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Sample records for aml1-eto abrogates son

  1. KRAS (G12D Cooperates with AML1/ETO to Initiate a Mouse Model Mimicking Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It has been demonstrated that KRAS mutations represent about 90% of cancer-associated mutations, and that KRAS mutations play an essential role in neoplastic transformation. Cancer-associated RAS mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, suggesting a functional role for Ras in leukemogenesis. Methods: We successfully established a mouse model of human leukemia by transplanting bone marrow cells co-transfected with the K-ras (G12D mutation and AML1/ETO fusion protein. Results: Mice transplanted with AML/ETO+KRAS co-transduced cells had the highest mortality rate than mice transplanted with AML/ETO- or KRAS-transduced cells (115d vs. 150d. Upon reaching a terminal disease stage, EGFP-positive cells dominated their spleen, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and central nervous system tissue. Immunophenotyping, cytologic analyses revealed that AML/ETO+KRAS leukemias predominantly contained immature myeloid precursors (EGFP+/c-Kit+/Mac-1-/Gr-1-. Histologic analyses revealed that massive leukemic infiltrations were closely packed in dense sheets that effaced the normal architecture of spleen and thymus in mice transplanted with AML1/ETO + KRAS co-transduced cells. K-ras mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in bone marrow cells of the K-ras group and AML1/ETO + Kras group. The phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was significantly enhanced in the AML1/ETO + Kras group. The similar results of the AML1/ETO + Nras group were consistent with those reported previously. Conclusion: Co-transduction of KrasG12D and AML1/ETO induces acute monoblastic leukemia. Since expression of mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, this model may be useful for investigating the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  2. Rolle der gemeinsamen Expression von AML1-ETO und weiteren Onkogenen für die Induktion von Leukämie

    OpenAIRE

    Eichwald, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Akute Leukämien treten in allen Altersstufen auf. Akute lymphatische Leukämie (ALL) ist die häufigste Leukämie bei Kindern, während akute myeloischen Leukämien (AML) mit verschiedenen Untergruppen etwa 80% aller akuten Leukämien bei Erwachsenen ausmachen. Die Translokation t(8;21) resultiert in der Entstehung des Fusionsgens AML1-ETO und zählt zu den häufigen Translokationen bei der AML. Dabei fusioniert die DNA-bindende Domäne des AML1 mit dem fast kompletten ETO-Protein. AML1-ETO wirkt als ...

  3. Silencing AML1-ETO gene expression leads to simultaneous activation of both pro-apoptotic and proliferation signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, P V; Lebedev, T D; Orlova, N N; Gornostaeva, A S; Prokofjeva, M M; Nikitenko, N A; Dmitriev, S E; Buzdin, A A; Borisov, N M; Aliper, A M; Garazha, A V; Rubtsov, P M; Stocking, C; Prassolov, V S

    2014-11-01

    The t(8;21)(q22;q22) rearrangement represents the most common chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It results in a transcript encoding for the fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) with transcription factor activity. AE is considered to be an attractive target for treating t(8;21) leukemia. However, AE expression alone is insufficient to cause transformation, and thus the potential of such therapy remains unclear. Several genes are deregulated in AML cells, including KIT that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor. Here, we show that AML cells transduced with short hairpin RNA vector targeting AE mRNAs have a dramatic decrease in growth rate that is caused by induction of apoptosis and deregulation of the cell cycle. A reduction in KIT mRNA levels was also observed in AE-silenced cells, but silencing KIT expression reduced cell growth but did not induce apoptosis. Transcription profiling of cells that escape cell death revealed activation of a number of signaling pathways involved in cell survival and proliferation. In particular, we find that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2; also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1)) protein could mediate activation of 23 out of 29 (79%) of these upregulated pathways and thus may be regarded as the key player in establishing the t(8;21)-positive leukemic cells resistant to AE suppression.

  4. Celastrol Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits the Expression of the AML1-ETO/C-KIT Oncoprotein in t(8;21 Leukemia

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    Xianjun Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge to improving overall survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML. Therefore, the development of innovative therapies and the identification of more novel agents for AML are urgently needed. Celastrol, a compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook, exerts anticancer activity. We investigated the effect of celastrol in the t(8;21 AML cell lines Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1. We demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation activated caspases and disrupted mitochondrial function. In addition, we found that celastrol downregulated the AML1-ETO fusion protein, therefore downregulating C-KIT kinases and inhibiting AKT, STAT3 and Erk1/2. These findings provide clear evidence that celastrol might provide clinical benefits to patients with t(8;21 leukemia.

  5. Activated leukemic oncogenes AML1-ETO and c-kit: role in development of acute myeloid leukemia and current approaches for their inhibition.

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    Rulina, A V; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2010-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant blood disease caused by different mutations that enhance the proliferative activity and survival of blood cells and affect their differentiation and apoptosis. The most frequent disorders in AML are translocations between chromosomes 21 and 8 leading to production of a chimeric oncogene, AML1-ETO, and hyperexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Mutations in these genes often occur jointly. The presence in cells of two activated oncogenes is likely to trigger their malignization. The current approaches for treatment of oncologic diseases (bone marrow transplantation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have significant shortcomings, and thus many laboratories are intensively developing new approaches against leukemias. Inhibiting expression of activated leukemic oncogenes based on the principle of RNA interference seems to be a promising approach in this field.

  6. 实时定量荧光反转录-聚合酶链反应检测急性白血病AML1/ETO融合基因%Real-time RT-PCR for detection and quantification of AML1/ETO leukemia fusion gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 喻镁佳; 梁洋; 李晓进; 胡杰; 陈琪; 李惠民

    2009-01-01

    Objective To set up real-time quantitative RT-PCR technique and measure leukemia fusion gene transcripts in patients with AML of FAB-M_2 subtype,and also to investigate the positive rate in patients and the relationship between the AMLI/ETO mRNA levels and the response rate after chemical therapy.Methods The plasmid containing the AMLI/ETO fusion gene sequences were constructed from myeloid cell lines Kasumi-1 (expressing AML1/ETO)to establish the standard curves,A TaqMan based realtime quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure aberrant fusion gene transcripts in 45 samples of peripheral blood(PB) or bone marrow (BM) from 25 newly diagnosed patients with AML-M_2.All these 25 patients were diagnosed by the FCM(flow cytometry)and bone marrow molecular cytogenetics,and received the induce remission therapy with MA (Mitoxantrone+Ara-C).Results As a result,the AML1/ETO fusion gene transcripts were detected in 7(28%)out of 25 AML-M_2 patients (the ratios of AML1/ETO/ABL vary from 0.01 to 19.2),in which 5 patients were found t(8;21)(q22;q22).The transcript level of AML1/ETO fusion gene varied from the clinical situation of patients.These 7 patients with AML1/ETO fusion gene got complete remission(CR) after the first MA therapy,and the fusion gene reduced by 3 log in AML1/ETO/ABL.Only 11 patients got CR in 18 patients without AML1/ETO fusion gene.By following up these 7 patients with AML1/ ETO fusion gene kept persistent CR for 6 months.Conclusion It was concluded that real-time quantitative PCR is a reliable,innovative and promising technology with high sensitivity and speciality.It has potential clinical value for diagnosis,tumor typing,treatment selection,measuring the tumor load,monitoring fusion gene expression level and evaluating therapeutic strategy.It is worthy to apply in the clinical practice.%目的 建立实时定量荧光反转录-聚合酶链反应(RQ RT-PCR)的方法并用来检测急性髓系白血病(AML)-M_2:患者中 AML1/ETO融合基因的拷贝

  7. Monitoring AML1-ETO mRNA levels by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in t (8; 21) acute myeloid leukemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation%实时定量RT-PCR方法监测急性髓系白血病患者造血干细胞移植后AML1-ETO融合基因mRNA水平的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志东; 秦亚溱; 刘艳荣; 许兰平; 刘代红; 刘开彦; 黄晓军

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价实时定量RT-PCR(Q-PCR)方法监测AML1-ETO(+)急性髓系白血病(AML)患者异基因造血干细胞移植(allo-HSCT)后AML1-ETO mRNA水平的表达及其临床意义.方法 采用基于TagMan探针的Q-PCR技术检测17例AML1-ETO(+)AML患者allo-HSCT后不同时间骨髓标本AML1-ETO mRNA的表达.AML1-ETO mRNA水平以内参基因abl进行归一化.采用荧光原位杂交(FISH)法评估HSCT后是否达到细胞遗传学完全缓解(CCyR).结果 Q-PCR实验可重复敏感度为5个拷贝.在16例CCyR患者中,1例死于移植物抗宿主病(GVHD),1例死于感染,其余14例中位随访时间为268(70~811)d,HSCT后1个月(+1月)AML1-ETO中位水平0(0~0.740),+2月为0.026(0~2.900),+3月为0.039(0~3.300).移植时间超过12个月的5例患者中,中位随访685(385~811)d,4例仍呈AML1-ETO阳性,中位值0.078(0.003~0.120).1例复发患者+1月为0,+2月为9.800,+3月为5.600,+110 d血液学复发,AML1-ETO mRNA为390.000,+382 d死亡.结论 1年内AML1-ETO持续低水平阳性不一定预示复发;对AML1-ETO(+)AML患者HSCT后定期动态监测AML1-ETO水平十分必要.%Objective To evaluate the value of real time quantitative RT-PCR(Q-PCR) for monitoring AML1-ETO mRNA levels in AMLI-ETO(+) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods Quantification of AMLI-ETO (+) mRNA was performed serially on bone marrow samples from 17 patients with AML1-ETO (+) AML after HSCT. Q-PCR used the TagMan probe system. The AML1-ETO mRNA level was normalized by control gene abl. Cytogenetic response was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results The reproducible sensitivity of Q-PCR was 5 copies. Out of 16 patients who achieved sustained complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), one each died of graft-versus-host disease and infection. The median AML1-ETO mRNA levels in the rest of 14 CCyR patients were 0 (0 - 0.740), 0. 026 (0 - 2.900), 0.039 (0 - 3.300) at

  8. Study of t(8;21 )/AML1 - ETO- positive childhood acute myeloid leukemia%伴t(8;21)/AML1-ETO的儿童急性髓系白血病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉梅; 赵要顺; 邹尧; 陈晓娟; 张乃红; 刘天峰; 竺晓凡

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨伴t(8;21)/AML1-ETO的儿童急性髓系白血病(AML)的临床及生物学特征.方法52例初治患儿,男34例,女18例,中位年龄12(4~18)岁,均进行了遗传学和/或AML1-ETO融合基因检测.诱导缓解治疗采用HA/DA/HAD方案,缓解后进行异基因造血干细胞移植或7~12疗程的联合化疗.结果 24%的儿童AML伴t(8;21)/AML1-ETO,男女比例1.9,FAB分型为M250例(96%);初诊时伴中枢神经系统浸润7.7%(4/52);WBC17.2(1.8~146.3)×10 9/L,初诊时WBC大于10×10 9/L者50.0%(26/52),大于50×10 9/L者3.8%(2/52),血清乳酸脱氢酶升高者85.7%(36/42);细胞免疫分型CD19(44.4%),CD56(58.9%);单独为t(8;21)异常的13例(28.9%),Y染色体丢失22例,占男性患儿的64.7%;X染色体丢失3例,占女性患儿的16.7%,del(9q)6例;1疗程及2疗程完全缓解(CR)率分别为71.8%(28/39)和94.4%(34/36),4年的EFS率、DFS率和OS率分别为(25.4±9.6)%、(28.4±10.4)%和37.9±10.3)%.结论近1/4的儿童AML伴t(8;21)/AML-ETO,多见于FAB分型的M2型,男性居多,年长儿多发,易发生髓外浸润;高白细胞者少见,血清乳酸脱氢酶增高,细胞免疫分型较多表达CD19和CD56;细胞遗传学检查常伴有性染色体丢失和del(9q);诱导缓解治疗完全缓解率高,应用联合化疗进行巩固强化远期疗效好.

  9. Cloning, Expression, Purification and Crystallization of NHR3 Domain from Acute Myelogenous Leukemia-related Protein AML1-ETO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao YANG; Dong-Hui WU; Xiao-Yu XUE; Wen-Xue LIANG; Xiao-Yu MIAO; Hai PANG; Sai-Juan CHEN

    2004-01-01

    The t(8;21)translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia.This transtocation creates a fusion between the acute myelogenous leukemia 1(AML1,a transcription factor)gene on chromosome 21 and the eight-twenty-one(ETO,a zinc finger nuclear protein)gene on chromosome 8,leading to the repression of certain AML 1 target genes.We cloned NHR3 domain coding fragment into vector pGEX-6p-1 using PCR and obtained recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1-NHR3,which can be induced to stably overexpress fusion protein in E.coli.Through the purification on GST affinity chromatography column and PreScission protease cleavage,a large amount of NHR3 protein with high purity was obtained.In order to avoid possible interference of some strong negative charged molecules,NHR3 protein was further purified by Mono Q anion exchange chromatography.The NHR3 crystals were grown with hanging drop/vapor diffusion method and the first crystals appeared after four weeks at 18 ℃in 0.2 M Tris-sodium citrate dihydrate,0.1 M sodium cacodylate,pH 6.5,and 30% iso-propanol(V/V).ESI mass spectrum showed that the molecular weight of this domain was in agreement with its primary structure sequence prediction,and circular dichroism spectral data(190-250 nm)showed that NHR3 had a well-defined secondary structure of 25.9% α-helix,23.2% random coil and 50.9% turn,which was consistent with GOV4 software prediction.

  10. Chromatin accessibility, p300, and histone acetylation define PML-RARalpha and AML1-ETO binding sites in acute myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; Logie, C.; Francoijs, K.J.; Frige, G.; Romanenghi, M.; Nielsen, F.G.G.; Raats, L.; Shahhoseini, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Altucci, L.; Minucci, S.; Martens, J.H.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin accessibility plays a key role in regulating cell type specific gene expression during hematopoiesis but has also been suggested to be aberrantly regulated during leukemogenesis. To understand the leukemogenic chromatin signature, we analyzed acute promyelocytic leukemia, a subtype of leuk

  11. Son: Part One

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    Jennifer Higgie

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It is 1842. Two Englishman set out on a Grand Tour of Europe and the Middle East. One is a young, gifted artist; the other a Gentleman. By the time they return to England, the artist has become a devotee of the Egyptian god Osiris. One night, after dining together in a small inn in Cobham, he violently murders his beloved father, believing him to be an imposter. Why? Son is a novel inspired by the life of Richard Dadd, one of the greatest Victorian painters and inmate of Bethlem Hospital - more commonly known as Bedlam. Part Two of Son will be published in Portal vol. 2, no. 1, January 2005.

  12. Son: Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Higgie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is 1842. Two Englishman set out on a Grand Tour of Europe and the Middle East. One is a young, gifted artist; the other a Gentleman. By the time they return to England, the artist has become a devotee of the Egyptian god Osiris. One night, after dining together in a small inn in Cobham, he violently murders his beloved father, believing him to be an imposter. Why? Son is a novel inspired by the life of Richard Dadd, one of the greatest Victorian painters and inmate of Bethlem Hospital - more commonly known as Bedlam. Part one of Son was published in PORTAL vol. 1, no. 2, in July 2004. This is the second and concluding part of the novel.

  13. Son, Sent, and Servant

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    Truls Åkerlund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study challenges the claim that Jesus is the archetypical servant leader as described in contempo-rary leadership literature. Based on a theological reading of the Fourth Gospel, the paper suggests that, as a servant, Jesus cannot be understood apart from his mission and obedience to God. Consequently, Jesus was not primarily a servant leader but rather the Son who was sent to the world to enact the Fa-ther’s will. In this regard, the Fourth Gospel provides a unique perspective that is barely noted in the current discourse on servant leadership modelled on the example of Christ. Although certain aspects of servant leadership theory correspond to John’s portrayal of Jesus, the study concludes that other de-scriptions of him as a servant leader suffer from a one-sided and reductionist Christology. Implications of this view for Christian ministry are briefly sketched out.

  14. À chacun son puzzle

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    Jean-Noël Ferrié

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le texte soutient que le « tournant naturaliste » que l’on nous invite à négocier ne donne aucun moyen supplémentaire pour parvenir à une description perspicace de ce que les gens font dans des circonstances précises, l’existence humaine pouvant être considérée comme une collection de circonstances précises. Sans doute le naturalisme nous permet-il de comprendre comment certaines actions humaines sont possibles, mais cela ne nous dit pas pourquoi et comment elles font sens pour tout un chacun. La méthodologie nécessaire pour éclaircir le premier point obscurcit généralement le second. Le mieux est donc de considérer que les deux approches ne vont pas de pair. Ce point de vue est soutenu à partir d’exemple tirés de l’anthropologie de la religion.To each one his puzzle. For a serene methodological pluralismThe text argues that the « naturalistic turn » that we are invited to negotiate does not give any additional means to achieve an insightful description of what people do in specific circumstances, and human existence can be considered as a collection of specific circumstances. Probably naturalism allows us to understand how some human actions are possible, but that does not tell us why and how they make sense for everyone. The methodology needed to clarify the first point usually obscures the second one. The best way is to consider that the two approaches do not go together. The text supports this view from an example drawn from the anthropology of religion.A cada uno su rompecabezas. En favor de un pluralismo metodológico serenoEl texto argumenta que la inflexión naturalista a la que se nos invita a participar no proporciona ningún medio suplementario que desemboque en una descripción perspicaz de lo que la gente hace en circunstancias concretas ya que la existencia humana puede ser considerada como una concatenación de circunstancias concretas. Sin duda el naturalismo nos permite comprender como son

  15. Nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression: in vivo investigations.

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    Pilkington, Suzanne M; Gibbs, Neil K; Friedmann, Peter S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is a major public health concern, and the primary aetiological factor in the majority of skin cancers is ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. UVR not only induces potentially mutagenic DNA damage but also suppresses cell-mediated immunity (CMI), allowing cancerous cells to escape destruction and progress to tumours. A considerable proportion of an individual's annual sun exposure is obtained outside the vacation period when topical and physical measures for photoprotection are irregularly used. Certain nutrients could provide an adjunctive protective role, and evidence is accruing from experimental studies to support their use in abrogation of photoimmunosuppression. Moreover, developments in clinical research methods to evaluate impact of solar-simulated radiation on cutaneous CMI allow the immune protective potential of nutritional agents to be examined in humans in vivo. This article summarises the mediation of CMI and its suppression by UVR, evaluates the methodology for quantitative assessment in vivo, reviews the human studies reported on nutritional abrogation of photoimmunosuppression including recent randomized controlled trials and discusses the mechanisms of photoprotection by the nutrients. This includes, in addition to antioxidants, novel studies of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nicotinamide.

  16. Achalasia in father and son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D; Schneider, R

    1978-11-01

    Achalasia has not been previously reported in father and son. A man, age 38, and his father, age 66, presented two years apart with symptoms of dysphagia and aspiration. The diagnosis of achalasia was made on the basis of x-ray and endoscopic findings and on esophageal motility studies performed on the father. Both responded well to pneumatic dilatation and have been asymptomatic for 24 months and 6 months, respectively. These cases again suggest a genetic basis for achalasia.

  17. Son huasteco e identidad regional

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    Rosa María Bonilla Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La población de la región Huasteca es partícipe de manifestaciones musicales en diferentes ámbitos, lo cual permite reconocer que entre todos los géneros utilizados destaca el son huasteco y su correspondiente bailable llamado huapango. Dichas expresiones musicales se impregnan de los ambientes tanto físico como social que viven constantemente. Es a través de las letras de los sones huastecos que se desarrolla el mecanismo para reflejar el mundo natural que perciben, y los acontecimientos que les suceden, cobrando una importancia que deriva en una identificación que trasciende. Conciben su entorno y lo refieren con sentido de pertenencia-apropiación, que les permite recrear su vida y fundirse en una identificación cultural a la que se le llamará "identidad regional". La relevancia de considerar una expresión musical de estas características radica en que se preserva y enriquece constantemente unificando un área de México que no necesariamente corresponde a límites políticos establecidos en las diferentes etapas históricas.

  18. Policy-based SON management demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmuller, S.; Eisenblatter, A.; Frenzel, C.; Gotz, D.; Hahn, S.; Kurner, T.; Litjens, R.; Lobinger, A.; Sas, B.; Schmelz, L.C.; Turke, U.

    2015-01-01

    A Self-Organising Network (SON) represents an approach where the optimisation of a mobile radio network is automated through a set of independently operating SON functions. These SON functions, however, require to be configured in order to allow for an optimised network performance with respect to t

  19. Are we ready to abrogate compulsory vaccinations for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Domenico; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations.

  20. Preference for sons: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    1997-10-01

    This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. Clan brotherhoods of men have existed for centuries. Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. Patriarchal families believed that women were economically dependent on men and thus became their subjects. Daughters married, lived in their husband's home, and did not carry the responsibility of caring for their own parents. Couples with only daughters would seek a son-in-law to support them in old age. Rural families with no sons were looked down upon. Sons were expected to carry on the family lineage, increase the reputation of the family, and protect the family's interests. The lack of sons was a sign of humiliation and a curse. The founding of the People's Republic of China brought changes to son preference. The government attempted to increase women's status. In rural areas, women were given equal access to the land. Job opportunities were created for women during the industrialization drive. The Chinese government encouraged the repudiation of the negative impacts of the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius. Efforts were made to give men and women equal pay for equal work. Legislation was passed prohibiting arranged marriage, polygyny, and early marriage. A side effect of fertility decline is the renewed preference for sons. In Huangyan and Haining in Zhejiang, a developed province, the sex ratio at birth is normal. Sexual division of labor reinforces son preference.

  1. Carbamoylation abrogates the antioxidant potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praschberger, Monika; Hermann, Marcela; Laggner, Christian; Jirovetz, Leopold; Exner, Markus; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Gmeiner, Bernhard M K; Laggner, Hilde

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as the third gasotransmitter. Beside its role as signaling molecule in the cardiovascular and nervous system the antioxidant and cyto-protective properties of H2S have gained much attention. In the present study we show that cyanate, an uremic toxin which is found in abundant concentration in sera of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), can abrogate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of H2S via S-carbamoylation reaction, a reaction that previously has only been shown to have a physiological effect on cysteine groups, but not on H2S. Carbamoylation strongly inhibited the free radical scavenging (ABTS(+·) and alkylperoxyl ROO(·)) properties of H2S. The extent of intracellular ROS formation induced by ROO(·) was diminished by H2S whereas carbamoylation counteracted the protective effect. Reagent HOCl was rapidly inactivated by H2S in contrast to the carbamoylated compound. Protein modification by HOCl was inhibited by H2S but carbamoylation significantly reduced the effect. Thus, S-carbamoylation of low molecular weight thiols by abrogating their antioxidant potential may contribute to the higher oxidative stress observed in CKD.

  2. Hematopoietic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    13.1 Leukocyte and leukocyte function2007252 Expression of AML1/ETO9a isoform in acute myeloid leukemia-M2 subtype. MIAO Yuqing(苗雨青),et al. The 1st Affili Hosp, Soochow Univ, Jiangsu Hematol Instit, Suzhou 215006. Chin J Hematol 2007;28(1):27-29. Objective To investigate the expression of AML1/ETO9a isoform in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M2 patients. Methods Expressions of AML1/ETO fusion gene and AML1/ETO9a isoform were detected by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in leukemia patients, MDS patients, leukemia cell lines and healthy subjects. Karyotype was studied by R-banding technique. Result In 30 newly diagnosed AML-M2 patients, 15 were found to express AML1/ETO9a isoform, while the rest including 20 AML-M2CR, 18 other subtypes of AML, 5 chronic myelogenous leukemia(CML), 3 myelodys-plastic syndromes (MDS), 3 leukemia cell lines (NB4, KG-1, K562) and 5 healthy subjects were AML1/ETO9a negative. Among the 15 AML/ETO9a isoform expressing cases, 13 were demonstrated t(8;21) translocation and AML1/ETO expression. Conclusion lsoform AML1/ETO9a related with AML/M2, may promote the development of leukemia in combination with the AML1/ETO fusion gene.

  3. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  4. Cuidados invisibles: ¿son suficientemente reconocidos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna de la Rosa Eduardo

    Full Text Available Los cuidados invisibles son un elemento central y fundamental de la práctica de la Enfermería y son la base de su identidad profesional. La Enfermería ha sufrido un importante y positivo proceso de profesionalización en los últimos 150 años, sin embargo, los cuidados invisibles siguen siendo poco reconocidos, a pesar de su importancia en la recuperación y en la calidad de vida de los usuarios. En este trabajo se analizan brevemente las grandes transformaciones sociales actuales que obligan a replantearse la necesidad de visibilizar los cuidados invisibles, se plantean interrogantes clave para abordar esta discusión y se proponen una serie de acciones concretas para avanzar en este reconocimiento.

  5. Compression des fichiers son de type wave.

    OpenAIRE

    BAKLI, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de projet de fin d’étude s’intéresse à une étude comparative sur la compression d’un fichier son. La compression est l'action utilisée pour réduire la taille physique d'un bloc d'information.. Il existe plusieurs algorithmes pour la compression comme HUFFMAN, …etc. Nous avons fait la compression d’un fichier son de format WAVE non compressé à un fichier MP3 compressé avec différent format de codage, différent frame et quelque soit le fichier mono où stéréo. A partir ...

  6. Paradox of Denials in All My Sons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷慧慧

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Miller, who was one of the greatest American playwrights of the 20th century. In All My Sons, different sorts of denials lead to the family’s collapse and Keller’s death. Paradoxically, the very denial that is designed to protect him from prose-cution and incarceration is followed by a chain of events that lead to Keller’s own self-imprisonment and self-imposed execu-tion. Denial also exists in the history of some countries, such as Germany, Japan and America and so on. My paper aims to ex-plore the paradox of denial both in our history and in literature works. My paper will demonstrate that denial has some negative effects both on the outer-world and the inner-world through thorough analysis on the characters in All My Sons.

  7. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  8. Epithelial inactivation of Yy1 abrogates lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Landry-Truchon, Kim; Bérubé-Simard, Félix-Antoine; Houde, Nicolas; Beuret, Laurent; Lezmi, Guillaume; Foulkes, William D; Delacourt, Christophe; Charron, Jean; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2015-09-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes by selectively activating or repressing transcription, depending upon promoter contextual differences and specific protein interactions. In mice, Yy1 null mutants die early in gestation whereas Yy1 hypomorphs die at birth from lung defects. We studied how the epithelial-specific inactivation of Yy1 impacts on lung development. The Yy1 mutation in lung epithelium resulted in neonatal death due to respiratory failure. It impaired tracheal cartilage formation, altered cell differentiation, abrogated lung branching and caused airway dilation similar to that seen in human congenital cystic lung diseases. The cystic lung phenotype in Yy1 mutants can be partly explained by the reduced expression of Shh, a transcriptional target of YY1, in lung endoderm, and the subsequent derepression of mesenchymal Fgf10 expression. Accordingly, SHH supplementation partially rescued the lung phenotype in vitro. Analysis of human lung tissues revealed decreased YY1 expression in children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), a rare pediatric lung tumor arising during fetal development and associated with DICER1 mutations. No evidence for a potential genetic interplay between murine Dicer and Yy1 genes during lung morphogenesis was observed. However, the cystic lung phenotype resulting from the epithelial inactivation of Dicer function mimics the Yy1 lung malformations with similar changes in Shh and Fgf10 expression. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial requirement for YY1 in lung morphogenesis and identify Yy1 mutant mice as a potential model for studying the genetic basis of PPB.

  9. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  10. My Son 22.10.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'My Son 22.10.11' was made immediately following a miscarriage 8 weeks into pregnancy. After bleeding lightly for a couple of hours, I went to the toilet and a large bloody mass fell from within me. I knew that I could not flush this away, and that to retrieve the mass was my only chance to connect with the unborn foetus. I fished the contents from the bottom of the toilet bowl using my hands and carried them into my small studio. I found some paper and began to dissect the mass. At the centre, I found the tiny, cold, hard foetus. I kissed it and then began to use it as a kind of painting tool, drawing the outline of the lost child using its very own flesh and blood. I knew that to create a lasting and tangible portrait of 'my son' was the best way to understand the somewhat unreal and fleeting experience of miscarriage. I thought of Frida Kahlo while making the work, thinking 'thank God' that I had a reference to miscarriage before it happened to me. I also thought of my childhood days spent on our family pig farm, and of all the dead pig foetuses that I had seen at various stages of development. Before the miscarriage, I thought little about the subject; afterwards, I recognise the profundity of the creation of a life that is never born. The experience is so common, yet so very rarely discussed or depicted.

  11. L'astronomie et son histoire

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Jean-René

    1982-01-01

    Le livre de Jean-René Roy nous présente une vaste synthèse des connaissances présentes en astronomie. Le grand mérite du livre est de dérouler son sujet en parallèle avec une histoire de l'astronomie. Le côté historique est ici beaucoup plus qu'un luxe. Il redonne leurs dimensions vraies aux réponses qu'apporte l'astronomie. Pour bien sentir la nature d'une étape franchie, il faut aussi avoir vécu la situation telle qu'elle se présentait avant. Et les fiches personnelles incluses dans le livre ont l'intérêt de nous rapprocher encore plus du "" feu de l'action "". Écrit dans un style direct et

  12. Lo que son mujeres en los escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Cañal, Rafael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I review the publishing and stage trajectory of one of Rojas Zorrilla’s most significant plays: Lo que son mujeres. As well as collecting a list of the different editions, I emphasize the 1822 version by the Mexican Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza, which started a new renaissance period for this play on stage. I also analyze the 1899 one-act version by Emilio Bobadilla. Finally, I include all the different productions between the 17th and the 19th centuries, and address the little interest aroused in the 20th century–suffice to say that it has not been staged even during these early years of the 21st century when the centenary of Rojas Zorrilla is being celebrated.En este artículo se hace un repaso detallado de la fortuna editorial y escénica de una de las obras más significativas de Rojas Zorrilla: Lo que son mujeres. Aparte de recoger las diferentes ediciones de la misma, se hace hincapié en la refundición del mexicano Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza, estrenada en 1822, que abrió un período de cierta recuperación de este texto dramático en los escenarios. Se analiza también la refundición que llevó a cabo en un solo acto Emilio Bobadilla en 1899. Finalmente, se registran todas las representaciones conocidas de la obra desde el siglo XVII hasta el siglo XIX y se constata el poco interés que ha despertado en los escenarios del siglo XX. Incluso en los últimos años, en los que los montajes de obras de Rojas comienzan a ser más frecuentes, esta obra no ha sido todavía llevada a escena.

  13. Sons fricativos surdos Voiceless fricatives sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: características dos sons fricativos surdos. OBJETIVO: propor uma revisão da literatura pertinente às características acústicas, fonéticas e fonológicas dos fonemas fricativos surdos que integram o sistema fonológico do Português. Além disso, são descritas suas aplicações na terapia vocal. CONCLUSÕES: os fricativos são fonemas agudos, abrangendo de 2500 a 8000Hz; são plenamente adquiridos até os 3:7 anos de idade; o /s/ que também é o mais afetado em casos de frênulo lingual curto; a omissão do /s/ é uma das ocorrências mais freqüentes na alfabetização; sendo que, no desvio fonológico e na fissura lábio-palatina, freqüentemente ocorre comprometimento de toda a classe de fricativos. Na avaliação de voz, os fricativos são mencionados com as medidas de TMF e relação s/z, bem como seu uso como sons de apoio na fonoterapia.BACKGROUND: characteristics of voiceless fricative sounds PURPOSE: to review the literature related to acoustic, phonetics and phonological characteristics of voiceless fricative sounds that are part of the phonological system of the Portuguese Language. Furthermore, it describes the use of these sounds in voice therapy. CONCLUSIONS: fricatives are acute phonemes comprised between 2500 and 8000 Hz; they are fully acquired up to the age of 3:7 years; the /s/, which is the most affected in cases of short lingual frenum; omission of the /s/ is one of the most frequent occurrences during literacy education; and in the phonological deviation and labial-palatine fissure the entire class of fricatives is frequently affected. In voice assessment, fricative sounds are mentioned as TMF measurements and s/z relationship, and their use as support sounds in speech therapy.

  14. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters more Disadvantaged than Sons?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; KING, VALARIE

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N=4,663). Results indicate that sons and daughters report equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons report more overnight visits, sports, and movies, and feeling closer to their fathers compared to daughters. Sons and daughters generally benefit from nonresident father involvement in the same way in internalizing and externalizing problem...

  15. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  16. Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1983-01-01

    Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.

  17. Determinants of mitotic catastrophe on abrogation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint by UCN-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Kin Fan; Chen, Yue; Ma, Hoi Tang; Chow, Jeremy P H; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-05-01

    Genotoxic stress such as ionizing radiation halts entry into mitosis by activation of the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint. The CHK1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can bypass the checkpoint and induce unscheduled mitosis in irradiated cells. Precisely, how cells behave following checkpoint abrogation remains to be defined. In this study, we tracked the fates of individual cells after checkpoint abrogation, focusing in particular on whether they undergo mitotic catastrophe. Surprisingly, while a subset of UCN-01-treated cells were immediately eliminated during the first mitosis after checkpoint abrogation, about half remained viable and progressed into G(1). Both the delay of mitotic entry and the level of mitotic catastrophe were dependent on the dose of radiation. Although the level of mitotic catastrophe was specific for different cell lines, it could be promoted by extending the mitosis. In supporting this idea, weakening of the spindle-assembly checkpoint, by either depleting MAD2 or overexpressing the MAD2-binding protein p31(comet), suppressed mitotic catastrophe. Conversely, delaying of mitotic exit by depleting either p31(comet) or CDC20 tipped the balance toward mitotic catastrophe. These results underscore the interplay between the level of DNA damage and the effectiveness of the spindle-assembly checkpoint in determining whether checkpoint-abrogated cells are eliminated during mitosis.

  18. Enhancement and abrogation : modifications of host immune status influence IL-2 and LAK cell immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Steller (Erick)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will discuss the role immune cells and the host immune system can play in enhancement and abrogation of this novel immunotherapy with interleukin 2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Chapter 3 and 4 will discuss the scoring methods in this intraperitoneal cancer and immun

  19. Son preference in rural China: patrilineal families and socioeconomic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education.

  20. Like Godfather, Like Son: Exploring the Intergenerational Nature of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Sons (daughters) with criminal fathers have 2.06 (2.66) times higher odds of having a criminal conviction than those with noncriminal fathers. One additional paternal sentence increases sons' (daughters') convictions by 32 (53) percent. Compared to traditional labor market measures, the intergenerational transmission of crime is lower than that…

  1. Causal Attributions and Parents' Acceptance of Their Homosexual Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Yael; Diamond, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    This Internet-based study examined the association between Israeli parents' attributions regarding the cause of their son's homosexuality and their level of acceptance of their homosexual son. The sample (N = 57) was recruited via Internet Web sites (gay forums and support groups). Findings suggest that more essentialist (versus constructivist) causal attributions were associated with higher levels of parental acceptance. Length of time parents knew of their son's homosexual orientation predicted the degree to which their attributions were essentialist. Implications are discussed.

  2. Mother-son incest as a defence against psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K M; Bossi, J

    1993-09-01

    In the following, a case of mother-adult son incest is described and explained from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. Two theories are put forward: (a) Mother-son incest may occur as a defence against psychosis, and (b) the incest represents an unconscious search for triangulation, a process in which external authorities (such as, for example, a court of law) may function as surrogates for persons who have been missed in the pre-oedipal past. It is therefore possible to understand mother-son incest symbolically as an indicator of pre-oedipal needs of the son and of the mother's longing for the absent partner. The incest is, however, not only a cry for help; it is also to be regarded as an attempt to solve the problem for both people involved. Looked at in this way, new ways of understanding and new possibilities for therapy emerge.

  3. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidner, I S; Møller, H; Jensen, Tina Kold

    1998-01-01

    Cryptorchidism and hypospadias have been related to prenatal estrogen exposure in animal models. Some chemicals used in farming and gardening have been shown to possess estrogenic and other hormone-disrupting effects. Earlier studies have indicated increased risks of urogenital malformations...... in the sons of pesticide appliers. In the present study, parental occupation in the farming and gardening industry among 6,177 cases of cryptorchidism, 1,345 cases of hypospadias, and 23,273 controls, born live from 1983 to 1992 in Denmark, was investigated in a register-based case-control study....... A significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism but not hypospadias was found in sons of women working in gardening (adjusted odds ratio = 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.47). The risks were not increased in sons of men working in farming or gardening. The increased risk of cryptorchidism among sons...

  4. The Telephone Connection: An Interview with Ernest Hemingway's Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Brooke

    1979-01-01

    Relates how a conference call to Ernest Hemingway's son, Gregory, resolved questions and brought understanding and excitement to a group of Iowa high school students enrolled in a 12-week Hemingway seminar. (FL)

  5. The discovery and exploration of Hang Son Doong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbert, H.; Limbert, D.; Hieu, N.; Phai, V. V.; Kinh Bac, D.; Phuong, T. H.; Granger, D.

    2016-08-01

    Hang Son Doong is located in the Phong Nha Ke Bang Limestone Massif in Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam. Cave exploration by British cavers has been continuous in this area since 1990. Hang Son Doong is part of the Phong Nha Cave system which runs from the southern end of the National Park near the Lao border to the final resurgence at Phong Nha Cave. (Author)

  6. Remarks on Psychological Analyses of Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳微

    2007-01-01

    Sons and Lovers is considered to be D.H.Lawrene's first masterpiece. Social critique and psychological exploration are two props of creative works of D.H.Lawrence. There are two points of view in literature world about the novel Sons and Lovers: One is its critical function which criticizes the destroy of capitalistic industrial civilization to human body and mind. The other is psychological analyses. The tragedy of the characters attributes to the Oedipus complex.

  7. THE MOTIF OF THE PRODIGAL SON IN IVAN TURGENEV'S NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ivanovna Gabdullina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author questions the perception of Ivan Turgenev as a “non- Christian writer” and studies the problem of the prodigal son motif functioning in a series of his novels. In his novels, Turgenev pictured different phases of the archetypal story, originating from the Gospel parable of the prodigal son. In the novel Rudin he depicted the phase of spiritual wanderings of the hero who had lost touch with his native land — Russia. In his next novels (Home of the Gentry, Fathers and Sons and Smoke, after leading his hero in circles and sending him back to his paternal home, Turgenev reconstructs the model of human behavior, represented in the parable, thereby recognizing the immutability of the idea formalized in the Gospel. The motif of the return to Russian land gets its completion in Turgenev's last novel Virgin Soil, in which the author paradoxically connects the Westernist idea with the Gospel imperative. Solomin, the son of a deacon, sent by his wise father out to Europe “to get education”, studies in England, masters the European knowledge and returns back “to his native land” to establish his own business in inland Russia. Thus, a series of Turgenev's novels, in which he portrayed different phases of social life, are interlinked with the motif of the prodigal son, who is represented by novels' main characters.

  8. Violating Bell's inequality beyond Cirel'son's bound

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2002-01-01

    Cirel'son inequality states that the absolute value of the combination of quantum correlations appearing in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is bound by $2 \\sqrt 2$. It is shown that the correlations of two qubits belonging to a three-qubit system can violate the CHSH inequality beyond $2 \\sqrt 2$. Such a violation is not in conflict with Cirel'son's inequality because it requires a choice of pairs of qubits which is only meaningful in a local-realistic theory. The maximum allowed violation of the CHSH inequality, 4, can be achieved using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.

