Sample records for ammeters

  1. A Charge Parity Ammeter (United States)

    Lambert, Nicholas J.; Edwards, Megan; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Ferguson, Andrew J.


    A metallic double-dot is measured with radio frequency reflectometry. Changes in the total electron number of the double-dot are determined via single electron tunnelling contributions to the complex electrical impedance. Electron counting experiments are performed by monitoring the impedance, demonstrating operation of a single electron ammeter without the need for external charge detection.

  2. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. (United States)


    ... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common.... (5) Using transmission line current meter at transmitter as remote reading ammeter. See paragraph (c... elements, shall be located at the same point as, but below (transmitter side) the associated main ammeter...

  3. The Moving-Coil Ammeter: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 8. (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the moving-coil ammeter. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. A English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and zero resistance ammeters (ZRA) as tools for studying the behaviour of zinc-rich inorganic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, X.R.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Espada, L.


    Impedance spectra obtained from zinc-rich inorganic coatings after one year of atmospheric exposure, have been interpreted on the basis of the study of the galvanic couple Zn/Fe, using a potentiostat combined with two ZRA. The area ratio of Zn/Fe is one of the factors conditioning the cathodic protection of iron. When this ratio is locally 1:1 or lower, corrosion spots are detected on iron and the overall impedance spectra shows a 'flattened' shape at low frequencies. The type of atmosphere determines the durability and evolution of the coating's protection mechanism. (author) 9 refs., 13 figs

  5. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ter showing measurement of current (decreased). Figure 3. Circuit with volt- meter showing measurement of potential difference (de- creased). V = ER. R + r. : (2). 1.1 Ammeter Gives Lower Value of I. A circuit in which an ammeter of resistance Ra is con- nected in series with the resistance R to measure the current, is shown ...

  6. A Laboratory Exercise in Physics: Determining the Resistance of Single Resistors and Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistance. (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to electrical resistance in series and parallel combinations, use of the voltmeter and ammeter, wiring simple circuits, and writing scientific reports. (SL)

  7. Module One: Electrical Current; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The student is introduced in this module to some fundamental concepts of electricity. The module is divided into five lessons: electricity and the electron, electron movement, current flow, measurement of current, and the ammeter. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson narratives, programed materials, and lesson…

  8. Apparatus Notes (United States)

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.


    Describes a low-cost wave analyzer; how to convert an incandescant light bulb to an x-ray tube; how to use an electric toothbrush to generate waves; the use of a light-emitting diode as a point light source; how to rejuvenate helium-neon lasers; and calibration of an ammeter. (MLH)

  9. Influence of Load and Stirrer Type on Current, Temperature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The revolution per minute/temperature attained in the motor and current developed per eachsample were measured by a tachometer, analogue temperature sensor and 266 clamp ammeters.The data on load were regressed against rpm, while a bill of quantity performed on the mixerResult show that the mixer is capable of ...

  10. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 4. The Analogue of Potentiometer for Current: Zero Resistance Ammeter (ZRA). Sachin Nayak. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 4 April 2013 pp 378-386. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Control of the Superconducting Magnets current Power Supplies of the TJ-II Gyrotrons; Control de las Fuentes de Corriente de las Bobinas Superconductoras de los Girotrones del TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, A.; Fernandez, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalan, G.


    The TJ-II ECRH heating system consists of two gyrotrons, which can deliver a maximum power of 300 kW at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron is going to be used in the Bernstein waves heating system. In order to get the required frequency, the gyrotrons need and homogeneous magnetic field of several tesla, which is generated by a superconducting coil field by a current source. This document describes the current source control as well as the high precision ammeters control. These ammeters measure the current in the superconducting coils. The user interface and the programming of the control system are described. The communication between devices is also explained. (author) 9 Refs.

  12. Control of the Superconducting Magnets current Power Supplies of the TJ-II Gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, A.; Fernandez, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalan, G.


