1999. The majority of uptake was by heterotrophic bacteria, as demonstrated by addition of a prokaryotic inhibitor that lowered uptake rates by 82,

  16. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Giusti, M; de Vito, E

    1992-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrate against Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated in solution and in treated pork meat. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate showed only feeble antimicrobial activity in cultures; no antimicrobial activity was detected with sodium nitrite. Conversely, all three salts displayed apparent antimicrobial activity in pork meat, possibly due to selective effects on competitive flora.

  17. Interactions of aerosols (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) and of gases (HCl, HNO 3) with fogwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Heidi; Sigg, Laura

    The concentrations of aerosols (NH 4NO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl) and of gases (HCl (g), HNO 3(g), NH 3(g) were determined by denuder methods under different conditions (in the absence of fog, before, during and after fog events). At this site situated in an urban region, high concentrations of the gaseous strong acids HCl (g) and HNO 3(g) are observed. NH 4Cl and NH 4NO 3 aerosols represent a major fraction of the Cl - and NO 3- aerosols (fogwater and are released again after fog dissipation.

  18. TRANSPORT AND FATE OF AMMONIUM AND ITS IMPACT ON URANIUM AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS AT A FORMER URANIUM MILL TAILING SITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Nihat, Hakan; McMillan, Andrew Lee; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-11-01

    The remediation of ammonium-containing groundwater discharged from uranium mill tailing sites is a difficult problem facing the mining industry. The Monument Valley site is a former uranium mining site in the southwest US with both ammonium and nitrate contamination of groundwater. In this study, samples collected from 14 selected wells were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace elements, and isotopic composition of ammonium and nitrate. In addition, geochemical data from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) database were analyzed. Results showing oxic redox conditions and correspondence of isotopic compositions of ammonium and nitrate confirmed the natural attenuation of ammonium via nitrification. Moreover, it was observed that ammonium concentration within the plume area is closely related to concentrations of uranium and a series of other trace elements including chromium, selenium, vanadium, iron, and manganese. It is hypothesized that ammonium-nitrate transformation processes influence the disposition of the trace elements through mediation of redox potential, pH, and possibly aqueous complexation and solid-phase sorption. Despite the generally relatively low concentrations of trace elements present in groundwater, their transport and fate may be influenced by remediation of ammonium or nitrate at the site.

  19. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  20. Disguised as a sulfate reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa Jean Lehsau

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D...... of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane......-anchored nitrite reductase....

  1. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  2. Heterogeneous reactions of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Wang, Lin; Lal, Vinita; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhang, Renyi

    2011-06-01

    The heterogeneous reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) have been studied using a low-pressure fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) at 293 ± 2 K. The uptake of three alkylamines, i.e., monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, on ammonium sulfate shows a displacement reaction of ammonium by aminium, evidenced by the release of ammonia monitored using protonated acetone dimer as the reagent ion. For the three alkylamines, the initial uptake coefficients (γ(0)) range from 2.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-2) and the steady-state uptake coefficients (γ(ss)) range from 6.0 × 10(-3) to 2.3 × 10(-4) and decrease as the number of methyl groups on the alkylamine increases. A different reaction mechanism is observed for the uptake of the three alkylamines on ammonium bisulfate, which is featured by an acid-base reaction (neutralization) with irreversible alkylamine loss and no ammonia generation and occurs at a rate limited by diffusion of gaseous alkylamines to the ammonium bisulfate surface. Our results reveal that the reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts contribute to particle growth and alter the composition of ammonium sulfate and bisulfate aerosols in the atmosphere.