  9. Origins, Form, and Development of the Son Jarocho: Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Steven J.

    1982-01-01

    Son Jarocho (specifically from Veracruz) is a song-and-dance form originating in Spain and implanted in Mexico during 17th- and 18th-century colonization. The jarocho style of music today is one of Latin America's most unique forms, using one to four instruments and characterized by its distinctive rhythm. (LC)

  10. The culture of referendum in Albania: Technical and theoritecal reflections on the abrogative referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Pajo Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Albanian constitutional and legal framework on referenda, in general, focusing special attention to the abrogative referenda of a law or part thereof. Given the absence of any concrete case of an abrogative referenda held in Albania, which does not creates very much room for discussion in that regard, the paper, through a comparative approach on the referenda culture in other european states, aims at offering to the reader a more complete view on the mechanisms and guarantees enjoyed by voters and the effective way of their use, in order to give life to the direct democracy, but without replacing the representative one. In addition, part of the analyses will be the powers of the Constitutional Court for the ex ante constitutional review of the issue subject to a referendum, the review of constitutionality of the referndum and of its results. In this context, the paper will focus on the constitutional case-law as a tool for increasing the referenda culture and shaping the constitional order, as well as a source of standards and values. Another objective of the paper is to open a discussion on the need for the reception of referenda-related standards elaborated in those European countries, where the culture of helding a referenda and the case-law on the regard is enriched and may serve as a qualitative basis for further reference.

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c on residue 521 abrogates binding to Syntaxin 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Nia J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin stimulates exocytosis of GLUT4 from an intracellular store to the cell surface of fat and muscle cells. Fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane requires the SNARE proteins Syntaxin 4, VAMP2 and the regulatory Sec1/Munc18 protein, Munc18c. Syntaxin 4 and Munc18c form a complex that is disrupted upon insulin treatment of adipocytes. Munc18c is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin in these cells. Here, we directly test the hypothesis that tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c is responsible for the observed insulin-dependent abrogation of binding between Munc18c and Syntaxin 4. Results We show that Munc18c is directly phosphorylated by recombinant insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in vitro. Using pull-down assays, we show that phosphorylation abrogates binding of Munc18c to both Syntaxin 4 and the v-SNARE VAMP2, as does the introduction of a phosphomimetic mutation into Munc18c (Y521E. Conclusion Our data indicate that insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c impairs the ability of Munc18c to bind its cognate SNARE proteins, and may therefore represent a regulatory step in GLUT4 traffic.

  12. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  13. Conflicts between Spirit and Body in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the conflicts between spirit and body that exist among characters in Sons and Lovers. By stating the complicated relationships of Mr. and Mrs. Morel, two sons and their mother, and the protagonist Paul and two women, Miriam and Clara, spirit and body collides and conflicts emerge from time to time. Conflicts between blood ties and lovers' affairs, moral principles and incest, and chastity and lust are reflected on char-acters, especially Paul in the novel. It concludes that Mrs. Morel's influence on Paul's spirit and thought is great. Her spiritual domination on Paul is the main factor for these conflicts. Her death at the end of the story will be a brand-new start of Paul's life.

  14. An ecological reading of the sons and lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萌萌

    2012-01-01

    1 .Introduction D.H. Lawrence is one of the greatest writers in the English lit- erature history. The author makes a textual analysis of the novel-- Sons and Lovers, David Herbert Lawrence's third novel Which is also his first masterpiece. The novel is recognized as the pioneer work among English novels and now has become one of the most widespread readings. As his representative, sons and lovers is a work filled with ecological elements, which discovered lots of social and psychological problems through the description of the character Paul's growing. Under the backgrounds of the author's own growing experiences and Industry Revolution, the natural circumstances has been ruined, the sick relationship in the worker's family,

  15. Private Transfers within the Family: Mothers, Fathers, Sons and Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Cox

    2003-01-01

    Despite recent advances in data collection and the growing number of empirical studies that examine private intergenerational transfers, there still exist significant gaps in our knowledge. Who transfers what to whom, and why do they it? I argue that some of these gaps could be filled by departing from the standard parent-child framework and concentrating instead on fathers, mothers, sons and daughters in a way that accounts for fundamental--and sometimes obvious--male-female differences in c...

  16. Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mehtabul; Bhatt, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we create a unique son-father matched data set that is representative of the entire adult male population (aged 20-65) in India. We use these data to document the evolution of intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in India over time, among different castes and states for the birth cohorts of 1940-1985. We find that educational persistence, as measured by the regression coefficient of father's education as a predictor of son's education, has declined over time. This implies that increases in average educational attainment are driven primarily by increases among children of less-educated fathers. However, we do not find such a declining trend in the correlation between educational attainment of sons and fathers, which is another commonly used measure of persistence. To understand the source of such a discrepancy between the two measures of educational persistence, we decompose the intergenerational correlation and find that although persistence has declined at the lower end of the fathers' educational distribution, it has increased at the top end of that distribution.

  17. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  18. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Raquel M; Teixeira, Luzia; Aguas, Artur P; Ribeiro, Joana C; Costa-e-Silva, António; Ferreira, Paula G

    2014-02-04

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection.

  19. HCV NS5A abrogates p53 protein function by interfering with p53-DNA binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhong Gong; Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Li-Ying Lai; Ying-Hua Zhu; Xian-Shi Su

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibition effect of HCV NS5A on p53 transactivation on p21 promoter and explore its possible mechanism for influencing p53 function.METHODS: p53 function of transactivation on p21 promoter was studied with a luciferase reporter system in which the luciferase gene is driven by p21 promoter, and the p53-DNA binding ability was observed with the use of electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Lipofectin mediated p53 or HCV NS5A expression vectors were used to transfect hepatoma cell lines to observe whether HCV NS5A could abrogate the binding ability of p53 to its specific DNA sequence and p53 transactivation on p21 promoter.Western blot experiment was used for detection of HCV NS5A and p53 proteins expression.RESULTS: Relative luciferase activity driven by p21 promoter increased significantly in the presence of endogenous p53 protein. Compared to the control group, exogenous p53 protein also stimulated p21 promoter driven luciferase gene expression in a dose-dependent way. HCV NS5A protein gradually inhibited both endogenous and exogenous p53 transactivation on p21 promoter with increase of the dose of HCV NS5A expression plasmid. By the experiment of EMSA, we could find p53 binding to its specific DNA sequence and, when co-transfected with increased dose of HCV NS5A expression vector, the p53 binding affinity to its DNA gradually decreased and finally disappeared. Between the Huh 7 cells transfected with p53 expression vector alone or co-transfected with HCV NS5A expression vector, there was no difference in the p53 protein expression.CONCLUSION: HCV NS5A inhibits p53 transactivation on p21 promoter through abrogating p53 binding affinity to its specific DNA sequence. It does not affect p53 protein expression.

  20. ¿Son las mujeres una minoría?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Raquel

    1996-01-01

    Not available.

    El clásico tratamiento de las mujeres como minoría desde la sociología se halla contemporáneamente interrelacionado con las políticas de igualdad tejidas en torno a las mujeres. Pasado y presente, teoría y práctica se unen para mostrar que las teorías no son accidentales ni fortuitas sino que acarrean importantes consecuencias en la acción, pudiendo dar lugar a intervenciones en la vida pública, que es lo que, a mi entender, confiere su sentido a la. sociolog...

  1. [Bladder cancer at an early age in father and son].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, D; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A; Böttrich, R; Hengstler, J G; Golka, K

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer may be caused by external factors like tobacco smoking, but may also be familial. We report on a father and son who developed this tumour at the ages of 45 and 35. Testing various genetic markers including the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6, whose loss is associated with a higher risk for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome), did not point to a familial disease. Thus the heavy smoking habits of the two patients must be considered as causal.

  2. Experimental Violation of Bell Inequality beyond Cirel'son's Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y A; Pan, J W; Yang, T; Zhang, A N; Zhao, Z; Cabello, Adan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei; Yang, Tao; Zhang, An-Ning; Zhao, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    The correlations between two qubits belonging to a three-qubit system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-Bell inequality beyond Cirel'son's bound [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 060403 (2002)]. We experimentally demonstrate such a violation by 7 standard deviations by using a three-photon polarization-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state produced by Type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion. In addition, using part of our results, we obtain a violation of the Mermin inequality by 39 standard deviations.

  3. Male-mediated infertility in sons of building painters and gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev G; Hougaard, K S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians.......To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians....

  4. Son preference, sex selection, and kinship in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent rise in the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam and relates its emergence to kinship systems and ethnic composition using 2009 census micro-data. Presentation of the main socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in birth masculinity is followed by a review of the three intermediate factors leading to increases in the sex ratio at birth: prenatal technology, declining fertility, and gender bias. An indirect measurement of fertility behavior is used to demonstrate the close association between levels of the sex ratio at birth and the intensity of son preference. Data on household composition indicate that Vietnam is characterized by the co-existence of kinship patterns typical of East and Southeast Asia. Son preference in Vietnam is found to be related to the prevalence of more traditional patrilineal systems. The article concludes by considering the implications of the cultural dimensions of prenatal sex selection for policy responses and for the likely future change in the sex ratio at birth.

  5. Tetrandrine: A Potent Abrogator of G2 Checkpoint Function in Tumor Cells and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of tetrandrine (Tet) to enhance the sensitivity to irradiation and its mechanism in cell lines of human breast cancer p53-mutant MCF-7/ADR, p53-wild-type MCF-7 and human colon carcinoma p53-mutant HT-29 as well as in C26 colorectal carcinoma-bearing BALB/c mice. Methods MCF-7/ADR, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells were exposed to irradiation in the absence or presence of tetrandrine. The effect of Tet on the cytotoxicity of X-irradiation in these three cells was determined and the effect of tetrandrine on cell cycle arrest induced by irradiation in its absence or presence was studied by flow cytometry, Moreover, mitotic index measurement determined mitosis of cells to enter mitosis. Western blotting was employed to detect cyclin B1 and Cdc2 proteins in extracts from irradiated or non-irradiated cells of MCF-7/ADR, HT-29 and MCF-7 treated with tetrandrine at various concentrations. Tumor growth delay assay was conducted to determine the radio-sensitization of tetrandrine in vivo. Results Clonogenic assay showed that tetrandrine markedly enhanced the lethal effect of X-rays on p53-mutant MCF-7/ADR and HT-29 cells and the sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) of tetrandrine was 1.51 and 1.63, but its SER was only 1.1 in p53-wt MCF-7 cells. Irradiated p53-mutant MCF-7/ADR and HT-29 cells were only arrested in G2/M phase while MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 and G2/M phases. Radiation-induced G2 phase arrests were abrogated by tetrandrine in a concentration-dependent manner in MCF-7/ADR and HT-29 cells,whereas redistribution within MCF-7 cell cycle changed slightly. The proportion of cells in M phase increased from 1.3% to 14.7% in MCF-7/ADR cells, and from 1.5% to 13.2% in HT-29 cells, but 2.4% to 7.1% in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the levels of cyclin B 1 and Cdc2 expression decreased after X-irradiation in MCF-7/ADR and HT-29 cells, and the mitotic index was also lower. Tet could reverse the decrease and induce the irradiated cells to enter mitosis

  6. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and telomerase RNA (TR represent the enzymatically active components of telomerase. In the complex, TR provides the template for the addition of telomeric repeats to telomeres, a protective structure at the end of linear chromosomes. Human TR with a mutation in the template region has been previously shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. In this report, we examined the effects of a mutation in the template of a virus encoded TR (vTR on herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. For this purpose, we used the oncogenic avian herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV as a natural virus-host model for lymphomagenesis. We generated recombinant MDV in which the vTR template sequence was mutated from AATCCCAATC to ATATATATAT (vAU5 by two-step Red-mediated mutagenesis. Recombinant viruses harboring the template mutation replicated with kinetics comparable to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. However, mutation of the vTR template sequence completely abrogated virus-induced tumor formation in vivo, although the virus was able to undergo low-level lytic replication. To confirm that the absence of tumors was dependent on the presence of mutant vTR in the telomerase complex, a second mutation was introduced in vAU5 that targeted the P6.1 stem loop, a conserved region essential for vTR-TERT interaction. Absence of vTR-AU5 from the telomerase complex restored virus-induced lymphoma formation. To test if the attenuated vAU5 could be used as an effective vaccine against MDV, we performed vaccination-challenge studies and determined that vaccination with vAU5 completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with highly virulent MDV. Taken together, our results demonstrate 1 that mutation of the vTR template sequence can completely abrogate virus-induced tumorigenesis, likely by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and 2 that this strategy could be used to generate novel vaccine candidates

  7. Terapia vocal e sons nasais: efeitos sobre disfonias hiperfuncionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rattay Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Buscou-se verificar os efeitos de um programa fonoterapêutico que incluiu orientação vocal e postural, adequação da função respiratória e a técnica de sons nasais em disfonias hiperfuncionais. Foi realizado um estudo de casos clínicos, observacional, longitudinal, não controlado, de caráter quantitativo que analisou três sujeitos do sexo feminino com idade média de 31,33 anos que apresentavam disfonias hiperfuncionais. Os sujeitos foram submetidos a: videolaringoscopia, avaliação vocal perceptivoauditiva e acústica, coleta de tempos máximos de fonação, triagem postural e determinação do tipo respiratório durante a fala, antes e após um programa terapêutico composto por orientação, conscientização e treinamento vocal com sons nasais durante 16 sessões de fonoterapia, uma vez na semana com treinamento em domicílio. Os dados foram analisados por meio dos testes não-paramétricos Mann-Whitney e Qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. Pós-terapia, observou-se que a postura corporal passou de desalinhada para alinhada e o tipo respiratório de superior para costodiafragmático abdominal; houve diminuição das medidas acústicas em relação ao grau e número de subharmônicos na maioria significante dos sujeitos, além de melhoras teciduais e diminuição do edema na mucosa das pregas vocais e na região aritenoide, e melhora da coaptação glótica. Após a execução de um programa fonoterapêutico com orientação vocal e postural, adequação da função respiratória e uso da técnica de sons nasais em disfonias hiperfuncionais, observou-se melhora significante da postura corporal, do tipo respiratório, das medidas acústicas sugestivas de ruído à emissão vocal, e efeitos positivos sobre o tecido e o fechamento das pregas vocais.

  8. Ethics of intergenerational (father-to-son) sperm donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Lock, Matthias T W T; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2012-05-01

    In the ever changing field of reproductive medicine, clinics are regularly confronted with requests for novel variants of medically assisted reproduction. Particularly third-party (assisted) reproduction, which requires the involvement of an oocyte or sperm donor, is ethically and psychologically complex due to the parties involved, but nevertheless widely accepted. A particular type of third party reproduction concerns intrafamilial medically assisted reproduction (IMAR), where the donor is a family member of the recipients. In IMAR, some of the ethical and psychological issues associated with third party reproduction are intensified. The precise impact and consequences, however, remain speculative due to the lack of information regarding IMAR. Both the ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority have recently highlighted the lack of information and the need for debate. In order to contribute to the discussion and knowledge on IMAR, we present a couple that recently visited our academic clinic with a request for a very particular variant of IMAR: first degree, intergenerational father-to-son sperm donation. As our academic hospital did not have experience with this variant of IMAR, our interdisciplinary Ethics Committee for Reproductive Medicine extensively discussed the request, resulting in an advisory report on the ethics of IMAR in general and father-to-son sperm donation in particular. Here, we will first present the andrological and social background of the couple and subsequently discuss the ethical considerations that led to the approval of their request. We will conclude the paper with recommendations for a morally sound practice of IMAR.

  9. Abrogation of CC chemokine receptor 9 ameliorates ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yijie; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuting; Tang, Yanhong; Wang, Teng; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2016-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), which is a unique receptor for CC chemokine ligand (CCL25), is mainly expressed on lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages. CCR9 mediates the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and participates in the pathological progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of CCR9 in the pathological process of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored; inflammation plays a key role in this process. Here, we used CCR9 knockout mice to determine the functional significance of CCR9 in regulating post-MI cardiac remodeling and its underlying mechanism. MI was induced by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CCR9 knockout mice and their CCR9+/+ littermates. Our results showed that the CCR9 expression levels were up-regulated in the hearts of the MI mice. Abrogation of CCR9 improved the post-MI survival rate and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and decreased the infarct size. In addition, the CCR9 knockout mice exhibited attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, structural and electrical remodeling compared with the CCR9+/+ MI mice. Mechanistically, CCR9 mainly regulated the pathological response by interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the data reveal that CCR9 serves as a novel modulator of pathological progression following MI through NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  10. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections.

  11. Telomerase expression abrogates rapamycin-induced irreversible growth arrest of uterine fibroid smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Guangli; Sadarangani, Anil; Tang, Wingchung; Cowan, Bryan D; Wang, Jean Y J

    2014-09-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common solid tumors found in women of reproductive age. It has been reported that deregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the etiology of leiomyoma. Here, we investigated the effect of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, on the growth of primary fibroid smooth muscle cells (fSMCs) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-transduced and immortalized fSMCs. With the primary fSMCs, a 24-hour treatment with rapamycin was sufficient to trigger a growth arrest that was not reversible upon drug removal. By contrast, the growth inhibitory effect of rapamycin on the hTERT-transduced fSMCs was readily reversible, as these cells resumed proliferation upon the withdrawal of the drug. These results suggest that rapamycin-induced irreversible growth arrest of fSMCs is dependent on the senescence barrier that is abrogated by the ectopic expression of telomerase.

  12. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  13. Upregulation of neurovascular communication through filamin abrogation promotes ectopic periventricular neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Lanctot, Alison A; Guo, Yan; Feng, Yuanyi

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs’ neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs. We show that by collaborating with β-arrestin, Flna maintains the homeostatic signaling between the vasculature and NPCs, and loss of this function results in escalated Vegfa and Igf2 signaling, which exacerbates both EMT and angiogenesis to further potentiate IPs’ neurogenesis. These results suggest that the neurogenic potential of IPs may be boosted in vivo by manipulating Flna-mediated neurovascular communication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17823.001 PMID:27664421

  14. Abrogation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-vitronectin interaction ameliorates acute kidney injury in murine endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh K Gupta

    Full Text Available Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI contributes to the high mortality and morbidity in patients. Although the pathogenesis of AKI during sepsis is poorly understood, it is well accepted that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and vitronectin (Vn are involved in AKI. However, the functional cooperation between PAI-1 and Vn in septic AKI has not been completely elucidated. To address this issue, mice were utilized lacking either PAI-1 (PAI-1-/- or expressing a PAI-1-mutant (PAI-1R101A/Q123K in which the interaction between PAI-1 and Vn is abrogated, while other functions of PAI-1 are retained. It was found that both PAI-1-/- and PAI-1R101A/Q123K mice are associated with decreased renal dysfunction, apoptosis, inflammation, and ERK activation as compared to wild-type (WT mice after LPS challenge. Also, PAI-1-/- mice showed attenuated fibrin deposition in the kidneys. Furthermore, a lack of PAI-1 or PAI-1-Vn interaction was found to be associated with an increase in activated Protein C (aPC in plasma. These results demonstrate that PAI-1, through its interaction with Vn, exerts multiple deleterious mechanisms to induce AKI. Therefore, targeting of the PAI-1-Vn interaction in kidney represents an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of septic AKI by not only altering the fibrinolytic capacity but also regulating PC activity.

  15. Neuroblastoma-targeted nanocarriers improve drug delivery and penetration, delay tumor growth and abrogate metastatic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Irene; Bottoni, Gianluca; Loi, Monica; Emionite, Laura; Bartolini, Alice; Di Paolo, Daniela; Brignole, Chiara; Piaggio, Francesca; Perri, Patrizia; Sacchi, Angelina; Curnis, Flavio; Gagliani, Maria Cristina; Bruno, Silvia; Marini, Cecilia; Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato; Murgia, Daniele; Sementa, Angela Rita; Cilli, Michele; Tacchetti, Carlo; Corti, Angelo; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Marchiò, Serena; Ponzoni, Mirco; Pastorino, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Selective tumor targeting is expected to enhance drug delivery and to decrease toxicity, resulting in an improved therapeutic index. We have recently identified the HSYWLRS peptide sequence as a specific ligand for aggressive neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor mostly refractory to current therapies. Here we validated the specific binding of HSYWLRS to neuroblastoma cell suspensions obtained either from cell lines, animal models, or Schwannian-stroma poor, stage IV neuroblastoma patients. Binding of the biotinylated peptide and of HSYWLRS-functionalized fluorescent quantum dots or liposomal nanoparticles was dose-dependent and inhibited by an excess of free peptide. In animal models obtained by the orthotopic implant of either MYCN-amplified or MYCN single copy human neuroblastoma cell lines, treatment with HSYWLRS-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded Stealth Liposomes increased tumor vascular permeability and perfusion, enhancing tumor penetration of the drug. This formulation proved to exert a potent antitumor efficacy, as evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and micro-PET, leading to (i) delay of tumor growth paralleled by decreased tumor glucose consumption, and (ii) abrogation of metastatic spreading, accompanied by absence of systemic toxicity and significant increase in the animal life span. Our findings are functional to the design of targeted nanocarriers with potentiated therapeutic efficacy towards the clinical translation.

  16. Niacinamide abrogates the organ dysfunction and acute lung injury caused by endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh; Liu, Demeral David; Su, Chain-Fa; Chen, Hsing I

    2007-09-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) synthabse (PARS) or polymerase (PARP) is a cytotoxic enzyme causing cellular damage. Niacinamide inhibits PARS or PARP. The present experiment tests the effects of niacinamide (NCA) on organ dysfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS was administered to anesthetized rats and to isolated rat lungs. In anesthetized rats, LPS caused systemic hypotension and increased biochemical factors, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), methyl guanidine (MG), tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In isolated lungs, LPS increased lung weight (LW) to body weight ratio, LW gain, protein and dye tracer leakage, and capillary permeability. The insult also increased NOx, MG, TNFalpha, and IL-1beta in lung perfusate, while decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content with an increase in PARP activity in lung tissue. Pathological examination revealed pulmonary edema with inflammatory cell infiltration. These changes were abrogated by posttreatment (30 min after LPS) with NCA. Following LPS, the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was increased. NCA reduced the iNOS expression. Niacinamide exerts protective effects on the organ dysfunction and ALI caused by endotoxin. The mechanisms may be mediated through the inhibition on the PARP activity, iNOS expression and the subsequent suppression of NO, free radicals, and proinflammatory cytokines with restoration of ATP.

  17. Effector T Cells Abrogate Stroma-Mediated Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Kryczek, Ilona; Dostál, Lubomír; Lin, Heng; Tan, Lijun; Zhao, Lili; Lu, Fujia; Wei, Shuang; Maj, Tomasz; Peng, Dongjun; He, Gong; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Kuick, Rork; Kotarski, Jan; Tarkowski, Rafał; Dou, Yali; Rattan, Ramandeep; Munkarah, Adnan; Liu, J Rebecca; Zou, Weiping

    2016-05-19

    Effector T cells and fibroblasts are major components in the tumor microenvironment. The means through which these cellular interactions affect chemoresistance is unclear. Here, we show that fibroblasts diminish nuclear accumulation of platinum in ovarian cancer cells, resulting in resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We demonstrate that glutathione and cysteine released by fibroblasts contribute to this resistance. CD8(+) T cells abolish the resistance by altering glutathione and cystine metabolism in fibroblasts. CD8(+) T-cell-derived interferon (IFN)γ controls fibroblast glutathione and cysteine through upregulation of gamma-glutamyltransferases and transcriptional repression of system xc(-) cystine and glutamate antiporter via the JAK/STAT1 pathway. The presence of stromal fibroblasts and CD8(+) T cells is negatively and positively associated with ovarian cancer patient survival, respectively. Thus, our work uncovers a mode of action for effector T cells: they abrogate stromal-mediated chemoresistance. Capitalizing upon the interplay between chemotherapy and immunotherapy holds high potential for cancer treatment.

  18. Galangin Abrogates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation via Negative Regulation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jian Zha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB has been associated with the development of asthma. Galangin, the active pharmacological ingredient from Alpinia galanga, is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in vitro via negative regulation of NF-κB. This study aimed to investigate whether galangin can abrogate ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway inflammation by negative regulation of NF-κB. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with OVA developed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and inflammation. Galangin dose dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and interleukin-(IL- 4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced serum level of OVA-specific IgE. Galangin also attenuated AHR, reduced eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia, and reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1 levels in lung tissue. Additionally, galangin blocked inhibitor of κB degradation, phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, and p65 nuclear translocation from lung tissues of OVA-sensitized mice. Similarly, in normal human airway smooth muscle cells, galangin blocked tumor necrosis factor-α induced p65 nuclear translocation and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, eotaxin, CXCL10, and VCAM-1. These results suggest that galangin can attenuate ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

  19. ¿Son las mujeres una minoría?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne, Raquel

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El clásico tratamiento de las mujeres como minoría desde la sociología se halla contemporáneamente interrelacionado con las políticas de igualdad tejidas en torno a las mujeres. Pasado y presente, teoría y práctica se unen para mostrar que las teorías no son accidentales ni fortuitas sino que acarrean importantes consecuencias en la acción, pudiendo dar lugar a intervenciones en la vida pública, que es lo que, a mi entender, confiere su sentido a la. sociología y, en particular, a la sociología del género. El título alude a la existencia de un importante desarrollo en sociología de la temática de las minorías, que traemos a colación por cuanto desde muy temprano dicha ciencia refirió este tema a las mujeres, desarrollo que seguiremos en este artículo. La conceptualización de las mujeres como minoría se traducirá, en términos de políticas públicas, en lo que se conoce como medidas de acción o discriminación positiva impulsadas, en lo que a las mujeres atañe, por el movimiento feminista.

  20. Jean Alesi and his son Giuliano visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Jones

    2010-01-01

    Jean Alesi, former F1 racing driver, and his kids visited CERN on Monday 1st February 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. What attracted you to CERN, what was it that made you want to come? We talked at home with the children about places to see close to us, like CERN, where they are seeking to reproduce the origins of the world. These things are so far removed from what we ordinarily think and talk about, that they captured our imagination and made us want to come see for ourselves. We know that your son (Giuliano, 9 years) is interested in what is happening at CERN, so we'd like to ask him: how did he find out about it? Giuliano: I am very interested in the technologies used in laboratories, and the exploration of the Universe. Plus, I wanted to see some of the incredible machines. I enjoyed my visit a lot. I found out about CERN from my mother. She showed me a video that I really liked, so I wanted to...

  1. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor abrogates abnormal osteoclastogenesis in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ning; XU Ning; WEI Li-hui; CHAI Guo-lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common genetic syndrome predisposing patients to various tumors due to dysregulation of the Ras signaling pathway.Recent research has shown NF1 patients also suffer a spectrum of bone pathologies.The pathogenesis of NF1 bone diseases is largely unknown.There is no current treatment.By Nf1 heterozygote (Nf1+/-) mice and Nf1 conditional knockout mice,we and other groups demonstrated abnormal osteoblast and osteoclast function due to dysregulation of Ras signaling.However,the specific downstream effector pathways linked to NF1 abnormal osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis have not been defined.In this study,we investigated the Ras downstream effector related with NF1 bone disease.Methods We used Nf1+/+ and Nf1+/-mice as normal and NF1 models.Bone stromal cells extracted from Nf1+/+ and Nf1+/-mice were induced osteoclasts.The osteoclast cell was stained by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining.The osteoclast cell number was counted and the surface area of osteoclast cells was calculated under the microscope.The mRNA of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction.The presence of ribosomal protein S6 kinase was determined by Western blotting.Results Compared with Nf1+/+ mice,Nf1+/-mice had about 20% more of osteoclast cells.These osteoclast cells werelarger in size with more nuclei.Hyperactive mTOR was detected in Nf1+/-osteoclast cells.Inhibition of mTOR signalingby rapamycin in Nf1+/-osteoclasts abrogated abnormalities in cellular size and number.Conclusion mTOR pathway inhibition may represent a viable therapy for NF1 bone diseases.

  2. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon, E-mail: cho1988@yuhs.ac [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  3. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahad, Amjid [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mujeeb, Mohd [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad, E-mail: was.sid121@gmail.com [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.

  4. New discoveries of old SON: a link between RNA splicing and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Ahn, Eun-Young Erin

    2014-02-01

    The SON protein is a ubiquitously expressed DNA- and RNA-binding protein primarily localized to nuclear speckles. Although several early studies implicated SON in DNA-binding, tumorigenesis and apoptosis, functional significance of this protein had not been recognized until recent studies discovered SON as a novel RNA splicing co-factor. During constitutive RNA splicing, SON ensures efficient intron removal from the transcripts containing suboptimal splice sites. Importantly, SON-mediated splicing is required for proper processing of selective transcripts related to cell cycle, microtubules, centrosome maintenance, and genome stability. Moreover, SON regulates alternative splicing of RNAs from the genes involved in apoptosis and epigenetic modification. In addition to the role in RNA splicing, SON has an ability to suppress transcriptional activation at certain promoter/enhancer DNA sequences. Considering the multiple SON target genes which are directly involved in cell proliferation, genome stability and chromatin modifications, SON is an emerging player in gene regulation during cancer development and progression. Here, we summarize available information from several early studies on SON, and highlight recent discoveries describing molecular mechanisms of SON-mediated gene regulation. We propose that our future effort on better understanding of diverse SON functions would reveal novel targets for cancer therapy.

  5. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  6. SysSon: A Sonification Platform for Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visda, Goudarzi; Hanns Holger, Rutz; Katharina, Vogt

    2014-05-01

    Climate data provide a challenging working basis for sonification. Both model data and measured data are assessed in collaboration with the Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change. The multi dimensionality and multi variety of climate data has a great potential for auditory displays. Furthermore, there is consensus on global climate change and the necessity of intensified climate research today in the scientific community and general public. Sonification provides a new means to communicate scientific results and inform a wider audience. SysSon is a user centered auditory platform for climate scientists to analyze data. It gives scientists broader insights by extracting hidden patterns and features from data that is not possible using a single modal visual interface. A variety of soundscapes to chose from lessens the fatigue that comes with repeated and sustained listening to long streams of data. Initial needs assessments and user tests made the work procedures and the terminology of climate scientists clear and informed the architecture of our system. Furthermore, experiments evaluated the sound design which led to a more advanced soundscape and improvement of the auditory display. We present a novel interactive sonification tool which combines a workspace for the scientists with a development environment for sonification models. The tool runs on different operating systems and is released as open source. In the standalone desktop application, multiple data sources can be imported, navigated and manipulated either via text or a graphical interface, including traditional plotting facilities. Sound models are built from unit generator graphs which are enhanced with matrix manipulation functions. They allow us to systematically experiment with elements known from the visual domain, such as range selections, scaling, thresholding, markers and labels. The models are organized in an extensible library, from which the user can choose and parametrize. Importance is

  7. ¿Son los MOOC una alternativa de aprendizaje?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ramón Bartolomé Pina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reflexiona sobre los MOOC como entornos de aprendizaje. El número de cursos masivos abiertos y en línea (MOOC ha crecido exponencialmente en pocos años desde que fueron introducidos. Los MOOC son considerados una nueva forma de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje potenciados por la tecnología. Se consideran dos tipos de MOOC: unos los organizados por Siemens y Downes (cMOOC y otros los desarrollados en lugares como Stanford, con muchos estudiantes y loables objetivos (xMOOC; estos tienen también sus debilidades. Aunque han sido recibidos con altas expectativas, también han encontrado una fuerte oposición que está aumentando con el tiempo, lo que nos permite estudiar este fenómeno en profundidad. Aunque todavía hay pocas investigaciones empíricas sobre los efectos de los MOOC en el aprendizaje, este estudio trata de arrojar luz sobre el tema desde un punto de vista teórico. En primer lugar exploraremos las expectativas positivas y negativas generadas. Los MOOC pueden constituir una buena propuesta a gran escala, lo que solo es posible para unas pocas grandes instituciones. No hay estudio de mercado, ni modelo de negocio, ni investigaciones empíricas que permitan confirmar los anuncios de sus efectos positivos. Revisaremos las teorías del aprendizaje recientes y clásicas respecto a su capacidad para explicar el proceso de aprendizaje y compararemos los cursos en línea tradicionales, los xMOOC y los cMOOC en relación a su potencial para apoyar el aprendizaje y su auto-regulación.

  8. On the“Oedipus Complex”in Sons and Lovers-Mother is a lover of her son

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞瑒

    2014-01-01

    Sons and Lovers is one of Lawrence’s most famous novels. It mainly concerns about the love affairs among the main character-Paul, his mother and his two girlfriends. The mother’s strange love has affected the boys for a long time, which even has made him lose the ability to love other girls. As a result, Paul gradually has the“Oedipus Complex”towards his mother, and it has influenced the whole lifetime of himself. During the competition of grasp the heart of Paul, Miriam and Clara are all the los-ers, while they both can’t drag Paul out of the influence from his mother. It is not until the death of his mother does Paul finally escape from the control of his mother. All the origins can be concluded into one thing-that is the Paul’s“Oedipus Complex”towards his mother. What is the“Oedipus Complex”, and how does it reflect in the main content? How does it influence the emotions of Paul step by step? This essay will elaborate it in detail.

  9. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Mari J; Braxton, Alicia A; Shao, Yunru; Lewis, Andrea M; Vincent, Marie; Küry, Sébastien; Besnard, Thomas; Isidor, Bertrand; Latypova, Xénia; Bézieau, Stéphane; Liu, Pengfei; Motter, Connie S; Melver, Catherine Ward; Robin, Nathaniel H; Infante, Elena M; McGuire, Marianne; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Littlejohn, Rebecca O; McLean, Scott D; Bi, Weimin; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Scott, Daryl A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Schaaf, Christian P; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A

    2016-09-01

    SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.

  10. Genistein abrogates G2 arrest induced by curcumin in p53 deficient T47D cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Puji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost and low level of cancer survival urge the finding of new drugs having better mechanisms. There is a high trend of patients to be “back to nature” and use natural products as an alternative way to cure cancer. The fact is that some of available anticancer drugs are originated from plants, such as taxane, vincristine, vinblastine, pacitaxel. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, a dietary pigment present in Curcuma longa rizhome is reported to induce cell cycle arrest in some cell lines. Other study reported that genistein isolated from Glycine max seed inhibited phosphorylation of cdk1, gene involved during G2/M transition and thus could function as G2 checkpoint abrogator. The inhibition of cdk1 phosphorylation is one of alternative strategy which could selectively kill cancer cells and potentially be combined with DNA damaging agent such as curcumin. Methods T47D cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin and genistein, alone or in combination; added together or with interval time. Flow Cytometry and MTT assay were used to evaluate cell cycle distribution and viability, respectively. The presence of apoptotic cells was determined using acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining. Results In this study curcumin induced G2 arrest on p53 deficient T47D cells at the concentration of 10 μM. Increasing concentration up to 30 μM increased the number of cell death. Whilst genistein alone at low concentration (≤10 μM induced cell proliferation, addition of genistein (20 μM 16 h after curcumin resulted in more cell death (89%, 34% higher than that administered at the same time (56%. The combination treatment resulted in apoptotic cell death. Combining curcumin with high dose of genistein (50 μM induced necrotic cells. Conclusions Genistein increased the death of curcumin treated T47D cells. Appropriate timing of administration and concentration of genistein determine the outcome of

  11. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  12. Dessiner son parcours professionnel, pour en tirer des enseignements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Corten-Gualtieri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la formation continue pour des enseignants du supérieur, une activité d’expression visuelle a soutenu une posture réflexive à propos du développement professionnel de chacun. Il a été demandé aux enseignants de dessiner leur parcours professionnel en le comparant à un parcours routier. Ce dessin a ensuite servi de support aux enseignants pour dégager les leviers et les freins de leur développement professionnel, puis pour clarifier leur(s perspective(s d’évolution professionnelle. Cadrage théorique et échanges en binômes ont enrichi ce regard distancié. L’ensemble de ces activités constitue une préparation efficace et motivante à la rédaction d’un portfolio dans lequel l’enseignant analyse ses pratiques et son développement professionnels. Cet article décrit le cadre théorique et les modalités de cet ensemble d’activités ; il analyse ensuite les résultats obtenus, essentiellement à partir de l’étude du corpus de dessins réalisés par les enseignants, et d’une enquête d’évaluation réalisée auprès de ceux-ci.A recent visual creative activity carried out during a continuous education programme for teachers in higher education enhances reflective practice regarding professional development. Teachers were asked to draw their professional path as they would draw a route map. On the basis of this drawing, they were able to highlight the levers and obstacles in their professional development and then clarify their perspectives in terms of professional growth. This analysis was emphasized using a theoretical framework and exchanges in teams of two. All activities comprised an effective and stimulating preparation for writing a portfolio in which the teachers analyzed their professional practices and development. This article describes the theoretical framework and methods used during these activities; it then analyzes the results obtained based on the study of the various drawings made

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A;

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  14. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m-1. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate. The concentration of i in solution was analyzed as well as that of boron. The quantity of i released from the glass is estimated with the assumption that i and B are released congruently at the glass dissolution front. The remained quantity of the element i is then supposed to be in the gel or in the secondary phase. In this paper, we do not make a difference between gel and hydrated glass using the same word 'gel' whereas Gin et al. [40] makes this difference. Recent papers [40,41] discussed about different key issues related to the passivation properties of the alteration layer including the hydrated glass

  15. Comparison of father-son relationship in Chinese and American films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪秀飞

    2015-01-01

    The depiction of human emotions is never lacking in filmography, and affection between family members accounts for the top spot to become the most deeply touching one, especially the father-son relationship. Compared with mother-daughter and mother-son relationship, father-son relationship is often full of tension, turning out to be more introverted. So, in which way do films and television shows at home and broad represent vividly and truly about the father-child relationship?

  16. Dietary chlorophyllin abrogates TGFβ signaling to modulate the hallmark capabilities of cancer in an animal model of forestomach carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kavitha, Krishnamurthy; Thautam, Avaneesh; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of a wide range of cellular processes involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of chlorophyllin, a semisynthetic derivative of chlorophyll on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)--induced rat forestomach carcinogenesis based on the modulation of TGFβ signaling and the downstream target genes associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We determined the effect of dietary chlorophyllin on TGFβ signaling and the downstream events-cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. We further validated the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin by performing molecular docking studies. We found that dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin at 4-mg/kg bw inhibits the development of MNNG-induced forestomach carcinomas by downregulating the expression of TGFβ RI, TGFβ RII, and Smad 2 and 4 and upregulating Smad 7, thereby abrogating canonical TGFβ signaling. Docking interactions also confirmed the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin via inactivating TGFβ RI. Furthermore, attenuation of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin also blocked cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and induced mitochondria-mediated cell death. Dietary chlorophyllin that simultaneously abrogates TGFβ signaling pathway and the key hallmark events of cancer appear to be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

  17. IL-4 abrogates TH17 cell-mediated inflammation by selective silencing of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenova, Emmanuella; Skabytska, Yuliya; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Weindl, Günther; Sauer, Karin; Tham, Manuela; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Seo, Ji Hae; Ignatova, Desislava; Cozzio, Antonio; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Volz, Thomas; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Thomas, Peter; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Schäkel, Knut; Amarov, Boyko; Eichner, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Clark, Rachael A.; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs), including organ-specific autoimmune diseases in mice and humans. Despite the broadly documented antiinflammatory effect of IL-4, the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood, as IL-4 also promotes IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IFN-γ–producing TH1 cells in vivo. Studying the impact of IL-4 on the polarization of human and mouse DCs, we found that IL-4 exerts opposing effects on the production of either IL-12 or IL-23. While promoting IL-12–producing capacity of DCs, IL-4 completely abrogates IL-23. Bone marrow chimeras proved that IL-4–mediated suppression of DTHRs relies on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-dependent abrogation of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IL-4 therapy attenuated DTHRs by STAT6- and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent suppression of the IL-23/TH17 responses despite simultaneous enhancement of IL-12/TH1 responses. As IL-4 therapy also improves psoriasis in humans and suppresses IL-23/TH17 responses without blocking IL-12/TH1, selective IL-4–mediated IL-23/TH17 silencing is promising as treatment against harmful inflammation, while sparing the IL-12–dependent TH1 responses. PMID:25646481

  18. Radiosensitization of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells via abrogating the G2 checkpoint and inhibiting DNA damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Lai, Song-Tao; Ma, Ning-Yi; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Wei, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences have demonstrated the potential of metformin as a novel agent for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we investigated its ability of radiosensitization and the underlying mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we found that metformin at 5 mM concentration enhanced the radiosensitivity of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.39 and 1.27, respectively. Mechanistically, metformin caused abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and increase of mitotic catastrophe, associated with suppression of Wee1 kinase and in turn CDK1 Tyr15 phosphorylation. Furthermore, metformin inhibited both expression and irradiation-induced foci formation of Rad51, a key player in homologous recombination repair, ultimately leading to persistent DNA damage, as reflected by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 signaling. Finally, metformin-mediated AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K was identified as a possible upstream pathway controlling translational regulation of Wee1 and Rad51. Our data suggest that metformin radiosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells in vitro via abrogation of the G2 checkpoint and inhibition of DNA damage repair. However, the in vivo study is needed to further confirm the findings from the in vitro study.