    The TJ-II ECRH heating system consists of two gyrotrons, which can deliver a maximum power of 300 kW at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron is going to be used in the Bernstein waves heating system. In order to get the required frequency, the gyrotrons need and homogeneous magnetic field of several tesla, which is generated by a superconducting coil field by a current source. This document describes the current source control as well as the high precision ammeters control. These ammeters measure the current in the superconducting coils. The user interface and the programming of the control system are described. The communication between devices is also explained. (author) 9 Refs

  13. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore


    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  14. Thermogalvanic corrosion of Alloy 31 in different heavy brine LiBr solutions


    Fernández Domene, Ramón Manuel; Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José


    Thermogalvanic corrosion generated between two electrodes of Alloy 31, a highly-alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), has been investigated imposing different temperature gradients in three deaerated LiBr solutions, under open circuit conditions by using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA). Besides EIS spectra were acquired in order to explain the obtained results. On the whole, cold Alloy 31 electrodes were anodic to hot Alloy 31 electrodes, since an increase in temperature favoured t...

  15. Study of the De-Icing Properties of the ASDE-3 Rotodome. (United States)


    electronic thermocouple Type T leads: 3) An ammeter; 4) A 35 mm camera with infrared film; 5) A quantity of insulation approximately 1/16 to 3/16 inch...corresponding one on the inside; 2-5 ~L7 5) Set the 24-channel recorder and the electronic box associated with the thermocouples outside the rotodome; 6...Sllfllll lll IEEEEIIIEIIIIIh2h00EE0 EEE III12 1111IL25 fll1.4 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NATIONAL BUI AL) If TANDARDS T96b A ira zi-i. nov

  16. Visual Electricity Demonstrator (United States)

    Lincoln, James


    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  17. Effect of Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion of Cu-Ni Alloy/High Strength Steel in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun Li


    Full Text Available The galvanic corrosion behavior of Cu-Ni Alloy(B10/high strength steel (921A has been studied using a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA in seawater at different temperatures. As well as it was systemically investigated by weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscope.Results showed 921A acts as the anode and B10 act as the cathodes. The effect of temperature on the galvanic corrosion is important, the corrosion rate became higher with the temperature increased.

  18. Experimental determination of the Planck’s constant by observation of the discharge current of a capacitor


    dos Santos, Erick Santana; Departamento de Física, Instituto Federal da Bahia; Menezes Jr., Roberto dos Santos; Departamento de Física, Instituto Federal da Bahia; da Silva Santana, Victor Mancir; Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia


    In this paper, we present an experimental method for the determination of Planck’s constant, based on the measurement of the discharge current of a capacitor on a LED, without the use of resistors. To develop this, we use a capacitor connected in parallel to a LED and observe the voltage on the capacitor during its discharge along with the current flowing through the ammeter connected in series to the LED. At the instant when the current becomes zero, the voltage applied on the LED correspond...

  19. Risk theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidli, Hanspeter


    This book provides an overview of classical actuarial techniques, including material that is not readily accessible elsewhere such as the Ammeter risk model and the Markov-modulated risk model. Other topics covered include utility theory, credibility theory, claims reserving and ruin theory. The author treats both theoretical and practical aspects and also discusses links to Solvency II. Written by one of the leading experts in the field, these lecture notes serve as a valuable introduction to some of the most frequently used methods in non-life insurance. They will be of particular interest to graduate students, researchers and practitioners in insurance, finance and risk management.

  20. A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Giovanni; Tagnani, Diego; 10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.166


    A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector has been designed and realized in Frascati within the LHCb muon detector framework. The system is built with seven floating power supply, with a maximum of 1200 V each, and controlled via CANbus, for voltage settings and monitoring. Several HV modules can be installed in a nano-ammeter mainframe already developed in Frascati, realizing a HV crate able to supply up to 24 triple GEM chambers with a 1 nA resolution monitoring system.