  3. Radiation chemistry of nitrate ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1978-01-01

    The yields of various products formed in γ-irradiated nitrate ices, viz NO 2 - , H 2 O 2 , O 2 and H 2 , have been measured at different nitrate concentrations. Daniel's method of partition of yields has been employed to evaluate the direct and indirect effect contributions to the yields of the first three products. G(H 2 ) is close to zero at all nitrate concentrations above approximately 0.5 mol dm -3 . The mechanism of product formation has been discussed in the light of various reactions put forth to explain the radiolysis of fluid aqueous nitrate solutions. The effect of various scavengers for the primary species on the product yields has also been investigated. From this it is inferred that nitrate is able to scavenge both the reducing species, viz. H and e - sub(m) giving nitrite and possibly also the holes (h + sub(m)) giving O 2 , and excited water molecules (H 2 O*) giving H 2 O 2 and additional nitrite. (author)

  4. Ammonium on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrorro, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Combe, J. P.; De Angelis, S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Salatti, M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since January 2015, the surface of Ceres has been studied by the Dawn spacecraft through the measurements from the three instruments on board (1). The VIR imaging spectrometer, sensitive to the spectral range 0.25 -5.0 μm, provided information on the surficial composition of Ceres at resolutions ranging from few kilometers to about one hundred meters (2). Analysis of VIR reflectance data revealed that the average spectrum of Ceres is compatible with a mixture of low-albedo minerals, Mg- phyllosilicates, ammoniated clays, and Mg- carbonates, (3) confirming previous studies based on ground based spectra (4, 5). Mineralogical maps of the surface at about 1 km/px show that the components identified in the average spectrum are present all across the surface with variations in their relative abundance and chemical composition (6, 7). While the ammoniated clays have been already studied (6), the presence nature and distribution of additional ammoniated species has never been investigated in detail, although the spectral analysis of the bright faculae within Occator crater already revealed the potential presence of ammonium salts (8). Since the position and shape of the ammonium absorption in the VIS-NIR region are function of the hosting mineral specie (8), we did an inventory and characterization of the ammonium-rich regions, in order to analyze their spectral properties. In addition to the presence of ammonium, also the identification of the hosting species has implication for the evolution of Ceres. Our study, therefore, is a step forward in understanding of evolutionary pathway of Ceres. References: (1) Russell, C. T. et al., Science, 2016. (2) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Space Science Reviews, 2011. (3) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Nature, 2015. (4) King T. et al. Science, 1992. (5) Rivkin A.S. et al. Icarus, 2006. (6) Ammannito E. et al., Science, 2016. (7) Carrozzo F.G. et al., Science Advances, in revision. (8) De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016. (9) Berg et al., Icarus

  5. Analytical separation of traces of neptunium from highly concentrated uranium solutions using reversed phase chromatography in the TLA-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourisse, D.; Chesne, A.

    1967-01-01

    The neptunium (IV) partition between nitric acid-uranyl nitrate solutions and Kel F powder coated with a trilauryl-ammonium-nitrate solution has been studied in order to determine the optimum operating conditions for separating neptunium from uranium. The reversed phase partition chromatography was performed by passing a 2 N HNO 3 0,1 M Fe ++ solution containing neptunium plutonium and up to 100 g/1 of uranium through a column of TLAHNO 3 - Kel F beads. After washing the column with a N HNO 3 solution containing a reducing agent, the neptunium is eluted by a sulfuric acid-nitric acid mixture. This method was proved to be very selective for tetravalent neptunium; therefore leading to a good separation from fission products, plutonium and uranium. It has been applied to solutions in which the molar ratio U/Np was greater than 10 10 . The only limitation depends upon the sensitivity of the neptunium determination in dilute solutions. (author) [fr

  6. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, Silvia; Kamp, Anja

    2014-01-01

    of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were ammonium (83%), nitrous oxide (15.5%), and nitrite (1.5%), while dinitrogen production was not observed. The process led to substantial cellular ATP production and biomass growth and also occurred when ammonium was added to suppress nitrate assimilation, stressing...... reduction when oxygen is absent. In the currently spreading oxygen-deficient zones in the ocean, an as yet unexplored diversity of fungi may recycle nitrate to ammonium and nitrite, the substrates of the major nitrogen loss process anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.......Background: A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report...