  19. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-02-21

    African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 78 FR 6128 - Accreditation of R. Markey & Sons, Inc., Markan Laboratories, as a Commercial Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation of R. Markey & Sons, Inc., Markan Laboratories, as a Commercial Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation of R. Markey & Sons, Inc., Markan Laboratories, as a...

  1. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.

  2. Polyandrous females produce sons that are successful at post-copulatory competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, I; Bäumer, J; Eccard, J A; Ylönen, H

    2014-03-01

    Some of the genetic benefit hypotheses put forward to explain multiple male mating (polyandry) predict that sons of polyandrous females will have an increased competitive ability under precopulatory or post-copulatory competition via paternally inherited traits, such as attractiveness or fertilization efficiency. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing the competitive ability of sons of experimentally monandrous and polyandrous female bank voles (Myodes glareolus), while controlling for potential material and maternal effects. In female choice experiments, we found no clear preference for sons of either monandrous or polyandrous mothers. Moreover, neither male type was dominant over the other, indicating no advantage in precopulatory male contest competition. However, in competitive matings, sons of polyandrous mothers significantly increased their mating efforts (mating duration, intromission number). In line with this, paternity success was biased towards sons of polyandrous mothers. Because there was no evidence for maternal effects, our results suggest that female bank voles gain genetic benefits from polyandry.

  3. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma abrogates Smad-dependent collagen stimulation by targeting the p300 transcriptional coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asish K; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Wei, Jun; Kim, Suyeon; Barak, Yaacov; Mori, Yasuji; Varga, John

    2009-09-01

    Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) abrogate the stimulation of collagen gene transcription induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Here, we delineate the mechanisms underlying this important novel physiological function for PPAR-gamma in connective tissue homeostasis. First, we demonstrated that antagonistic regulation of TGF-beta activity by PPAR-gamma ligands involves cellular PPAR-gamma, since 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) failed to block TGF-beta-induced responses in either primary cultures of PPAR-gamma-null murine embryonic fibroblasts, or in normal human skin fibroblasts with RNAi-mediated knockdown of PPAR-gamma. Next, we examined the molecular basis underlying the abrogation of TGF-beta signaling by PPAR-gamma in normal human fibroblasts in culture. The results demonstrated that Smad-dependent transcriptional responses were blocked by PPAR-gamma without preventing Smad2/3 activation. In contrast, the interaction between activated Smad2/3 and the transcriptional coactivator and histone acetyltransferase p300 induced by TGF-beta, and the accumulation of p300 on consensus Smad-binding DNA sequences and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the COL1A2 locus, were all prevented by PPAR-gamma. Wild-type p300, but not a mutant form of p300 lacking functional histone acetyltransferase, was able to restore TGF-beta-induced stimulation of COL1A2 in the presence of PPAR-gamma ligands. Collectively, these results indicate that PPAR-gamma blocked Smad-mediated transcriptional responses by preventing p300 recruitment and histone H4 hyperacetylation, resulting in the inhibition of TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression. Pharmacological activation of PPAR-gamma thus may represent a novel therapeutic approach to target p300-dependent TGF-beta profibrotic responses such as stimulation of collagen gene expression.

  5. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    with having son(s), having daughter(s) is significantly more beneficial at older ages in China, with regard to maintaining higher cognitive capacity and reducing mortality risk. Such daughter advantages in providing emotional care to older parents are more profound among the oldest-old aged 80+ as compared......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. METHOD: Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. RESULTS: As compared...

  6. Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Andreia B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17, with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those

  7. Selective abrogation of the uPA-uPAR interaction in vivo reveals a novel role in suppression of fibrin-associated inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Brian M; Choi, Eun Young; Gårdsvoll, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    the interaction between endogenous uPA and uPAR is selectively abrogated, whereas other functions of both the protease and its receptor are retained. Specifically, we introduced 4 amino acid substitutions into the growth factor domain (GFD) of uPA that abrogate uPAR binding while preserving the overall structure...... of the domain. Analysis of Plau(GFDhu/GFDhu) mice revealed an unanticipated role of the uPA-uPAR interaction in suppressing inflammation secondary to fibrin deposition. In contrast, leukocyte recruitment and tissue regeneration were unaffected by the loss of uPA binding to uPAR. This study identifies...

  8. Risk of cryptorchidism among sons of horticultural workers and farmers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Toft, Gunnar Vase;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate an increased risk of cryptorchidism, incomplete testicular descent, among sons of women working with pesticides. This study assessed the risk of cryptorchidism among boys of parents employed as horticultural workers and farmers using nationwide registers...... on occupation and cryptorchidism. METHODS: The cohort consisted of >600 000 boys born in Denmark from 1980-2007 with a parent in employment during pregnancy. These boys were followed for cryptorchidism from 1980-2009 comparing risks among sons of horticultural workers and farmers with sons of parents in other...... of mothers in other occupations (15 511 cases). Paternal occupation as farmer was unrelated to the risk among sons. Maternal occupation as a horticultural worker was associated with a non-significantly increased risk (72 cases; HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.95-1.52). A similar association was found for paternal...

  9. Charcot's son, commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot: from neurology to "Pourquoi Pas?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Simões, Jefferson C

    2012-04-01

    Charcot name became very famous around the world, firstly because of the work of Professor Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of Clinical Neurology, and, secondly, because of his son, Jean-Baptiste, the world famous maritime explorer.

  10. SON controls cell-cycle progression by coordinated regulation of RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eun-Young; DeKelver, Russell C; Lo, Miao-Chia; Nguyen, Tuyet Ann; Matsuura, Shinobu; Boyapati, Anita; Pandit, Shatakshi; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2011-04-22

    It has been suspected that cell-cycle progression might be functionally coupled with RNA processing. However, little is known about the role of the precise splicing control in cell-cycle progression. Here, we report that SON, a large Ser/Arg (SR)-related protein, is a splicing cofactor contributing to efficient splicing of cell-cycle regulators. Downregulation of SON leads to severe impairment of spindle pole separation, microtubule dynamics, and genome integrity. These molecular defects result from inadequate RNA splicing of a specific set of cell-cycle-related genes that possess weak splice sites. Furthermore, we show that SON facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and other key spliceosome components, suggesting its function in efficient cotranscriptional RNA processing. These results reveal a mechanism for controlling cell-cycle progression through SON-dependent constitutive splicing at suboptimal splice sites, with strong implications for its role in cancer and other human diseases.

  11. Que son las Cochinillas de los Cotrus (Naranjos, Limoneros, Mandarinos, etc. y como se Combaten.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada Sinisterra. Belisario

    1942-04-01

    Full Text Available Las cochinillas son insectos de aspecto variado. Son llamados también insectos-escamas porque la mayoría de ellos viven protegidos por una concha o escama de forma y coloración diversa. Las especies que en seguida se describen tienen un ciclo biológico muy similar. Se reproducen por medio de huevos que depositan las hembras bajo la escama.

  12. Sons or Daughters? Endogenous Sex Preferences and the Reversal of the Gender Educational Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hazan, Moshe; ZOABI, Hosny

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a new explanation for the narrowing and reversal of the gender education gap. It highlights the indirect effect of returns to human capital on parents' preferences for sons and the resulting demand for children and education. We assume that parents maximize the full income of their children and that males have an additional income, independently of their level of education. This additional income has two effects. First, it biases parental preferences towards sons. Second, ...

  13. Daughters increase longevity of fathers, but daughters and sons equally reduce longevity of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Jasienski, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Reproduction is energetically and physiologically expensive, and an individual investing resources into producing offspring should suffer costs such as deterioration in health condition and possibly shorter life span. Since the energetic and nutritional demands of pregnancy and breastfeeding render reproductive costs much higher in women than in men, women with a large number of children should show signs of deterioration in condition, while men with large families should not. However, whether reproductive costs reduce longevity in women is still questionable, and in men this issue has not been adequately addressed. In addition, since sons are energetically more expensive to produce than daughters, having sons should have a more pronounced negative impact on maternal longevity than having daughters. Here we document a striking disparity in the impact of children on the life span of mothers and fathers in a Polish rural population. We show for the first time that number of daughters was positively related to a longer life span of their fathers, increasing their longevity on average by 74 weeks per daughter born, while number of sons did not have a significant effect on paternal longevity. In contrast, in women, the number of daughters and number of sons reduced maternal longevity and did so to the same extent, on average by 95 weeks per son or daughter, indicating that for women, the costs of having sons and daughters are similar.

  14. Some reflections on a case of mother/adolescent son incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1980-01-01

    A rare case of mother/adolescent son incest is presented. The son, treated in analysis, was not psychotic. Questions are raised about why father/daughter incest appears to be much more common than mother/son incest. Part of the answer, I speculate, has to do with the special psychic dangers for both mother and son, perhaps phylogenetically-based, which attach to the fantasy and the possibility of impregnating the mother. Where the incest taboo is violated, the primary responsibility would appear to be the parent's; the parent is frequently motivated by a compulsion to repeat his or her own incestuous past. In the case presented the probably psychotic mother had raised her son to look like a girl for several years, and he had been the victim of a homosexual assault at the age of 6. The incest at puberty seems to have helped him reverse a psychic position of subjection to the pre-oedipal mother, to have modified his rage and reinforced his masculinity. It also produced some of the arrogance, alongside a need for failure and punishment that evoke the legend of Oedipus. The mother, fearful of the possibility of getting pregnant, had abruptly stopped the incest. It had been repressed, and became conscious again when the son entered analysis. He then left his treatment without being able to work through much of the terror consequent to the consummation of incest, and with some of the feeling of oedipal triumph retained.

  15. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.

  16. Abrogation of Chk1-mediated S/G2 checkpoint by UCN-01 enhances ara-C-induced cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-guang SHAO; Chun-Xia CAO; Yves POMMIER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) affects cell cycle progression in arabinosylcytosine (ara-C) treated human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis, cell cycle distribution,protein level, and kinase activity were determined by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, DNA synthesis assay,immunoblotting, and kinase assays, respectively. RESULTS: UCN-01 abrogated an S/G2-phase checkpoint in HT29 cells treated with ara-C. When UCN-01 was added after treatment with ara-C, the rate of recovery of DNA synthesis was enhanced and colony-forming ability diminished. Thus, premature recovery of DNA synthesis was associated with increased cytotoxicity. Measurements of cyclin A and B protein levels, Cdk2 and Cdc2 kinase activities, Cdc25C phosphorylation, and Chkl kinase activity were consistent with UCN-01-induced abrogation of the S/G2-phase checkpoint in ara-C treated cells. CONCLUSION: The abrogation of the S/G2 checkpoint may be due to inhibition of Chkl kinase by UCN-01. The enhanced cytotoxicity produced when UCN-01 was combined with ara-C suggested a rationale for the use of this drug combination for tumors that might be susceptible to cell cycle checkpoint abrogation.

  17. Has Their Son Been Vaccinated? Beliefs About Other Parents Matter for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Christine L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if parents' beliefs about social norms of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for sons were associated with knowledge of HPV, intention to vaccinate sons, or beliefs about side effects. A cross-sectional, survey-based study of parents with sons was performed in 2010. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between demographics and responses about social norms. Multivariate logistic regression models examined beliefs about social norms of male HPV vaccination and primary outcomes. Few parents agreed that others were vaccinating sons (n = 31/267, 12%), including 1% responding strongly agree and 11% responding agree. Most parents, 52%, disagreed that others were vaccinating (40% disagree, 11% strongly disagree), and 37% chose prefer not to answer regarding others' vaccination practices. Hispanic parents and those with a high school education or less were significantly more likely to choose prefer not to answer than their respective counterparts regarding vaccination norms. In multivariate models, parents agreeing others were vaccinating sons had greater odds of having high knowledge of HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] high vs low knowledge 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 8.77) and increased intention to vaccinate sons (n = 243, aOR = 4.41, 95% CI = 1.51, 12.89). Beliefs about side effects were not significantly associated with beliefs about social norms. Parents' beliefs about others' vaccination practices are important with regard to knowledge of HPV and intention to vaccinate sons. Studying how various public messages about HPV vaccine may influence normative beliefs could be relevant to improving vaccination coverage.

  18. Son Preference in India: Shedding Light on the North-South Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor. Son preference is widespread in India and deep-rooted in its history. It is a matter of concern because it produces an imbalanced juvenile sex ratio. There are far fewer girls than boys. The figures vary greatly among the Indian states suggesting a major north-south gradient in son preference accompanied by a minor west-east gradient. The aim of this paper is to explain the regional pattern. We provide an application of the value of children-approach according to which the decision to have children is made on the calculus of benefits and costs related to children. In the light of the socioeconomic and sociocultural background in India, we propose that (potential parents’ expectations of benefits and costs are biased in favour of sons. This is suggested, therefore, as the key motivation for the preference for male offspring. However, region-specifics in the level of affluence, the educational level, the mode of production, the meaning and importance of religion, and the kinship regime are assumed to produce stronger son preference in north India compared to south India. This mediation-model is tested using the Indian sub-sample of the international Value of Children-study. Data were collected in Uttar Pradesh (north-central India and Puducherry (south-east India. Mothers aged 16 to 65 were interviewed in 2002 and 2010. Based on 1,173 respondents, a structural equation model was carried out to test the hypothesised composition effects related to the region and the mediating position of sex-specific benefits and costs. Initial findings confirm that the national son preference pattern is more likely to be found among north Indian mothers than south Indian mothers. As assumed, the sex-specific balance of benefits and costs contributes to the explanation of son preference. However, there is little evidence that the benefits and costs mediate between the region-specific socioeconomic and

  19. The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Nozoe, Karen T.; Helena Hachul, MD, PhD; Camila Hirotsu, PhD; Daniel N. Polesel, MSc; Gustavo A. Moreira, MD, PhD; Sergio Tufik, MD, PhD; Monica L. Andersen, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease...

  20. Two Dimensional Analytical Modeling for SOI and SON MOSFET and Their Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarsi Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During last few decade continuous device performance improvements have been achieved through a combination of device scaling, new device structures and material property improvement to its fundamental limits. Conventional silicon (bulk CMOS technology can’t overcome the fundamental physical limitations belong to sub-micro or nanometer region which leads to alternative device technology like Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI technology and its recent innovative modification Silicon-On-Nothing (SON MOSFET. Analytical simulation is very important to understand the relative performance of those devices under different structural and operational parameter variations. For present analytical simulation asymmetric structure of Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI MOSFET and Silicon-On-Nothing (SON MOSFET are considered. The proposed structure of SON MOSFET is similar to that of the SOI MOSFET with the only exception being the oxide layer here is substituted with air which has much lower permittivity than Silicon-dioxide. Variation of threshold voltage against effective channel lengths is compared for both the structures. From our simulation it is observed that the proposed SON model has lower drain to source current (IDS than SOI model. In our modeling based on solution of two dimensional Poisson’s equation short channel effects such as DIBL and fringing field effects are also taken into account. SON is found to provide better suppression of SCE s than SOI. The results predicted by our analytical simulation hold good agreement with experimental results.

  1. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Reid, St. Patrick; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Basler, Christopher F. (CNRS-INSERM); (Mount Sinai Hospital); (LB-Ecuador); (Iowa State)

    2010-10-11

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that loss of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.

  2. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, John C; Hemker, Shelby L; Venta, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Myers, Sherry L; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with the disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome.

  3. Inhibition of MARCH5 ubiquitin ligase abrogates MCL1-dependent resistance to BH3 mimetics via NOXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Aishwarya; Andronache, Adrian; Li, Yao-Cheng; Wade, Mark

    2016-03-29

    BH3 mimetic compounds induce tumor cell death through targeted inhibition of anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins. Resistance to one such compound, ABT-737, is due to increased levels of anti-apoptotic MCL1. Using chemical and genetic approaches, we show that resistance to ABT-737 is abrogated by inhibition of the mitochondrial RING E3 ligase, MARCH5. Mechanistically, this is due to increased expression of pro-apoptotic BCL2 family member, NOXA, and is associated with MARCH5 regulation of MCL1 ubiquitylation and stability in a NOXA-dependent manner. MARCH5 expression contributed to an 8-gene signature that correlates with sensitivity to the preclinical BH3 mimetic, navitoclax. Furthermore, we observed a synthetic lethal interaction between MCL1 and MARCH5 in MCL1-dependent breast cancer cells. Our data uncover a novel level at which the BCL2 family is regulated; furthermore, they suggest targeting MARCH5-dependent signaling will be an effective strategy for treatment of BH3 mimetic-resistant tumors, even in the presence of high MCL1.

  4. CD40-signalling abrogates induction of RORγt+ Treg cells by intestinal CD103+ DCs and causes fatal colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Christian; Ogrinc, Ana; Steyer, Verena; Meier, Stefanie; Simon, Ferdinand; Wimmer, Maria; Blutke, Andreas; Straub, Tobias; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Lutgens, Esther; Marconi, Peggy; Ohnmacht, Caspar; Garzetti, Debora; Stecher, Bärbel; Brocker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Immune homeostasis in intestinal tissues depends on the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) acquire microbiota-derived material from the gut lumen for transport to draining lymph nodes and generation of receptor-related orphan γt+ (RORγt+) Helios−-induced Treg (iTreg) cells. Here we show CD40-signalling as a microbe-independent signal that can induce migration of CD103+ DCs from the lamina propria (LP) to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Transgenic mice with constitutive CD11c-specific CD40-signalling have reduced numbers of CD103+ DCs in LP and a low frequency of RORγt+Helios− iTreg cells, exacerbated inflammatory Th1/Th17 responses, high titres of microbiota-specific immunoglobulins, dysbiosis and fatal colitis, but no pathology is detected in other tissues. Our data demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism capable of abrogating iTreg cell induction by DCs, and suggest that the CD40L/CD40-signalling axis might be able to intervene in the generation of new iTreg cells in order to counter-regulate immune suppression to enhance immunity. PMID:28276457

  5. L-carnitine, a diet component and organic cation transporter OCTN ligand, displays immunosuppressive properties and abrogates intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, G; Yurchenko, K; Collette, C; Rubio, M; Villani, A-C; Bitton, A; Sarfati, M; Franchimont, D

    2009-04-01

    Allele variants in the L-carnitine (LCAR) transporters OCTN1 (SLC22A4, 1672 C --> T) and OCTN2 (SLC22A5, -207 G --> C) have been implicated in susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). LCAR is consumed in the diet and transported actively from the intestinal lumen via the organic cation transporter OCTN2. While recognized mainly for its role in fatty acid metabolism, several lines of evidence suggest that LCAR may also display immunosuppressive properties. This study sought to investigate the immunomodulatory capacity of LCAR on antigen-presenting cell (APC) and CD4+ T cell function by examining cytokine production and the expression of activation markers in LCAR-supplemented and deficient cell culture systems. The therapeutic efficacy of its systemic administration was then evaluated during the establishment of colonic inflammation in vivo. LCAR treatment significantly inhibited both APC and CD4+ T cell function, as assessed by the expression of classical activation markers, proliferation and cytokine production. Carnitine deficiency resulted in the hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells and enhanced cytokine production. In vivo, protection from trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis was observed in LCAR-treated mice and was attributed to the abrogation of both innate [interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 production] and adaptive (T cell proliferation in draining lymph nodes) immune responses. LCAR therapy may therefore represent a novel alternative therapeutic strategy and highlights the role of diet in CD.

  6. The Relationship between Paul and His Mother in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYanxia

    2010-01-01

    Sons and lovers is the greatest work written by D.H.Lawrence.In the novel,the mother,Mrs Morel devotes all her love on her sons,first on William,who dies after leaving home,then on her second son,Paul,and he also has the affection upon his mother.Thus it makes him incapable of dealing the relationship with other women.This Oedipus complex influences his life and emotion.How does this kind of emotion come into being? Why does Paul have this kind of abnormal love? Maybe there are a lot of reasons,and they will be discussed in detail in the following paragraphs.

  7. Impaired Reproductive Development in Sons of Women Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Schmidt, Ida M.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy causes adverse effects on the reproductive development in the male infants. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Pregnant women employed in greenhouses in Denmark were consecutively...... recruited, and 113 mother-son pairs were included. The mothers were categorized as occupationally exposed (91 sons) or unexposed (22 sons) to pesticides during pregnancy. Testicular position and volume, penile length, and position of urethral opening were determined at 3 months of age using standardized...... techniques. Concentrations of reproductive hormones in serum from the boys were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of cryptorchidism at 3 months of age was 6.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-12.4]. This prevalence was considerably higher than among Danish boys born in the Copenhagen area (1.9%; 95% CI, 1...

  8. Maternal distancing strategies toward twin sons, one with mild hearing loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and thus gave greater encouragement to this son's cognitive development. These results differ from those of previous studies of deaf or hard of hearing children, whose participants generally had severe or profound hearing loss. In those studies, parents of deaf children used more low-level distancing than parents of normally hearing children. The results of the present study are discussed in terms of their implications for the parenting of twins and of children with mild hearing loss.

  9. Vaccinating sons against HPV: results from a U.S. national survey of parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime L Taylor

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The quadrivalent HPV vaccination was approved for use in males ages 9 to 26 in 2009 and recommended for routine administration in 2011. The purpose of this study was to uncover predictable commonalities amongst parents who chose to vaccinate their 11-17 year old sons against HPV. METHODS: We compiled data from a U.S. national sample of 779 parents with sons 11-17 years old using a web-based survey to gather information about behavioral and sociodemographic factors which predicted receipt of 1 or more HPV vaccine doses based on parental report. Predictors were first modeled individually for univariable associations. Significant predictors (p<0.10 were combined in a multivariable model. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, independent predictors included receipt of flu vaccination, health insurance coverage and sexual health topic discussions with sons. Sons who had received a flu shot in the last two years more frequently received at least one dose of the vaccine (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.45-2.26. Sons covered by private health insurance had decreased odds of HPV vaccination (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.37-0.83. Lastly, parents who had discussed sexual health topics with their sons were more likely to vaccinate (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.37-1.89. CONCLUSIONS: Male vaccination rates in the U.S. have increased, but males continue to be under-immunized. Utilization of health care is an important factor in HPV vaccine uptake; therefore, health care providers should use every contact as an opportunity to vaccinate. Communication about sexual health topics may provide a forum for parents and health care providers to have conversations about HPV vaccination as those more comfortable discussing these topics may also be more comfortable discussing HPV vaccination.

  10. Les descripteurs d'un son Librairie Matlab SPL et fichiers de descriptions ".sig""

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Gallo, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Le traitement du signal audio rapide travaille avec des descriptions compactes des sons plutôt qu'avec les sons eux-mêmes. Dans une première partie nous introduisons cette notion de description et nous proposons un état de l'art des différents types de description utilisés. Ces descriptions incorporent le plus souvent des quantités telles que l'énergie ou le spectre de puissance à court-terme. Cependant, énergie et puissance sont des concepts qui sont souvent confondus ou mal interprétés, et ...

  11. Proyecto de consolidación de Son Espases Vell, Palma de Mallorca

    OpenAIRE

    ANTÓN ESTEVE, NURIA

    2011-01-01

    Trabajo científico técnico. El presente proyecto se centra en la consolidación de una casa pallesa, antigua casa de aperos, situada en el solar de Son Espases, de proporciones humildes y con diversas intervenciones a lo largo de distintas épocas, y que guarda muchos de los elementos tradicionales de la arquitectura popular mallorquina, así como sus sistemas constructivos. Antón Esteve, N. (2011). Proyecto de consolidación de Son Espases Vell, Palma de Mallorca. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/...

  12. An Analysis on Paul's Emotional Experience with Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡嘉薏; 范丽娟

    2016-01-01

    David Herbert Lawrence is one of the most important and controversial writers. Sons and Lovers, one of .his most influential novels, is his first full-length and semi-autobiographical novel. This novel describes the growing process and the emotional experiences of a coal mine worker's son Paul. This paper takes Freud's psychoanalytic theory as the theoretical basis. By analyzing three different patterns of relationships among Paul and three women, including mother Morel, lover Miriam and mistress Clara, this paper finally comes to a conclusion that the real love should be based on the harmony of the personality structure and the unity of the body and the soul.

  13. Jarana y Fandango son símbolos de la nueva identidad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Bartra

    2015-01-01

    En la última década el son jarocho, música originaria del Estado mexicano de Veracruz, se ha abierto paso en la escena musical neoyorquina. Vinculada a una diáspora de clase media conformada por músicos profesionales, intérpretes y profesores, así como por empresarios cuyos lujosos restaurantes en Manhattan o Brooklyn sirven como foros para estos artistas, lideran esta escena Bandas como Radio Jarocho o Jarana Beat, que comparten dos objetivos musicales: por un lado, fusionar el son jarocho c...

  14. Plasma membrane Toll-like receptor activation increases bacterial uptake but abrogates endosomal Lactobacillus acidophilus induction of interferon-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Louise; Welsby, Iain; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Goriely, Stanislas; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a potent interferon-β (IFN-β) response in dendritic cells (DCs) by a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -dependent mechanism, in turn leading to strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) production. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of different types of endocytosis in the L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 responses and how TLR2 or TLR4 ligation by lipopolysaccharide and Pam3/4CSK4 influenced endocytosis of L. acidophilus and the induced IFN-β and IL-12 production. Lactobacillus acidophilus was endocytosed by constitutive macropinocytosis taking place in the immature cells as well as by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) -dependent phagocytosis but without involvement of plasma membrane TLR2. Stimulation with TLR2 or TLR4 ligands increased macropinocytosis in a Syk-independent manner. As a consequence, incubation of DCs with TLR ligands before incubation with L. acidophilus enhanced the uptake of the bacteria. However, in these experimental conditions, induction of IFN-β and IL-12 was strongly inhibited. As L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β depends on endocytosis and endosomal degradation before signalling and as TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane leading to increased macropinocytosis abrogates IFN-β induction we conclude that plasma membrane TLR stimulation leading to increased macropinocytosis decreases endosomal induction of IFN-β and speculate that this is due to competition between compartments for molecules involved in the signal pathways. In summary, endosomal signalling by L. acidophilus that leads to IFN-β and IL-12 production is inhibited by TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane.

  15. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  16. Oral delivery of Brucella spp. recombinant protein U-Omp16 abrogates the IgE-mediated milk allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Ibañez, Andrés Esteban; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Cassataro, Juliana; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies are increasingly common disorders and no therapeutic strategies are yet approved. The unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) is the outer membrane protein of 16 kDa from B. abortus and possesses a mucosal adjuvant property. In this study, we aimed to examine the U-Omp16 capacity to abrogate an allergen-specific Th2 immune response when it is administered as an oral adjuvant in a mouse model of food allergy.   Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and cow’s milk proteins (CMP) by gavage and simultaneously treated with U-Omp16 and CMP. Oral challenge with CMP was performed to evaluate the allergic status of mice. Symptoms, local (small bowel cytokine and transcription factor gene expression) and systemic (specific isotypes and spleen cell-secreted cytokines) parameters, and skin tests were done to evaluate the immune response. We found that the oral administration of U-Omp16 with CMP during sensitization dampened the allergic symptoms, with negativization of immediate skin test and increased skin DTH response. Serum specific IgE and IL-5 were inhibited and a Th1 response was promoted (specific IgG2a antibodies and CMP-induced IFN-γ secretion). We found at the mucosal site an inhibition of the gene expression corresponding to IL-13 and Gata-3, with an induction of IFN-γ and T-bet. These results indicated that the oral administration of U-Omp16 significantly controlled the allergic response in sensitized mice with a shift of the balance of Th1- and Th2-T cells toward Th1 predominance. These findings suggest that U-Omp16 may be useful as a Th1-directing adjuvant in an oral vaccine. PMID:25424811

  17. Hepatitis C virus core protein abrogates the DDX3 function that enhances IPS-1-mediated IFN-beta induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Oshiumi

    Full Text Available The DEAD box helicase DDX3 assembles IPS-1 (also called Cardif, MAVS, or VISA in non-infected human cells where minimal amounts of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR protein are expressed. DDX3 C-terminal regions directly bind the IPS-1 CARD-like domain as well as the N-terminal hepatitis C virus (HCV core protein. DDX3 physically binds viral RNA to form IPS-1-containing spots, that are visible by confocal microscopy. HCV polyU/UC induced IPS-1-mediated interferon (IFN-beta promoter activation, which was augmented by co-transfected DDX3. DDX3 spots localized near the lipid droplets (LDs where HCV particles were generated. Here, we report that HCV core protein interferes with DDX3-enhanced IPS-1 signaling in HEK293 cells and in hepatocyte Oc cells. Unlike the DEAD box helicases RIG-I and MDA5, DDX3 was constitutively expressed and colocalized with IPS-1 around mitochondria. In hepatocytes (O cells with the HCV replicon, however, DDX3/IPS-1-enhanced IFN-beta-induction was largely abrogated even when DDX3 was co-expressed. DDX3 spots barely merged with IPS-1, and partly assembled in the HCV core protein located near the LD in O cells, though in some O cells IPS-1 was diminished or disseminated apart from mitochondria. Expression of DDX3 in replicon-negative or core-less replicon-positive cells failed to cause complex formation or LD association. HCV core protein and DDX3 partially colocalized only in replicon-expressing cells. Since the HCV core protein has been reported to promote HCV replication through binding to DDX3, the core protein appears to switch DDX3 from an IFN-inducing mode to an HCV-replication mode. The results enable us to conclude that HCV infection is promoted by modulating the dual function of DDX3.

  18. Hepatitis C virus core protein abrogates the DDX3 function that enhances IPS-1-mediated IFN-beta induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Masanori; Matsumoto, Misako; Watanabe, Ayako; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Kato, Nobuyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Seya, Tsukasa

    2010-12-08

    The DEAD box helicase DDX3 assembles IPS-1 (also called Cardif, MAVS, or VISA) in non-infected human cells where minimal amounts of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein are expressed. DDX3 C-terminal regions directly bind the IPS-1 CARD-like domain as well as the N-terminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. DDX3 physically binds viral RNA to form IPS-1-containing spots, that are visible by confocal microscopy. HCV polyU/UC induced IPS-1-mediated interferon (IFN)-beta promoter activation, which was augmented by co-transfected DDX3. DDX3 spots localized near the lipid droplets (LDs) where HCV particles were generated. Here, we report that HCV core protein interferes with DDX3-enhanced IPS-1 signaling in HEK293 cells and in hepatocyte Oc cells. Unlike the DEAD box helicases RIG-I and MDA5, DDX3 was constitutively expressed and colocalized with IPS-1 around mitochondria. In hepatocytes (O cells) with the HCV replicon, however, DDX3/IPS-1-enhanced IFN-beta-induction was largely abrogated even when DDX3 was co-expressed. DDX3 spots barely merged with IPS-1, and partly assembled in the HCV core protein located near the LD in O cells, though in some O cells IPS-1 was diminished or disseminated apart from mitochondria. Expression of DDX3 in replicon-negative or core-less replicon-positive cells failed to cause complex formation or LD association. HCV core protein and DDX3 partially colocalized only in replicon-expressing cells. Since the HCV core protein has been reported to promote HCV replication through binding to DDX3, the core protein appears to switch DDX3 from an IFN-inducing mode to an HCV-replication mode. The results enable us to conclude that HCV infection is promoted by modulating the dual function of DDX3.

  19. Antioxidants Abrogate Alpha-Tocopherylquinone-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Androgen Receptor in Androgen-Responsive Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Fajardo

    Full Text Available Tocopherylquinone (TQ, the oxidation product of alpha-tocopherol (AT, is a bioactive molecule with distinct properties from AT. In this study, AT and TQ are investigated for their comparative effects on growth and androgenic activity in prostate cancer cells. TQ potently inhibited the growth of androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines (e.g., LAPC4 and LNCaP cells, whereas the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (e.g., DU145 cells was not affected by TQ. Due to the growth inhibitory effects induced by TQ on androgen-responsive cells, the anti-androgenic properties of TQ were examined. TQ inhibited the androgen-induced activation of an androgen-responsive reporter and inhibited the release of prostate specific antigen from LNCaP cells. TQ pretreatment was also found to inhibit AR activation as measured using the Multifunctional Androgen Receptor Screening assay. Furthermore, TQ decreased androgen-responsive gene expression, including TM4SF1, KLK2, and PSA over 5-fold, whereas AT did not affect the expression of androgen-responsive genes. Of importance, the antiandrogenic effects of TQ on prostate cancer cells were found to result from androgen receptor protein down-regulation produced by TQ that was not observed with AT treatment. Moreover, none of the androgenic endpoints assessed were affected by AT. The down-regulation of androgen receptor protein by TQ was abrogated by co-treatment with antioxidants. Overall, the biological actions of TQ were found to be distinct from AT, where TQ was found to be a potent inhibitor of cell growth and androgenic activity in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells.

  20. A combination of an anti-SLAMF6 antibody and ibrutinib efficiently abrogates expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Burcu; Halibozek, Peter J.; Chen, Shih-Shih; O'Keeffe, Michael S.; Arnason, Jon; Avigan, David; Gattei, Valter; Bhan, Atul; Cen, Osman; Longnecker, Richard; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Wang, Ninghai; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2016-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family [SLAMF] of cell surface receptors partakes in both the development of several immunocyte lineages and innate and adaptive immune responses in humans and mice. For instance, the homophilic molecule SLAMF6 (CD352) is in part involved in natural killer T cell development, but also modulates T follicular helper cell and germinal B cell interactions. Here we report that upon transplantation of a well-defined aggressive murine B220+CD5+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cell clone, TCL1-192, into SCID mice one injection of a monoclonal antibody directed against SLAMF6 (αSlamf6) abrogates tumor progression in the spleen, bone marrow and blood. Similarly, progression of a murine B cell lymphoma, LMP2A/λMyc, was also eliminated by αSlamf6. But, surprisingly, αSLAMF6 neither eliminated TCL1-192 nor LMP2A/λMyc cells, which resided in the peritoneal cavity or omentum. This appeared to be dependent upon the tumor environment, which affected the frequency of sub-populations of the TCL1-192 clone or the inability of peritoneal macrophages to induce Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC). However, co-administering αSlamf6 with the Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor, ibrutinib, synergized to efficiently eliminate the tumor cells in the spleen, bone marrow, liver and the peritoneal cavity. Because an anti-human SLAMF6 mAb efficiently killed human CLL cells in vitro and in vivo, we propose that a combination of αSlamf6 with ibrutinib should be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for CLL and other B cell tumors. PMID:27029059

  1. Non-commutative Poisson Algebra Structures on the Lie Algebra son(CQ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Tong; Quanqin Jin

    2007-01-01

    Non-commutative Poisson algebras are the algebras having both an associativealgebra structure and a Lie algebra structure together with the Leibniz law.In this paper,the non-commutative poisson algebra structures on son(CQ) are determined.

  2. Charcot's son, commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot: from neurology to "Pourquoi Pas?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Charcot name became very famous around the world, firstly because of the work of Professor Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of Clinical Neurology, and, secondly, because of his son, Jean-Baptiste, the world famous maritime explorer.

  3. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabel, Pernille; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Andersen, Helle Raun;

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate wheth...... pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism....

  4. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Bugel, L; Camilleri, L; Conrad, J M; De Gouvêa, A; Fisher, P H; Formaggio, J A; Jenkins, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kobilarcik, T R; Kopp, S; Kyle, G; Loinaz, W A; Mason, D A; Milner, R; Moore, R; Morfín, J G; Nakamura, M; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Olness, F I; Owens, J F; Pate, S F; Pronin, A; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Schellman, H; Schienbein, I; Syphers, M J; Tait, T M P; Takeuchi, T; Tan, C Y; Van de Water, R G; Yamamoto, R K; Yu, J Y

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes $\

  5. Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Caprioli, Manuela; Parolini, Marco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) toward the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrues larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex allocation decisions has seldom been performed. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we showed a positive correlation between the proportion of sons and maternal annual survival. We then experimentally demonstrated that this association did not depend on the differential costs of rearing offspring of either sex. Finally, we showed that maternal lifespan positively predicted lifespan of sons but not of daughters. Because in barn swallows lifespan is a strong determinant of lifetime reproductive success, the results suggest that mothers overproduce offspring of the sex that benefits the most from maternal quality. Hence, irrespective of mechanisms causing the SR bias and mother-son covariation in lifespan, we provide strong evidence that sex allocation decisions of mothers can highly impact on their lifetime fitness.

  6. Analysis of the Female Images in Sons and Lovers from the Feminist Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓芳

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to analyze the novel Sons and Lovers from the feminist perspective to expose women's suppressed and subordinate situation as “the other” in the patriarchal society, and to unmask the repression and predicament of immanent women.

  7. Men as caregivers of the elderly: support for the contributions of sons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins CR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia R Collins Loyola University New Orleans, College of Social Sciences/School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Emerging practice research on filial sources of health care support has indicated that there is a growing trend for sons to assume some responsibility for the health care needs of their aging parents. The purpose of this work is to propose that outcomes observed through a secondary analysis of data from a previous mixed methods research project, conducted with a sample of 60 elderly women residing in independent living centers, supports this concept in elder care. The present study is a retrospective interpretation utilizing the original database to examine the new question, “What specific roles do sons play in caregiving of their elderly mothers?” While daughters presently continue to emerge in existing health care studies as the primary care provider, there is a significant pattern in these data for older patients to depend upon sons for a variety of instrumental activities of daily living. As the baby-boomers age, there is more of cohort trend for their families to be smaller, adult daughters to be employed, and for adult children to be more geographically mobile. These factors may combine to make health care support networks more limited for the current aging population, challenging the elderly and their health care providers to revisit the cultural gender norms that are used to identify caregivers. Keywords: sons as caregivers, male caregivers, aging parents, filial support, informal caregivers 

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder associated with orbitofrontal epilepsy in a father and a son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A L; Yudd, A; Zee, P; Mandelbaum, D E

    1997-04-01

    The authors report on a father and son with frontal lobe epilepsy and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention deficit hyperactivity is a syndrome defined by criteria that include inattention, impulsive behavior, impaired concentration and motor restlessness. It does not require medical or neurobehavioral evaluation to determine an underlying etiology. The father is a 45-year-old man evaluated for possible ADHD. His referral came after the diagnosis of ADHD in his 6-year-old son who responded well to treatment with methylphenidate HCL. Neurobehavioral evaluation of the father suggested frontal lobe dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) were normal. Brain 99mTc HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed left orbitofrontal hypoperfusion. Additional history from his wife revealed episodic symptoms suggestive of nonconvulsive epilepsy that included nonresponsive staring, complex automatic behavior, and amnesic lacunas. Treatment of the father with carbmazepine produced dramatic improvement. Subsequent evaluation of his son, currently on maintenance treatment with methylphenidate HCL for ADHD, elicited a history consistent with atonic and simple motor partial epilepsy. The son's brain SPECT revealed bilateral orbitofrontal hypoperfusion defects. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a syndrome that may be caused by frontal lobe lesions or epilepsy. In the setting of possible ADHD, neurological evaluation is warranted. Although overreliance on structural imaging or EEG in such an evaluation must be discouraged, brain SPECT may be useful to evaluate patients with symptoms of attention disorders for frontal epilepsy.