  1. Design and implementation of medical diagnostic X-ray machine's tube current testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping; Fang Fang; Liu Zhihong


    As an important parameter, Medical X-ray tube current control the X-ray intensity, which has been included in the JJG 744-2004 'Medical Diagnostic X-ray radiation sources' in the state verification procedures. With the continuous development of the digital diagnosis and treatment, traditional ammeter is not able to measure the X-ray tube current and exposure time accurately, in order to ensure safety and reliable operation of Medical X-ray machine, improve the corresponding level of digital detection, so designing a verification of non-intrusive system of tube current, which include FPGA combination of high speed ADC digital sampling technology, current transformers and Bluetooth technology. The system has obvious advantages on the diversification of measured parameters and the accuracy of data analysing, has more in line with the characteristics of tube current. At the same time with high accuracy and good repeatability, the system meet national requirements of testing procedures. (authors)

  2. Self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.


    The invention relates a self-powered neutron detector comprising an emitting body, an insulating material surrounding said body, and a conducting outer cover, a power conductor connected to the emitting body and passing through the insulating material permitting to insert an ammeter between said emitting body and said cover. The invention is characterized in that said emitting body is surrounded by a thin conducting layer of small cross section for neutrons made of high density material said material being capable of absorbing the beta-radiations due to the degradation of the emitting body activating product, while transmitting the fast electrons of high average energy emitted by said emitting body. This can be applied to safety control devices required to provide a quick answer [fr

  3. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.


    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  4. Characterization of Coatings on Steel Self-Piercing Rivets for Use with Magnesium Alloys (United States)

    McCune, Robert C.; Forsmark, Joy H.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Battocchi, Dante

    Incorporation of magnesium alloys in self-pierce rivet (SPR) joints poses several unique challenges among which are the creation of spurious galvanic cells and aggravated corrosion of adjacent magnesium when coated steel rivets are employed. This work firstly reviews efforts on development of coatings to steel fasteners for the diminution of galvanic corrosion when used with magnesium alloys. Secondly, approaches, based on several electrochemical methods, for the measurement of the galvanic-limiting effect of a number of commercially-available coatings to hardened 10B37 steel self-piercing rivets inserted into alloy couples incorporating several grades of magnesium are reported. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), corrosion potential and potential-mapping visualization methods (e.g. scanning vibrating electrode technique — SVET) are illustrated for the several rivet coatings considered.

  5. Desain dan Uji Kinerja Fungsional Sistem Penggerak dan Kendali ROVERGARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Fikri Pomalingo


    Full Text Available Abstract The high population rate has an impact on increasing of land function change from agricultural land become housing and commercial building. As a result, it is difficult to get land for planting in the urban area. Therefore, this research is aimed to design equipment that can be used for planting in the narrow land using vertical gardening. This paper will report about design and functional testing of drive and control system on ROVERGARD. Drive system is based on water pump with additional gear train and chainsprocket mechanism. Control system use was on open loop type based on timer. The performance test of drive system was focused on electrical energy consumption and rotational speed of the system that was measured by multifunctional mini ammeter and tachometer. The control system was tested during 4 days, to evaluate their performances between set point and actual timing while filling water tank and rotate the system at maximal load condition. Electrical power consumption was 208 W at average rotational speed 2703 rpm. Increasing load caused an increase of energy consumption but made the drive rotation decline. The position control performance had on position error around 50 cm. Consequently, setting time on timer must be adjusted. Abstrak Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi, mengakibatkan tingginya alih fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi bangunan perumahan dan komersial. Masalah ini mengakibatkan sulitnya mencari lahan pertanian di daerah padat penduduk khususnya perkotaan. Oleh karena itu perlu dirancang sebuah alat yang dapat digunakan untuk bercocok tanam di lahan sempit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendesain dan menguji sistem penggerak dan kendali pada ROVERGARD. Sistem penggerak berasal dari pompa air yang dimodifikasi. Sedangkan sistem kendali menggunakan tipe open loop berbasis waktu dimana timer sebagai komponen utamanya. Pengujian kinerja penggerak difokuskan pada konsumsi listrik dan rpm yang diukur menggunakan