  7. The fate of nitrate in intertidal permeable sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K Marchant

    Full Text Available Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3- consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3- sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA, intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3- amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3- added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50-75%, while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10-20% of NO3- consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3- added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3- and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to

  8. Ammonium Transformation in 14 Lakes along a Trophic Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Leoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a widespread pollutant in aquatic ecosystems originating directly and indirectly from human activities, which can strongly affect the structure and functioning of the aquatic foodweb. The biological oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite, and then nitrate is a key part of the complex nitrogen cycle and a fundamental process in aquatic environments, having a profound influence on ecosystem stability and functionality. Environmental studies have shown that our current knowledge of physical and chemical factors that control this process and the abundance and function of involved microorganisms are not entirely understood. In this paper, the efficiency and the transformation velocity of ammonium into oxidised compounds in 14 south-alpine lakes in northern Italy, with a similar origin, but different trophic levels, are compared with lab-scale experimentations (20 °C, dark, oxygen saturation that are performed in artificial microcosms (4 L. The water samples were collected in different months to highlight the possible effect of seasonality on the development of the ammonium oxidation process. In four-liter microcosms, concentrations were increased by 1 mg/L NH4+ and the process of ammonium oxidation was constantly monitored. The time elapsed for the decrease of 25% and 95% of the initial ion ammonium concentration and the rate for that ammonium oxidation were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis and General Linear Model, performed on 56 observations and several chemical and physical parameters, highlighted the important roles of total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations on the commencement of the oxidation process. Meanwhile, the natural concentration of ammonium influenced the rate of nitrification (µg NH4+/L day. Seasonality did not seem to significantly affect the ammonium transformation. The results highlight the different vulnerabilities of lakes with different trophic statuses.

  9. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: II - Concentração de cátions e ânions na solução do solo e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate in cotton: II - Concentration of cations and anions in the soil solution and plant nutrient uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    soil mobilization. Nitrogen fertilization adds anions that can increase the solubility of basic cations of the soil due to formation of ionic pairs. The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics of anions (SO4(2- and NO3- and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ in the soil solution, and the nutrient uptake by cotton plants subjected to different lime application forms and ammonium sulfate fertilization, with straw on the soil surface. Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were grown for 60 days in PVC columns filled with a distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol. The soil had lime incorporated into the 0-20 cm layer, liming on the soil surface, or received no lime. Nitrogen was used at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 as ammonium sulfate. The pots consisted of PVC columns of 20 cm diameter and 50 cm height, totaling 15.71 dm³. Porous capsules were installed at a depth of 15-20 cm to extract soil solution. The SO4(2- of the soil solution was increased by the nitrogen fertilization, independently of the lime application form. Nitrification was favored in the short-term with the application of ammonium sulfate only in the condition of incorporated lime. After 50 days of plant growth, however, nitrate in the soil solution increased, even in the soil that had not been limed. The Ca, Mg and K concentrations in the soil solution were increased as a response to the nitrogen top dressing. The anion SO4(2- presented greater affinity than NO3- in the formation of ionic pairs with the basic cations in the soil solution. The application of ammonium sulfate was most effective in promoting Ca and Mg uptake by the cotton plants when lime was incorporated.

  10. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  11. Interactions of Iron and Ammonium on N-Uptake in the Southern Ocean South of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, N.; Dehairs, F.; Elskens, M.; Sedwick, P.; Hutchins, D.

    2002-12-01

    The ability to model new production is important for prognostic studies of the global carbon cycle, as new production represents the "exportable" fraction of carbon from the photic zone. Here we consider the effects of ammonium and iron availability on algal nitrogen uptake and the f-ratio (the relative fraction of new vs. regenerated production) in the Southern Ocean. To investigate the individual and combined effects of ammonium and iron availability on nitrogen uptake in natural plankton assemblages, we conducted shipboard experiments at three locations between Australia and Antarctica during austral spring (CLIVAR SR3 transect, November 2001): the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and the Antarctic Zone-South (AZ-S). Here ambient surface-water dissolved iron levels were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.11 nM, respectively. Cleanly-collected seawater was divided into two incubation treatments: one with added iron (+1.8 nM) and one without (control). After incubation for ca. one week, we measured the uptake of nitrate, ammonium and urea, in both the control and iron-enriched treatments, both with and without added ammonium (0.2 to 0.9 æM). Iron enrichment enhanced nitrate (4-7x), ammonium (2x) and urea (2-3x) uptake rates, with a concomitant increase in the f-ratio of about 1.4x. Overall, ammonium additions resulted in enhanced ammonium uptake rates and lowered nitrate uptake rates, while there was no clear effect on the uptake of urea. Consequently, ammonium addition decreased the f-ratio in both Fe-enriched and non-Fe-enriched experiments. These results are in agreement with previous field observations from the SAZ, and suggest that there is a synergistic interaction between iron and ammonium in regulating community nitrogen uptake and the f-ratio. Iron availability increases the f-ratio and hence new production, implying enhanced particle flux from the surface ocean to the mesopelagic zone. In contrast, ammonium addition leads to decreases in nitrate use