  9. Poetics of Narrative: A Study on the "Sons of the Wind" by Laila Al Atrash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zuraigat, Asma M.; Zeidanin, Hussein Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the poetic devices overlapping with the genre of fiction in Laila Al Atrash's novel "The Sons of the Wind". The devices the study explores are the poetics of the title, poetics of the prologue and poetics of the language upon which the writer relies to support her point of view about the topics and issues…

  10. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinmaya Maharana; Sandeep Kumar Gautam; Abhay Kumar Singh; Jayanth K Tripathi

    2015-08-01

    River Son, draining diverse lithologies in the subtropical climate of the peninsular sub-basin of the Ganga basin, is one of the major tributaries of the Ganga River. The chemistry of major ions in the surface water of the Son River was studied in detail to determine various source(s) and processes controlling its water chemistry, seasonal and spatial variations in water chemistry, dissolved fluxes and chemical denudation rate (CDR). The study shows that Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO$^{-}_{3}$ are major ionic species in the river water. Most of the measured parameters exhibit a relatively lower concentration in the post-monsoon as compared to pre-monsoon season. The water chemistry highlights the influence of continental weathering aided by secondary contributions from ground water, saline/alkaline soils and anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Results also reflect the dominance of carbonate weathering over silicate weathering in controlling water composition. The Son River delivers about 4.2 million tons of dissolved loads annually to the Ganga River, which accounts for ∼6% of the total annual load carried by the Ganga River to the Bay of Bengal. The average CDR of the Son River is 59.5 tons km−2 yr−1, which is less than the reported 72 tons km−2 yr−1 of the Ganga River and higher than the global average of 36 tons km−2 yr−1. The water chemistry for the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods shows a strong seasonal control on solute flux and CDR values. The water chemistry indicates that the Son River water is good to excellent in quality for irrigation and also suitable for drinking purposes.

  11. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mohamet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/- or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb, allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are

  12. Instabilities of Spherical Solutions with Multiple Galileons and SO(N) Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Melinda; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The 4-dimensional effective theory arising from an induced gravity action for a co-dimension greater than one brane consists of multiple galileon fields pi^I, I=1...N, invariant under separate Galilean transformations for each scalar, and under an internal SO(N) symmetry. We study the viability of such models by examining spherically symmetric solutions. We find that for general, non-derivative couplings to matter invariant under the internal symmetry, such solutions exist and exhibit a Vainshtein screening effect. By studying perturbations about such solutions, we find both an inevitable gradient instability and fluctuations propagating at superluminal speeds. These findings suggest that more general, derivative couplings to matter are required for the viability of SO(N) galileon theories.

  13. Mesure ambulatoire de la pression artérielle, son utilité en pratique quotidienne

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    1994-01-01

    Si la nécessité du traitement de l'hypertension artérielle est un fait accepté de façon universelle, la question à propos des niveaux de pression artérielle qui méritent une intervention reste débattue. Cette difficulté trouve son origine dans une telle variabilité de la pression artérielle que les mesures au cabinet de consultation représentent seulement une vue limitée de son réel profil sur 24 heures. Le développement d'enregistreurs portatifs de la pression artérielle par méthode non i...

  14. Planning a Career in Engineering: Parental Effects on Sons and Daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry A. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the extent to which prospective engineers follow in their parents’ footsteps. Specifically, we investigate the connection between fathers’ and mothers’ employment in the engineering profession and the career plans of sons and daughters. We develop a number of reasons to expect an occupation-specific intergenerational association in this field, as well as hypotheses regarding gender-specific role-modeling. Data are drawn from the UCLA HERI Freshman Survey data spanning 1971 to 2011. The results point to clear and substantial effects on sons and daughters’ plans to pursue engineering, connections that cannot be explained by typical pathways such as social background, education and values. The evidence points to a pattern of increasing salience of mothers with respect to the career plans of their children, especially their daughters. The implications of these findings for the under-representation of women in engineering and for gender-specific family dynamics are discussed in the conclusion.

  15. Experiences of parents whose sons or daughters have (had) attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons...... in the conversational interactions. The findings were interpreted and discussed within an interactionist framework. FINDINGS: The participants in the study described their experiences as a double trauma, which included the trauma of the suicide attempt(s) and the subsequent psychosocial impact on the family's well......AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to gain further insights into the experiences of parents of sons or daughters who have attempted suicide and how these parents respond to the increased psychosocial burden following the suicide attempt(s). BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health...

  16. ‘Lest we forget’*: a veteran and son share a ‘warfare tourism’ experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Paul; Robinson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Warfare tourism’ represents an increasingly significant dimension of contemporary tourism. This paper provides a fresh perspective on participation in ‘warfare tourism’ by investigating the behaviour and experiences of a living veteran and his son returning to two theatres of war in which the veteran had served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. Active interviews with the two family members were used to gather rich data regarding the two extended trips, which had been funded by ‘H...

  17. The mystery of the perpetual motion clock of Geiser and Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piguet, Jean-Michel

    A description of the operation and mechanisms of a so called perpetual motion clock is given. At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the achievement of perpetual motion was one of the Neuchatel clockmakers' great interests. Some watchmakers presented scientists and the public with constructions which, at first sight, seemed to have solved the problem. In 1815 a really interesting clock mechanism invented by Jean Geiser and his son was presented in Neuchatel.

  18. Pragmatic Analysis of a Dialogue in Laurence’s Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芝; 马宏

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a pragmatic analysis of a dialogue in Laurence’s Sons and Lovers from the perspectives of turn-taking,cooperative principle,politeness principle and speech act theory. A detailed analysis shows that pragmatic theories provide a good approach to the appreciation of fiction and that such kind of analysis based on a relatively precise methodology proves to be an effective approach to capture the richness of characters.

  19. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos includes Jon Engle sitting on side door frame working on portion of wing. Joe Engle is behind him working on a wing strut (34329); Joe Engle works on tightening bolt (34330); Jon Engle works on portion of wing which connects to the cockpit. Joe Engle works on connecting strut to wing (34331).

  20. Paternal antisocial behavior and sons' cognitive ability: a population-based quasiexperimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Antti; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Parents' antisocial behavior is associated with developmental risks for their offspring, but its effects on their children's cognitive ability are unknown. We used linked Swedish register data for a large sample of adolescent men (N = 1,177,173) and their parents to estimate associations between fathers' criminal-conviction status and sons' cognitive ability assessed at compulsory military conscription. Mechanisms behind the association were tested in children-of-siblings models across three types of sibling fathers with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings, and monozygotic twins) and in quantitative genetic models. Sons whose fathers had a criminal conviction had lower cognitive ability than sons whose fathers had no conviction (any crime: Cohen's d = -0.28; violent crime: Cohen's d = -0.49). As models adjusted for more genetic factors, the association was gradually reduced and eventually eliminated. Nuclear-family environmental factors did not contribute to the association. Our results suggest that the association between men's antisocial behavior and their children's cognitive ability is not causal but is due mostly to underlying genetic factors.

  1. Son Preference and Family Planning Practices among Married Men in Mumbai, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study son preferences and the contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practices of Indian Male Subjects & Methods The data was obtained through a semi-structured interview schedule caried out in 2 687 married men at Mumbai City, India in 1999.Results About 80% of men felt two children as their ideal family size, while 82%desired two children i.e. one son and one daughter. 8. 2% of men had strong prefer ence for two or more sons because of family lineage, old age support and to support each other.23. 1% of the couples had used contraceptives in the past, 48% of couples were not using any contraceptive method at the time of survey. Male participation in spacing contraceptive methods was 23% i.e. condom 21.9% and withdrawal 1.1%. Though awareness (99. 9% ) and knowledge (95. 2% ) of condom was high, only 42. 8% of subjects knew use the correct of the method. Only 2. 4% of them thought about accept ing vasectomy, while others reported various misconception.Conclusion This study suggests a pressing need for effective intervention strategies,both at the community level and the clinic level, backed with efficient motivation, coun seling and provision of quality services in urban areas.

  2. A Stylistic Analysis of D.H. Lawrence’s ‘Sons and Lovers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozar Niazi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing D.H. Lawrence’s ‘Sons and Lovers’ using a stylistic approach. Stylistics is a study of the amalgamation of form with content. The stylistic analysis of a novel goes beyond the traditional, intuitive interpretation, because it combines intuition and detailed linguistic analysis of the text. The defining elements of modern language are within the text itself, not prescribed from outside. With modernist texts, usually understanding comes from close study of the language system defined within the text itself. Form, technique and style are considered not as a mere vehicle of the content of the story, but an integral part of the work’s meaning and value. In our analysis of ‘Sons and Lovers’ the resources of language: lexis, syntax, phonology, figurative language, cohesion and coherence, are discussed in relation to the style of discourse in order to explore hidden meanings in the text. The resources of language are shown to be an essential part of the meaning of the novel. Key words: stylistics, D.H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers

  3. Multivariate Multiple Regression Models for a Big Data-Empowered SON Framework in Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 5G era, the operational cost of mobile wireless networks will significantly increase. Further, massive network capacity and zero latency will be needed because everything will be connected to mobile networks. Thus, self-organizing networks (SON are needed, which expedite automatic operation of mobile wireless networks, but have challenges to satisfy the 5G requirements. Therefore, researchers have proposed a framework to empower SON using big data. The recent framework of a big data-empowered SON analyzes the relationship between key performance indicators (KPIs and related network parameters (NPs using machine-learning tools, and it develops regression models using a Gaussian process with those parameters. The problem, however, is that the methods of finding the NPs related to the KPIs differ individually. Moreover, the Gaussian process regression model cannot determine the relationship between a KPI and its various related NPs. In this paper, to solve these problems, we proposed multivariate multiple regression models to determine the relationship between various KPIs and NPs. If we assume one KPI and multiple NPs as one set, the proposed models help us process multiple sets at one time. Also, we can find out whether some KPIs are conflicting or not. We implement the proposed models using MapReduce.

  4. The Experiences and Meanings That Shape Heterosexual Fathers' Relationships With Their Gay Sons in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jacques; Fourie, Eduard

    2016-12-01

    Gay men's relationships with their mothers are likely to be more positive than their relationships with their fathers, and fathers are less likely to be told, less likely to be told first, and more likely to react negatively to disclosure than mothers. Drawing on an interpretivist approach, an individual in-depth interview strategy was adopted in the study as a means of gathering data from six Afrikaans-speaking White fathers, between the ages of 53 and 61 years (median: 55.5 years), residing in Gauteng, South Africa. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for later coding and analysis. Through thematic network analysis, eight organizing themes emerged and were explored. For the purpose of this article only three organizing themes are discussed, namely "subliminal awareness prior to coming out," "epistemic rupture of internal systems of ideas/beliefs," and "acceptance as a complex and ongoing dialectical and reconciliatory process." The themes support the view that most parents are neither totally rejecting nor fully accepting of their gay sons. Although the fathers may have attained a level of "loving denial" in the relationships with their gay sons, most continue to struggle with the meaning and expression of same-sex sexuality. Despite these challenges, it is recognized that the fathers are adapting to changing circumstances and are trying to find ways to tolerate, accommodate, and in some ways accept their gay sons.

  5. Sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia Kasumi-1 cells to binase toxic action depends on the expression of KIT and АML1-ETO oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Spirin, Pavel V; Fedorova, Tatiana V; Kretova, Olga V; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Alexander A

    2011-12-01

    Some RNases selectively attack malignant cells, triggering an apoptotic response, and therefore are considered as alternative chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we studied the effects of Bacillus intermedius RNase (binase) on murine myeloid progenitor cells FDC-P1; transduced FDC-P1 cells ectopically expressing mutated human KIT N822K oncogene and/or human AML1-ETO oncogene; and human leukemia Kasumi-1 cells expressing both of these oncogenes. Expression of both KIT and AML1-ETO oncogenes makes FDC-P1 cells sensitive to the toxic effects of binase. Kasumi-1 cells were the most responsive to the toxic actions of binase among the cell lines used in this work with an IC50 value of 0.56 µM. Either blocking the functional activity of the KIT protein with imatinib or knocking-down oncogene expression using lentiviral vectors producing shRNA against AML1-ETO or KIT eliminated the sensitivity of Kasumi-1 cells to binase toxic action and promoted their survival, even in the absence of KIT-dependent proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways. Here we provide evidence that the cooperative effect of the expression of mutated KIT and AML1-ETO oncogenes is crucial for selective toxic action of binase on malignant cells. These findings can facilitate clinical applications of binase providing a useful screen based on the presence of the corresponding target oncogenes in malignant cells.

  6. Complicated grief and manic comorbidity in the aftermath of the loss of a son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, M Katherine; Socci, Chiara; Corsi, Martina; Dell'osso, Liliana; First, Michael B

    2013-09-01

    Based on the recommendations of the sub-workgroup on trauma and dissociative disorders, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the "bereavement exclusion" from the criteria for major depression in DSM-5. In addition, proposed DSM-5 research criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) were included in the new manual in a section for conditions and criteria needing further research. We describe a case that warranted such a diagnosis. The patient was a 52- year-old woman who was admitted to the inpatient unit of our clinic on the birthday of her son who had died 18 months earlier. She was diagnosed with a manic episode with psychotic symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and was treated accordingly. Three months after discharge, she made a suicide attempt and was admitted and re-assessed. During this admission, she completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Mood-Spectrum Rating Scale (MOODS-SR), and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum questionnaire (TALS-SR). She endorsed symptoms of intense yearning for her son, feelings of shock and disbelief, anger and bitterness related to his death, estrangement from others, auditory, tactile and visual hallucinations of the deceased, and intense emotional reactivity to memories of her son. These symptoms were sufficiently prolonged and severe to meet criteria for complicated grief. While complicated grief appeared to be the primary diagnosis for this patient, when she was diagnosed using only DSMIV-TR criteria, her treatment failed to address herprimary problem. This case draws attention to the occurrence of manic-like symptoms as well as depression-like manifestations following bereavement and highlights the importance of including the syndrome of complicated grief in the diagnostic nomenclature.

  7. The Tragic Marriage of the Morel Couple in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shuai

    2016-01-01

    In Sons and Lovers, one of William Faulkner’s most famous novels, the marriage between Walter Morel and Gertrude Coppard was inarguably a tragic one. However, as for the reason, it was not explicitly represented in the novel. This paper at-tempts to delve into the reason of this failed marriage and put forward an argument that this failure could be attributed to the con-flict between sex and social class with the help of the theory of dominance and subordinance put forward by Kate Millett.

  8. Acercamiento al son guatemalteco tradicional desde una perspectiva histórica

    OpenAIRE

    de Gandarias, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo recorre sintéticamente la ruta histórica seguida por el son guatemalteco tradicional, a partir de la ubicación temporal de sus com- portamientos musicales dentro de los procesos históricos de occidenta- lización y mestizaje que los originaron. Inicia con el sustrato tímbrico de instrumentos sonoros mayas prehispánicos que perviven en un sector de la producción conocida. Le siguen, además de otros instrumentos musicales, los aportes tonales, rítmicos y texturales de origen europe...

  9. Autismo y Programa Son-Rise: Intervención sobre un caso

    OpenAIRE

    López Camarero, Irene

    2013-01-01

    En este documento se estudian los distintos tipos de trastorno del espectro autista, distinguiendo las características de cada uno de ellos y las posibles causas que pueden originarlos. Partiendo de esta base, se plantean distintos métodos o programas existentes en nuestra sociedad para trabajar con este colectivo y lograr que desarrollen sus capacidades en el máximo nivel posible. Tras una breve explicación de algunos de ellos, nos centramos en el Programa Son-Rise, método poco conocid...

  10. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ronald G.

    2004-04-01

    Once faced with structure reactivity relationships in the context of nucleophilic substitution at sp 3 carbon, introductory organic chemistry students must compare and contrast the various attributes and ramifications of S N 2 versus S N 1 reaction pathways. The dramatic (even melodramatic) way in which some students ask such comparative questions inspired a parody of Hamlet's famous to be or not to be soliloquy. Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearian approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of S N 2 versus S N 1 reactions.

  11. THE EPITHESIS IN THE LOAN WORDS ALINTI KELİMELERDE SON TÜREME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden SAĞOL YÜKSEKKAYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaptyxis is a sound appearing that is not found in the original structure of the word. There are three types of anaptyxis: prothesis, epenthesis and epithesis. Epithesis is a vowel or consonant appearing at the end of a word which is not found in the original structure of it. Although, there isn’t not so much example, both vowel and consonant reproduction is seen even in the last sound of the word; but the derivative sound isn’t the same, standard in the whole dialects and accents. Nevertheless some derivative sounds have an intense in a specific region, they aren’t seen in the other areas or has rare example. In this study, the epithesis in the loan words in Turkish will be emphasized. Bir kelimede aslında bulunmayan bir sesin sonradan ortaya çıkmasına ses türemesi denir. Ses türemesinin üç çeşidi vardır: ön türeme, iç türeme, son türeme. Son türeme, kelimenin aslında bulunmayan bir ünlü veya ünsüzün kelime sonunda belirmesidir. Örneği fazla olmamakla birlikte son seste de hem ünlü hem de ünsüz türemesi görülür. Ancak türeyen sesler standart olarak bütün lehçe ve ağızlarda ortak değildir. Türeyen bazı sesler belli bir bölge içerisinde yoğunlaşırken, bazı bölgelerde görülmemekte veya sadece birkaç, hatta bir örnekle sınırlı kalabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada Türkçede alıntı kelimelerdeki son türeme örnekleri üzerinde durulacaktır.

  12. THE APOCOPE IN THE LOAN WORDS ALINTI KELİMELERDE SON SES DÜŞMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin KOÇ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance is the loss of a sound in structure of the word with some reasons. There are three types of disappearance: apheresis, syncope and apocope. The apocope is disappearance of a vowel or consonant at the end of a word. This situation isn’t standard in whole dialects and accents. Some dropping sounds, have an intense in a spesific region, they aren’t seen in the other areas or have rare examples. This is rather common in the dialects. In this study will be handled the apocope in the loan words with the examples in Turkey Turkish and contemporary Turkish dialects. Bir kelimedeki seslerden birinin, çeşitli nedenlerle düşmesine ses düşmesi denir. Ses düşmesi üç çeşittir: ön ses düşmesi, iç ses düşmesi ve son ses düşmesi. Son ses düşmesi, kelimede son ses durumunda olan ünlü veya ünsüzün düşmesidir. Bu durum, bütün lehçelerde ve ağızlarda standart değildir. Düşen bazı sesler, belli bir bölge içinde yoğunlaşırken, bazı bölgelerde görülmemekte ve hatta birkaç ya da bir örnekle sınırlı kalabilmektedir. Bu daha çok ağızlarda görülür. Çalışmada, Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Çağdaş Türk Lehçelerinde alıntı kelimelerde son ses düşmesi bahsi örnekleriyle ele alınacaktır.

  13. ¿Son las creencias religiosas razonables? : verificación o falsación

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo está orientado a responder la pregunta ¿son la creencias religiosas razonables? Para ello, se hace un esbozo, primero de qué significan las creencias en general, para luego abarcar las creencias religiosas en particular. En este punto se realiza una descripción de las teorías de la verificación y la falsación. Posteriormente, se detallan las distintas posiciones relacionadas con las expresiones religiosas. Finalmente, se presenta un enfrentamiento entre aquellos que consideran la...

  14. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, S J; Chaplin, W J; Davies, G R; Elsworth, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  15. Data and Analysis Methods of the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present, for the first time, the results from pilot deployments of the Son-O-Mermaid project, an autonomously drifting, oceangoing data-collection platform that can be cheaply deployed without the need for a costly research vessel, and that records and transmits hydroacoustic signals (with a target of those generated by teleseismic earthquakes) in near real-time. Both deployments employ three identical hydrophones spaced about 70 cm apart at the end of a 700 m long cable attached to a surface buoy that houses electronics, communications, and a GPS location package. The maiden voyage occurred October 8, 2012, in Exuma Bay, Bahamas and returned 25 hours of acoustic data. A second deployment is to take place in September 2014, with near-immediate data relay via Iridium modem. The experimental setup is different from the MERMAID instrument, which sinks to a midcolumn depth and surfaces to transmit waveforms when an event detection algorithm is triggered. MERMAIDs have recorded hundreds of seismic traces from 18 active floats in the Indian and Mediterranean Oceans with a signal-to-noise ratio suitable for global tomography. As with earthquake early-warning studies, both Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID benefit from rapid and accurate event detection, discrimination, and measurement technology. With this triple purpose in mind we continue to improve methods (in the time-domain, via spectrogram analysis and using wavelets) that we illustrate on the latest and some of the older data, as well. While hydroacoustic data have numerous other applications beyond seismology (whale calls, ice calving, weather patterns, and so on) the Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID instruments may potentially revolutionize seismic data collection in the oceans. Moreover, in the near future they will be fitted with more or different instruments, becoming multipurpose and multidisciplinary platforms for all types of scientific research in and of the oceans. In seismology we envision a future when the

  16. Failed Mothers, Monster Sons. Reading Shakespeare’S Richard Iii as a Fairy Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percec Dana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at Shakespeare’s historical play Richard III and its fairy tale-like character given by the configuration of the main character as an arch-villain and the presence of motifs and patterns typically associated with the fairy tale genre. More specifically, it considers the mother-son relationship between the Duchess of York and Richard in the light of the motif of monstrous birth. It is not a coincidence that the emergence of such motifs coincides with the historical contexts of the early modern period. Reading Richard III in this key is related to the revisionist approach to chronicle plays.

  17. ¿Son fiables los productos que encontramos en los supermercados?

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Zabalandicoechea, Maitane; Zuloaga Zubieta, Olatz

    2012-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 21 a 30 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante En este recurso didáctico se presenta la metodología en base a proyectos utilizada en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura optativa "Cromatografía y Técnicas Afines" que se imparte en el segundo ciclo de la Licenciatura de Química. El proyecto, que lleva como título "¿Son fiables los productos que encontramos en los supermercados?", permite al alumno aprender los distintos métodos analíticos para el a...

  18. Two qubits of a W state violate Bell's inequality beyond Cirel'son's bound

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the correlations between two qubits selected from a trio prepared in a W state violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality more than the correlations between two qubits in any quantum state. Such a violation beyond Cirel'son's bound is smaller than the one achieved by two qubits selected from a trio in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 060403 (2002)]. However, it has the advantage that all local observers can know from their own measurements whether their qubits belongs or not to the selected pair.

  19. Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566): Cardinal physician and anatomist who dissected his own son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Asma; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-04-01

    The 16th century French anatomist Guillaume Rondelet will be remembered as a great naturalist and a founder of ichthyology. Little known to most is that Rondelet was a proficient anatomist and contemporary to Vesalius and in fact, both studied anatomy under Johannes Guinter. Even less known is that he established the first dissecting theatre at Montpellier and it was here that he would dissect his infant son in an attempt to identify the cause of death. In this article, we review the life and contributions to anatomy of Rondelet.

  20. LA SABIDURIA DEL SILENCIO. HACIA EL DIÁLOGO... ¡OTROS MUNDOS SON POSIBLES!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Valverde Campos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A Occidentales y Orientales nos cobija un mismo techo. Sin embargo, la manera de concebir el mundo y, por ende, de actuar, es diferente. La sociedad globalizada en la que vivimos quiere hacer de este mundo uno solo, con un solo corazón y una sola manera de actuar y pensar. Occidente ha impuesto su mundo cuando en realidad son muchos y debemos conocerlos. El pensamiento oriental tiene mucho qué decirnos a los occidentales. En todo caso, el silencio que impone la escucha es fundamental en eso que tantos llaman hoy el diálogo.

  1. CHIRAL RING OF Sp(N) AND SO(N) SUPERSYMMETRIC GAUGE THEORY IN FOUR DIMENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. WITTEN

    2003-01-01

    The chiral ring of classical supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group Sp(N) or SO(N) is computed, extending previous work (of Cachazo, Douglas, Seiberg, and the author)for SU(N). The result is that, as has been conjectured, the ring is generated by the usualglueball superfield S ~ Tr WαWα, with the relation Sh = 0, h being the dual Coxeter number.Though this proposition has important implications for the behavior of the quantum theory,the statement and (for the most part) the proofs amount to assertions about Lie groups withno direct reference to gauge theory.

  2. Non-Abelian Vortices in SO(N) and USp(N) Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Non-Abelian BPS vortices in SO(N) x U(1) and USp(2N) x U(1) gauge theories are constructed in maximally color-flavor locked vacua. We study in detail their moduli and transformation properties under the exact symmetry of the system. Our results generalize non-trivially those found earlier in supersymmetric U(N) gauge theories. The structure of the moduli spaces turns out in fact to be considerably richer here than what was found in the U(N) theories. We find that vortices are generally of the semi-local type, with power-like tails of profile functions.

  3. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabel Pernille

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n = 1,468. A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n = 783,817. Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Results Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31 and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49 compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20 and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35, but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96 and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4. Conclusions The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women

  4. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Huang; Meng-Meng Jiang; Guo-Feng Chen; Kun Qian; Hong-Hao Gao; Wei Guan; Jin-Long Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background:The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML 1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML.By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells,we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML.Methods:Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR),quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR),and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines.Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4.Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region.The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation,apoptosis,and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8,flow cytometry,and clonogenic assay.Results:EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells,compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells,respectively.We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases.Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines.We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis ofKasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control,respectively.Conclusions:Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene.In addition,we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target and a potential candidate

  5. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sai; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Guo-Feng; Qian, Kun; Gao, Hong-Hao; Guan, Wei; Shi, Jin-Long; Liu, An-Qi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML. By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells, we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML. Methods: Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines. Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4. Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region. The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, and clonogenic assay. Results: EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells, compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells, respectively. We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases. Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines. We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis of Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target

  6. Trust and disclosure of sexual orientation in gay males' mother-son relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Boon, S D

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that changes in feelings of trust for mother are associated with gay males' decisions to disclose (or withhold) their sexual orientation in their mother-son relationships. Fifty gay and bisexual males completed a questionnaire about their coming out experiences in the context of their relationships with their mothers. As part of this questionnaire, they completed a retrospective graphical trust history task that involved plotting the degree of trust they felt for their mothers over time and across important events (such as disclosure). Results are discussed in terms of gay men's expectations about their mothers' responses to disclosure, the evidence for stability versus change in their memories regarding the nature of their feelings of maternal trust over time, the complexity of the trust histories participants drew, similarity between disclosers and non-disclosers in the shape of their trust curves, and the types of events and experiences that constituted the timeline or "plot" in the stories participants told about their mother-son relationships. This study offers the first empirical evidence to support speculations linking disclosure of sexual orientation to the climate of trust that exists in the relationship between discloser and target (e.g., Holtzen, Kenny & Mahalik, 1995).

  7. Symbolism of the Shadows in Son of Man by Roa Bastos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia G. Montenegro

    2015-01-01

    In his novel Son of Man, Augusto Roa Bastos uses images and symbols of shadows to represent the ramifications ofthe Paraguayan Dr. Jose Rodriguez de Francia's dictatorship. Rodriguez de Francia's legacy, which begins duringthe postcolonial years and extends well into the 20th century, resonates in the novel in soeio-political structures andcharacters' ideologies and behaviors. It allows for plantation owners to enslave workers and their families; itconfines and oppresses people through unfounded legends and myths; and among other things, it creates a falseidea of purpose and patriotism in the Chaco War (1932-1935), which in the end lets down the soldiers. Tocounteract these deleterious social conditions, Roa Bastos creates surreal characters, such as a fantastic helper whoaids plantation workers to escape dehumanizing situations. Roa Bastos also narrates how the people in Itapr, asmall town, make an idol of a Christ statue carved by one of their own. However, when the two Goiburfl brothersreplace the statue by crucifying their sister's rapist, the people's myth is destroyed. Likewise, Roa Bastos availshimself of Christian and Catholic concepts and symbols to transpose them into a humanistic ideology so as toconvey hope to his people through a new perspective. In this way, a new Annunciation takes place when the son ofa raped woman is born. In the end, Roa Bastos lets the course of these warped transpositions take their logicaldenouement: In the absence of a purpose beyond an earthly existence, death becomes the narrator's option.

  8. Malaria and enterobiasis among Karen Long-neck tribe in Mae Hong Son Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, Choosak; Polseela, Panida; Poodendan, Wilawan; Brodsky, Marc; Rakprapapant, Derek; Chadchatreechan, Suparp; Phethleart, Aree; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Leemingsawat, Somjai

    2003-01-01

    In Thailand, Mae Hong Son Province is highly endemic for malaria. Knowing this, the local Health Department has introduced a program to educate local residents about the risk factors, in particular the dangers and symptoms of malaria. This study was conducted to evaluate these efforts, by determining the number of malaria infections in a segment of the population, and also by testing for enterobiasis among a group of its children. Two villages in Mae Hong Son Province were chosen for this purpose with a combined population of about 300. Of these, 195 were screened for malaria. Two subjects were diagnosed positive for malaria by microscopy. One of these two villages was chosen to screen for Enterobius vermicularis infection in children as well. Out of 69 stool samples, five (7%) showed infection with E. vermicularis: three with a low number of eggs (1-50), and two with a high number of eggs (>100). Compared with infection rates in similar studies, the results of this study indicate that the Health Department's efforts are meeting with relative success. The low prevalence of infection indicates that the villagers are using the information they have received to help combat infection.

  9. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  10. Self-Organizing Networks (SON) Self-Planning, Self-Optimization and Self-Healing for GSM, UMTS and LTE

    CERN Document Server

    Ramiro, Juan

    2011-01-01

    With the current explosion in network traffic, and mounting pressure on operators' business case, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) play a crucial role. They are conceived to minimize human intervention in engineering processes and at the same time improve system performance to maximize Return-on-Investment (ROI) and secure customer loyalty. Written by leading experts in the planning and optimization of Multi-Technology and Multi-Vendor wireless networks, this book describes the architecture of Multi-Technology SON for GSM, UMTS and LTE, along with the enabling technologies for SON planning, opti

  11. Bad Mothers and Monstrous Sons: Autistic Adults, Lifelong Dependency, and Sensationalized Narratives of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Holly

    2017-03-01

    Sensationalized representations of autistic families in film and other media frequently feature violent encounters between mothers and sons. This essay analyzes two media stories and three films that suggest how limited-and therefore misleading-popular representations of the autism family are. Except for one of the films, these representations blame the problem of adult autistic dependency on either monstrous autism or bad mothering. Doing so elides collective social responsibility for autism care and denies the reality that autistic adults continue to have complex dependency needs that families cannot always meet. Narratives that sensationalize youth and adults with autism or scapegoat their maternal caregivers also diminish opportunities for social inclusion and for autistic people to live fully and dependently.

  12. Supersymmetric SO(N) from a Planck-scale statistical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Roland E

    2010-01-01

    Several refinements are made in a theory which starts with a Planck-scale statistical picture and ends with supersymmetry and a coupling of fundamental fermions and bosons to SO(N) gauge fields. In particular, more satisfactory treatments are given for (1) the transformation from the initial Euclidean form of the path integral for fermionic fields to the usual Lorentzian form, (2) the corresponding transformation for bosonic fields (which is much less straightforward), (3) the transformation from an initial primitive supersymmetry to the final standard form (containing, e.g., scalar sfermions and their auxiliary fields), (4) the initial statistical picture, and (5) the transformation to an action which is invariant under general coordinate transformations.

  13. El vídeoclip, l'art d'unir imatges i sons

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Aquest projecte es basa en la cerca, estudi i realització d’un vídeo musical com a obra artística que uneix imatges i sons. Primerament s’analitza el videoclip, l’origen, la finalitat, les classes de videoclips i el mercat actual. Posteriorment es selecciona una versió de la cançó Boadicea d’Enya per realitzar-ne el vídeo musical i es fa una pre-producció on s’idea l’esquema del videoclip i les imatges que es gravaran. Després de la producció es realitza la post-producció amb la unió de le...

  14. CUENTOS QUE NO SON CUENTOS...UN RECORRIDO POR SAN ZENÓN (MAGDALENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ximena Salcedo Goméz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Es de tarde y el sol inclemente de febrero se refleja sobre Las cálidas aguas del río Magdalena; sus visos en naranja y rojo se inmortalizan en el tapiz del cielo, mientras en tierra, esta gama de luz iridescente se forja en la piel de los hombres y mujeres de San Zenón. Los árboles desnudos han sido bañados por el frío invierno. Las ciénagas y el río han dejado sus marcas a través del marrón 330 de sus cortezas. Las pocas hojas que quedan son solo un breve recuerdo de un amanecer con sombra. El asfalto y la pasividad del viento, quienes amenazan la lucidez.

  15. CUENTOS QUE NO SON CUENTOS...UN RECORRIDO POR SAN ZENÓN (MAGDALENA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Ximena Salcedo Goméz

    2013-01-01

    Es de tarde y el sol inclemente de febrero se refleja sobre Las cálidas aguas del río Magdalena; sus visos en naranja y rojo se inmortalizan en el tapiz del cielo, mientras en tierra, esta gama de luz iridescente se forja en la piel de los hombres y mujeres de San Zenón. Los árboles desnudos han sido bañados por el frío invierno. Las ciénagas y el río han dejado sus marcas a través del marrón 330 de sus cortezas. Las pocas hojas que quedan son solo un breve recuerdo de un amanecer con sombra....

  16. Padoue et son contado (Xe-XIIIe siècle)

    OpenAIRE

    Rippe, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    L'ouvrage traite d’un objet classique – une cité et son contado – à l’aide des concepts mis au point par l’historiographie récente. Après avoir décrit le cadre territorial hérité de l’Antiquité et du haut Moyen Âge, elle analyse l’évolution de ce territoire et de ses institutions du Xe au XIIe siècle, notamment la naissance et la constitution d’une société féodale à laquelle s’intègrent même les « arimanni » , puis l’« incastellamento » et sa signification démographique et politique, enfin l’...

  17. Pincio y los Estados Unidos que no son los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zangrilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo neofantástico en Tommaso Pincio se distingue de lo fantástico posmoderno de nuestros escritores. Se basa en la realidad estadounidense contemporánea; la introduce en un proceso de elaboraciones enfáticas, mezclas, transfiguraciones, y la convierte en el símbolo de otro mundo, de un planeta extraño. Pincio llega a esta operación creativa gracias a su conocimiento de las tradiciones y de las costumbres, de la historia, de la cultura y de la literatura de los Estados Unidos. De todo eso quiere darse una idea en este ensayo, analizando la segunda novela de Pincio, Spazio sfinito, en la que se representa a unos Estados Unidos que no son Estados Unidos.

  18. L’emploi industriel en France et son évolution 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Guillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le déclin de l’emploi industriel est souvent appréhendé comme le symbole des difficultés de la France à maintenir son rang dans une économie toujours plus mondialisée et plus concurrentielle. L’article vise, à partir des statistiques de l’emploi, à montrer que la diminution des effectifs est loin d’être homogène et que, depuis une dizaine d’années, elle s’accompagne d’un redéploiement géographique de forte intensité. On a construit à cet effet des agrégats spécifiques permettant de prendre en compte le devenir des filières productives majeures.

  19. JOURNEY OF A WORKING MOTHER AND HER SON WITH DOWN SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Saadia

    2015-01-01

    Trisomy 21, chromosomal disorder related with Down syndrome (DS), is the most common cause leading to learning disability among all races and all human population. Having a child with Down syndrome in developed world has now become less of an unfortunate incidence in the lives of the parents; not because they do not realize the tough road ahead for their child as compared to other siblings but due to the fact that they have got a comprehensive and cohesive support system running for these children at every stage of life that builds up the child to his/her full potential. The present special communication is about personal experience of a working mother with her son with Down syndrome.

  20. Inhibitory effect of morphine on excitatory synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanism in rat SON neurons in brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; HU San-jue; JU Gong

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effects of morphine on the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons and to explore its synaptic mechanism. Methods: Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording technique in the brain slices, the EPSCS and mEPSCs of rat SON neurons were recorded, respectively. Results: Morphine (20 μmol/L) decreased the frequency of EPSCs and mEPSCs (by 65% for EPSCS and by 45% for mEPSCs), and reduced the amplitude of EPSCs by 44% in all SON neurons, but the amplitude distribution ofmEPSCs was not affected. Conclusion: Morphine inhibits the excitatory transmissions via presynaptic mechanisms in SON neurons from rat brain slices.

  1. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  2. L'art de faire parler les pierres : Bande-son de Bertrand de la Peine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dangy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bande-Son, de Bertrand de la Peine, fait défiler trois figures de l’artiste qui suggèrent pour l’activité artistique un domaine de définition. À la pointe de la contemporanéité, Sven Langhens est un acousticien qui s’attache à rendre audible le chant de l’infime, celui des bêtes minuscules et même celui des pierres. Avant lui, au XVIIIe siècle, Rudolf Erich Raspe, auteur des Aventures du baron de Munchhausen, s’était déjà lancé sur les traces de pierres chantantes. Enfin, légèrement en retrait par rapport à ces deux figures originales dont il orchestre les rapports, le narrateur propose une poétique reflétant et court-circuitant à la fois les recherches de ses deux personnages. Leur interaction culminera dans une installation en Provence, qui, transcendant la distinction entre les différents sujets de l’art et leur objet, parviendra à piéger dans un miroir la force du vent.Bertrand de la Peine Bande-Son scrolls three artist figures who suggest a domain of definition for artistic activity. At the forefront of the contemporary, Sven Langhens is an acoustician who strives to make audible the voice of the tiny, tiny animals and even the stones. Before him, in the eighteenth century, Rudolf Erich Raspe, author of The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen, had already run on the footsteps of singing stones. Finally, slightly down compared to the two original figures, the narrator reports their relationships and offers a poetic reflecting and bypassing his characters research. Their interaction will culminate in an installation in Provence, which transcends the distinction between the different subjects of art and object, succeeding in trapping the wind by a mirror’s force.

  3. [Suh Yang Park, who became a doctor as a son of a butcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Woo; Hong, Jung Wan

    2006-12-01

    Dr. Suh Yang Park was born in 1885 as a son of a butcher, which was the lowest class at that time in Korea. However, contact with western missionaries, including Dr. 0. R. Avison, provided him with an understanding of western civilization. After entering Chejungwon Medical School in 1900, Dr. Park learned basic sciences, basic medical sciences like anatomy and physiology, and other Western medical specialties such as internal medicine and surgery. He graduated from medical school in 1908 and received Government Certificate from Home Office, the first in Korea in this field, which granted the right to practice medicine. His certificate number was 4th overall. As both a doctor and a talented musician, Dr. Park actively participated in the social enlightenment movement. He was quite progressive in his time, having surpassed the social limitations as a son of a butcher, as well as actively propagating his knowledge of Western civilization onto others. After graduation, he had served as a professor at the school he graduated from, until he went into exile in Manchuria in 1917 due to the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910. There, he opened a hospital and provided medical treatment for Koreans. He also established a school for young Koreans, inspiring them with a sense of nationalism. Also, Dr. Park was an active member of various Independence Movement Organizations in Manchuria. Then in 1932, at the time when Japan took control of Manchuria, his school was closed down. As a result, Dr. Park couldn't help but stop his anti-Japanese activities. In 1936, he returned to his homeland and passed away in 1940, just five years before the liberation of Korea from Japanese occupation.

  4. Suh Yang Park, who Became a Doctor as a Son of a Butcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK Hyoung Woo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Suh Yang Park was born in 1885 as a son of a butcher, which was the lowest class at that time in Korea. However, contact with western missionaries, including Dr. O. R. Avison, provided him with an understanding of western civilization. After entering Chejungwon Medical School in 1900, Dr. Park learned basic sciences, basic medical sciences like anatomy and physiology, and other Western medical specialties such as internal medicine and surgery. He graduated from medical school in 1908 and received Government Certificate from Home Office, the first in Korea in this field, which granted the right to practice medicine. His certificate number was 4th overall. As both a doctor and a talented musician, Dr. Park actively participated in the social enlightenment movement. He was quite progressive in his time, having surpassed the social limitations as a son of a butcher, as well as actively propagating his knowledge of Western civilization onto others. After graduation, he had served as a professor at the school he graduated from, until he went into exile in Manchuria in 1917 due to the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910. There, he opened a hospital and provided medical treatment for Koreans. He also established a school for young Koreans, inspiring them with a sense of nationalism. Also, Dr. Park was an active member of various Independence Movement Organizations in Manchuria. Then in 1932, at the time when Japan took control of Manchuria, his school was closed down. As a result, Dr. Park couldn't help but stop his anti-Japanese activities. In 1936, he returned to his homeland and passed away in 1940, just five years before the liberation of Korea from Japanese occupation.