  6. High density trans-admittance mammography development and preliminary phantom tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Mingkang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant breast tumor tissue has a significantly different electrical impedance spectrum than surrounding normal tissues. This has led to the development of impedance imaging as a supplementary or alternative method to X-ray mammography for screening and assessment of breast cancers. However low spatial resolution and poor signal to noise ratio has limited the clinical application. Methods In order to improve spatial resolution we developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM system including an array of 60×60 current sensing electrodes. We adopted a similar setup to X-ray mammography where the breast is situated between two holding plates. The top plate is a large solid metal electrode for applying a sinusoidal voltage over a range of frequencies from 50 Hz to 500 kHz. The bottom plate has 3600 current sensing electrodes that are kept at the ground potential. Currents are generated from the top voltage-applying electrode and spread throughout the breast, entering the TAM system through the array of current sensing electrodes on the bottom plate. The TAM system measures the exit currents through 6 switching modules connected to 600 electrodes each. Each switching module is connected to 12 ammeter channels which are switched sequentially to 50 of the 600 electrodes each measurement time. Each ammeter channel is comprised of a current-to-voltage converter, a gain amplifier, filters, an analog to digital converter, and a digital phase sensitive demodulator. Results We found an average noise level of 38 nA, amplitude stability of less than 0.2%, crosstalk of better than -60 dB and 70 dB signal to noise ratio over all channels and operating frequencies. Images were obtained in time difference and frequency difference modes in a saline phantom. Conclusion We describe the design, construction, and calibration of a high density TAM system in detail. Successful high resolution time and frequency difference images showed regions of

  7. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique (United States)

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi


    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete. PMID:27618054

  8. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Byung-Gun; Kang, Gi-Doo


    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  9. Fabrication and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites filled with silver-coated microorganism cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Mingming, E-mail: [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Hu, Yanyan; Yuan, Liming [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    In this paper, helical silver-coated Spirulina cells were used as conductive fillers for the fabrication of polymeric composites. The morphology and composition of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The densities of silver-coated Spirulina cells were measured using the standard Archimedes method with distilled water. The electrical resistivity was measured by four-probe technique using ammeter and voltmeter whereas electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness was measured by four-port method using vector network analyzer and coaxial-airline sample holder. The results showed that the silver-coated Spirulina cells with different coating thickness were lightweight fillers compared to the other typical conductive particles. The polymeric composites could achieve good conductivity at the lower content of silver-coated Spirulina cells owing to their helical shape. The shielding effectiveness of polymeric composites had a strong dependence on their conductivity. At the coating thickness of 0.96 μm and the content of 40 vol%, the shielding effectiveness could reach above 74.3 dB in entire test wave band.

  10. Practical Quantum Realization of the Ampere from the Elementary Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brun-Picard


    Full Text Available One major change of the future revision of the International System of Units is a new definition of the ampere based on the elementary charge e. Replacing the former definition based on Ampère’s force law will allow one to fully benefit from quantum physics to realize the ampere. However, a quantum realization of the ampere from e, accurate to within 10^{-8} in relative value and fulfilling traceability needs, is still missing despite the many efforts made for the development of single-electron tunneling devices. Starting again with Ohm’s law, applied here in a quantum circuit combining the quantum Hall resistance and Josephson voltage standards with a superconducting cryogenic amplifier, we report on a practical and universal programmable quantum current generator. We demonstrate that currents generated in the milliampere range are accurately quantized in terms of ef_{J} (f_{J} is the Josephson frequency with measurement uncertainty of 10^{-8}. This new quantum current source, which is able to deliver such accurate currents down to the microampere range, can greatly improve the current measurement traceability, as demonstrated with the calibrations of digital ammeters. In addition, it opens the way to further developments in metrology and in fundamental physics, such as a quantum multimeter or new accurate comparisons to single-electron pumps.