  12. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-01-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes. PMID:26883983

  13. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  14. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  15. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  16. Compact Solid-State 213 nm Laser Enables Standoff Deep Ultraviolet Raman Spectrometer: Measurements of Nitrate Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Sergei V; Mao, Michael; Gares, Katie L; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new compact acousto-optically Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) intracavity frequency-tripled neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate laser capable of producing ~100 mW of 213 nm power quasi-continuous wave as 15 ns pulses at a 30 kHz repetition rate. We use this new laser in a prototype of a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman standoff spectrometer. We use a novel high-throughput, high-resolution Echelle Raman spectrograph. We measure the deep UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of solid and solution sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at a standoff distance of ~2.2 m. For this 2.2 m standoff distance and a 1 min spectral accumulation time, where we only monitor the symmetric stretching band, we find a solid state NaNO3 detection limit of ~100 μg/cm(2). We easily detect ~20 μM nitrate water solutions in 1 cm path length cells. As expected, the aqueous solutions UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 are similar, showing selective resonance enhancement of the nitrate (NO3(-)) vibrations. The aqueous solution photochemistry is also similar, showing facile conversion of NO3(-) to nitrite (NO2(-)). In contrast, the observed UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 powders significantly differ, because their solid-state photochemistries differ. Whereas solid NaNO3 photoconverts with a very low quantum yield to NaNO2, the NH4NO3 degrades with an apparent quantum yield of ~0.2 to gaseous species.

  17. Intracellular nitrate of marine diatoms as a driver of anaerobic nitrogen cycling in sinking aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Stief, Peter; Bristow, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Diatom-bacteria aggregates are key for the vertical transport of organic carbon in the ocean. Sinking aggregates also represent pelagic microniches with intensified microbial activity, oxygen depletion in the center, and anaerobic nitrogen cycling. Since some of the aggregate-forming diatom species......-bacteria aggregates. Stable 15N isotope incubations under dark and anoxic conditions revealed that axenic S. marinoi is able to reduce intracellular nitrate to ammonium that is immediately excreted by the cells. When exposed to a light:dark cycle and oxic conditions, S. marinoi stored nitrate intracellularly....... Thirty-one percent of the diatom-derived nitrate was converted to nitrogen gas, indicating that a substantial fraction of the intracellular nitrate pool of S. marinoi becomes available to the aggregate-associated bacterial community. Only 5% of the intracellular nitrate was reduced to ammonium, while 59...

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution рН. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with λ max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to λmax=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

  19. Ammonium Perchlorate and Ammonium Perchlorate- Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene Simulated Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Francisco Boschi Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The combustion simulation of ammonium perchlorate was carried out with the software Chemkin, in two steps: the burning behavior of pure ammonium perchlorate and the one of formulated ammonium perchlorate with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene binder. In both cases, the room pressure varied in order to verify its influence in the system. The burning environment conditions were diverse. During the combustion process, the data obtained from the kinetic chemistry simulation software were compiled. The flame structure can be described by the molar fraction of the burning products and the temperature evolution from the surface of the material.

  20. Analysis of nitrate reductase mRNA expression and nitrate reductase activity in response to nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Kavoosi; Sadegh Balotf; Homeira Eshghi; Hasan Hasani

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is one of the major sources of nitrogen for the growth of plants. It is taken up by plant roots and transported to the leaves where it is reduced to nitrite in the. The main objective of this research was to investigate stimulatory effects of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonia and urea on the production/generation of the nitrate reductase mRNA in Triticum aestivum plants. The plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 21 days and then starved in a media without nitrat...