  5. "Fathers" and "sons" of theories in cell physiology: the membrane theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V V; Wheatley, D N

    2005-12-16

    The last 50 years in the history of life sciences are remarkable for a new important feature that looks as a great threat for their future. A profound specialization dominating in quickly developing fields of science causes a crisis of the scientific method. The essence of the method is a unity of two elements, the experimental data and the theory that explains them. To us, "fathers" of science, classically, were the creators of new ideas and theories. They were the true experts of their own theories. It is only they who have the right to say: "I am the theory". In other words, they were carriers of theories, of the theoretical knowledge. The fathers provided the necessary logical integrity to their theories, since theories in biology have still to be based on strict mathematical proofs. It is not true for sons. As a result of massive specialization, modern experts operate in very confined close spaces. They formulate particular rules far from the level of theory. The main theories of science are known to them only at the textbook level. Nowadays, nobody can say: "I am the theory". With whom, then is it possible to discuss today on a broader theoretical level? How can a classical theory--for example, the membrane one--be changed or even disproved under these conditions? How can the "sons" with their narrow education catch sight of membrane theory defects? As a result, "global" theories have few critics and control. Due to specialization, we have lost the ability to work at the experimental level of biology within the correct or appropriate theoretical context. The scientific method in its classic form is now being rapidly eroded. A good case can be made for "Membrane Theory", to which we will largely refer throughout this article.

  6. The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen T. Nozoe

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140.

  7. Combinatorial treatment using targeted MEK and SRC inhibitors synergistically abrogates tumor cell growth and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kian Ngiap; Kong, Li Ren; Sim, Wen Jing; Ng, Hsien Chun; Ong, Weijie Richard; Thiery, Jean Paul; Huynh, Hung; Goh, Boon Cher

    2015-10-01

    Oncogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is regulated by a complex signal transduction network. Single-agent targeted therapy fails frequently due to treatment insensitivity and acquired resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that co-inhibition of the MAPK and SRC pathways using a PD0325901 and Saracatinib kinase inhibitor combination can abrogate tumor growth in NSCLC. PD0325901/Saracatinib at 0.25:1 combination was screened against a panel of 28 NSCLC cell lines and 68% of cell lines were found to be sensitive (IC50 cell migration and matrigel invasion. The co-inhibition of MAPK and SRC induced strong G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in the NSCLC lines, inhibited anchorage independent growth and delayed tumor growth in H460 and H358 mouse xenografts. These data provide rationale for further investigating the combination of MAPK and SRC pathway inhibitors in advanced stage NSCLC.

  8. Isolation of a cdc28 mutation that abrogates the dependence of S phase on completion of M phase of the budding yeast cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Kumar Ghosh; Pratima Sinha

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated a mutation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisisae CDC28 gene that allows cdc13 cells, carrying damaged DNA, to continue with the cell division cycle. While cdc13 mutant cells are arrested as large-budded cells at the nonpermissive temperature 37°C, the cdc13 cdc28 double mutant culture showed cells with one or more buds, most of which showed apical growth. The additional buds emerged without the intervening steps of nuclear division and cell separation. We suggest that the cdc28 mutation abrogates a checkpoint function and allows cells with damaged or incompletely replicated DNA an entry to another round of cell cycle and bypasses the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.

  9. Estructuras de pobreza en el agro ¿por qué son pobres los campesinos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pedro Giovenardi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available La pobreza campesina persiste a pesar de los programas de carácter especial que se adelantan desde hace muchos años, tanto por iniciativa de los gobiernos latinoamericanos, como de organismos internacionales. Las fórmulas, las medidas, las estrategias adoptadas hasta ahora para aminorar la pobreza, se enmarcan en un cuadro de soluciones coyunturales o segmentarias, sin un conducto lógico que permita influir positivamente los elementos de un plan global e integral de acción. Son programas de crédito individual para la producción, pero sin estrategias de comercialización. Otros son de capacitación y educación, pero desconectados de la realidad económica que envuelve los campesinos. En el presente ensayo, se busca formular una estrategia de carácter estructural, analizando el conjunto de las relaciones económicas del complejo rural, escenario donde actúan todos los agentes responsables de la producción agrícola desde la siembra hasta el consumo. Se analizan las causas estructurales de la riqueza, los puntos de acumulación o agregados y su capacidad de generar y retener los valores que se van creando alrededor del producto, y su expresión corno centros de decisión de precios, de políticas económicas y de reinversión de los excedentes producidos. Se examinan la mecánica de la transferencia de valores de un agregado a otro y los elementos de decisión de cada punto de acumulación. Se recogen algunas inquietudes del poco éxito de los programas de desarrollo rural y se reafirma la convicción de que los campesinos pueden llegar a ser ricos, sin miedo de emplear este término, siempre y cuando el gobierno y la sociedad civil se decidan a tornar medidas integrales capaces de erradicar las causas de la pobreza. En otras palabras, introducir la actividad campesina en las estructuras de riqueza, a través de empresas asociativas planificadas para administrar el complejo económico rural.

  10. Poesía y filosofía son de palabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The imaginary and sinister concentration-camp chief Otto Friedrich Zur Linde was conceived by Jorge-Luis Borges as an example of misunderstanding philosophy and life, by seeing in them only the power of fight. This conception is compared with a dynamic understanding of philosophy. For Mr. Zur Linde Aristotle and Plato represent this confrontation, and each philosophical debate in history could be considered as a moment in it. But now, in the last fight, the will to power of man has gone beyond all the limits, even of morality. However some modern techniques of appropriation of ancient philosophy are completely opposed to this conception, namely Paul Ricoeur’s theory of fiction and Heidegger’s Sein und Schein,. Ultimately, the close relationship between poetry and philosophy since its origins speak against this thesis. A closer analysis of Nietzsche and Hölderlin will help to enlighten how wrong Zur Linde´s conception is..El siniestro jefe de un campo de concentración Otto Friedrich Zur Linde, concebido por Borges como ejemplo de una interpretación de la filosofía y la vida en la que la lucha es el único motor, es confrontado con una concepción de la filosofía dinámica. Zur Linde mantiene que Aristóteles y Platón son el enfrentamiento filosófico paradigmático. En el último momento del enfrentamiento la voluntad de poder de un nuevo superhombre ha rebasado todos los límites, incluso el de la conciencia. A esto se oponen las técnicas de apropiación filosófica del mundo griego por parte de la modernidad, a saber: el poder de la ficción, el Schein y el Sein así como el nacimiento de la filosofía, tan cercano a la poesía. Bajo este prisma cabe un análisis de Nietzsche y Hölderlin, que reniega de la interpretación de Zur Linde y clarifica que ante todo poetas y filósofos son seres de palabra.

  11. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  12. Two sons and a daughter: sex composition and women's reproductive behaviour in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini; Macquarrie, Kerry; Falle, Tina; Malhotra, Anju

    2012-11-01

    This article examines how the sex composition of women's current children at the start of a pregnancy interval influences both fertility desires and the full range of reproductive actions women may take to realize them, including temporary contraception, abortion and sterilization, in Madhya Pradesh, India, where popular notions of ideal family size and sex composition are dominated by son preference. The analysis is conducted using a dataset of 9127 individual pregnancy intervals from a 2002 statewide representative survey of 2444 women aged 15-39 with at least one child. The results indicate that women's preferences go beyond a singular preference for male children, with the preferred composition of children being two boys and one girl. Women with this composition are 90% less likely to report having wanted another pregnancy (OR 0.097, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls. These preferences have significant implications for reproductive actions. While sex composition has no statistically significant effect on the use of temporary contraception, those with the preferred sex composition are twice as likely to attempt abortion (OR 2.436, p < 0.01) and twelve times more likely to be sterilized (OR 12.297, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls only.

  13. Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: parental sensitivity in families with two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Endendijk, Joyce J; van Berkel, Sheila R; van der Pol, Lotte D; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on early childhood parenting include only mothers. Fathers are rarely observed in interaction with their young children, although they play an important role in the socialization of their children. In this study, we observed parenting of mothers and fathers toward their sons and daughters in families with two children, using a within-family approach in a sample with systematically varying family constellations. Participants included 389 families with two children (1 and 3 years of age). Parenting practices were coded during free play using the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). Findings revealed that mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity and lower levels of intrusiveness toward their children than fathers. Furthermore, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive toward their oldest child than toward their youngest child. Fathers' higher intrusiveness toward the youngest child was only found in the case of a youngest boy. Child gender was not related to parenting in any of the other analyses. Our results suggest that parent gender is more salient than child gender in the prediction of parenting practices in early childhood.

  14. Complicity to Hegemonic Masculinity in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Subrayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Men have long been associated with dominance, strength and confidence and the issue regarding being compliant to the acceptable masculine ideal has always been part of a culture’s social identity. This study focuses on the critical discussion on masculinity studies in the classic fiction of D.H Lawrence.  Drawing on narrative data from his novel Sons and Lovers (1913, the study examines how hegemonic masculinity is conformed by the male protagonist, Walter Morel, in his gendered relationship. More specifically, the analysis focuses on how the male character aligns himself with the hegemonically authoritarian philosophy of ‘tough’ masculinity. The effects of social practices and socio-historical context in which Lawrence wrote these novels are also examined. The study utilises Connell’s theory of hegemonic masculinity to explicate Lawrence’s depiction of dominant masculinity through his character. The findings reveal that Lawrence aligns his male protagonist to the dominant role by sanctioning aggressiveness, autonomy and violence. Keywords: Hegemonic Masculinity, Dominant Masculinity, Patriarchy, Gender, Power

  15. Une pensée en action du son au théâtre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Quéinnec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En cherchant à ne plus soumettre le son à l’action dramatique, le statut de la dramaturgie théâtrale (textuelle et scénique se met à dériver. Un glissement de la pensée comme de la pratique qui appelle une écoute à d’autres références théoriques et méthodologiques. Cet article s’appuie sur une recherche création en dramaturgie sonore qui explore la notion d’intermédialité et la création performative au théâtre. Un vécu expérientiel de la matérialité sonore (texte, objet, espace qui développe un concept que nous nommons « dramaturgie informe » car le théâtre contemporain devenu matière vive et complexe s’avère difficile à isoler pour être défini.

  16. A Novel Stochastic Learning Automata Based SON Interference Mitigation Framework for 5G HetNets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Qureshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet are an important aspect of 5th generation mobile communication systems. They consists of high power macrocells along with low power cells i.e. picocells and femtocells to fill up macrocell coverage gaps. HetNet permit deployment of femtocells by users for added flexibility, but then interference issues between neighbouring cells have to be addressed as all femtocells use the same frequency channels for transmission. To mitigate this problem, LTE-A standard offers two new features, one is carrier aggregation in which Component Carriers (CC form the basic aggregate units shared among cells and the other is enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Co-ordination (eICIC through X2 interface. The physical implementation of these features is left open to research. This paper investigates two distinct techniques for orthogonal CC selection through Stochastic Cellular Learning Automata (SCLA to improve the QoS performance of a femtocell. The first, technique uses SCLA with user feedback, and the second technique uses SCLA with a central publishing server where all cells upload their past used CC vectors. SCLA methods are better suited for Self Organizing Network (SON as they do not require synchronized cell coordination, have low complexity and have good optimization characteristics. The simulation results show that the techniques enhance the cell edge performance considerably.

  17. Los saberes indígenas son patrimonio de la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Narciso Jamioy Muchavisoy

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Bajo la premisa de que narrar en pocas palabras los saberes milenarios de los distintos pueblos es irrespetuoso e irresponsable, ya que se puede caer en interpretaciones superficiales y erradas sobre aquellos conocimientos que para ellos son sagrados, el autor se limita a presentar un panorama muy general de cómo dichos conocimientos generan vida e identidad en las nuevas generaciones mediante procesos de tradición oral por los padres, abuelos, tíos y, en especial, por los ancianos sabedores de los pueblos y comunidades indígenas. La explicación es fruto de sus experiencias como hijo de una familia que conservó la tradición Kamëntsá, como acompañante en algunas actividades de reflexión realizadas con voceros del ordennacional y con las comunidades de los pueblos Arhuaco, Paéz, Guambiano,Pastos, Ticuna, Cofán e Inga. Así mismo, de sus vivencias como estudian- te, docente de colegio, catedrático universitario e investigador.

  18. A Novel Dynamic Adjusting Algorithm for Load Balancing and Handover Co-Optimization in LTE SON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yu Li; Xiang Zhang; Shu-Cong Jia; Xin-Yu Gu; Lin Zhang; Xiao-Yu Duan; Jia-Ru Lin

    2013-01-01

    With the development of mobile internet and multi-media service,advanced techniques need to be applied in wireless network to improve user experience.Long term evolution (LTE) systems,which can offer up to 100Mbps downlink date rates,have been deployed in USA and Korea.However,because plenty of complex physical layer algorithms are utilized,network planning and optimization become heavy burdens for LTE network operators.Self-organizing network (SON) is a promising method to overcome this problem by automatically selecting and adjusting key parameters in LTE systems.In this paper,we present a dynamic adjusting algorithm to improve both handover and load balancing performance by introducing a weighted co-satisfaction factor (CSF).Analysis and system level simulation are conducted to exhibit the performance improvement of the proposed scheme.Results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional solutions in terms of the network handover success ratio and load balancing gains significantly.

  19. Violencia cometida por los adolescentes en la familia o cuando son los hijos los que maltratan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Morales Ortega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio de tipo cualitativo, de corte deductivo, se propuso realizar un acercamiento al fenómeno de la violencia ejercida por los jóvenes menores de 18 años en el ámbito familiar, para establecer su ocurrencia en la ciudad de Barranquilla, Colombia, describir las características de los jóvenes implicados, la dinámica familiar y algunos aspectos del entorno social que podrían estar facilitando la ocurrencia de la misma. El estudio fue realizado en el Centro de Reeducación del Adolescente Infractor "Oasis", de esta ciudad; se examinaron expedientes de jóvenes judicializados por los delitos de violencia intrafamiliar, hurto, lesiones personales y daño en bien ajeno, donde la víctima había sido un familiar; igualmente, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con profundidad a madres de jóvenes que al momento de la investigación se hallaban internos en el centro por violencia en la familia. Los resultados indican que son pocos los estudios criminológicos realizados sobre el tema; se trata de jóvenes con edades promedio de 14 a 17 años, provenientes de familias desintegradas, con carencias tanto materiales como afectivas, con dinámicas y estilos de crianza inadecuados; es frecuente en estos jóvenes el consumo de sustancias alucinógenas o alcohol.

  20. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  1. The role of God in the father/son relationship during identity formation – a Gestalt theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Grobler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research done within the Afrikaansspeaking community in the area of the Drakenstein Municipality, Western Cape province, South Africa. The focus falls specifically on one concept that was outlined during the research, namely the perceptions of fathers and adolescent sons on identity formation within their relationship as well as the role that God plays. Combined qualitative/quantitative research was conducted with emphasis on semi-structured interviews with fathers (n=4 and adolescent boys (n=4 and an auto-ethnography of the author as the dominant component. The lessdominant quantitative component consisted of questionnaires completed by fathers (n=42 and adolescent boys (n=180. Metatheoretical assumptions and theoretical assumptions as grounding for the male identity are discussed as part of the author’s paradigmatic perspective. Furthermore, empirical findings are discussed and recommendations are made. From the discussions with fathers and their sons it was clear that both fathers and sons have a need to stand in close relationship to each other and to God. It is within this relationship where their identities are formed. However, fathers seemed to be resistant of transferring their beliefs to their sons. Adolescent boys also indicated no need to one day transfer learned behaviour from their fathers to their sons.

  2. Analytical Modeling of SON MOSFET and Realization Inverter Circuit for High Speed and Ultra Dense Low Power Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousik Naskar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been considerable interest in the realization of high speed, small-size and low-power consuming devices and systems. As a consequence, the search for new principle of operation of the small-size, high speed and low-power device is becoming more and more important. In our earlier paper, it has been established that SON technology, not only improve the dc performance with reduce a short-channel effect and threshold voltage, it also improves the frequency response due to improvement in conductance and reduced parasitic effect. Further, it is already in our knowledge that SCEs are suppressed in dual material gate MOSFETs because of the perceivable step in the surface-potential profile, which screens the drain potential. The concept of dual material gate has been applied to SON MOSFETs structure and the features exhibited by resulting new SON structure has been examined for the first time by developing an analytical model and the result agree well with the MEDICI simulation values. In order to substantiate the merits of the proposed SON MOSFETs, a MOS Inverter is realized using the SON MOSFETs and its performance is investigated as an aid to the high-speed, ultra-dense and low-power circuit related work.

  3. The Gelfand-Zeitlin integrable system and its action on generic elements of gl(n) and so(n)

    CERN Document Server

    Colarusso, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In recent work Bertram Kostant and Nolan Wallach ([KW1], [KW2]) have defined an interesting action of a simply connected Lie group $A$ isomorphic to \\mathbb{C}^{{n\\choose 2}} on gl(n) using a completely integrable system derived from Gelfand-Zeitlin theory. In this paper we show that an analogous action of \\mathbb{C}^{d} exists on the complex orthogonal Lie algebra so(n), where d is half the dimension of a regular adjoint orbit in so(n). In [KW1], Kostant and Wallach describe the orbits of $A$ on a certain Zariski open subset of regular semisimple elements in gl(n). We extend these results to the case of so(n). We also make brief mention of the author's results in [Col1], which describe all $A$-orbits of dimension {n\\choose 2} in gl(n).

  4. Design and Analysis of a High Speed, Power Efficient 8 Bit ALU Based on SOI / SON MOSFET Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhramita Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an overall performance comparative analysis in terms of Average Power Consumption, Average Delay and Power-Delay Product for an 8 bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU using bulk MOS, Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI and Silicon-on-Nothing (SON technology. The entire design is done in 32nm technology for all the three cases (Bulk, SOI & SON and then compared. The comparisons have been carried out with the help of the simulation runs on Synopsys HSpice tool, and that clearly indicates, for lower Supply Voltages (Vdd, SOI / SON technology provides a significant reduction in Average Power Consumption, Average Delay and Power-Delay Product compared to that of Bulk MOS technology.

  5. A Possible Link Between the Pubertal Growth of Girls and Prostate Cancer in Their Sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, DAVID J.P.; OSMOND, CLIVE; THORNBURG, KENT L.; KAJANTIE, EERO; ERIKSSON, JOHAN G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Among women attending antenatal clinics during 1934–1944 a large intercristal diameter, the maximum distance between the pelvic iliac crests, was associated with a raised incidence of breast and ovarian cancer in the daughters in later life. At puberty, the intercristal diameter of girls enlarges rapidly under the influence of estrogen. We speculated that high maternal estrogen concentrations during pregnancy initiate hormonal cancers in their daughters. Here, we examine the association between the mothers’ intercristal diameters and prostate cancer in their sons. Methods Using the national cancer registry we identified 221 cases of prostate cancer among 6,975 men born during 1934–1944 in Helsinki, Finland. Four thousand four hundred and one of these men had their mother’s bony pelvic measurements recorded: there were 149 cases among them. Results Hazard ratios for prostate cancer rose as the mother’s intercristal diameter increased; but this association was restricted to men who were born before 40 weeks of gestation. Among these men the hazard ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.09–1.48; P = 0.002). The hazard ratio was 2.2 (1.3–3.7; P < 0.001) in men whose mothers weighed more than 80 kg in late pregnancy compared with those whose mothers weighed 60 kg or less. Conclusions These findings are consistent with a conceptual framework for the origins of hormonally dependent cancers that invokes exposure of embryonic tissue to maternal sex hormones followed by resetting of the fetal hypothalamic-gonadotropin axis in late gestation. We hypothesize that compensatory prepubertal growth among girls is associated with hormonal cancers in the next generation. PMID:22287160

  6. ¿Son los Planes de Desarrollo un mecanismo eficaz para el fortalecimiento de las democracias participativas?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El autor se interroga acerca de si el Consejo Nacional de Planeación, al igual que los consejos territoriales, son escenarios para el ejercicio de la democracia y si su participación, en la construcción de los planes de desarrollo, constituye un instrumento eficaz para su fortalecimiento o son, por el contrario, un espejismo en la praxis de la democracia en Colombia. En la primera parte se mencionan algunas versiones de democracia desde Lincoln, pasando por las versiones de Tocqueville, Shump...

  7. Son de mar : Aproximación al universo narrativo de Manuel Vicent

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Margarita Maria

    2014-01-01

    Son de mar –premio Alfaguara 1999– es una novela que se ubica aproximadamente “nel mezzo del camin” de la producción narrativa de Manuel Vicent, a 33 años de la publicación de su primer obra, El resuello (1966). Son de mar es una novela de la madurez, y en ella podemos analizar algunas cuestiones que caracterizan el universo narrativo de Vicent, universo que incluye novelas, relatos, artículos y columnas periodísticas recopiladas y publicadas en libros. El término universo apunta a una noción...

  8. EGFR-targeted plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles suppress lung tumor growth by abrogating G2/M cell-cycle arrest and inducing DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Shinji; Tam, Justina; Roth, Jack A; Sokolov, Konstantin; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (225-NP) produce a therapeutic effect in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of 225-NP-mediated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo using the EGFR-mutant HCC827 cell line. Methods The growth inhibitory effect of 225-NP on lung tumor cells was determined by cell viability and cell-cycle analysis. Protein expression related to autophagy, apoptosis, and DNA-damage were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted using a human lung tumor xenograft mouse model. Results The 225-NP treatment markedly reduced tumor cell viability at 72 hours compared with the cell viability in control treatment groups. Cell-cycle analysis showed the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase was reduced when treated with 225-NP, with a concomitant increase in the number of cells in Sub-G1 phase, indicative of cell death. Western blotting showed LC3B and PARP cleavage, indicating 225-NP-treatment activated both autophagy- and apoptosis-mediated cell death. The 225-NP strongly induced γH2AX and phosphorylated histone H3, markers indicative of DNA damage and mitosis, respectively. Additionally, significant γH2AX foci formation was observed in 225-NP-treated cells compared with control treatment groups, suggesting 225-NP induced cell death by triggering DNA damage. The 225-NP-mediated DNA damage involved abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint by inhibiting BRCA1, Chk1, and phospho-Cdc2/CDK1 protein expression. In vivo therapy studies showed 225-NP treatment reduced EGFR phosphorylation, increased γH2AX foci, and induced tumor cell apoptosis, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. Conclusion The 225-NP treatment induces DNA damage and abrogates G2/M phase of the cell cycle, leading to cellular apoptosis and suppression of lung tumor growth

  9. EGFR-targeted plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles suppress lung tumor growth by abrogating G2/M cell-cycle arrest and inducing DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Kuroda,1 Justina Tam,2 Jack A Roth,1 Konstantin Sokolov,2 Rajagopal Ramesh3–5 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 2Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Pathology, 4Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, 5Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Background: We have previously demonstrated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (225-NP produce a therapeutic effect in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of 225-NP-mediated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo using the EGFR-mutant HCC827 cell line. Methods: The growth inhibitory effect of 225-NP on lung tumor cells was determined by cell viability and cell-cycle analysis. Protein expression related to autophagy, apoptosis, and DNA-damage were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted using a human lung tumor xenograft mouse model. Results: The 225-NP treatment markedly reduced tumor cell viability at 72 hours compared with the cell viability in control treatment groups. Cell-cycle analysis showed the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase was reduced when treated with 225-NP, with a concomitant increase in the number of cells in Sub-G1 phase, indicative of cell death. Western blotting showed LC3B and PARP cleavage, indicating 225-NP-treatment activated both autophagy- and apoptosis-mediated cell death. The 225-NP strongly induced γH2AX and phosphorylated histone H3, markers indicative of DNA damage and mitosis, respectively. Additionally, significant γH2AX foci formation was observed in 225-NP-treated cells compared with control treatment groups, suggesting 225-NP induced cell death by triggering DNA damage. The 225-NP-mediated DNA damage involved abrogation of the

  10. Inhibition of lanthanide nanocrystal-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by a surface coating peptide through abrogation of ROS production and TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Han; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liu; Xu, Youcui; Liu, Xi; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Pengfei; Jin, Peipei; Wen, Long-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Lanthanide-based nanoparticles (LNs) hold great promise in medicine. A variety of nanocrystals, including LNs, elicits potent inflammatory response through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We have previously identified an LNs-specific surface coating peptide RE-1, with the sequence of 'ACTARSPWICG', which reduced nanocrystal-cell interaction and abrogated LNs-induced autophagy and toxicity in both HeLa cells and liver hepatocytes. Here we show that RE-1 coating effectively inhibited LNs-induced inflammasome activation, mostly mediated by NLRP3, in mouse bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) cells, human THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages and also reduced LNs-elicited inflammatory response in vivo. RE-1 coating had no effect on cellular internalization of LNs in BMDM cells, in contrast to the situation in HeLa cells where cell uptake of LNs was significantly inhibited by RE-1. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammasome-inhibiting effect of RE-1, we assessed several parameters known to influence nanocrystal-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. RE-1 coating did not reduce potassium efflux, which occurred after LNs treatment in BMDM cells and was necessary but insufficient for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. RE-1 did decrease lysosomal damage induced by LNs, but the inhibitor of cathepsin B did not affect LNs-elicited caspase 1 activation and IL-1β release, suggesting that lysosomal damage was not critically important for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. On the other hand, LNs-induced elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), critically important for inflammasome activation, was largely abolished by RE-1 coating, with the reduction on NADPH oxidase-generated ROS playing a more prominent role for RE-1's inflammasome-inhibiting effect than the reduction on mitochondria-generated ROS. ROS generation further triggered Ca(2+) influx, an event that was mediated by Transient Receptor Potential M2 (TRPM2) and was

  11. Por qué ser justos. ¿Son las normas de justicia sociales o morales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez López, Blanca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been a good amount of theoretical work around the concept of social norm. The work of Cristina Bicchieri and Jon Elster has been specially interesting and intense in this field. Although their respective approaches present substantive differences, they both agree in defining social norms in contrast with other related concepts, such as moral norms. Notwithstanding this basic agreement, they disagree when classifying norms of justice. For Bicchieri these are social norms, while Elster’s view is more complex and he classifies different norms of justice in different categories: some are social while others are semi moral o moral. In this paper I focus on the treatment of one specific norm of justice, the norm of egalitarian distribution, which is a social norm for Bichieri but a moral norm from Elster’s view. With the aid of some recent experiments, I conclude that Elster’s view is more promising, at least when analyzing this particular norm.Durante los últimos años, el concepto de norma social ha sido objeto de un intenso trabajo teórico, en el que cabe destacar las aportaciones de Cristina Bicchieri y Jon Elster. Pese a las diferencias de sus respectivos planteamientos, ambos coinciden en definir el concepto por oposición a otro tipo de normas, en especial las morales. Este acuerdo no impide, sin embargo, que clasifiquen las normas de justicia de manera diferente: mientras que para Bicchieri se trata de normas sociales, Elster clasifica distintas normas de justicia en distintas categorías (sociales, cuasi morales y morales.En este trabajo, y con ayuda de algunos experimentos recientes, se analiza el caso de una norma de justicia, la norma de reparto igualitario, y se defiende que, pese a que los experimentos no son concluyentes, hay algunos factores que apuntan a la mayor validez de la teoría de Elster para el tratamiento y la conceptualización de esta norma.

  12. Le developpement de flexorage et son devenir industriel The Development of Flexodrilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery J. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après un rappel des avantages et inconvénients comparés du forage rotary et du flexoforage, cet article retrace l'historique du développement, par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP du flexoforage. La première période a vu la mise au point du flexoforage léger, et son application à la reconnaissance des fonds marins. Dans la deuxième phase, les composants principaux du flexoforage profond ont été créés par l'IFP et expérimentés en URSS dans le cadre d'un accord de coopération franco-soviétique. La troisième phase du développement correspond en fait, à l'industrialisation du procédé. Elle a été marquée, en 1974, par la création de la société Foraflex et la réalisation de deux campagnes de forage pour la compagnie Nam à Groningue. L'article décrit les étapes actuellement en cours de cette industrialisation et les perspectives relatives au devenir industriel du procédé. After reviewing the comparative advantages of rotary drilling and flexodrilling, this article tracesthe historical developmentof flexodrilling by Institut Français du Pétrole(IFP. During the first phase, light flexodrilling was developed and applied ta seabed reconnaissance. In the second phase, IFP created the main components of deep flexodrilling which were experimented in lheSoviet Union under the terms of the French-Soviet Cooperation Agreement. The third phase of development actually corresponds to the industrialization of the process. In 1974 is was mdrked by the creation of Société Floraflex and two drilling campaigns for Nom at Groningen,the Netherlands. The article describes the current stages of this industrialization and the industrial outlook for the process.

  13. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Change and Continuity in their Relationships with Young Adult Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Christine M.; Helms, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by contemporary feminist revisions of individual theories on adolescent development, interviews with 142 parent dyads were conducted to better understand the variation in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of changes and continuities in their relationships with their firstborn young adult sons and daughters. A between-families content…

  14. Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus sons and daughters acquire song elements of mothers and social fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is regarded as a classic example of a sexually-selected trait and has been primarily studied in systems with male song. Complex solo female song is emerging from the shadows of overlooked phenomena. In males, rearing conditions affect male song complexity, and males with complex songs are often more successful at mate attraction and territorial defense. Little is known about the ontogeny or function of complex female song. Here we examine song elements in fledgling superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus in relation to the song elements of adult tutors. Male and female superb fairy-wrens produce solo song year-round to defend a territory. We ask if sons and daughters acquire song elements from sex-specific vocal tutors. We found that sons and daughters produced the song elements of their mothers and social fathers, and that sons and daughters had comparable song element repertoires at age 7-10 weeks. We conclude that sons and daughters increase their song element repertoire when vocally imitating elements from several vocal tutors, and that both sexes acquire elements from male and female vocal tutors in this system.

  15. Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence: Relations with Mother-Son Relationship Quality and Maternal Regulatory Support and Antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fitzpatrick, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine relations among maternal regulatory support, maternal antagonism, and mother-son relationship quality in relation to boys' self-regulation during early adolescence. As part of a larger longitudinal study on 263 low-income, ethnically diverse boys, multiple informants and methods were used to…

  16. 77 FR 72906 - Chessie Logistics Co., LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-J. Emil Anderson & Son, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Chessie Logistics Co., LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- J. Emil Anderson & Son, Inc. Chessie Logistics Co., LLC (Chessie), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of... copy of each pleading must be served on Ariel A. Erbacher, Legal Counsel, Chessie Logistics Co.,...

  17. Literature as an exploration of the phenomenology of schizophrenia: disorder and recovery in Denis Johnson's Jesus' Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Fogley, Rebecca L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-12-01

    When read as a fictional psychosis narrative, Jesus' Son, a collection of short stories by Denis Johnson, reveals important elements of the phenomenology of schizophrenia and recovery. It is possible that Jesus' Son, as a work of fiction, may be able to uniquely add depth and nuance to an understanding of the phenomenology of schizophrenia involving a state of psychological fragmentation, an ever-changing interpersonal field and a loss of personal agency. In addition, by following the protagonist in Jesus' Son as he begins to resolve some of his difficulties, the book also offers an individualised account of recovery. The authors detail how the book reveals these insights about schizophrenia and recovery and suggest that these elements are intertwined in such a manner that leads to a profound disruption of self-experience, characterised by a collapse of metacognitive processes. Jesus' Son may add depth to our understanding of the subjective experience of schizophrenia and recovery, and also may serve as one example in which the study of humanities offers an opportunity to explore the human elements in the most profound forms of suffering.

  18. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  19. A two-dimensional analytical-model-based comparative threshold performance analysis of SOI-SON MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjoy Deb; Saptarsi Ghosh; N Basanta Singh; A K De; Subir Kumar Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    A generalized threshold voltage model based on two-dimensional Poisson analysis has been developed for SOI/SON MOSFETs.Different short channel field effects,such as fringing fields,junction-induced lateral fields and substrate fields,are carefully investigated,and the related drain-induced barrier-lowering effects are incorporated in the analytical threshold voltage model.Through analytical model-based simulation,the threshold voltage roll-off and subthreshold slope for both structures are compared for different operational and structural parameter variations.Results of analytical simulation are compared with the results of the ATLAS 2D physicsbased simulator for verification of the analytical model.The performance of an SON MOSFET is found to be significantly different from a conventional SOI MOSFET.The short channel effects are found to be reduced in an SON,thereby resulting in a lower threshold voltage roll-offand a smaller subthreshold slope.This type of analysis is quite useful to figure out the performance improvement of SON over SOI structures for next generation short channel MOS devices.

  20. Pathways to Prevention: Improving Nonresident African American Fathers' Parenting Skills and Behaviors to Reduce Sons' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonakos, Cathy L.; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E. Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8-to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group…

  1. CK2 abrogates the inhibitory effects of PRH/HHEX on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion and acts through PRH to control cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Y H; Kershaw, R M; Humphreys, E H; Assis Junior, E M; Chaudhri, S; Jayaraman, P-S; Gaston, K

    2017-01-01

    PRH/HHEX (proline-rich homeodomain protein/haematopoietically expressed homeobox protein) is a transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Our previous work has shown that in haematopoietic cells, Protein Kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of PRH results in the inhibition of PRH DNA-binding activity, increased cleavage of PRH by the proteasome and the misregulation of PRH target genes. Here we show that PRH and hyper-phosphorylated PRH are present in normal prostate epithelial cells, and that hyper-phosphorylated PRH levels are elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and prostate cancer cell lines. A reduction in PRH protein levels increases the motility of normal prostate epithelial cells and conversely, PRH over-expression inhibits prostate cancer cell migration and blocks the ability of these cells to invade an extracellular matrix. We show that CK2 over-expression blocks the repression of prostate cancer cell migration and invasion by PRH. In addition, we show that PRH knockdown in normal immortalised prostate cells results in an increase in the population of cells capable of colony formation in Matrigel, as well as increased cell invasion and decreased E-cadherin expression. Inhibition of CK2 reduces PRH phosphorylation and reduces prostate cell proliferation but the effects of CK2 inhibition on cell proliferation are abrogated in PRH knockdown cells. These data suggest that the increased phosphorylation of PRH in prostate cancer cells increases both cell proliferation and tumour cell migration/invasion. PMID:28134934

  2. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRAJEET GHODKE; K MUNIYAPPA

    2016-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in double-strandbreak (DSB) repair, replication stress and telomere length maintenance. Another protein linked to DSB repair is Sae2,which regulates MRX persistence at DSBs. However, very little is known about its role in DNA replication stress andrepair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when combined with Δmre11 or nuclease-defective mre11 mutantalleles, the double mutants are considerably more sensitive suggesting that the sae2 mutations synergize with mre11mutations. Biochemical studies demonstrate that Sae2 exists as a dimer in solution, associates preferentially withsingle-stranded and branched DNA structures, exhibits structure-specific endonuclease activity and cleaves thesesubstrates from the 5′ end. Furthermore, we show that the nuclease activity is indeed intrinsic to Sae2. Interestingly,sae2G270D protein possesses DNA-binding activity, but lacks detectable nuclease activity. Altogether, our data suggesta direct role for Sae2 nuclease activity in processing of the DNA structures that arise during replication and DNAdamage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying Mre11-Sae2-mediated abrogation of replication stress-relateddefects in S. cerevisiae.

  3. Cutting edge: trans-signaling via the soluble IL-6R abrogates the induction of FoxP3 in naive CD4+CD25 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominitzki, Sabine; Fantini, Massimo C; Neufert, Clemens; Nikolaev, Alexei; Galle, Peter R; Scheller, Jürgen; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rose-John, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2007-08-15

    Chronic inflammatory diseases may develop when regulatory T cells (Tregs) fail to control the balance between tolerance and immunity. Alternatively, activated immune cells might prevent the induction or activation of Tregs in such diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that trans-signaling into T cells via the soluble IL-6 receptor completely abrogates the de novo induction of adaptive Tregs. Mechanistically, IL-6 trans-signaling augmented the expression of the TGF-beta signaling inhibitor SMAD7. Consequently, SMAD7 overexpression in T cells using newly created transgenic mice rendered CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells resistant to the induction of FoxP3. Finally, IL-6 trans-signaling inhibited Treg-mediated suppression in a murine model of colitis. In summary, IL-6 trans-signaling into T cells emerges as a key pathway for blockade of the development of adaptive Tregs and thus may play a pivotal role in shifting the balance between effector and regulatory T cell numbers in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  4. ¿Son seres humanos los puentes de fábrica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauder, E.

    2006-03-01

    éndole cualidades humanas a lo largo de su ciclo vital, a la vez que desempeña el papel de creador, padre, defensor, médico o psicólogo según las situaciones en que se encuentre o los problemas a que se enfrente su puente-hijo. Además, se quiere poner de manifiesto que la abundante utilización de esta metáfora y las correspondencias terminológicas derivadas de ella no son un fenómeno extraño, sino el resultado lógico de la interdisciplinaridad natural entre la técnica constructiva, la medicina (psicología incluida, la terminología y el lenguaje.

  5. High expression of c-kit mRNA predicts unfavorable outcome in adult patients with t(8;21 acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Gao

    Full Text Available The reason that a certain subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients with t(8;21 translocation (generating the AML1/ETO fusion gene displays a poor survival remains elusive. The proto-oncogene c-kit is expressed in approximately 80% of AML cases. The kinase domain mutation of the c-kit gene, one of the most common gain-of-function mutations associated with t(8;21 AML, predicts higher relapse risk and poor prognosis. However, the role of c-kit high expression in t(8;21 AML remains poorly understood. Here we evaluated the prognostic significance of c-kit expression levels in AML patients. The mRNA expression of c-kit was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 132 adult AML patients. Patients were grouped into quartiles according to c-kit expression levels (Q1-Q4, each quartile containing 25% of patients and divided into c-kit high (Q4; n = 33 and c-kit low (Q1-Q3; n = 99. High c-kit expression was associated with AML1/ETO-positive and with c-kit mutation. Of note, 35.8% of the AML1/ETO-positive AML patients carrying wild-type c-kit expressed high levels of c-kit, suggesting that other factors are involved in c-kit overexpression. High c-kit expression was associated with inferior overall and event-free survival in AML1/ETO-positive patients and was independently predictive for overall and event-free survival in multivariate analyses in a c-kit mutation-independent manner. Thus, high c-kit expression serves as a reliable molecular marker for poor prognosis, supporting a pathogenetic role of c-kit signaling in AML1/ETO-positive AML. AML1/ETO-positive patients with high c-kit expression might benefit from early treatment modifications and molecular target therapies.

  6. Compared study of the local structure of alteration products of SON 68 glass and natural gels; Etude comparee de la structure locale des produits d'alteration du verre SON 68 et de gels naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrin, E

    2000-07-01

    This study is a contribution in the understanding of the long time behavior of alteration products of the glass SON 68, used to simulate the nuclear glass R7T7. The local structure around Zirconium and iron has been probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy in altered surface layer of glass SON 68. Alteration products of this glass have been prepared for short (3 hours to 7 days) and long (17 months) time, using various indexes of saturation for the leaching solution with respect to the Si content of the glass (from 0 to 90 %). The evolution of the local structure around Fe has also been studied in recent and old natural ferric gels. Zr, Fe- L{sub 2,3} XANES and Zr, Fe-K EXAFS spectroscopies have shown that, in the pristine glass, these elements are connected to the polymeric network. Zr is found in an environment close to that of a zircon-silicate containing Na and Ca. Trivalent Fe is a network former. The leached layer of glass SON 68 is constituted of poorly ordered Zr-and Fe-(oxi-hydr)oxides that may have been formed by a mechanism of dissolution/precipitation; a relict phase with the same Zr local structure as that observed in the pristine glass, probably obtained thanks to in-situ solid condensation. The structural characteristics of the leached layer are observed from the first steps of alteration for Zr and Fe. Conversely to Fe, the structural status of Zr depends on the leaching kinetic as well as the contents of Ca and Si in the solid. Fe-K EXAFS results in recent natural ferri-hydrides present a clear structural similarity with that determined in glass SON 68 leached products. The study of old paleosols (between 1,800 and 200,000 years) has demonstrated the long time stability of ferric gels, although an increase of medium range order around Fe is seen. (author)

  7. Applicability of the SON-R 6-40 Non-verbal Intelligence Test in China%SON-R6-40非言语智力测验在中国的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平; 郭枝; 王茜; Peter Tellegen

    2014-01-01

    SON-R 6-40非言语智力测验是以非文字形式测量个体推理与空间能力的智力评估工具.研究旨在考查SON-R6-40在中国的适用性.根据全国人口分布,在中国六大行政区6至40岁年龄人群中施测了1721人,通过与荷兰/德国混合样本比较,分析该测验的跨文化等值水平.结果表明:(1)测验信度与结构跨样本一致,说明该测验在两种文化下结构等值;(2)多样本验证性因素分析证明了该测验的测量单位等值性.因此,SON-R 6-40适合在中国推广使用以及用于智力的跨文化比较研究.