  11. Photovoltaic system at Nagaoka College of Technology. Fabrication of photovoltaic system and development of data logging system; Nagaoka kosen ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden. Setsubi no kochiku to data shuroku system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, M.; Shirai, I.; Togawa, K.; Koshoji, H.; Otaki, S. [Nagaoka College of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Murata, M.; Murata, K.; Nomura, M. [New Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Reported in this paper is a photovoltaic power generation facility built in the yard of Nagaoka College of Technology. The purpose of this study is to find out if such a facility operates effectively in a heavy-snow region. A data logging system is also constructed. In a preliminary experiment, a 50W panel was installed, facing southwest at an inclination of 30degC, on the roof of the schoolhouse. A voltmeter, ammeter, and slide rheostat were used to perform necessary measurement. The panel temperature was approximately 50degC, and insolation was estimated at 70mW/cm{sup 2}. The data logging system is comprised of a personal computer, display, printer, etc. Using this system, voltage and current are measured with the load automatically adjusted, and the maximum power point is sought out and logged. In addition, insolation, ambient temperature, and panel temperature are logged. Data is logged every 10th minute and, when a day`s measurement is over, mean values are obtained for every hour and data is built for a power generation profile, all automatically. There is a plan for a wintertime power generation experiment. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen, hydrazine and pH outside the crevice on the galvanic corrosion of support plate alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKubre, M.C.H.


    A study has been performed of the initial corrosion of support structure alloys in crevices of various geometries, when galvanically coupled to alloy 600. Corrosion rates were monitored continuously by measuring the galvanic current flowing in each couple, transduced by a zero impedance ammeter. Experiments were performed in a single-pass flowing electrolyte system, with AVT water pumped through alloy 600 tubing past the orifice of each crevice. Fourteen crevices were studied simultaneously in two parallel flow arms containing seven specimens each. The steady state AVT water pH/hydrazine/oxygen concentrations were controlled by microcomputer, allowing the effect of secondary water chemistry on the corrosion rate to be studied easily. Control of the crevice electrolyte composition was achieved by separately pumping electrolyte, at a low rate, directly into the crevices of the seven specimens in the lower flow arm. In addition, a high pressure syringe was used to introduce chemicals directly into the secondary or crevice electrolyte flow streams, in order to rapidly evaluate the influence of potential corrodent or corrosion control agents on the galvanic corrosion rates. Specimens were studied in the five basic geometries

  13. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON


    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  14. Energy dependence evaluation of a ZnO detector for diagnostic X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valença, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, M.A.


    In the last decades the international organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using X-ray as a diagnosis tool. The current concern is to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can be concluded that, after calibration, the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector. (author)

  15. Effects of Phyllanthus muellerianus Leaf-Extract on Steel-Reinforcement Corrosion in 3.5% NaCl-Immersed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract effects on steel-reinforcement corrosion in concrete immersed in 3.5% NaCl, simulating saline/marine environment. Different concentrations of the leaf-extract were admixed in steel-reinforced concrete samples, which were immersed, with normal control, in the test-environment, while positive control samples were immersed in distilled water. Electrochemical measurements of corrosion-rate (by linear-polarization-resistance instrument, corrosion-current (by zero-resistance-ammeter and corrosion-potential (by high impedance multimeter were obtained for assessing the reinforcing-steel corrosion. Analyzed results showed that the corrosion-rate exhibited excellent correlation (R = 98.82%, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency = 97.66%, ANOVA p-value = 0.0006 with function of the admixture concentration and of the corrosion noise-resistance (ratio of corrosion-potential and corrosion-current standard deviations. The 0.3333% Phyllanthus muellerianus (per weight of cement exhibited optimal efficiency, η = 97.58% ± 1.28% (experimental or 95.33% ± 4.25% (predicted, at inhibiting concrete steel-reinforcement corrosion in the test-environment, which compares well with the positive control performance model, η = 97.96% ± 0.03%. The experimental and predicted models followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which indicated physisorption as the Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract adsorption mechanism on the reinforcing-steel. These support suitability of the N-, S-, and O-containing and π-electron rich Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract as an environmentally-friendly inhibitor for effective corrosion-protection of steel-reinforcement in concrete designed for the saline/marine environment.