  8. Insights into dynamic mitotic chromatin organization through the NIMA kinase suppressor SonC, a chromatin-associated protein involved in the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jennifer R; Facemyer, Eric M; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Ukil, Leena; Osmani, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex proteins SonA and SonB, the orthologs of mammalian RAE1 and NUP98, respectively, were identified in Aspergillus nidulans as cold-sensitive suppressors of a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential mitotic NIMA kinase (nimA1). Subsequent analyses found that sonB1 mutants exhibit temperature-dependent DNA damage sensitivity. To understand this pathway further, we performed a genetic screen to isolate additional conditional DNA damage-sensitive suppressors of nimA1. We identified two new alleles of SonA and four intragenic nimA mutations that suppress the temperature sensitivity of the nimA1 mutant. In addition, we identified SonC, a previously unstudied binuclear zinc cluster protein involved with NIMA and the DNA damage response. Like sonA and sonB, sonC is an essential gene. SonC localizes to nuclei and partially disperses during mitosis. When the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) undergoes mitotic condensation and removal from the nucleolus, nuclear SonC and histone H1 localize in a mutually exclusive manner with H1 being removed from the NOR region and SonC being absent from the end of the chromosome beyond the NOR. This region of chromatin is adjacent to a cluster of nuclear pore complexes to which NIMA localizes last during its progression around the nuclear envelope during initiation of mitosis. The results genetically extend the NIMA regulatory system to include a protein with selective large-scale chromatin location observed during mitosis. The data suggest a model in which NIMA and SonC, its new chromatin-associated suppressor, might help to orchestrate global chromatin states during mitosis and the DNA damage response.

  9. Exploring Mothers’ and Fathers’ Relationships with Sons Versus Daughters: Links to Adolescent Adjustment in Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers’ and fathers’ relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents’ division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents’ division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent–adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys. PMID:19779582

  10. Exploring Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Sons Versus Daughters: Links to Adolescent Adjustment in Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Delgado, Melissa Y; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2009-04-01

    Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers' and fathers' relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents' division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents' daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents' division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  12. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Bugel, L; Camilleri, L; Conrad, J M; De Gouvêa, A; Fisher, P H; Formaggio, J A; Jenkins, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kobilarcik, T R; Kopp, S; Kyle, G; Loinaz, W A; Mason, D A; Milner, R; Moore, R; Morfín, J G; Nakamura, M; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Olness, F I; Owens, J F; Pate, S F; Pronin, A; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Schellman, H; Schienbein, I; Syphers, M J; Tait, T M P; Takeuchi, T; Tan, C Y; Van de Water, R G; Yamamoto, R K; Yu, J Y

    2009-01-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  13. Kauffman Knot Invariant from SO(N) or Sp(N) Chern-Simons theory and the Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The expectation value of Wilson loop operators in three-dimensional SO(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory gives a known knot invariant: the Kauffman polynomial. Here this result is derived, at the first order, via a simple variational method. With the same procedure the skein relation for Sp(N) are also obtained. Jones polynomial arises as special cases: Sp(2), SO(-2) and SL(2,R). These results are confirmed and extended up to the second order, by means of perturbation theory, which moreover let us establish a duality relation between SO(+/-N) and Sp(-/+N) invariants. A correspondence between the firsts orders in perturbation theory of SO(-2), Sp(2) or SU(2) Chern-Simons quantum holonomies and the partition function of the Q=4 Potts Model is built.

  14. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Batra, P.; /Columbia U.; Bugel, Leonard G.; /Columbia U.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; /Columbia U.; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; /MIT; Jenkins, J.; /Northwestern U.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; /MIT; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  15. A Brief Introduction to Paul in Sons and Lovers——From Self-absence to Self-realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵机

    2008-01-01

    Paul,the main character in the novel Sons and Lovers,experiences a tough psychological development.At the beginning,he relies heavily on his mother and serves as the medium of her dream and ambitions,leading him to a lost self.Whereas,in his attempt,though it is painful,he finally finds a true self of his own maintaining a harmonious unity with various social relations.

  16. Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoar Md

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric β- amyloid (Aβ to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar Aβ is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible Aβ oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of Aβ aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against Aβ42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-β-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic Aβ oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different Aβ conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

  17. Betaine supplementation mitigates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative/nitrosative stress and suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Hanan; Medany, Azza El; Salam, Reem; Medany, Gamila El; Nayal, Omina A

    2015-02-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors. Its primary dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5mg/kg) deteriorated the kidney functions as reflected by elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident in cisplatin group by increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, reduced renal total antioxidant status and increased renal nitrite concentration. Cisplatin resulted in a decline in the concentrations of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in renal tissues. Renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also elevated. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were up-regulated in renal tissues as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis. Histopathological changes were observed in cisplatin group. Betaine supplementation (250 mg/kg/day) orally via gavage for 21 days prior to cisplatin injection was able to protect against deterioration in kidney function, abrogate the decline in antioxidants enzymes and suppressed the increase in TBARS, nitrite and TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, betaine inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation and improved the histological changes induced by cisplatin. Thus, the present study demonstrated the renoprotective nature of betaine by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in kidney tissues of cisplatin treated rats. Betaine could be a beneficial dietary supplement to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  18. TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1β but not abrogated by corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraw Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic persistent asthma is characterized by ongoing airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The processes leading to airway remodeling are poorly understood, and there is increasing evidence that even aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy does not completely prevent this process. We sought to investigate whether TGFβ1 stimulates bronchial epithelial cells to undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, and whether this transition can be abrogated by corticosteroid treatment or enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Methods BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 and expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and zymography. In some cases the epithelial cells were also incubated with corticosteroids or IL-1β. Results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B or primary human bronchial epithelial cells with TGFβ1 significantly reduced the expression level of the epithelial adherence junction protein E-cadherin. TGFβ1 then markedly induced mesenchymal marker proteins such as collagen I, tenascin C, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin mRNA in a dose dependant manner. The process of mesenchymal transition was accompanied by a morphological change towards a more spindle shaped fibroblast cell type with a more motile and invasive phenotype. Corticosteroid pre-treatment did not significantly alter the TGFβ1 induced transition but IL-1β enhanced the transition. Conclusion Our results indicate, that TGFβ1 can induce mesenchymal transition in the bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cells. Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFβ1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma.

  19. Interference of daratumumab in monitoring multiple myeloma patients using serum immunofixation electrophoresis can be abrogated using the daratumumab IFE reflex assay (DIRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Otten, Henny G; El Haddad, Omar; Axel, Amy; Sasser, A Kate; Croockewit, Sandra; Jacobs, Joannes F M

    2016-06-01

    Daratumumab is a fully human anti-CD38 IgG1-κ monoclonal antibody (mAb) currently being evaluated in several Phase 2 and 3 clinical studies for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In this clinical case study we demonstrate that daratumumab can be detected as an individual monoclonal band in serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). M-protein follow-up by IFE is part of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria to assess treatment response. Therefore, it is crucial that the daratumumab band is not confused with the endogenous M-protein of the patient during IFE interpretation. Moreover, a significant number of IgG-κ M-proteins co-migrate with daratumumab. Co-migration introduces a bias in the M-protein quantification since pharmacokinetic studies show that daratumumab peak plasma concentrations reach up to 1 g/L. More importantly, co-migration can mask clearance of the M-protein by IFE which is necessary for classification of complete response by IMWG criteria (negative serum IFE). For optimal M-protein monitoring the laboratory specialist needs to be informed when patients receive daratumumab, and it is essential that the laboratory specialist is aware that a slow migrating band in the γ-region in those patients may be derived from the daratumumab. A daratumumab specific IFE reflex assay (DIRA) has been developed and can be utilized to abrogate interference. The here described mAb interference is not limited to daratumumab, and as therapeutic antibodies gain approval and enter into common clinical practice, laboratory specialists will need additional processes to characterize IFE interference and distinguish endogenous M-protein from therapeutic antibodies.

  20. Salvia miltiorrhiza water-soluble extract, but not its constituent salvianolic acid B, abrogates LPS-induced NF-κB signalling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Narula, A S; Jobin, C

    2005-01-01

    Herbal medicine has become an increasing popular therapeutic alternative among patients suffering from various inflammatory disorders. The Salvia miltiorrhizae water-soluble extract (SME) have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. However, the mechanism of action and impact of SME on LPS-induced gene expression is still unknown. We report that SME significantly abrogated LPS-induced IκB phosphorylation/degradation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and ICAM-1 gene expression in rat IEC-18 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that LPS-induced RelA recruitment to the ICAM-1 gene promoter was inhibited by SME. Moreover, in vitro kinase assay showed that SME directly inhibits LPS induced IκB kinase (IKK) activity in IEC-18 cells. To investigate the physiological relevance of SME inhibitory activity on NF-κB signalling, we used small intestinal explants and primary intestinal epithelial cells derived from a transgenic mouse expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of NF-κB cis-elements (cis-NF-κBEGFP). SME significantly blocked LPS-induced EGFP expression and IκBα phosphorylation in intestinal explants and primary IECs, respectively. However, salvianolic acid B, an activate component of SME did not inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity and IκB phosphorylation/degradation in IEC-18 cells. These results indicate that SME blocks LPS-induced NF-κB signalling pathway by targeting the IKK complex in intestinal epithelial cells. Modulation of bacterial product-mediated NF-κB signalling by natural plant extracts may represent an attractive strategy towards the prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:15996193

  1. Abrogation of anti-retinal autoimmunity in IL-10 transgenic mice due to reduced T cell priming and inhibition of disease effector mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajeev K; Horai, Reiko; Viley, Angelia M; Silver, Phyllis B; Grajewski, Rafael S; Su, Shao Bo; Yazdani, Arrash T; Zhu, Wei; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Murray, Peter J; Rutschman, Robert L; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2008-04-15

    Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced by immunization of animals with retinal Ags is a model for human uveitis. The immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 regulates EAU susceptibility and may be a factor in genetic resistance to EAU. To further elucidate the regulatory role of endogenous IL-10 in the mouse model of EAU, we examined transgenic (Tg) mice expressing IL-10 either in activated T cells (inducible) or in macrophages (constitutive). These IL-10-Tg mice and non-Tg wild-type controls were immunized with a uveitogenic regimen of the retinal Ag interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Constitutive expression of IL-10 in macrophages abrogated disease and reduced Ag-specific immunological responses. These mice had detectable levels of IL-10 in sera and in ocular extracts. In contrast, expression of IL-10 in activated T cells only partially protected from EAU and marginally reduced Ag-specific responses. All IL-10-Tg lines showed suppression of Ag-specific effector cytokines. APC from Tg mice constitutively expressing IL-10 in macrophages exhibited decreased ability to prime naive T cells, however, Ag presentation to already primed T cells was not compromised. Importantly, IL-10-Tg mice that received interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-specific uveitogenic T cells from wild-type donors were protected from EAU. We suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IL-10 ameliorates the development of EAU by suppressing de novo priming of Ag-specific T cells and inhibiting the recruitment and/or function of inflammatory leukocytes, rather than by inhibiting local Ag presentation within the eye.

  2. Abrogating phosphorylation of eIF4B is required for EGFR and mTOR inhibitor synergy in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Julie M; Mueller, Kelly L; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Stemmer, Paul; Mattingly, Raymond R; Boerner, Julie L

    2014-09-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients suffer from a highly malignant and aggressive disease. They have a high rate of relapse and often develop resistance to standard chemotherapy. Many TNBCs have elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but are resistant to EGFR inhibitors as monotherapy. In this study, we sought to find a combination therapy that could sensitize TNBC to EGFR inhibitors. Phospho-mass spectrometry was performed on the TNBC cell line, BT20, treated with 0.5 μM gefitinib. Immunoblotting measured protein levels and phosphorylation. Colony formation and growth assays analyzed the treatment on cell proliferation, while MTT assays determined the synergistic effect of inhibitor combination. A Dual-Luciferase reporter gene plasmid measured translation. All statistical analysis was done on CalucuSyn and GraphPad Prism using ANOVAs. Phospho-proteomics identified the mTOR pathway to be of interest in EGFR inhibitor resistance. In our studies, combining gefitinib and temsirolimus decreased cell growth and survival in a synergistic manner. Our data identified eIF4B, as a potentially key fragile point in EGFR and mTOR inhibitor synergy. Decreased eIF4B phosphorylation correlated with drops in growth, viability, clonogenic survival, and cap-dependent translation. Taken together, these data suggest EGFR and mTOR inhibitors abrogate growth, viability, and survival via disruption of eIF4B phosphorylation leading to decreased translation in TNBC cell lines. Further, including an mTOR inhibitor along with an EGFR inhibitor in TNBC with increased EGFR expression should be further explored. Additionally, translational regulation may play an important role in regulating EGFR and mTOR inhibitor synergy and warrant further investigation.

  3. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadjavi, Amina [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Magnetto, Chiara [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino (Italy); Panariti, Alice [Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università di Milano Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Argenziano, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Gulino, Giulia Rossana [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Rivolta, Ilaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università di Milano Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Cavalli, Roberta [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Giribaldi, Giuliana [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guiot, Caterina [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Prato, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.prato@unito.it [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Sanità Pubblica e Pediatriche, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    Background: : In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. Objective: : To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. Methods: : HaCaT cells were treated for 24 h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Results: : Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Conclusion: : Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. - Highlights: • Hypoxia impairs MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP2/TIMP2 balances in HaCaT human keratinocytes. • Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) are internalised by HaCaT cells. • OLNs are not toxic to HaCaT cells. • OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP balances in HaCaT cells. • OLNs appear as promising and cost-effective therapeutic tools for hypoxic

  4. 养儿防老和母以子贵:是儿子还是儿女双全?%Old- age Support and Mother's Family Status. Sons Only or Both Sons and Daughters?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹银

    2012-01-01

    了解养儿防老、母以子贵等传统生育文化的影响对中国稳定低生育水平至关重要。使用2008年中国老年人健康因素跟踪调查数据,通过logistic回归分析子女性别对老年父亲、母亲生活质量(包括生活满意度和婚姻满意度)、家庭地位(包括经济决策权和自我决策权)的影响发现,儿子的作用大大下降,儿女双全除了增加老年父亲的婚姻满意度以外,并没有提高老年人的生活质量,养儿未必能防老;生育儿子或儿女双全并没有提高老年母亲的家庭地位,甚至有儿子的老年母亲的经济决策权还更低;老年人自身的社会经济因素显著提高了老年人的生活质量和家庭地位。养儿防老、母以子贵等传统生育文化影响逐渐减弱,这对中国稳定低生育水平是一个利好的消息。%It is important to study the influences of traditional fertility culture (such as old - age sup- port and mother' s status depending on sons) on China's fertility. Using 2008 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, the paper analyzes the impact of sex of children on life quality of elderly par- ents (including life satisfaction and marital satisfaction) and family status (including economic decision - making power and self decision - making authority). Regression results show that son' s influence has decreased. Having both sons and daughters does not improve life quality of the elderly parents, but increases marital satisfaction of the elderly fathers. Bringing up sons not necessarily provides sup- port for ageing parents. Having sons or both sons and daughters may not help to improve family status of the elderly mothers, and the elderly mothers having sons only have even lower economic decision - making power. Social and economic situation of the elderly significantly improves their life quality and family status. Thus, influences of traditional fertility culture have been gradually weakening

  5. BALTIMORE’S M.S. LEVY AND SONS: Straw Hat Makers to the World, 1870-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica I. Elfenbein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1860 to 1960, Baltimore was an important center of the men’s ready-to- wear clothing industries. German-speaking Jews created many businesses that manufactured and sold underwear, men’s suits, and specialty items like hats and umbrellas. The straw hat making firm started by M.S. Levy is an interesting example of a Baltimore-based, family-owned niche business that existedfor 90 years, through three generations ofa singlefamily. The M.S. Levy and Sons story has two main chapters. The first covers the period from its founding by Michael Simon Levy in the 1870s through his son Julius’ death in 1926. This is the story of ascension. A premonition about the coming popularity of straw hats, together with a small but important technological breakthrough, positioned a family and a small industry for significant expansion. The second period began in 1930 with the introduction of wool felt hats and the death of William, M.S. Levy’s oldest son, and includes the Great Depression, unionization, merger, third generation leadership, and finally, in 1959, the family’s withdrawal from the industry. This later period, as told by grandsons of the founder, is the story of struggle followed by decline.

  6. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  7. Effect of Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock on the dissolution rate of the SON68 simulated nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J., E-mail: James.Neeway@pnnl.gov [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Ribet, Solange; El Mendili, Yassine [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Schumacher, Stéphan [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Grambow, Bernd [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2015-04-15

    Long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste glass in France is expected to occur in an engineered barrier system (EBS) located in a subsurface Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock formation in the Paris Basin in northeastern France. Understanding the behavior of glass dissolution in the complex system is critical to be able to reliably model the performance of the glass in this complex environment. To simulate this multi-barrier repository scenario in the laboratory, several tests have been performed to measure glass dissolution rates of the simulated high-level nuclear waste glass, SON68, in the presence of COx claystone at 90 °C. Experiments utilized a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pump to pass simulated Bure site COx pore water through a reaction cell containing SON68 placed between two COx claystone cores for durations up to 200 days. Silicon concentrations at the outlet were similar in all experiments, even the blank experiment with only the COx claystone (∼4 mg/L at 25 °C and ∼15 mg/L at 90 °C). The steady-state pH of the effluent, measured at room temperature, was roughly 7.1 for the blank and 7.3–7.6 for the glass-containing experiments demonstrating the pH buffering capacity of the COx claystone. Dissolution rates for SON68 in the presence of the claystone were elevated compared to those obtained from flow-through experiments conducted with SON68 without claystone in silica-saturated solutions at the same temperature and similar pH values. Additionally, through surface examination of the monoliths, the side of the monolith in direct contact with the claystone was seen to have a corrosion thickness 2.5× greater than the side in contact with the bulk glass powder. Results from one experiment containing {sup 32}Si-doped SON68 also suggest that the movement of Si through the claystone is controlled by a chemically coupled transport with a Si retention factor, K{sub d}, of 900 mL/g.

  8. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV : unusual congenital anomalies in a mother and son with a COL3A1 mutation and a normal collagen III protein profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Pals, G; van Essen, AJ

    2003-01-01

    A mother and son with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV and unusual congenital anomalies are described. The congenital anomalies include, in the mother, amniotic band-like constrictions on one hand, a unilateral clubfoot, and macrocephaly owing to normal-pressure hydrocephaly and, in the son, an

  9. 75 FR 5359 - In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau... current and accurate information concerning the securities of L. Luria & Son, Inc. because it has...

  10. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Masaya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: hnishihara@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hideki [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tashiro, Masato [Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wang, Lei [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tsuda, Masumi [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.

  11. Activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways abrogates requirement for new protein synthesis for phorbol ester mediated induction of select MMP and TIMP genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara L; Nuttall, Robert K; Young, David A; Goldspink, Deborah; Clark, Ian M; Edwards, Dylan R

    2008-03-01

    The human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family includes 24 genes whose regulated expression, together with that of four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is essential in tissue remodelling and cell signalling. Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) analysis was used to evaluate the shared and unique patterns of control of these two gene families in human MRC-5 and WI-38 fibroblasts in response to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The requirement for ongoing translation was analysed using three protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin, cycloheximide and emetine. PMA induced MMP1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and TIMP1 and TIMP3 RNAs after 4-8 h, and induction of all except MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by all protein synthesis inhibitors. However, even though all inhibitors effectively blocked translation, PMA-induction of MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by emetine but was insensitive to cycloheximide and anisomycin. Anisomycin alone induced MMP9 and TIMP3, along with MMP25 and MMP19. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)-1/2 were strongly activated by PMA, while anisomycin activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways, and cycloheximide activated p38, but emetine had no effect on the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The involvement of the p38 and JNK pathways in the selective effects of anisomycin and cycloheximide on MMP/TIMP expression was supported by use of pharmacological inhibitors. These data confirm that most inducible MMPs and TIMP1 behave as "late" activated, protein synthesis-dependent genes in fibroblasts. However, the requirement of protein synthesis for PMA-induction of MMPs and TIMPs is not universal, since it is abrogated for MMP9 and TIMP3 by stimulation of the stress-activated MAPK pathways. The definition of clusters of co-regulated genes among the two gene families will aid in bioinformatic dissection of control mechanisms.

  12. Depo-provera treatment does not abrogate protection from intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with an attenuated AIDS virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Genescà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, progesterone treatment of female monkeys immunized with live, attenuated SHIV89.6 abrogated the generally consistent protection from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV challenge. The mechanisms responsible for the loss of protection remain to be defined. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Depo-Provera administration alters protection from intravenous SIV challenge in SHIV-immunized female macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two groups of female macaques were immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 and then challenged intravenously with SIVmac239. Four weeks before challenge, one animal group was treated with Depo-Provera, a commonly used injectable contraceptive progestin. As expected, SHIV-immunized monkeys had significantly lower peak and set-point plasma viral RNA levels compared to naïve controls, but in contrast to previously published findings with vaginal SIV challenge, the Depo-Provera SHIV-immunized animals controlled SIV replication to a similar, or even slightly greater, degree than did the untreated SHIV-immunized animals. Control of viral replication from week 4 to week 20 after challenge was more consistent in the progesterone-treated, SHIV-immunized animals than in untreated, SHIV-immunized animals. Although levels of interferon-gamma production were similar, the SIV-specific CD8(+ T cells of progesterone-treated animals expressed more functions than the anti-viral CD8(+ T cells from untreated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Depo-Provera did not diminish the control of viral replication after intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with a live-attenuated lentivirus. This result contrasts with the previously reported effect of Depo-Provera(R on protection from vaginal SIV challenge and strongly implies that the decreased protection from vaginal challenge is due to effects of progesterone on the genital tract rather than to systemic effects. Further, these results

  13. The BRCA1 variant p.Ser36Tyr abrogates BRCA1 protein function and potentially confers a moderate risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Charita M; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Kyratzi, Maria; Flouri, Christina; Neophytou, Ioanna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Loizidou, Maria A; Kyriacou, Kyriacos

    2014-01-01

    The identification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) in the BRCA1 gene complicates genetic counselling and causes additional anxiety to carriers. In silico approaches currently used for VUS pathogenicity assessment are predictive and often produce conflicting data. Furthermore, functional assays are either domain or function specific, thus they do not examine the entire spectrum of BRCA1 functions and interpretation of individual assay results can be misleading. PolyPhen algorithm predicted that the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr VUS identified in the Cypriot population was damaging, whereas Align-GVGD predicted that it was possibly of no significance. In addition the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr variant was found to be associated with increased risk (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.67, P = 0.02) in a single case-control series of 1174 cases and 1109 controls. We describe a cellular system for examining the function of exogenous full-length BRCA1 and for classifying VUS. We achieved strong protein expression of full-length BRCA1 in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The p.Ser36Tyr VUS exhibited low protein expression similar to the known pathogenic variant p.Cys61Gly. Co-precipitation analysis further demonstrated that it has a reduced ability to interact with BARD1. Further, co-precipitation analysis of nuclear and cytosolic extracts as well as immunofluorescence studies showed that a high proportion of the p.Ser36Tyr variant is withheld in the cytoplasm contrary to wild type protein. In addition the ability of p.Ser36Tyr to co-localize with conjugated ubiquitin foci in the nuclei of S-phase synchronized cells following genotoxic stress with hydroxyurea is impaired at more pronounced levels than that of the p.Cys61Gly pathogenic variant. The p.Ser36Tyr variant demonstrates abrogated function, and based on epidemiological, genetic, and clinical data we conclude that the p.Ser36Tyr variant is probably associated with a moderate breast cancer risk.

  14. La importancia del deporte y los eventos deportivos. ¿Son realmente dinamizadores socioeconómicos?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El deporte es una industria muy potente y transversal que genera muchos beneficios económicos y sociales. Uno de los grandes responsables de que el deporte produzca beneficios en la economía así como en la sociedad son los eventos deportivos. En el presente documento se introducirá el deporte como sector económico para tener una idea de lo amplio que es, quien interviene y hacia dónde se dirige; se analizará el impacto socioeconómico de los grandes eventos deportivos, aquellos eventos globale...

  15. Indicadores regionales de desarrollo sustentable en Chile: ¿Hasta qué punto son útiles y necesarios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Blanco

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez más necesitamos maneras de asegurar patrones de desarrollo que sean sustentables, es decir, que sean ambiental, social y económicamente apropiados para nosotros y para las generaciones venideras. Los indicadores de desarrollo sustentable son una herramienta promisoria que permitiría "aterrizar" el concepto de sustentabilidad, apoyando la manera en que se toman las decisiones. En Chile existen pocas experiencias sobre el tema. Este artículo presenta el trabajo realizado para desarrollar indicadores de desarrollo sustentable en cuatro regiones del país. El artículo se centra en las lecciones que han surgido de la experiencia

  16. Sons of the Buddha. Continuities and Ruptures in a Burmese Monastic Tradition, Jason A. Carbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Rozenberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Version sensiblement remaniée d’une thèse de doctorat, l’ouvrage de Jason Carbine envisage la « culture religieuse bouddhique birmane » sous l’angle de l’institution monastique, de ses représentations et de ses rouages. Il se concentre sur une branche particulière de la communauté monastique birmane, la branche Shwegyin, du nom du village natal de son fondateur, le moine Ashin Jāgara (1822-1894. Cette branche, établie vers 1860, comptait 40 000 membres (novices et moines en 1999, soit 10 % ...

  17. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  18. In the Name of the Son (and the Daughter): Intergenerational Mobility in the United States, 1850-1930

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a new perspective on intergenerational mobility in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. We devise an empirical strategy that allows to calculate intergenerational elasticities between fathers and children of both sexes. The key insight of our approach is that the information about socio-economic status conveyed by first names can be used to create a pseudo-link not only between fathers and sons, but also between fathers and daughters. The latter is ...

  19. "Daughter and son: a completely different story”? Gender as a moderator of the relationship between sexism and parental attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background During childhood, parents are the first and most important individuals who form the base of the content of gender stereotypes in children. A parent’s expectations about the extent a child’s behaviour should be line with gender stereotypes also depends on the intensity of a parent’s sexism. A parent’s sexism may be exhibited in parental attitudes. Hence, in our study we analysed the relationship between parental ambivalent sexism and parental attitudes within dyads of mothers and fathers with a special focus on the role of the gender of both parents and children. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-four couples of parents of five-year-olds (153 girls, 141 boys participated. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI was used to measure levels of sexism, and the Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR was used to assess parental attitudes. Results In terms of the profile of parental attitudes, regardless of the child’s sex, mothers and fathers scored highest for inconsequent and demanding attitudes, and lowest for overprotective and autonomy attitudes. The child’s sex is also not important for the overall levels of parents’ sexism – fathers exhibit higher levels of hostile sexism in comparison to mothers. Only the mothers’ education level is important for levels of sexism – women with higher education exhibited the lowest levels of hostile sexism. The child’s sex moderates relationships between parents’ sexism and parental attitudes. In the case of mothers of sons, the intensity of benevolent sexism is negatively related to overprotective and demanding attitudes. The more educated the mothers of sons, the more demanding they were. For fathers of sons, the inconsequence attitude increases under the influence of both hostile and benevolent sexism. Among fathers of daughters, hostile sexism strengthens the overprotective attitude, while levels of both benevolent and hostile sexism as well as education influence the

  20. "Los homosexuales no son como los champiñones. El problema del anacronismo en Historia de las Ciencias"

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez García, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Consideramos en principio que, del mismo modo que una persona puede caracterizarse por el color de su pelo o de sus ojos, puede ser también clasificada a partir de su “orientación sexual”, siendo así heterosexual, homosexual o bisexual. Es decir, estimamos que la orientación sexual es un rasgo “natural”, de modo que homosexuales, heterosexuales y bisexuales son otros tantos objetos naturales, del mismo modo que las manzanas, las piñas o los champiñones. Por eso, los biólogos que estudian el c...

  1. ¿Qué hogares colombianos son pobres? una aproximación desde la ECV del 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carolina Silva Arias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analizó los conceptos y medidas de pobreza. A partir de esta perspectiva, se estudió quiénes son pobres en Colombia y qué características de los hogares determinan dicha condición para el 2003. A partir de la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida, se realizó un análisis logit para identifi car y medir la incidencia de algunos factores en la probabilidad de que un hogar sea clasifi cado como pobre. Estas estimaciones mostraron que los hogares que tienen más probabilidad de considerarse como pobres son aquellos en los que los jefes de hogar eran analfabetas, mujeres, los que se ocuparon en labores agrícolas o que hacían parte de alguna etnia. Adicionalmente, se encontró que los hogares que tenían menores de 12 años tuvieron más de probabilidad de ser pobres. Finalmente, los hogares cuyo jefe de hogar tenía mayor nivel educativo, tenían menor probabilidad de ser pobres, siendo mayor el efecto educativo de su cónyuge.

  2. Application of the GRAAL model to leaching experiments with SON68 nuclear glass in initially pure water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P., E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.f [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Chave, T. [ICSM Site de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/ICSM/LSFC, UMR 5257, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Lartigue, J.-E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DTN/SMTM/LMTE, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-08-01

    Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass we have proposed a mechanistic model, GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) [P. Frugier, S. Gin, Y. Minet, T. Chave, B. Bonin, N. Godon, J.E. Lartigue, P. Jollivet, A. Ayral, L. De Windt, G. Santarini, J. Nucl. Mater. 380 (2008) 8]. This article describes how the GRAAL model hypotheses are solved using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport. The geochemical solution of this model combines three major phenomena: chemical equilibria in solution, water and ion transport by convection or diffusion, and element diffusion through the passivating reactive interphase. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, the glass surface area in contact with solution, and the solution renewal rate. This success is due to the fact that the diffusion of elements through the alteration gel is taken into account in the model. This mechanism cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution pH - and must therefore be an integral part of the geochemical model.

  3. Expression of Multiple Sexual Signals by Fathers and Sons in the East-Mediterranean Barn Swallow: Are Advertising Strategies Heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J.; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  4. Expression of multiple sexual signals by fathers and sons in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow: are advertising strategies heritable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Vortman

    Full Text Available The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva, in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions, but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index, rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals.

  5. SON 68 nuclear glass alteration kinetics between pH 7 and pH 11.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, S.; Mestre, J. P.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of the pH was investigated on the mechanisms of SON 68 (R7T7-type) glass alteration under `saturation' conditions in order to delimit the pH range within which a stable, protective gel is formed. Static experiments were conducted at 90°C with an S/ V ratio of 50 cm-1 at various imposed pH values: 7, 8, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11 and 11.5. An additional experiment was conducted with no restriction on the pH. The kinetic study showed that a protective gel formed in all the test media, although its stability was pH-dependent: at pH 11 or higher, the precipitation of a potassium and sodium aluminosilicate led to the degradation of the gel and the lose of its protective properties. This phenomenon resulted in renewed glass alteration, leading to complete and rapid degradation of the glass into alteration products. The aluminosilicate precipitation was found to be limited by the solubility of aluminum. Below pH 10, this type of secondary phase is unlikely to precipitate and the gel should remain stable. This study, based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, suggests that aqueous alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear glass results in the formation of a protective gel with long-term stability between pH 7 and pH 10.

  6. Aging parents' caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography.

  7. Aging parents’ caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  8. Targeting of MAPK-associated molecules identifies SON as a prime target to attenuate the proliferation and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa Toru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is characterized by constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Activation of MAPK is associated with the upregulation of genes implicated in the proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. We hypothesized that knockdown of these MAPK-associated molecules could produce notable anticancer phenotypes. Methods A RNA interference-mediated knockdown screening of 78 MAPK-associated molecules previously identified was performed to find molecules specifically associated with proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Expression of an identified molecule in pancreatic cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. In vivo tumorigenicity of cancer cells with stable knockdown of the molecule was assayed by using xenograft models. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging were employed to assess an association of the molecule with cell cycle. Results The knockdown screening revealed that knockdown of SON, the gene encoding SON, which is a large serine/arginine-rich protein involved in RNA processing, substantially suppressed pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and survival in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. SON expression was higher in ductal adenocarcinomas than in cells of normal ducts and precursor lesions in pancreatic cancer tissues. Knockdown of SON induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in cultured cancer cells. The suppressive effect of SON knockdown on proliferation was less pronounced in cultured normal duct epithelial cells. SON formed nuclear speckles in the interphase of the cell cycle and dispersed in the cytoplasm during mitosis. Live cell imaging showed that SON diffusely dispersed in the early mitotic phase, accumulated in some foci in the cytoplasm in the late mitotic phase, and gradually reassembled into speckles after mitosis. Conclusion These results indicate that SON plays a critical role in the proliferation, survival, and tumorigenicity of pancreatic

  9. It Is Necessary to Abrogate All the International Basic Standards of Seals%必需废除所有国际密封基础标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长祥; 张晓忠; 陈佑军

    2016-01-01

    According to the definitions in the international standard JCGM 200,physical quanti-ties are the quantifiable properties of phenomenon,obj ect,or material,which could be classified into two - basic quantity and export quantity.Basic quantity cannot be the one expressed by u-sing other quantity,and the export quantity is the one defined by using the basic quantity in its system,and the basic quantity and export quantity in its system are correlated with through law and its equation.In unit on international system,the sealing tightness,the leakage resistance,is the exported quantity established by sealing or leakage,and is the product of time t and pressure p,the time which is consumed by the leaked unit volume fluid in pressure vessel under constant pressure or in the system through sealed joint.Absolutely,it is not the reciprocal of “leakage rate”fabricated in existing international standard.The difference of inner pipe flow routing,the external obj ect flow routing and leakage flow routing is only their flow (leakage)resistance and reactance.It is hardly to make difference and control flow routing before the leakage resistance and reactance unknown.The international sealing basic standard has been set up under the condi-tion of the leakage resistance (tightness)and qualified sealing unknown,and thence how to de-sign,install and acceptance inspection of sealing.So,the basic standard cannot be relied upon to provide efficient control of pressure or system leakage.It is the must to abrogate it in a quick ac-tion.%按照国际标准JCGM 200定义,物理量是现象、物体或物质的可量化属性,可以分为基本量和导出量两种;基本量是不可用其它量表达的量,导出量是可用其系统基本量定义的量;系统内的基本量和导出量可以通过定律及其方程进行相关联。在国际单位制中,密封紧密度即漏阻是由密封或泄漏定律确立的导出量,是恒压状态下压力容器或系统穿过密

  10. Identification of the Adapter Molecule MTSS1 as a Potential Oncogene-Specific Tumor Suppressor in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirle Schemionek

    Full Text Available The adapter protein metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1 is implicated as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter, depending on the type of solid cancer. Here, we identified Mtss1 expression to be increased in AML subsets with favorable outcome, while suppressed in high risk AML patients. High expression of MTSS1 predicted better clinical outcome of patients with normal-karyotype AML. Mechanistically, MTSS1 expression was negatively regulated by FLT3-ITD signaling but enhanced by the AML1-ETO fusion protein. DNMT3B, a negative regulator of MTSS1, showed strong binding to the MTSS1 promoter in PML-RARA positive but not AML1-ETO positive cells, suggesting that AML1-ETO leads to derepression of MTSS1. Pharmacological treatment of AML cell lines carrying the FLT3-ITD mutation with the specific FLT3 inhibitor PKC-412 caused upregulation of MTSS1. Moreover, treatment of acute promyelocytic cells (APL with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA increased MTSS1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that MTSS1 might have a context-dependent function and could act as a tumor suppressor, which is pharmacologically targetable in AML patients.

  11. Red Son Rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Adele R.

    Among the Native Americans, few tribes were as warlike as the Apaches of the Southwest. The courage and ferocity of Apache warriors like Geronimo, Cochise, Victorio, and Mangas Coloradas is legendary. Based on a true story, this book is about an Apache boy who was captured by an enemy tribe and sold to a white man. Carlos Gentile, a photographer…

  12. Sons & Lumieres / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Näitus "Hääl ja valgus" Pariisi Pompidou keskuses 22. IX 2004-3. I 2005. Väljas on 99 kunstniku (Paul Klee, Frantishek Kupka, Vassili Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Raoul Hausmann, Bill Viola, Robert Rauschenberg, Joseph Beuys, Rodney Graham jne.) tööd ajavahemikust 1910-2004. Kuraatorid Sophie Duplaix ja Marcella Lista

  13. Vider son Verdun trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Parenteau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available « Le bataillon, fleuri comme un grand cimetière,avait traversé la ville à la débandade. »Roland Dorgelès, Les Croix de boisLa trahison des poètesEn France, comme ce fut le cas dans toutes les sociétés belligérantes, la Première Guerre mondiale a engendré la production d’un important arsenal de textes poétiques. Cet engouement lyrique, qui s’est manifesté dès les premiers jours d’août 1914, s’est maintenu tout au long du conflitet n’a pas perdu de sa vigueur aussitôt les armes déposées. Ces po...

  14. Sweet Sorrow's Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents an award-winning essay about a teacher's relationship with a troubled student placed in his alternative classroom. Shows how the two worked together on science, math, and "Romeo and Juliet." (TB)

  15. Sensitive mother-to-adolescent disclosures after divorce: is the experience of sons different from that of daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Wallace, Sara; Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Lee, Sun-A; Escalante, Kristine A

    2004-03-01

    This study addressed two main questions: (a) Are adolescent sons and daughters exposed to sensitive maternal disclosures after divorce with similar frequency and in similar detail? and (b) Does gender act as a moderator in the association between maternal disclosures and adolescent adjustment difficulties? Forced-choice and open-ended data were collected from 194 adolescents within 2 years after their parents' divorce. Quantitative analyses revealed that although the majority of adolescents experience some level of maternal disclosure, neither frequency nor detail of maternal disclosure differed as a function of adolescent gender. Frequent and detailed maternal disclosures were associated with adolescent adjustment difficulties, primarily psychological distress. Gender did not moderate that significant association. Qualitative analysis shed light on the link between maternal disclosures and adolescent distress, suggested the importance of how disclosures are made, and revealed several gender differences in reactions to maternal disclosures. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Différences inter-individuelles en latéralisation de sons basse fréquence

    OpenAIRE

    Savel, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    National audience; La plupart des études sur la localisation auditive en champ libre ou la latéralisation au casque ont été menées sur un très faible effectif d'auditeurs, sur-entraînés à la tâche. Nous avons récemment décelé d'importantes différences entre 50 individus naïfs dans la capacité à localiser un son basse fréquence en champ libre, et identifié un lien entre sexe ou latéralité manuelle et asymétrie gauche/droite de cette capacité (Savel, 2009, Hearing Research). Dans l'étude présen...

  17. Integrable String Models in Terms of Chiral Invariants of SU(n, SO(n, SP(n Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Gershun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered two types of string models: on the Riemmann space of string coordinates with null torsion and on the Riemman-Cartan space of string coordinates with constant torsion. We used the hydrodynamic approach of Dubrovin, Novikov to integrable systems and Dubrovin solutions of WDVV associativity equation to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the torsionless Riemmann space of chiral currents in first case. We used the invariant local chiral currents of principal chiral models for SU(n, SO(n, SP(n groups to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the Riemmann space of the chiral primitive invariant currents and on the chiral non-primitive Casimir operators as Hamiltonians in second case. We also used Pohlmeyer tensor nonlocal currents to construct new nonlocal string equation.