  16. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, W.L.


    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  17. Evaluation of the energy dependence of a zinc oxide nanofilm X-ray detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenca, C.P.V., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Santos, L.A.P, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    International organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using of the X-ray as a diagnosis tool to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, electronic semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can conclude that the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector with an appropriate calibration. (author)

  18. Verification and Analysis of Implementing Virtual Electric Devices in Circuit Simulation of Pulsed DC Electrical Devices in the NI MULTISIM 10.1 Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solov'ev


    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis results of the implementation potential and evaluation of the virtual electric devices reliability when conducting circuit simulation of pulsed DC electrical devices in the NI Multisim 10.1environment. It analyses metrological properties of electric measuring devices and sensors of the NI Multisim 10.1environment. To calculate the reliable parameters of periodic non-sinusoidal electrical values based on their physical feasibility the mathematical expressions have been defined.To verify the virtual electric devices a circuit model of the power section of buck DC converter with enabled devices under consideration at its input and output is used as a consumer of pulse current of trapezoidal or triangular form. It is used as an example to show a technique to verify readings of virtual electric measuring devices in the NI Multisim 10.1environment.It is found that when simulating the pulsed DC electric devices to measure average and RMS voltage supply and current consumption values it is advisable to use the probe. Electric device power consumption read from the virtual power meter is equal to its average value, and its displayed power factor is inversely proportional to the input current form factor. To determine the RMS pulsed DC current by ammeter and multi-meter it is necessary to measure current by these devices in DC and AC modes, and then determine the RMS value of measurement results.Virtual electric devices verification has proved the possibility of their application to determine the energy performance of transistor converters for various purposes in the circuit simulation in the NI 10.1 Multisim environment, thus saving time of their designing.

  19. Transient current distributions in porous zinc electrodes in KOH electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.


    A zero-resistance ammeter circuit with a 10-channel operational amplifier was used to measure the current distribution during a discharge of 10 to 100 mA with simulated zinc porous electrodes in 7.24 M KOH saturated with ZnO. The reaction distribution was found to be highly nonuniform, with 70 to 78% of the charge transfer reaction completed in a depth of 0.01 cm. The high nonuniformity of the initial reaction profile was believed to be due to low conductivity of the electrolyte in the electrode pores. The current distribution changes during passivation of the electrode were experimentally obtained. A mathematical model based upon a macroscope averaging technique was used to predict the time dependence of charge transfer reaction profiles. With mathematical model, current distributions and overpotentials were predicted as a function of time for the segmented zinc electrode discharged at a current of 10 to 100 mA; for these predictions, assumed values of both precipitation rate constants for porous ZnO and diffusion coefficients for hydroxide and zincate ions were used. A gradual decrease in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte to 20% of the initial value during discharge yields predictions of current distributions and overpotentials in good agreement with the experimental data. The extent of reduction in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte implies a supersaturation of zincate of four times chemical saturation, which was been observed experimentally.At high discharge current (25 to 100 mA), the passivation behavior of the electrode has been simulated. The results of the experiments and mathematical model show that the effective reaction penetration depth is less than 0.02 cm.

  20. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo


    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  1. Manufacturing A Refrigerator with Heat Recovery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim


    Full Text Available This study aims to exploite the rejected heating energy from condenser and benefit from it to reheat the foods and other materials. It can also be employed to improve the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator at the same time by using approximately the same consumption electrical energy used to operate the compressor and refrigerator in general. This idea has been implemented by manufacturing of a refrigerator with using additional part has the same metal and condenser pipe diameters but its surface area does not exceed 40% from total surface area of the condenser and its design as an insulated cabinet from all sides to prevent heat leakage through it and located between the compressor and the condenser. Small electrical fan has been added inside this cabinet to provide a suitable air circulation and a homogenous temperature distribution inside the cabinet space. It is expected that the super heating energy of refrigerant (R134a which comes out of the compressor would be removed  inside this cabinet and this insist to condensate the refrigerant (cooling fluid with a rate higher than that used in the normal refrigerator only. Three magnetic valves have been used in order to control the refrigerant flow in state of operation the refrigerator only or to gather with heating cabinet. To measure the temperatures at each process of the simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle, nine temperature sensors at input and output of each compressor, condenser and an evaporator in additional to input of cabinet and inside it and on evaporator surface have been provided. Five pressure gages have been used to measure the value of pressure and compare it for the two states of operation. The consumption of electrical energy  can be calculated by adding an ammeter and a voltmeter and compare between the consumption energy of both states. The obtained results show that there is an improvement in the coeffecient of performance in state of operation the

  2. Part I. Corrosion studies of continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites. Part II. Galvanic corrosion between continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites and 4340 steel (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    uncoupled coupons were immersed in various electrolytes, exposed to a humidity chamber, and exposed at outdoor test sites. Results showed that the corrosion rates of the CF-AMCs increased, while those of the 4340 steel decreased after being coupled together, in most cases. Crevice corrosion was also observed in these exposure experiments. Zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) experiments were conducted to record the galvanic-corrosion rates and potentials of the couples. The CF-AMCs were found to serve as anodes, while the steel was cathodic, in most test conditions. Galvanic performance predicted by polarization experiments was in close agreement with the ZRA results. Key words. Aluminum, metal-matrix composites, alumina fiber, pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion.

  3. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić


    Full Text Available The challenge in the field of multimedia telecommunications is an attempt to integrate texts, sound, images and videos coherently and consistently and to ensure simplicity and interactivity of operation. In order to make the proposed multimedia applications acceptable to end-users, the quality of transmission through the network and message presentation should have special attention. The main aims of this paper are the introduction to the communication channel with its basic elements, a detailed description of the information source and the presentation of possible approaches to the analysis of the telecommunication channel. Introduction In the age of mass application of various communication means, end-users of telecommunication channel elements rarely pay attention to the processes taking place in everyday communication and the elements presented in the channel. In order to discuss all the factors that influence the establishment and maintenance of the links, this paper will explain the basic elements of telecommunication channels. Source Every object that generates messages to be transferred to a recipient is called the source of the message. Directors, writers, speakers, books, newspapers, various instruments (thermometer, barometer, ammeter, etc., computers, a man himself - these are all sources of various messages. In relation to facilities that generate messages, there are different sources of messages. All the messages that they generate belong to discrete or continuous modes of messages. Discrete messages can be presented with element sets, where elements can be considered through different values of observed messages. Each text message of arbitrary length, for example, is made of a finite number of elements - symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, from the set of symbols called the alphabet message source. Continuous messages can be presented with an infinite number of sets of elements where elements can have different values of

  4. Probing Symmetry and Disorder Effects in the Fractional Quantum Hall States of the Second Landau Level (United States)

    Kleinbaum, Ethan I.

    surprise, the nu = 5/2 FQHS continues to develop in samples with mobilities greater than mu = 1.7 x 106 cm2/Vs which is a significantly lower mobility threshold than what is seen for samples with no added disorder. We conclude that the contrasting behavior of the nu = 5/2 FQHS in clean and dirty samples result from different the influence on the nu = 5/2 state from different sources of disorder. We then examine the suppression of the energy gap of the even denominator FQHS within a phenomenological model of disorder induced energy level broadening. It is found that the disorder induced broadening of these energy levels correlates with the alloy scattering rate. For the first time at the even denominator FQHSs, we establish a quantitative, linear relationship between transport scattering rate and the broadening width of the energy levels. Finally, in Chapter 4, I describe a new dc SQUID-based current amplifier which is capable of performing Johnson noise limited measurements in the fractional quantum Hall regime. An impedance matching transformer is placed at the input of a commercially available dc SQUID ammeter. This circuit exhibits an extremely low amplifier noise of 2.3fA/√Hz. We use this circuit to measure the Johnson noise of a 3.1 kO resistor and find that the Johnson noise of the resistor dominates to temperatures as low as 15.8 mK. This instrument will enable future high resolution, low noise measurements at decreased excitation as well as Johnson noise and shot noise measurements in the fractional quantum Hall regime.