  18. La segregación residencial urbana en estudios latinoamericanos y bogotanos. ¿Son necesarias nuevas miradas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Cifuentes Ardila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, las lecturas sobre la segregación residencial urbana concluyen que las ciudades de la región son ámbitos territoriales segregados por razones económicas: las inequidades se expresan en la organización urbana. Este artículo tiene como propósito mostrar que, incluso en regiones tan desiguales como la nuestra, la estructura simbólica incide en la configuración de la segregación residencial urbana, pues la valoración que los agentes sociales dan a determinados lugares y grupos humanos es decisiva para su localización en el espacio urbano.

  19. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement.

  20. Action audio-visual for the promotion of between mother attachment seropositivity for HIV and his son

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effects of the educational video use to promote the attachment between HIV positive mother and her son after six months of contact between them.This is an exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The sampling was intentional. The plan of analysis consisted of the following steps: the constitution of the corpus, definition of unit analysis, data categorization and analysis through categories. This study showed that, despite the difficulties and obstacles imposed by HIV / AIDS, by the treatment and the doubts present in daily life, HIV mothers develop strategies that enable them to live and better deal with the disease, without forgetting their role as a mother.

  1. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  2. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB (r = 0.54 to 0.57, p wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  3. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.fr; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Godon, N.; Lartigue, J.-E.; Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Ayral, A. [IEM/CNRS-ENSCM Universite Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); De Windt, L. [ENSMP, CG, 35 rue St Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay HC/CAB, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    This article summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning aqueous alteration of R7T7-type nuclear containment glasses, represented mainly by the inactive reference glass designated SON68. Based on this review, we propose to describe the glass alteration kinetics up to and including the final residual rate regime by means of a new mechanistic model known as GRAAL (glassreactivitywithallowanceforthealterationlayer). Phenomenological analysis findings are reviewed for the various glass alteration regimes: interdiffusion, initial rate, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular circumstances, resumption of alteration. These alteration regimes are associated with predominant mechanisms. Published work interpreting and modeling these mechanisms was examined in detail. There is a broad consensus on the general mechanisms of the initial rate and even the interdiffusion regime, whereas the mechanisms controlling the rate drop remain a subject of dispute not only with regard to nuclear glasses but also for the dissolution of silicate minerals. The reaction affinity responsible for the rate drop is expressed differently by different authors and depending on the underlying theories. The disagreement concerns the nature of the phase (glass or gel) or the activated complex controlling the rate drop, which in turn determines the elements that must be taken into account in the overall affinity term. Progress in recent years, especially in identifying the mechanisms responsible for the residual rate, has shed new light on these issues, allowing us to propose new theoretical foundations for modeling the different kinetic regimes of SON68 nuclear glass dissolution. The GRAAL model considers that water diffusion in the passivating reaction zone (the gel formed under saturation conditions) is a rate-limiting step in the overall glass dissolution kinetics. Moreover, this passivation zone is a soluble phase whose stability is directly dependent on the nature of the

  4. Construction and validation of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, Jacob Arie; Tellegen, Peter Johannes

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis the construction and validation of the SON-R 5,5-17 is described, the recent revision of the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test. The SON-R is an individual test of (non-verbal) intelligence for children in the ages of 51/2 to 17 years. The test was published in 1989 with an e

  5. Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2016-01-01

    Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur,

  6. ‘Unkind and cruel, to deceive your Son | In borrow’d Shapes, and his Embrace to shun’: Mother-son love in T. S. Eliot’s ‘La Figlia Che Piange’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Geary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T. S. Eliot's "La Figlia Che Piange" (1916 is a curious anomaly in his early works. It stands out as a love poem of outstanding grace portraying a more positive relationship to the feminine compared to other poems contemporaneous with its writing such as "The Love Song of St. Sebastian" (1914 and "Hysteria" (1915. This essay shows the import of Eliot's chosen epigraph for "La Figlia" taken from Virgil's Aeneid to have been largely neglected or misread by critics. As a consequence, it argues that critical readings have crucially missed the presence of a shrouded maternal aspect within the poem. Through the lens of Lacanian psychoanalysis and the work of adherents to Lacanian theory — such as Bruce Fink, Shoshana Felman and Slavoj Zizek — this paper newly argues that the poem's meditation on the issues of union and separation between two lovers is in fact a screen for deeper unconscious ambivalent feelings between mother and son. That is to say, Eliot's "La Figlia Che Piange" shows a failed attempt to reconstruct, traverse and separate from the "fundamental fantasy" unconsciously orientating the male speaker of the poem and his desire.

  7. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LCLT, 30 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Complete text of publication follows: Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) mechanistic model has been proposed [1]: An amorphous layer at the glass/solution interface gradually reorganized by hydrolysis and condensation mechanisms constitutes a barrier against the transport of water toward the glass and of solvated glass ions into solution [2]. The existence of this transport-inhibiting effect rapidly causes this layer to control glass alteration. The reaction affinity responsible for the glass alteration rate drop is expressed with respect to this passivating reactive interphase (PRI). Some glass constituent elements precipitate as crystallized secondary phases on the external surface and can sustain glass alteration. Correctly modeling the seat of recondensation (PRI or secondary crystallized phases) of elements is a key point for understanding their effect on glass alteration. Describing not only (1) solution chemistry but also ion transport (2) in solution by at a macroscopic scale and (3) by reactive interdiffusion in the PRI at a nanometer scale by means of a single model at each point in space and time is a complex task. Most existing models describe only one or two of these aspects. GRAAL describes a simple and still effective manner of coupling theses three phenomena using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport HYTEC [3]. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, glass surface area in contact with solution, and solution renewal rate. Interdiffusion through the PRI cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution p

  8. Slit-Dependent Endocytic Trafficking of the Robo Receptor Is Required for Son of Sevenless Recruitment and Midline Axon Repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Rebecca K; Bashaw, Greg J

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo) is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor in response to Slit-binding is necessary for its repulsive signaling output. Dose-dependent genetic interactions and in vitro Robo activation assays support a role for Clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and entry into both the early and late endosomes as positive regulators of Slit-Robo signaling. We identify two conserved motifs in Robo's cytoplasmic domain that are required for its Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activation in vitro; gain of function and genetic rescue experiments provide strong evidence that these trafficking events are required for Robo repulsive guidance activity in vivo. Our data support a model in which Robo's ligand-dependent internalization from the cell surface to the late endosome is essential for receptor activation and proper repulsive guidance at the midline by allowing recruitment of the downstream effector Son of Sevenless in a spatially constrained endocytic trafficking compartment.

  9. Indicadores regionales de desarrollo sustentable en Chile: ¿Hasta qué punto son útiles y necesarios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Blanco

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez más necesitamos maneras de asegurar patrones de desarrollo que sean sustentables, es decir, que sean ambiental, social y económicamente apropiados para nosotros y para las generaciones venideras. Los indicadores de desarrollo sustentable son una herramienta promisoria que permitiría "aterrizar" el concepto de sustentabilidad, apoyando la manera en que se toman las decisiones. En Chile existen pocas experiencias sobre el tema. Este artículo presenta el trabajo realizado para desarrollar indicadores de desarrollo sustentable en cuatro regiones del país. El artículo se centra en las lecciones que han surgido de la experienciaWe are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to "land" the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Chile there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators in four regions. The paper focuses on the lessons that have been drawn from the experience

  10. Tectonomagnetic study in the seismoactive area of Narmada–Son lineament, central India: Preliminary results on repeat field observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Waghmare; S D Pimprikar; P B Gawali; L Carlo; A G Patil

    2009-06-01

    Repeated measurements of the total geomagnetic field on the five profiles have revealed a picture of stress-induced tectonomagnetic effect in the form of secular variation of the total geomagnetic field in the tectonically and seismically active area of Jabalpur and adjoining areas of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL),central India.For this experiment,a reference base station was established within the study area at Jabalpur.Using proton precession magnetometers with a sensitivity of 0.1 nT, simultaneous measurements of total geomagnetic field were made annually at the base and all field stations.Five cycles of repeated observations have been performed between 2003 and 2007.For data analysis,a difference method has been applied and the residuals have been calculated as secular variations of the total geomagnetic field with values ranging from ± 0.1nT to about > ± 14.6nT/yr over the different stations.The anomalies in secular variation of the total geomagnetic field may be related to anomalous accumulation of tectonic stresses and tensions on the deep fault zones and crustal blocks due to recent geodynamic processes and active geological inhomogeneities in the NSL.

  11. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  12. 2-D Crustal thermal structure along Thuadara–Sindad DSS profile across Narmada– Son lineament, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Rai; S Thiagarajan

    2007-08-01

    Central India is traversed by a WSW–ENE trending Narmada–Son lineament (NSL) which is characterized by the presence of numerous hot springs, feeder dykes for Deccan Traps and seismicity all along its length. It is divided in two parts by the Barwani–Sukta Fault (BSF). To the west of this fault a graben exists, whereas to the east the basement is uplifted between Narmada North Fault (NNF) and Narmada South Fault (NSF). The present work deals with the 2-D thermal modeling to delineate the crustal thermal structure of the western part of NSL region along the Thuadara–Sindad Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile which runs almost in the N–S direction across the NSL. Numerical results of the model reveal that the conductive surface heat flow value in the region under consideration varies between 45 and 47mW/m2. Out of which 23mW/m2 is the contribution from the mantle heat flow and the remaining from within the crust. The Curie depth is found to vary between 46 and 47 km and is in close agreement with the earlier reported Curie depth estimated from the analysis of MAGSAT data. The Moho temperature varies between 470 and 500°C. This study suggests that this western part of central Indian region is characterized by low mantle heat flow which in turn makes the lower crust brittle and amenable to the occurrence of deep focused earthquakes such as Satpura (1938) earthquake.

  13. Precios de los medicamentos: cómo se establecen y cuáles son sus sistemas de control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Rovira Forns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El precio es una de las principales barreras de acceso a los medicamentos. Por ello es importante conocer cómo se forman los precios y qué factores determinan su cuantía y también qué formas de intervención y regulación son las más adecuadas teniendo en cuenta sus efectos, tanto sobre el acceso, como sobre la innovación, la producción local y otros posibles objetivos de la política de medicamentos. El análisis económico ha desarrollado un conjunto de modelos de mercado que permiten explicar el comportamiento de los precios, aunque los mercados reales divergen sustancialmente de los modelos teóricos. La regulación de precios está justificada por los llamados “fallos de mercado”; la regulación de precios basada en el costo de producción, la modalidad de control de precios más tradicional, ha caído en desuso a favor de los sistemas de precios de referencia internacionales y por la fijación del precio basada en el valor.

  14. ¿SON EFECTIVOS LOS CONSEJOS DE ADMINISTRACIÓN? LA EFICACIA DEL CONSEJO Y LOS RESULTADOS DE LA EMPRESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Castro, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabajos han estudiado la influencia del consejo de administración en las decisiones y resultados de sus empresas. No obstante, la enorme popularidad alcanzada en el campo del gobierno corporativo por estos estudios, no viene acompañada por sus resultados, que han sido ambiguos y, a veces, conflictivos En esta investigación proponemos que la efectividad de los consejos depende de las experiencias y conocimientos de los consejeros que lo conforman, así como de la estructura de estos consejos. Entendemos que ambas dimensiones (composición y estructura no son “por si” suficientes para el logro de consejos plenamente efectivos, pero si se definen como elementos necesarios para ello. Desde nuestra perspectiva, constituyen el potencial que permitirá lograr una adecuada capacidad estratégica por parte del consejo. Nuestros resultados muestran la importancia de las variables que conforman la estructura y composición del consejo (tamaño del consejo, permanencia, experiencia de los consejeros a la hora de explicar los resultados empresariales.

  15. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S K Bhattacharya; S Sarkar

    2005-02-01

    The early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Limestone in the Son valley area of central India represents an overall shallowing-upward carbonate succession. Detailed facies analysis of the limestone reveals outer- to inner-shelf deposition in an open marine setting. Wave-ripples, hummocky cross strat- ifications and edgewise conglomerates argue against a deep marine depositional model for the Rohtas Limestone proposed earlier. Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution seams. Band-wise isotopic analysis reveals systematic short-term variations. Comparative enrichment of the heavier isotopes in the upper bands is attributed to early cementation from sea water and water derived from the lower band undergoing dissolution because of lowering of pH at depth. The short-term positive shifts in isotopic compositions in almost every upward gradational transition from a seamed band to a non-seamed band support the contention that dissolution seams here are of early diagenetic origin, although their formation was accentuated under overburden pressure.

  16. Slit-Dependent Endocytic Trafficking of the Robo Receptor Is Required for Son of Sevenless Recruitment and Midline Axon Repulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Chance

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor in response to Slit-binding is necessary for its repulsive signaling output. Dose-dependent genetic interactions and in vitro Robo activation assays support a role for Clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and entry into both the early and late endosomes as positive regulators of Slit-Robo signaling. We identify two conserved motifs in Robo's cytoplasmic domain that are required for its Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activation in vitro; gain of function and genetic rescue experiments provide strong evidence that these trafficking events are required for Robo repulsive guidance activity in vivo. Our data support a model in which Robo's ligand-dependent internalization from the cell surface to the late endosome is essential for receptor activation and proper repulsive guidance at the midline by allowing recruitment of the downstream effector Son of Sevenless in a spatially constrained endocytic trafficking compartment.

  17. "Now if you have only sons you are dead": migration, gender, and family economy in twentieth century northwestern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Korah, Gariba B

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the interconnectedness between labor migration, gender, and the family economy in northwestern Ghana in the 20th century. It focuses specifically on the Dagaaba of the Nadowli and Jirapa administrative districts of what is now the Upper West Region (UWR). It examines how the relationships between men and women in terms of roles, status, access to productive resources and inheritance, changed in tandem with broader changes in society in the 20th century; changes that over time produced enhanced value and elevated status for women in the family. These changes in gender relations are reflected increasingly in the belief among elderly men that ‘now if you have only sons, you are dead’. By focusing on the lived experiences of ordinary women and men in the migration process, it argues that even though indigenous social structures privileged men over women in almost all spheres of life, Dagaaba women were nonetheless significantly active in shaping the history of their communities and that gender relations in Dagaaba communities were not static — they changed over time and generation. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the internal migration phenomenon in West Africa, which has so far attracted scant historical analysis.

  18. Classificação de sons cardíacos usando Motifs: desenvolvimento de uma aplicação móvel

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Soraia Carvalho da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Este documento foi redigido no âmbito da Tese, do Mestrado em Engenharia Informática na área de Tecnologias do Conhecimento e Decisão, do Departamento de Engenharia Informática, do ISEP, cujo tema é classificação de sons cardíacos usando motifs. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um algoritmo de classificação de sons cardíacos, capaz de identificar patologias cardíacas. A classificação do som cardíaco é um trabalho desafiante dada a dificuldade em separar os sons ambiente (vozes, respiração, con...

  19. Clonage de l'IGF-I et de son récepteur chez le turbot (Psetta maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIES G.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Les IGF, leurs récepteurs et leurs protéines de liaison constituent une famille moléculaire qui joue un rôle essentiel dans la régulation de la croissance et du développement. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation moléculaire de l'IGF-l et de son récepteur (IGF-1R chez le turbot (Psetta maxima, un poisson plat téléostéen. Par RT-PCR, nous avons clone un ADNc codant pour les quatre domaines de l'IGF-l mature. La protéine présente 70 à 96 % d'identité avec les autres IGF-I de vertébrés. Le clonage de la séquence codante entière du récepteur a nécessité la construction d'une banque d'ADNc d'embryons de turbots. Le récepteur est organisé en domaines dont la taille et les caractéristiques sont semblables à celles des autres récepteurs aux IGF de type 1 décrits chez les mammifères et le poulet. La région catalytique est particulièrement conservée. Dans certains domaines, notamment dans la région C-terminale du précurseur, quelques différences qui pourraient avoir une importance fonctionnelle sont cependant observées. Enfin, par RT-PCR, nous avons mis en évidence une régulation ontogénique du statut de polyadénylation des ARNm IGF-1R.

  20. Comment Hobbes tente de rendre son matérialisme acceptable dans les appendices du Léviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Staquet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Léviathan de Hobbes [1651] a subi de nombreuses attaques, au point qu’il est jugé responsable de la grande peste de 1665 et de l’incendie de Londres l’année suivante et que le parlement ouvre une procédure contre l’ouvrage. Aussi, lorsqu’en 1666, Thomas Hobbes veut publier la traduction latine de ce livre, il y adjoint trois appendices. La version latine de l’œuvre est généralement jugée plus acceptable que le texte originaire anglais. En étudiant la manière dont Hobbes traite de son matérialisme dans ces appendices, je tente de montrer que les addenda latins ne constituent en aucune manière un retour en arrière du texte, mais que le philosophe enrobe simplement davantage des propos que, par ailleurs, il rend plus radicaux.Hobbes’s Leviathan [1651] has been critiqued so much that it was held responsible for the Great Plague of 1665 and the Fire of London during the following year, resulting in the Parliament instituting proceedings against the book. Therefore, when in 1666 Thomas Hobbes wanted to publish a Latin translation of this book, he added three appendices. Generally, the Latin version of the work is considered more acceptable than the English original text. By studying how Hobbes deals with his materialism in these appendices, I try to show that the Latin additions are in no way a reversal of the text, but that the philosopher simply veiled more propositions, while at the same time making them more radical.

  1. Alteracions respiratòries durant el son inflamació i canvis fenotípics al múscul intercostal extern /

    OpenAIRE

    Pallàs i Villaronga, Josep Oriol

    2012-01-01

    En pacients amb Malaltia Pulmonar Obstructiva Crònica (MPOC) la disfunció muscular, tant a nivell dels músculs perifèrics com respiratoris, ha estat estudiada per múltiples grups d'investigació, però les alteracions musculars en els trastorns respiratoris durant el son (Síndrome d'Apnees i Hipopnees del Son -SAHS- i Overlap Syndrome respiratori -OS-) són poc conegudes. Aquesta tesi estudia els canvis inflamatoris i de l'estructura muscular que es produeixen en un dels principals músculs respi...

  2. A single amino acid substitution (Trp(666)-->Ala) in the interbox1/2 region of the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 abrogates binding of JAK1, and dominantly impairs signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, C; Hermanns, H M; Heinrich, P C; Behrmann, I

    2000-07-01

    gp130 is the common signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Here we describe, for the first time, a single amino acid substitution (Trp(666)-->Ala) in the membrane-proximal interbox1/2 region that abrogates activation of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) transcription factors and the proliferative response of pro-B-cell transfectants. Moreover, association of the Janus kinase JAK1 is prevented. No signalling of heterodimeric IL-5 receptor (IL-5R)/gp130 chimaeras occurs in COS-7 cells, even when only a single cytoplasmic chain of a gp130 dimer contains the Trp(666)Ala mutation, indicating that it acts dominantly.

  3. Abrogation of heat-shock protein (HSP)70 expression induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-GangZhao; Qing-ZhengMa; Chun-XiaoXu

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of abrogating heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression by antisense HSP70 oligonucleotides treatment on human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3m growth. Methods: PC3m cells were treated with 0-16μmol/L antisense HSP70 oligomers for 0-100 hr. Cell growth inhibition was analyzed using a trypan blue dye exclusion test. Apoptotic cells were detected and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation analysis. The protein expression of HSP70 and bcl-2 affected by antisense HSP70 oligomers were determined using Western blot. Results: Antisense HSP70 oligomer induced apoptosis and then inhibited proliferation of PC-3m cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ladder-like patterns of DNA fragments were observed in PC-3m cells treated with 10μmol/L antisense HSP70 oligomer for 48 hr or 8μtmol/L for 72 hr on agarose gel electrophoresis. Antisense HSP70 oligomer pretreatment enhanced the subsequent induction of apoptosis by heat shock in PC-3m cells. In addition, undetectable HSP70 expression was observed at a concentration of 10μtmol/L antisense HSP70 oligomer treatment for 48 hr or 8μtmol/L for 72 hr in Western blot, which was paralleled by decreased expression levels of anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2. Conclusion: HSP70 antisense oligomer treatment abro-gates the expression of HSP70, which may disrupt HSP70-bcl-2-interactions and further down-regulate bcl-2 expression,in turn inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth in PC-3m cells. (Asian JAndro12004 Dec;6:319-324)

  4. 心理干预提高独生子女士兵适应能力的研究%A Study on Psychological Intervention to Improve the Adaptability of the Only Son Recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李权超; 蓝新友; 何英强; 蒋忠军; 谭终意; 李兴国

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of psychological intervention on the adaptability of the only son recruits. Methods: Mental status of the only son recruits and non-only son recruits were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90, Social Support Questionnaire and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire before and after psychological intervention. Results: The only son recruits scored significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity prior to psychological intervention, when compared to the non-only son recruits (P<0.05 or 0.01). The scores of negative emotion decreased and the scores of positive coping style increased significantly in the only son recruits after psychological intervention (P<0.05 or0.01).Conclusion: Psychological intervention could improve the psychological status and adaptability of the only son recruits.

  5. Influence of gamma irradiation effects on the residual alteration rate of the French SON68 nuclear glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, S. [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze cedex (France); Tribet, M., E-mail: magaly.tribet@cea.fr [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze cedex (France); Jollivet, P.; Jégou, C.; Broudic, V.; Marques, C. [CEA/DEN/DTCD/SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze cedex (France); Ooms, H. [Instrumentation Department SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Toulhoat, P. [Université de Lyon 1, CNRS/ISA, UFR de Chimie Biochimie, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-02-15

    The residual rate regime of SON68 nuclear glass has been investigated here by static experiments under external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with {sup 60}Co sources. Four dose rates were studied: two high dose rates (5 and 10 kGy h{sup −1}) to exacerbate electronic radiation effects, and two lower dose rates (0.8 and 0.05 kGy h{sup −1}). The objective of this work is not to assess potential LET effects but to assess more widely electronic effects on the residual rate regime which controls the long term stability of the glass under geological disposal. Fresh glasses were leached in argon atmosphere at 90 °C and at a high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V = 10 000 m{sup −1}). Under these conditions the system quickly reaches the residual alteration rate regime. The alteration rate was monitored by solution analyses: the release of glass alteration tracer elements—in particular boron, sodium and lithium—was measured by ICP-AES. The hydrogen peroxide produced by water radiolysis was quantified by chemiluminescence. Radiation effects on the glass and its gel network were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Higher H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations were measured on irradiated samples in the presence of glass, suggesting an irradiation effect on the glass and its alteration layer. However, the data obtained on glass alteration show that potential defects or changes induced by gamma irradiation do not modify the kinetics of alteration up to a gamma dose rate of 10 kGy h{sup −1}: the residual rates measured for the different dose rates studied are similar and comparable to experiments performed without irradiation. Moreover, these observations are consistent with SEM and TEM characterizations which show that the alteration layer formed under gamma irradiation is similar to the alteration layer formed without irradiation. This study demonstrates that species produced

  6. Le problème du mal dans le Guide des Perplexes et son arrière-plan talmudique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, José

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, the question of evil is regarded in the Guide for the Perplexed in a paradoxical manner. Thus, in Guide I, 2, Maimonides examines the notions of good and evil as subjective evaluations possessing neither the rigour not the exactness of the notions of true and false. However, the question of evil occupies an essential place in the Guide, as various modern authors have shown. This question is important to Maimonides because he is, in this respect, the heir of the rabbinic tradition and his conception of evil is largely based on an interaction with the Talmudic and Midrašic texts. Therefore, we would like to review thirty-nine rabbinic ‘quotes’ which appear in chapters 8 to 24 in the third part of the Guide and deal with the origin of evil, the meaning of suffering and the evil inclination. Maimonides reappropriates the midrašim that are susceptible of being in agreement with his rationalist positions and also quotes some rabbinic traditions that are too close to mu ͑tazilism, undoubtedly aware of the more profound resemblance that exists between the rabbinic and mu ͑tazilite doctrines of evil and retribution.A primera vista, el problema del mal es abordado en la Guía de Perplejos de manera paradójica. Para Maimónides, las nociones de bien y mal son subjetivas y no resultan ni rigorosas ni exactas, a la inversa de las nociones de verdad y falsedad (Guía I, 2. Sin embargo, el problema del mal es muy importante en la Guía, como lo demostraran varios autores. Maimónides es el heredero de la tradición rabínica y existe en la Guía una interacción entre la filosofia de Maimónides y los textos talmúdicos y midrásicos. Es particularmente el caso de las treinta y nueve citas rabínicas de la Guía II, 8-24, que tratan del origen del mal, del significado del sufrimiento y de la inclinación al mal. Maimónides cita los midrašim que concuerdan con sus posiciones racionalistas y evoca también algunas tradiciones rab

  7. Biological effect of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on some potentially toxic elements during alteration of SON 68 nuclear glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J. L.; Stille, P.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2009-04-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH, with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 m french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25degC. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, trace and ultra-trace elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 m under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials are found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium as tracer, showed that the progressive formation of a biofilm on the surface of glass has a protective effect against its alteration. Uranium and rare earth elements (REE) are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides + bacterial cells). Besides, the ratio

  8. ¿Son válidas las curvas y tablas de crecimiento españolas actuales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Durá Travé

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Modificar los resultados del Estudio longitudinal del crecimiento en Navarra (NA 09 mediante la exclusión en la muestra poblacional de los casos de obesidad; así como realizar un análisis comparativo con las curvas de crecimiento españolas e internacionales más cualificadas. Material y métodos: De los 930 participantes del NA-09 se han excluido todos los casos de obesidad según los estándares de Cole et al., siendo la muestra definitiva de 782 participantes (371 varones y 411 mujeres. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los estudios españoles de Serra-Majem et al (estudio enKid, Carrascosa et al (ESP 08 y NA 09, que no excluyen los casos de obesidad; así como, con las tablas del Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000 y de la OMS (WHO, 2007 que aplican criterios de depuración de valores antropométricos poco saludables (obesidad y malnutrición. Resultados: Se exponen los valores medios modificados de la talla, peso e IMC con su distribución percentilada, en ambos sexos. Al compararlos con los estudios españoles se observa que los valores evolutivos de los percentiles 3 y 50 correspondientes a la talla, peso e IMC son prácticamente similares; sin embargo, los valores evolutivos del percentil 97 correspondientes al peso e IMC se van distanciando progresivamente. Al compararlos con los estándares internaciones los valores evolutivos de los percentiles 3, 50 y 97 correspondientes al IMC se intercalaban entre ambas referencias. Conclusiones: Para que las curvas y tablas de crecimiento puedan servir como patrones de referencia convendría también excluir en su elaboración a todos los pacientes con obesidad; ya que, de otra manera, podrían llegar a considerarse como estudios meramente descriptivos de una población con una reconocida tendencia al exceso de peso corporal y, por tanto, su aplicabilidad clínica quedaría en entredicho.

  9. ¿Son los chilenos igualmente solidarios?la influencia de los recursos personales en las donaciones de dinero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el discurso público comúnmente se asume que Chile es un país solidario, un supuesto que se confunde con la idea de una cierta homogeneidad en lo que respecta a valores solidarios y conductas de ayuda en el país. El presente trabajo apunta a cuestionar esta idea de homogeneidad respecto de solidaridad, proponiendo que las conductas solidarias se relacionan con los recursos que las personas poseen, los que a su vez se asocian al lugar que las personas ocupan en la estructura de estratificación social. Tomando los datos de la Encuesta de Solidaridad realizada en 2009 por el Centro de Medición MIDE UC de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, el trabajo se centra en un tipo de conducta de ayuda particular: las donaciones en dinero. El análisis se focaliza en la influencia de recursos personales como ingreso, educación y pertenencia a redes sobre este tipo de donaciones. Los resultados indican que los individuos con mayores recursos son más proclives a las donaciones, donde el nivel educacional alcanzado juega un papel preponderante.In the public discourse it is commonly assumed that Chile is a solidary country, an assumption that is mixed with the idea of homogeneity in the country as far as helping behavior and solidarity values is concerned. The present paper is aimed at challenging this homogeneity assumption by proposing that helping behavior is associated to personal resources, which at the same time are linked to the position in the social stratification structure. Using data from the Solidarity Survey implemented by the assessment center MIDE UC of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in 2009, the paper focuses on a specific type of helping behavior: money donations. The analysis centers on the influence of personal resources such as income, education and networks on this kind of donations. Results indicate that individuals with greater resources are more given to donate, whereby the educational level plays a key

  10. Alternative Constructions of Treason in the Angevin Political World: Traïson in the History of William Marshal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. WHITE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After some nobles and other fighting men surrendered Rochester castle to King John in 1215, John wanted to hang the nobles but refrained from doing so on the advice of one of his military captains. Would hanging the nobles for making war on the king have been lawful? This question about the law of treason has provoked inconclusive debate among historians who have sought to determine whether, in this period, making war against the English king was legally classified as lèse-majesté (crimen laesae majestatis, proditio or infidelitas. This article, however, asks whether the nobles whom John wanted to hang were guilty of traïson, as this vernacular term was used in the History of William Marshal (c. 1230. On this basis, the paper concludes that in all probability, the nobles who held Rochester against the king would not have been condemned as traitors, at least by their aristocratic peers.Cuando en 1215 ciertos nobles y otros combatientes se rindieron y entregaron el castillo de Rochester al rey Juan éste quiso colgarles, pero el consejo de uno de sus nobles le hizo absternerse. ¿Habría sido legítimo condenar a la horca a los que habían guerreado contra el rey? Cuestiones relativas al derecho de traición al intentar determinar si la guerra contra el rey de Inglaterra fue considerada en la época un crimen laesae majestatis, proditio, o infidelitas, según la definición que dan a estos términos las fuentes latinas, han suscitado debates interminables entre los historiadores. Este artículo, por el contrario, se pregunta si los nobles que el rey Juan deseaba colgar eran o no culpables de traición, en el sentido vernáculo del término que es usado en L’histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal (hacia 1230. Sobre esta base, la conclusión del artículo es que los nobles que ocuparon el castillo de Rochester, casi con total seguridad, no habrían sido condenados como traidores, al menos por sus pares.

  11. La structure iconographique d’un art rupestre est-elle une clef pour son interprétation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SAUVET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉ: L’hypothèse émise par R. Layton selon laquelle la structure des arts rupestres diffère profondément, en termes de fréquence des motifs et de leur distribution entre les sites, en fonction de la religion et de l’organisation sociale des groupes humains est réexaminée dans ce travail collectif, à l’aide d’une documentation renouvelée et augmentée provenant d’Afrique et d’Australie, mais aussi d’une analyse approfondie de l’art pariétal paléolithique d’Europe occidentale. Il ressort de cette étude que l’hétérogénéité des sites (distribution géographique des motifs et la diversité de l’iconographie (fréquence des motifs sont des critères importants indubitablement liés à la structure sociale, aux croyances et à l’économie des sociétés, mais qu’ils ne permettent pas de trancher en faveur d’une organisation totémique ou de pratiques chamaniques.RESUMEN: La hipótesis de R. Layton según la cual la estructura de las artes rupestres difiere mucho en términos de frecuencia de los motivos y de su distribución entre los sitios, en función de la religión y de la organización social de los grupos humanos es examinada de nuevo en este trabajo colectivo, a la luz de una documentación nueva y aumentada procedente de África y Australia y de un análisis pormenorizado del arte parietal paleolítico de Europa occidental. Resulta de este estudio que la heterogeneidad de los sitios (distribución geográfica de los motivos y la diversidad de la iconografía (frecuencia de los motivos son criterios efectivamente ligados a la estructura social, a las creencias y a la economía de las sociedades, pero no permiten decidir a favor de una organización totémica o de prácticas chamánicas.

  12. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  13. On the Relationship between Father and Son in Seize the Day%《只争朝夕》中的父子关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽聪

    2014-01-01

    Saul Bellow’s novel Seize the Day represents an extraordinary contribution to the relationship between father and son as a theme in fiction. This paper tries to analyze the relationship between the hero and his father in order to help the reader have a better understanding of the novel.

  14. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Risk Taking and Injury: A Comparison of Mothers' and Fathers' Reactions to Sons and Daughters Misbehaving in Ways that Lead to Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Zdzieborski, Daniel; Normand, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This study compared reactions of mothers and fathers to the risk taking behavior of sons and daughters. Mother-father pairs (N = 52) imagined their 2-year-old boy or girl behaving in risky ways in common home situations that could, and did, result in injury. Emotional and parenting reactions to the behaviors were assessed before and after injury.…

  15. «¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as?». Personajes en busca de identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caretti, Laura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Who am I? Who are they? These are the questions haunting the characters, created by writers such as Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett and others, whose emblematic search for identity is explored in the article. The complex interconnections between subjectivity and alterity are focused within the coordinates of space (society and time (memory in their outward and inward movement. The characters are seen on stage relating also to the otherness of actors and spectators. Particular relief is given to the difference between the female and male search for identity in the light of contemporary historical changes.¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as? Estas son las cuestiones que obsesionan a los personajes creados por escritores como Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett y otros, cuya emblemática búsqueda de identidad se explora a lo largo de este artículo. Las complejas interconexiones entre subjetividad y alteridad son analizadas con las coordenadas del espacio (sociedad y el tiempo (memoria en su movimiento interno y externo. Los personajes son vistos en el escenario desde la alteridad de actores y espectadores. Un particular relieve se otorga a la diferencia entre la búsqueda de la identidad femenina y masculina a la luz de los cambios históricos contemporáneos.

  16. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group...

  17. El desequilibrio de importancia entre las lenguas oficiales de Bolivia ¿ Por qué existen lenguas que son más oficiales que otras?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    EL DESEQUILIBRIO DE IMPORTANCIA ENTRE LAS LENGUAS OFICIALES DE BOLIVIA ¿ POR QUÉ EXISTEN LENGUAS QUE SON MÁS OFICIALES QUE OTRAS? Con la Constitución de Bolivia muchas lenguas originarias fueron declaradas oficiales y levantadas a un nivel de lengua oficial en paridad con el español. En el Artículo...

  18. Toward the Autonomous Recording and Transmission of Seismic Data from the Oceans: Testing the Son-O-Mermaid Float in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Vincent, H. T.; Nolet, G.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the deployment of two new Son-O-Mermaid floats into theSargasso Sea during a cruise aboard the R/V Atlantic Explorer, whichdeparted from Bermuda in May of 2015. Son-O-Mermaid is a freelyfloating and autonomous oceangoing system composed of a surface buoyconnected to a length of cable from which a three-hydrophone array issuspended. The main objective of the Son-O-Mermaid project is torecord signals suitable for global tomography in the deep ocean andprovide the seismic community with an abundance of novel raypaths frompreviously unsampled regions of the Earth. The Son-O-Mermaid float,with its ability to continually record, analyze, and transmit seismicdata from the oceans in near-real time has the potential torevolutionize the field of seismology. We analyze new data returnedfrom this deployment, a previous Son-O-Mermaid test, as well as theongoing MERMAID mission in the time, spectral, and wavelet domains. Afull description of the float and deployment report will be presented.A short-term goal of the project is determining realistic magnitude,distance, and pressure relationships for teleseismic earthquakes thatare recorded in the water column. Our analysis of this question isaided by synthetics created using SPECFEM2D and guided by the data,especially noise records recorded by Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID fromoceans throughout the world. Synthetics provide an idealized waveformuseful for understanding the often very messy and noisy arrivalscommon in midcolumn acoustic recordings. Notably, synthetics allowthe confirmation or rejection of unlikely phases which are matched toearthquake databases after arrivals are detected by automatic pickingalgorithms. Additionally, marine-acoustic processing techniques willbe improved once the underwater acoustic field is better modeled usingrealistic signal-to-noise ratios and noise spectra returned fromSon-O-Mermaid and MERMAID missions. This analysis, particularly whenimplemented in the wavelet domain, is proving

  19. Evidências de validade convergente do SON-R 2½-7[a] com o WPPSI-III e WISC-III Evidences of convergent validity of SON-R 2½-7[a] with WPPSI-III and WISC-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Akemi Karino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Um processo de validação adequado é fundamental para assegurar uma interpretação correta dos resultados de um teste. Assim, este estudo investigou a validade convergente do teste não-verbal de inteligência SON-R 2½-7[a] com o WPPSI-III e o WISC-III. O teste é a versão abreviada do SON-R 2½-7, de origem holandesa, normatizado e validado em vários países da Europa. No total, 109 crianças de três estados brasileiros participaram do estudo. A correlação entre o SON-R 2½-7[a] e o WPPSI-III foi igual a 0,75 e com o WISC-III foi de 0,69. Esses coeficientes de validade são muito semelhantes aos encontrados em estudos feitos com o SON-R 2½-7 em outros países. Conclui-se que os resultados indicam uma validade convergente satisfatória do teste SON-R 2½-7[a].An adequate validation process is fundamental to ensure sound interpretations of test results. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the convergent validity of the SON-R 2½-7[a] with the WPPSI-III and the WISC-III. The test is an abridged edition of the SON-R 2½-7, a Dutch non-verbal intelligence test, with normatization and validation studies done in several European countries. A total of 109 children from three Brazilian states participated in the study. The correlations of the SON-R 2½-7[a] with the WPPSI-III and with the WISC-III were .75 and .69, respectively. The validation coefficients encountered are very similar to the ones found in studies with the SON-R 2½-7 in other countries. The results imply a satisfactory convergent validity of the SON-R 2½-7[a].

  20. Evaluación de anemia ferropénica en la primera infancia del Municipio de Sonsón-Antioquia, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Tulia Isabel Castillo Salgado; Rocío Pérez Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro en niños de la primera infancia del municipio de Sonsón – Antioquia, en el año 2007. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 391 niños de 0 a 84 meses de edad del Municipio de Sonsón, Antioquia. Se estudiaron los parámetros de hemoglobina y ferritina sérica utilizando puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se calcularon las medidas de frecuencia y de resumen y los intervalos de...

  1. Los estudios de género de los hombres y las masculinidades: ¿qué son y qué estudian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Núñez Noriega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una visión comprensiva de los estudios de género de los varones y las masculinidades a partir de dos reflexiones relacionadas: a el vínculo con el feminismo y los estudios lgbtti, y b el objeto de estudio. La propuesta se realiza desde la epistemología constructivista realista y desde el planteo teórico posestructuralista. Se plantea que estos estudios son un subcampo de los estudios de género y que su objeto no son ni los hombres, ni las masculinidades por sí solos, sino los procesos socioculturales y de poder (androcéntrico y/o heterosexista, de inscripción/resistencia/transformación del género en los cuerpos/subjetividades de los humanos machos y/o socialmente “hombres”, y en el tejido social todo.

  2. Parental choice: what parents want in a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law across 67 pre-industrial societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2010-11-01

    Parents are influential over mate choice, and in most human societies they choose spouses for their offspring according to their own preferences. However, surprising little is known about the qualities which make a woman desirable as a daughter-in-law and a man desirable as a son-in-law. Using evidence from 67 societies such traits are identified and three hypotheses are tested: first, the hypothesis is tested that parents desire in an in-law qualities which are beneficial to them and their kin. Second, it is hypothesized that such preferences are contingent upon the sex of the in-law, as traits are weighted differently in a daughter-in-law and in a son-in-law. The third hypothesis tested is that parental preferences vary according to the subsistence type of a given society, as traits are valued differently in agropastoral societies and foraging societies. The evidence presented here provides support for all three hypotheses.

  3. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ignacio López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  4. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Ignacio López.