  5. Investigation of the chemical and electrochemical phenomena in the chemical mechanical planarization of copper (United States)

    Wang, Ling

    uncoupled copper, tantalum and titanium electrodes were obtained in commercial slurry and solutions containing hydrogen peroxide and glycine, for assessing the polarity between copper and tantalum when forming a galvanic couple, as function of peroxide concentrations, solution pHs, and the impact of diluting the slurry on the galvanic interaction. Galvanic currents and mixed corrosion potentials were measured in tantalum-copper couples formed by short-circuiting the two specimen electrodes in a three-electrode cell through a potentiostat-based zero resistance ammeter, to verify the correlation between the polarity and the galvanic interactions and to assess the effects of solution composition and the tantalum-to-copper surface area ratio. The results showed that the material removal due to galvanic interaction under non-polishing conditions is negligibly small, but could be a potential issue during CMP, and either copper or tantalum barrier material could experience accelerated corrosion, depending on the solution composition. The galvanic interaction between copper and tantalum is sensitive to the solution composition. Acidic acetate/acetic acid buffer may transiently accelerate the galvanic corrosion of copper, while basic carbonate/bicarbonate buffer may transiently accelerate the galvanic corrosion of tantalum. Glycine promotes galvanic corrosion of copper. Hydrogen peroxide is the most effective component to exacerbate galvanic corrosion between copper and tantalum, with tantalum experiencing accelerated corrosion. Changing the surface area of tantalum, which has the more active corrosion, has a less significant effect on the galvanic corrosion than changing the surface areas of the copper, which has a more noble potential.

  6. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos


    difference between the open circuit voltage (1.772 V) and the voltage with a known resistance (1.037 V). The difference, 1.772 - 1.037 = 0.735 V, equals the product of the circuit current and the resistance of the orange juice (ROJ), or ROJ = 0.735 V/0.001037 A = 708 Ohm 4. Finally, measure the current that the clock itself requires by hooking up in series an ammeter to the battery and the clock. The reading is not easy to take with an ammeter, which does not sample very often, and integrates across time. The computer interface works better for this. In our clock, a current of 0.49 mA was used. 5. The payoff comes at this point. The predicted voltage drop (I x Rint) can be calculated, voltage drop = I x Rint = 0.00049 A x 708 Ohm = 0.35 V Our observed voltage drops for this system were typically around 0.30 V. As a confirmation of the relationship of internal resistance to voltage drop, we placed the strips 1 mm apart in an orange by digging 2 holes in the orange and placing into the holes the coiled parts of the strips. We expected the voltage drop to be much higher than with the juice, due to the much higher internal resistance of the orange. Even when the strips were nearly touching, the drop was about 1 V. The Water Clock We discussed above the difference in the redox system when water is used rather than orange juice. Distilled water, which has a high internal resistance, will not permit the clock to run. However, hard tap water or distilled water with, for example, 1 g of table salt in 300 mL of water will work fine. As expected, because of the lower hydrogen ion concentration, the initial cell voltage is lower, typically around 1.45 V. The clock also ticks more slowly and more softly in water than in orange juice. In water, a black precipitate forms on the magnesium electrode and becomes more extensive with time. When the strip is removed from distilled water, and allowed to dry the precipitate turns white. Further student exploration on the precipitate might include