    2010-01-01

    Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  5. De Masaccio à Stalker: pour une esthétique du seuil et de son franchissement 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Castets

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Le seuil,abordé en tant que sujet représenté, est ici le moyen d’envisager la question  de la limite et de son dépassement dans le territoire de l’œuvre peinte, de l’installation et de la performance. La fresque de Masaccio, intitulée « Adam et Ève chassés du Paradis », réalisée vers 1425, constitue une étape décisive dans le traitement de l’espace de représentation. La suggestion d’une  profondeur, mais également, d’une épaisseur, apparaît, faisant basculer la peinture vers le naturalisme. Ainsi, au réalisme intellectuel du Moyen Age, se substitue un nouveau mode de figuration. L’artiste de la Renaissance quitte donc un territoire artistique pour explorer et poser les bases d’un art inédit. Dès lors, la toile, telle une zone de friction, se place et agit dans l’interstice séparant l’espace réel et l’espace représenté. La vision du spectateur, face au tableau, franchit ainsi le barrage de l’œuvre pour coloniser une fable topique amenée par l’illusion de la profondeur. La peinture est également le lieu où l’artiste révèle au spectateur, par le biais de stratagèmes plastiques, ses conditions de réalisation. A partir de là, une rupture s’opère entre la représentation et le fait de présenter. Art et vie s’interpénètrent alors, dans des installations ou des performances, offrant au spectateur un lieu milieu, dans lequel il est amené à s’affranchir de ces modèles. L’oeuvre est donc un seuil qu’il faut «traverser pour apprendre la solitude. » (Serres. Elle vibre d’instabilité et cristallise l’état singulier du changement. Enfin, elle conduit inéluctablement vers un devenir autre.The threshold as theme of representation is in this article used as a way to question the limit and its crossing in the territory of the painted work, of the installation and the performance. Masaccio’s fresco “The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden” of 1425 constitutes a decisive

  6. Yo no soy marinero, soy capitán:Usos sociopolíticos contemporáneos del fandango y el son jarocho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Figueroa­ Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Siguiendo las reglas musicales y líricas tradicionales del son jarocho, un creciente grupo de personas han estado usando el fandango como una manera de participar en protestas sociales de varias maneras: a creando o manteniendo identidad entre grupos subalternos, b diseminando ideas políticas y sociales a través de letras basadas en formas tradicionales y c mediante la participación directa en manifestaciones y marchas entre otras.

  7. Notice sur Madame Dr A.A. Weber née van Bosse à l’occasion de son 90ième anniversaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.; Benthem Jutting, van Tera S.S.

    1942-01-01

    Anne Antoinette van Bosse, fille de M. Jacob van Bosse et de Mme Jaqueline Jeanne née Reynvaan, naquit à Amsterdam le 27 mars 1852. Très jeune encore elle perdit sa mère; sa soeur, son ainée de 10 ans, prit sa place aussi bien qu’elle put. Outre cette soeur elle avait trois frères. Selon l’usage de

  8. ¿Son asimétricas las reacciones de política monetaria de un banco central? El caso del BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel García-Iglesias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Una gran parte de los bancos centrales adopta sus decisiones conforme a determinados objetivos, fundamentalmente de inflación y crecimiento económico. La pregunta que nos hacemos es si son igual de intensas las reacciones de esos institutos centrales cuando las desviaciones respecto a los objetivos señalados son positivas, en comparación con el caso en que sean negativas, o si, por el contrario, las reacciones son asimétricas. Para responder a esta cuestión, con base en los planteamientos taylorianos de la función de reacción de política monetaria, analizamos las posibles causas de comportamientos asimétricos y establecemos una metodología para determinar si las decisiones de un banco central han sido asimétricas, o no. Empíricamente, analizamos el caso del Banco Central Europeo (BCE, para concluir que en el caso de éste no es posible afirmar que haya reaccionado asimétricamente en el periodo1999-2008.

  9. Genetic data and de novo mutation rates in father-son pairs of 23 Y-STR loci in Southern Brazil population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fré, Nicole Nascimento; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated haplotype and allele frequencies, as well as statistical forensic parameters, for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) loci of the PowerPlex®Y23 system (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA-H4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) in a sample of 150 apparently healthy males, resident in South Brazil. A total of 150 different haplotypes were identified. The highest gene diversity (GD) was observed for the single locus marker DYS570 (GD = 0.7888) and for a two-locus system DYS385 (GD = 0.9009). We also examined 150 father-son pairs by the same system, and a total of 13 mutations were identified in the 3450 father-son allelic transfers, with an overall mutation rate across the 23 loci of 3.768 × 10(-3) (95% CI: 3.542 × 10(-3) to 3.944 × 10(-3)). In all cases there was only one locus mutated with gain/loss of repeats in the son (5 one-repeat gains, and 7 one-repeat and 1 two-repeat losses); we observed no instances of mutations involving a non-integral number of repeats.

  10. Evaluación de anemia ferropénica en la primera infancia del Municipio de Sonsón-Antioquia, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulia Isabel Castillo Salgado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro en niños de la primera infancia del municipio de Sonsón – Antioquia, en el año 2007. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 391 niños de 0 a 84 meses de edad del Municipio de Sonsón, Antioquia. Se estudiaron los parámetros de hemoglobina y ferritina sérica utilizando puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se calcularon las medidas de frecuencia y de resumen y los intervalos de confianza para proporciones y las pruebas de estadística paramétrica y no paramétrica. Resultados: La prevalencia de anemia ferropénica fue de 4,3% y la media de ferritina sérica y de hemoglobina para la población del estudio fue de 29,9 ng/mL y 12,6 g/dL respectivamente. Adicionalmente se halló significancia estadística de la prevalencia de anemia ferropénica por grupo de edad (p<0,0001; pero no se encontró significancia estadística de la  prevalencia de anemia con el sexo (p= 1,0000.  Conclusión: La prevalencia de anemia ferropénica en los niños de la primera infancia del Municipio de Sonsón fue baja de acuerdo con los parámetros de hemoglobina y ferritina sérica establecidos por la OMS, hay variación de la anemia ferropénica por grupo de edad pero no por sexo.

  11. Daniel John Cunningham (1850-1909): anatomist and textbook author, whose sons achieved distinction in the Army, Navy and Indian Medical Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Matthew H

    2008-02-01

    Daniel John Cunningham was a son of the manse. His father John (1819-93) was the parish priest at Crieff, Perthshire from 1845 and was to remain there for 41 years. In 1886 he was appointed Principal of St Mary's College of the University of St Andrews and Moderator of the Church of Scotland. Daniel was educated at Crieff Academy before he progressed to the University of Edinburgh. He graduated MB CM with First-class Honours in 1874 and then proceeded MD in 1876 when he was awarded a Gold Medal for his thesis. He acted as Demonstrator to Professor Turner (1832-1916) in Edinburgh for eight years until 1882 and was then appointed to the Chair of Anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, in Dublin. After only one year there, he transferred to Trinity College, Dublin, where he occupied a similar position for 20 years. In 1903, on the appointment of Sir William Turner to the post of Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, Daniel was invited to succeed him as Professor of Anatomy in Edinburgh. Daniel held this post until his premature death in 1909. He had three sons and two daughters. Each of his three sons achieved distinction in different fields - one in the Army, another in the Navy and the third in the Indian Medical Service. One of Daniel's daughters married Dr Edwin Bramwell (1873-1952), who was later to occupy the Moncrieff Arnott Chair of Clinical Medicine in the University of Edinburgh.

  12. No son víctimas hasta no demuestren lo contrario : Un análisis de los debates sobre la ley de trata de personas en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Claudia Patricia

    2009-01-01

    En las últimas décadas asistimos a un proceso de crecimiento exponencial del tráfico y trata de personas en todo el mundo. Se cuentan por millones las personas traficadas y millonarios son los dividendos que promueve este delito, sólo comparables con los márgenes de ganancias producidos por el tráfico de armas y drogas con el que suele estar asociado. La trata de mujeres no es un fenómeno novedoso en nuestro país. A finales del siglo XIX en la región del Rio de La Plata se conformaron las ...

  13. Eu não posso ser dois : uma perspectiva sobre o conceito de gameplay a partir de experimentos com o jogo Brothers : a tale of two sons

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Amaro Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Esta pesquisa concentra-se, fundamentalmente, no conceito de gameplay, tendo como objetivo principal compreender como as materialidades próprias da situação de jogo, as mecânicas e dinâmicas de jogo influenciam e caracterizam o gameplay a partir de experiências com o jogo digital Brothers – A Tale of Two Sons (Starbreeze Studios, 2013). O referencial teórico é divido em quatro partes: na primeira se faz um breve histórico sobre os Game Studies; na segunda é feita uma articulação entre os conc...

  14. ¿Son las TIC un factor clave en la adquisición de competencias? Un análisis con evaluaciones por ordenador

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Mediavilla; Josep Oriol Escardíbul

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo analiza los efectos de la tenencia y uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en la adquisición de competencias (evaluadas por ordenador en la prueba de PISA de 2012). Los principales resultados son los siguientes. En primer lugar, se constata que las variables TIC inciden en mayor medida en la adquisición de matemáticas que en el resto de competencias evaluadas (comprensión lectora y ciencias). En segundo lugar, resulta relevante la variable TIC utilizad...

  15. Familial ainhum: A case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  16. Familial ainhum: a case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bt; Suganthy, Rajakumari R; Manimegalai, M; Krishnaveni, A

    2015-01-01

    Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  17. Modern Dönem Nesih Tartışmaları ve İbn Kesîr’in Neshe Yaklaşımı / Discussions of Naskh (Abrogation in Modern Studies and Ibn Kathīr’s Perception of Naskh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abrogation (naskh is one of the controversial themes of Islamic studies, especially in later period that of principle of exegesis (uṣūl al-tafsīr. However, the recent studies on abrogation (naskh do not offer a comprehensive analysis on the concept. In fact, the problem of naskh (abrogation is in need of a systematic and holistic approach, which would only be possible with a detailed study on how the concept of abrogation (naskh is understood in Islamic interpretive tradition (tafsīr. With this purpose in mind, this article intends to examine two points regarding the term abrogation: first, the article will offer a analytical reflection on the diverse views of naskh, and then it will highlight how Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373 understood and applied this term to his hermeneutical framework. By doing so, the present study aims to show Ibn Kathīr’s position in Islamic interpretive tradition on the matter of naskh. The key conclusion of this study is that although Ibn Kathīr is one of the representatives of the traditional riwayah (sound transmission through a chain of exegetes exegesis, he advances his interpretive hermeneutics with multiple aspects that also involves dirayah (personal opinion exegesis (tafsīr. SUMMARY The problem of naskh (abrogation is one of the most important and controversial themes of science and principle of exegesis (ʿilm wan a-l uṣūl al-tafsīr in Islamic tradition. In order to understand naskh, which is claimed to be occurred in the Qur’ānic text, it is necessary to involve the time of the revelation of the Qur’ān. An analysis of this period reveals that first Muslims regard the naskh as a natural process of the revelation and do not dispute over this matter. In other words, the controversial theme naskh is perceived by first addresses of the Qur’ān as a hermeneutical characteristic of the Qur’ānic revelation. Therefore, naskh was not considered as a controversial concept and debated its origins based on

  18. AutoCAD 3D pour l'architecture et le design : conception d'une maison et de son mobilier

    CERN Document Server

    Riccio, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Module 3D d'AutoCAD, logiciel leader de dessin assisté par ordinateur, AutoCAD 3D est l'outil indispensable des architectes qui souhaitent présenter leurs travaux en trois dimensions. Voici donc un livre très pédagogique qui leur fera découvrir ses principales fonctionnalités (versions 2006 à 2010) à travers un projet de conception de maison contemporaine. Riche de 700 plans, schémas et dessins, il explique quels outils employer pour modéliser les façades d'une villa, sa piscine et sa terrasse, ainsi que son architecture intérieure et son mobilier. Dès les premières pages, le lecteur se retrouve ainsi plongé dans la pratique, voyant se construire au fil des 17 ateliers un édifice tridimensionnel complexe, qu'il aura la satisfaction d'avoir créé lui-même. A qui s'adresse ce livre ? Aux bureaux d'architectes qui souhaitent présenter leurs projets en 3D ; À tous les étudiants en écoles d'architecture ; Aux utilisateurs 2D d'AutoCAD qui désirent connaître les fonctions 3D de ce logiciel.

  19. When Parents Separate and One Parent 'Comes Out' as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual: Sons and Daughters Engage with the Tension that Occurs When Their Family Unit Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán C Daly

    Full Text Available The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years, who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.

  20. Parents think their sons are brighter than their daughters: sex differences in parental self-estimations and estimations of their children's multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Reeves, Emma; Budhani, Salima

    2002-03-01

    In this study, 156 participants, predominantly White British adults (M age = 44.3 years) rated themselves on overall IQ and on H. Gardner's (1983) 7 intelligence subtypes. Parents (n = 120) also estimated the intelligence of their children. Men's self-estimates were significantly higher than women's (110.15 vs. 104.84). Participants thought their verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence scores were the best indicators of their own overall intelligence. Parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters (115.21 vs. 107.49). Self-estimates and estimates of children's multiple intelligences were higher for men and sons, significantly so for logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence. Parents rated 2nd-born daughters as having significantly higher verbal and musical intelligence than their male counterparts. Higher parental IQ self-estimates corresponded with higher IQ estimates for children. Results for 1st-born children were clearest and showed the most significant differences. The findings are interpreted in terms of sociocultural and familial influences and the possibility of actual sex differences in particular abilities.

  1. ¿Son las transferencias del sector hidroeléctrico un instrumento eficaz para la protección de los recursos naturales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Vélez Gómez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Las transferencias del sector eléctrico son uno de los instrumentos financieros más importantes con los que cuentan las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales (CAR para financiar su presupuesto. Este instrumento suscita actualmente un debate acerca de su capacidad para remunerar el capital natural aportado por los territorios en el desarrollo del sector eléctrico. En este artículo se explica cómo funcionan las CAR y la importancia de las transferencias del sector eléctrico para ellas. Se ofrece un escenario comparativo de las transferencias calculadas de acuerdo al proyecto de Ley 88 de 2010, para observar diferencias significativas en cuanto a la remuneración del capital natural de acuerdo con el artículo 45 de la Ley 99 de 1993. Sin embargo, más allá del simple aspecto remunerativo de la Ley, se pretende mostrar que las CAR no son organizaciones aptas para el cumplimiento de sus funciones, lo cual hace que el tema de su financiamiento sea desplazado ante evidentes fallas de gestión de sus recursos y en algunos casos problemas de corrupción que hacen que las transferencias no cumplan su objetivo.

  2. El delito de aborto son inconstitucionales (los abortos son homicidios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo González Solano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El voto 2306-2000 (sobre la fecundación in vitro de la Sala Constitucional, ha dado un giro "copernicano" al concepto de "persona" y la protección que a ellas se les ofrece, en el campo jurídico. La Sala generalizó el uso de la palabra "persona" a todos los seres humanos ya nacidos y a "no nacidos" llamados en nuestra legislación "fetos". Tal definición, modifica de plano el Código Civil que expresa: "La existencia de lapersonafisicaprincipia al nacer viva... "y con ello, toda la aplicación de la materia no solo civil sino también la de Derecho de Familia, al otorgarle una serie de derechos y obligaciones a esta categoría de seres humanos (los no nacidos que antes no les ofrecía.The 2306-2006 vote of the Costa Rican Constitutional Court ( about the in vitro fecundation, has made "Copernicans" revolution on the concept of "human person" and the legal protection given to them. The Court spread the use of the word "human person" to every human being including the unborn, called in our legislation, "fetus". This definition modified the Civil Code which expresses " The existence of the human person are begins at a living birth" and affects as well the Family Code because the rights and obligations now given to the unborn.

  3. Ferney et son nouveau visage

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Ferney-Voltaire's third annual fête in h. of Voltaire will take place on 26 June. The theme this year is Newton and the emblem is the apple. CERN, which is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary this year, will be participating in the fête, and has sent a magnet to be displayed outside the Town Hall (1 paragraph)

  4. Cuando son muchas las voces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The work departs from an approach to the genesis of the concept of responsibility. Some features of the concept that have today become obvious can already come into sight in this first approach. The work devotes itself then to point out the implications (and, most of all, the consequences involved in openly ascribing responsibility to the Modern Age and to the rise of industrial civilization. One of these main consequences is perhaps to have to deal with a number of theoretical topics in a necessary connexion with another axial topic of modern thought, namely, identity. Besides, the essay points also to a number of topics, such as the problem of the alleged collective responsibilities and also that of evil, just to quote two of them, whose magnitude may serve as an indicator to the relevance of the concept of responsibility in contemporary thought.

    Tras una inicial aproximación a la génesis del concepto de responsabilidad, génesis en la que se empiezan a percibir algunos de los rasgos del mismo que terminarán por hacerse explícitos en nuestros días, el trabajo se centra en señalar las implicaciones (y, sobre todo, las consecuencias que tiene adscribir decididamente la responsabilidad a la época moderna y, en concreto, al surgimiento de la civilización industrial. Acaso una de las más importantes sea la de obligarnos a plantear toda una serie de asuntos en conexión necesaria con otro tema-eje del pensamiento moderno, el de la identidad. Junto a dicho tema, en el texto quedan apuntados otros, como el de la justa escala en la que abordar tales asuntos (o, lo que viene a ser lo mismo, el problema de las presuntas responsabilidades colectivas o el del mal, por citar sólo dos, cuya envergadura puede servir como indicador de la importancia que presenta el concepto de responsabilidad en el pensamiento contemporáneo.

  5. Integración, turismo y discapacidad: ¿son accesibles los hoteles para las personas con discapacidad física?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Suriá Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio examinamos los obstaculos que se encuentran las personas con discapacidad física durante su estancia en un hotel. Se examinó la influencia del género y edad. Participaron 41 personas con discapacidad motora pertenencientes a la confederación de discapacitados de la provincia de Alicante. Utilizamos un cuestionario diseñado had hoc para el estudio. Los resultados indicaron que la mayor dificultad que los participantes encuentran en los hoteles son los escalones y el personal. se encontraron diferencias según el género y edad. Ello revela la existencia de obstáculos que impiden la accesibilidad hotelera para las personas con discapacidad. Estas dificultades pueden solucionarse con una adecuada predisposición por parte de los responsables hoteleros.

  6. Performance of brain MRI of a two generation father-and-son family with long-term smoking caffeinum natrio benzoicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wan-li; ZHANG Li-fang; LIU Hong; ZHAO Li-yun; XING Yu-ping; YUAN Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the 1970s, some people in north, northeast,northwest areas began to smoke caffeinum natrio benzoicum (CNB) and started to abuse CNB. As a common ingredient that can be found in drugs or drinks,many studies on the safety of CNB have been investigated, but no one has shown significant abnormality in the brain of a CNB abuser by using neuroimaging. In our study, three subjects from of a two generation father-and-son family with long-term smoking CNB were enrolled. Combining with the clinical data and taking the cocaine animal trial model and toxicology as the reference, we wanted to observe the performance of brain MRI and MRS of patients with long-term smoking CNB.

  7. La prose fran(c)aise avec son profond humanisme%法兰西散文的流变和人文精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程依荣

    2003-01-01

    Le terme de la prose désigne ici tous les genres littéraires en prose non romantisée, à coté des trois genres “majeurs” que sont la poésie, le théatre et le roman. La prose francaise a une trés longue tradition, et elle a connu des grands auteurs tels que Montaigne, R.F. de Chateaubriand, J. J. Rousseau, F. Mauriac etc. qui avaient créé des oeuvres de réputation mondiale. Tout au long de son histoire, la prose francaise est marquée par un profond humanisme qui se renouvelle sans cesse, et par des écrits artistiques raffinés et variés.

  8. Transplantation rénale au Maroc: l'hémodialysé et son entourage sont-ils suffisamment informés?

    OpenAIRE

    Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Béfa; Sabi, Kossi Akomola; Imangue, Ghislain; Al-Torayhi, Mays Hadi; Amekoudi, Eyram Yoan Makafui; Tsevi, Claude Mawufemo; Zamd, Mohamed; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La transplantation rénale constitue le traitement idéal de l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Cependant il existe une insuffisance de donneurs contrairement aux receveurs dont le nombre ne cesse de s'accroitre. La méconnaissance de la transplantation par les hémodialysés et leur entourage pourrait être l'une des causes. Notre but était d’évaluer les connaissances et opinions de l'hémodialysé et de son entourage sur la transplantation rénale. Méthodes L'enquête menée en Aout 2013 av...

  9. ¿Cuáles son las variables clave en la adopción del marketing de relaciones? Una investigación en el contexto colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es descubrir cuáles son las variables clave en la aplicación del marketing de relaciones en las empresas colombianas. Se aplica un instrumento comparativo a compañías pertenecientes a diferentes sectores y con distintos tamaños, en ese país, en dos olas: el primero, denominado ‘ola 1’, corresponde a los años 2003 y 2004; el segundo, denominado ‘ola 2’, corresponde a los años 2010 y 2011. La técnica utilizada para validar el constructo propuesto fue el análisis factorial de componentes principales.

  10. ¿Cuáles son las revistas, libros y personas más influyentes en la biología latinoamericana?

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Para identificar las revistas, libros y personas más influyentes en la biología latinoamericana, se envió por correo electrónico una encuesta a 553 personas dedicadas el tema, según la base de datos de la Revista de Biología Tropical. Un tercio de ellas respondió, concluyéndose que la Revista de Biología Tropical, es la más influyente de la región según las personas consultadas. Con esta excepción, la mayoría de las revistas influyentes son publicadas en países desarrollados. La distribución ...

  11. ¿Qué es la investigación en Educación Matemática y cuáles son sus resultados? II

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    En el pasado número de este boletín presenté un resumen de las conferencias y discusiones que tuvieron lugar en mayo de 1994, durante la Conferencia ICMI 1994 alrededor del tema ¿Qué es la investigación en educación matemática y cuáles son sus resultados? En ese artículo presento algunos apartes del documento que Paul Ernest (Ernest, 1994) presentó en esta reunión con el propósito de dar respuesta a estas preguntas. Me centraré tan sólo en algunos de los puntos de su documento, dejando por fu...

  12. 以截瘫为首发的髓系肉瘤1例并文献复习%Myeloid sarcoma with paraplegia as initial manifestations: case report and review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方方; 李文倩; 韩国雄; 东绍斌; 冯建明

    2013-01-01

    Summary A twenty-year-old female was manifested with paraplegia and uracratia as initial and primary signs,accompanied by T6 and T7 spinous process tenderness to palpation +, lower extremity myodynamia 0,no tendon reflex,and Babinski +. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intraspinal occupying lesions from T3 to T5 with spinal cord compressed. Bone marrow aspiration indicated M2b,and whole blood cell analysis showed cell numbers were normal in which 34% of them were juvenile. Bcr-abl fusion gene was AML1/ETO positive. M2b with intraspinal myeloid sarcoma.

  13. EXPLICAR LA CALIDAD DEMOCRÁTICA: ¿QUÉ TAN RELEVANTES SON LAS TRADICIONES AUTORITARIAS? Explaining Democratic Quality: How Relevant is the Authoritarian Legacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Morlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una versión revisada de la lectura abierta dada por el autor el año 2004, en la conferencia de la sociedad italiana de Ciencia política en Padua. En la primera sección se discute la principal definición de democracia y calidad democrática, como estado de derecho, accountability electoral, accountability interins titucional, responsiveness, libertad y equidad/solidaridad. En la segunda parte surge una pregunta clave: si nosotros quisiéramos explicar la calidad de la democracia, ¿cuán relevantes son las tradiciones políticas previas? también son sugeridos otros factores explicativos que complementan el rol de los legados autoritarios, proponiendo pequeñas hipótesis clave. En la última sección se analiza el impacto del legado autoritario sobre la calidad de las democracias contemporáneas en países del sur de Europa como Portugal, España e Italia y el Cono Sur de Latinoamérica tal como Chile, Argentina, Uruguay y BrasilThis is the revised draft ofthe opening lecture given by the author atthe 2004 Conference of Italian Society of Political Science in Padua. Inthe first sectionthe main definitions of democracy and democratic qualities rule of law, electoral accountability, inter-ins titutional accountability, responsiveness, freedom and equality/solidarity are discussed. Inthe second a key ques tion is addressed: if we would liketo explainthe qualities of a democracy how much arethe previous politicaltraditions ofthe country relevant? Other explanatory factors, which complementthe role of an authoritarian legacy, are also sugges ted and a few key hypotheses are proposed.the final section does not provide any comprehensive explanation, but analyses ofthe impact of authoritarian legacy in a few countries of Southern Europe, such as Portugal, Spain, and Italy (but not Greece where it is not relevant and inthe Southern Cone as Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, wherethe quality of contemporary democracies is ques tioned

  14. ¿Son viables los créditos ects otorgados a las matemáticas en los nuevos planes de estudio de LADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Martínez, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EL nuevo plan de estudios para la Administración y Dirección de Empresas (ADE va encaminado a resolver los problemas de la vida real en las empresas. Las disciplinas que lo contemplan están reguladas por los créditos ECTS (European Credit Transfer System, establecidos por la Commission of the European Community, con objeto de proporcionar procedimientos comunes que garanticen un reconocimiento académico de los estudios en los distintos paises que la integran. La presencia de las Matemáticas en los Planes es debido a su carácter instrumental, sus contenidos son utilizados por la demás disciplinas y le otorga el papel de ser una asignatura de servicio y “transversal”. El presente trabajo desarrolla una metodología empírica, determinando la temporización docente/discente de los contenidos matemáticos que son utilizados por todas las disciplinas que componen la titulación de ADE. Dichos contenidos han sido contabilizados y cuantificado en términos de créditos ECTS, aplicando los criterios que caracterizan su definición. El resultado obtenido pone de manifiesto que los créditos del nuevo plan no satisfacen las exigencias que caracterizan a los créditos ECTS para el aprendizaje de las matemáticas. Dado que los contenidos matemáticos no han cambiado, por exigencias de las disciplinas de ADE, los resultados obtenidos con datos experimentales, tras la reducción de horas de docencia, muestran lo siguiente: Con el Plan del 1973 (10 horas semanales de clase de Matemáticas se necesitaban 3 convocatorias para aprobar, con el plan actual (4 horas semanales de clase se necesitan 6 convocatorias. La reducción ha supuesto para el alumno un incremento de año y medio de estancia en la universidad, y como consecuencia aumenta el coste. Estudiar matemáticas para ADE era mas barato “antes” que “ahora”. La propuesta de los nuevos planes hace inviable el aprendizaje de las matemáticas en ADE.

  15. Crustal thickness mapping in Raipur–Katni area of Narmada–Son lineament in central India derived from 3D Euler deconvolution of magnetic data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; C L Singh

    2013-10-01

    The Narmada–Son lineament (NSL) is one of the most prominent tectonic features which divides the Indian peninsula into two subcontinents, northern and southern India since Precambrian times. The area is seismically active and geologically complex with different geological formations. Magnetic data divides the area into two parts and more prominent magnetic highs are observed near Tikwa, Mau and Amarpur regions with 800, 600 and 400 nT, respectively due to the presence of the crystalline basement rock. Tectonic resettlement and lithological changes causes upwarpment of Mahakoshal rocks. In the present study, magnetic data interpretation is carried out for locating depth of causative body and delineating structural fault/dyke boundaries using Euler deconvolution technique. Most of the faults are oriented in the ENE–WSW direction; however, few more faults are identified which are oriented in the SE to NW direction. These fault patterns suggest that the area is exaggerated by tectonic turmoil and distressed both sedimentary to basement rocks isolating the area into numerous faulted blocks. The maximum depths (< 4.5 km) observed at Katni and Umaria area and moderate depths (between 4.0 and 4.5 km) observed towards east of Katni, Ramnagar, Burwa and east of Umaria and Sarna area.

  16. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions.

  17. Evidence for an extensive intrusive component of the Deccan Large Igneous Province in the Narmada Son Lineament region, India from three dimensional magnetotelluric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Prasanta K.; Sarma, S. V. S.

    2016-10-01

    The crustal electrical structure beneath the western segment of Narmada-Son lineament zone in Central India has been imaged using magnetotelluric (MT) data set of 153 stations distributed over a grid (∼7-8 km site spacing). Three dimensional modeling of this data set brought out several major crustal conductors with different geometries at different depth levels in the crustal column. The conductive features, correlating with gravity high anomalies and high seismic velocity zones are interpreted to be mafic-ultramafic bodies derived from mantle. We infer that these bodies represent the intrusive component of the Large Igneous Province (LIP) of the Deccan volcanic episode triggered by the passage of the Indian continent over the Reunion hot spot during the Late Cretaceous. The disposition and the geometry of the subsurface magmatic bodies, which must have served as magma chambers for outpouring of the Deccan lavas, suggest that they are closely related to the plumbing geometry of the LIP of the Deccan volcanic episode.

  18. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A. G. [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  19. Nommer le conflit. Le cas de l’Alsace pendant son annexion de fait au Troisième Reich, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Ségolène Verneret

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire.   Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifsDie Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bevölkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konfliktträchtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen elsässischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.

  20. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares; Hanlon, Brittany Paula

    2013-09-01

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activities over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.

  1. 《土生子》与《看不见的人》里的象征艺术%Symbolism in Native Son and Invisible Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春英

    2007-01-01

    Richard Wright and Ralph Allison were two famous contemporary American black novelists. The frequent use of symbolism is a common feature in their literary writing.Through the analysis of the use of symbolism in Richard Wright's Native Son and Ralph Allison's Invisible Man, the writer reveals that a close link between the two novelists' literary creation is an objective existence which is hard to deny.%理查德·赖特和拉尔夫·埃里森,是美国当代两位最著名的黑人作家.大量运用象征,是他们创作的一个共同点.本文主要通过对赖特和埃里森这两部小说里象征艺术的对比分析,指出两位作家创作的密切联系的确是难以否认的客观存在.

  2. n torno a la globalización. ¿Cuáles son los cambios para interpretar las instituciones políticas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roberto García Samaniego

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen líneas de investigación sobre aquellos fenómenos presentes que son producto de la globalización, los cambios y los efectos que le siguen producen en la política, la sociedad y la cultura. En este caso haremos referencia a lo colectivo, en tanto y en cuanto, trae parejos profundos conflictos afectivos del entorno individual de algunos seres humanos que afrontan dichos cambios que repolitizan lo público. Y dichos efectos globales entorno a la democracia, y sus instituciones, replantea las formas de interpretar el conflicto social, su visión política y sus efectos sociales a largo plazo. Es decir, la globalización económica y tecnológica de los medios y las redes electrónicas permiten una multiculturalidad que hace desestructurar los referentes tradicionales de identidad. Y al desestructurar el sujeto social unificado que representaba las figuras del pueblo y de nación se descubre el carácter conflictivo que hoy adquiere las configuraciones de lo colectivo y de lo público-político.

  3. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  4. SO(n)规范势的可分解理论%General Decomposition Theory of SO(n) Gauge Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李希国; 段一士; 等

    2001-01-01

    使用几何代数方法,研究了n维紧致黎曼流形上SO(n)规范势(自旋联络)的一般分解理论,建立了SO(n)规范场用球丛上单位矢量场n分解的一般表达式. 由此,分别得到了U(1)规范场和U(2)规范场用单位矢量场n分解的一般形式.%By means of devices of geometry algebra the general decomposition of gauge potential (spin connection) on a compact n-dimension Riemannian manifold has been studied in detail. A general decomposition formula of SO(n) gauge potential in terms of a unit vector field on the sphere bundle has been established. Using same local structure between SO(2) and U(1), SO(3) and SU(2) the general decomposition formula of U(1) and SU(2) gauge potential in terms of the unit vector field has been also given respectively

  5. 父与子的神话:霍尔顿的双重身份%A Modern Father-Son Myth: Dual Identities of Holden Caulfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗灿

    2006-01-01

    霍尔顿体现了一个成长中的少年的种种问题:厌恶成人世界,不愿长大,急切地在寻找一个"父亲"来指导未来的生活.虽然寻找精神上的父亲是徒劳的,霍尔顿自己却在不知不觉中充当了父亲的角色,具有敏锐的观察力,不断地试图去关怀他人,保护他人.儿子和父亲两种截然不同甚至有些矛盾的角色同时存在于霍尔顿身上,使其形象复杂,充满争议,同时也正是其魅力所在.%As a teenager,Holden Caulfield complains about the phoniness of adult world and searches desperately for a spiritual father who can help him cross the road,that is,grow up without losing his innocence.Yet at the same time,as he himself dreams,Holden Caulfield is a catcher,or a father figure who offers facilitating and guiding help.As a son figure and father figure combined,Holden is an entity of contradiction.The success and controversy of Holden in part consist in his very contradiction and inexplicability.

  6. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO{sub 2}, hollandite, glass SON68); Effet de l'irradiation (alpha, gamma) sur l'alteration des matrices de dechets nucleaires de hautes activites (UO{sub 2}, hollandite, verre SON68)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO{sub 2} to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO{sub 2} colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO{sub 2} matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  7. Drill bit seismic, vertical seismic profiling, and seismic depth imaging to acid drilling decisions in the Tho Tinh structure Nam Con Son Basin-Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, W.; Leaney, W.; Nakanishi, S.; Kusaka, H.

    1998-02-01

    Rapid deposition in the Nam Con Son Basin during the Miocene resulted in under-compacted shales. These under-compacted shales are often associated with over-pressured formations. As these shales have excess water and tend to be mechanically weak, the safe mud window for drilling the under-compacted interval can be quite narrow. Efficient and safe drilling operations require accurate depth predictions of these over-pressured formations as well a knowledge of the magnitude of the over-pressure. In this paper we describe a technique which combines the best aspects of conventional Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) and Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (RVSP) to detect under-compacted shales and predict formation pressures to locate drilling hazards below TD. Under-compacted shales with excess water will have a lower acoustic impedance than expected from the compaction trend. Shales that depart from the compaction trend may indicate potential drilling hazards below. Conventional VSPs provide high quality reflection data at discrete intervals in the well, and can be used to accurately predict acoustic impedance below the bit. This acoustic impedance is then interpreted to provide both the location (in time and depth) of the drilling hazard and the mud weight necessary to contain it. The two-way time estimate of the hazard location is usually quite accurate but the depth estimate is less certain due to the estimation error in formation velocities below TD. The RVSP using the drill bit as a source, provides a continuous time versus depth relationship while drilling. This time versus depth is used to continually update the conventional VSP depth prediction of the drilling hazard and thus provide the most accurate depth of the hazard prior to its penetration. It is also used to update a depth-indexed display of existing surface seismic at the wellsite. 10 refs., 22 figs.

  8. An Interpretation of the Theme of Sons and Lovers by Lawrence%劳伦斯作品《儿子与情人》的主题解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经鹏; 马维骐

    2012-01-01

    Sons and Lovers, the first magnum opus by Lawrence, sets the tones for literally all the motifs covered in his later novels, which signifies the coming of his mature works. The most basic motif is the dehumanization of the so-called civilization and its destructive effect on the relationships between man and nature, man and society, man and man as well that between two sexes. Despite his occasional hesitations and escapes, even his extreme and irrational deviations in the course of all his unsuccessful struggles and quests, the novelist left behind him much scope for reflection and more hope.%《儿子与情人》是劳伦斯推出的第一部长篇小说,但已涉及作者一生的创作中几乎全部的主题思想,标志其创作成熟期的到来。作者直接将其批判的矛头指向了表面极其繁荣鼎盛的工业社会最深处的脆弱心脏,即所谓文明对人的异化,从而破坏和摧残本应和谐美好的两性关系乃至更广义的人与人、人与社会的正常关系。尽管在这种痛苦的求索中,作者有过彷徨,有过逃避,走过极端甚至偏离过理性,并且每一次探索都以失败而告终,但他毕竟给我们留下了更深的思考和更多的希望。

  9. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another Los estudios epidemiológicos son como las cerezas, van una detrás de la otra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Lunet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.El proverbio "Las palabras son como las cerezas" que expresa cómo cuando empezamos a hablar los asuntos van surgiendo de manera encadenada y terminamos con largas conversaciones, del mismo modo en que las cerezas que salen del plato encadenadas cuando cogemos una, puede también puede ser aplicado a la investigación epidemiológica. Una secuencia de estudios epidemiológicos, cada uno derivado del anterior, se presenta como un ejemplo de cómo cada investigación puede derivar en nuevas cuestiones en los estudios siguientes. Esta descripción subraya la necesidad de una planificación adecuada así como la utilidad de los estudios piloto para describir las deficiencias que difícilmente podrían haber sido anticipadas sin trabajo de campo. Se pretende ilustrar como la investigación epidemiológica puede proporcionar un enfoque profundo a cuestiones de investigación, siempre y cuando los resultados sean interpretados correctamente y las opciones metodológicas subóptimas sean tenidas en cuenta en futuras investigaciones.

  10. THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE (‘DIKE’ AND ‘THEMIS’ AS IT IS REVEALED BY THE TEACHINGS OF NEAGOE BASARAB TO HIS SON THEODOSIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA GRIGORE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an inquiry into the problems concerning the construction of the legal system: the theme represented by human quality called to building and completing the legal system. The human being is ontologically placed between Dike / Legal Justice and Themis / Transcendent Justice. The person called to judge is the link between two different ontological orders: the order of the Absolute, of Themis, and the order of the Relative, of Dike. This person is the one who guides Themis to perform Dike, in order to do Justice in coincidence with Legal Justice. The Teachings of Neagoe Basarab to his Son Theodosie was written at almost the same time as The Prince by Machiavelli. If we look at Machiavelli’s work and that of Neagoe Basarab, we are able to see two distinct ways to build and give legitimacy to the legal system. The Teachings do not approach a sophisticated architecture of the legal system, with hierarchies and complex abilities. The discourse about justice especially implies the moral valuation of the people summoned to judge and to do what is right. This work is about the foundation of the legal system regardless of its structure. And the foundation of the system is the person called to judge in such a way that Δίκη should coincide with Θέμις. From Machiavelli we have a different vision about Justice and the Legal system: he focuses on the system and not on the person who performs those functions within the system.

  11. Epistémologie du « sujet enseignant », dans son rôle d'évaluateur de compétences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noël Cordonier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution s'intéresse à l'une des qualités centrales de l'enseignant tel qu'il est postulé par les référentiels de compétence : l'expertise telle qu’elle s'exerce dans les activités d'évaluation. S'appuyant sur un protocole de certification utilisé à la Haute école pédagogique (HEP du canton de Vaud, cette étude de cas tente de définir l'épistémologie du sujet enseignant, dans son rôle d’évaluateur. Ce sujet est-il, comme le veut le sens courant du mot, le sujet de quelque chose, ou, au contraire, une individualité forte, autonome, indépendante ? Endosse-t-il pleinement le jugement évaluatif ou se réfugie-t-il derrière des procédures sophistiquées ? Est-il souverain ou timoré, voire peureux ? Pour y répondre, en sus d'analyser une grille et des critères d'évaluation estimés prototypiques, on recourra à l'histoire des idées et, notamment, au postmodernisme et à certains de ses avatars, directs ou indirects (la raison instrumentale, la notion de dispositif,….

  12. Diseño de interfaces en los medios visitados por los venezolanos ¿Los más usados son usables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Benigni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC han impactado favorablemente a los ciudadanos y han cambiado sus hábitos de consumo de bienes y servicios; desde las distintas facetas de la vida en sociedad es necesario acoplarse a estos nuevos hábitos. La prensa nacional e internacional no escapa a esta realidad, y por tal, han comenzado a abrirse espacios en Internet para acercarse más a los ciudadanos a través del apoderamiento de las TIC. En Venezuela se ha venido incrementando el uso de los sitios web de los medios de comunicación social; a los cuales se accede desde computadores personales, portátiles, tabletas y teléfonos inteligentes. No obstante, muchos espacios en Internet se diseñan sin apego a las normas y principios de usabilidad que facilitan la intuitiva y correcta interacción del usuario con la aplicación informática. En consecuencia, se evalúa si los sitios web de los medios de comunicación social más usados por los internautas venezolanos son usables; para lo cual, se los analizará empleando los Principios de usabilidad, de Nielsen, y la Guía para evaluación experta, de Márquez Correa. Se concluye que los sitios web evaluados cumplen medianamente los principios, partes y recomendaciones expertas en cuanto al diseño de interfaces web.

  13. SON LOS POBRES LAS ÚNICAS VÍCTIMAS CON LA COMPRA DE VOTOS? UN CASO DE COMPETENCIA POLÍTICA CON EXPROPIACIÓN GENERALIZADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cendales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo introduce un modelo de competencia política entre dos partidos políticos que, además de no representar los deseos y las necesidades de los votantes en una economía no-prioritarista, movilizan su masa electoral a través de la compra de votos. Se establece una relación entre la conducta de preferencia del partido de gobierno y la topología de la red de intercambio en la cual está vinculado con los votantes a través de operadores políticos que no pertenecen a la organización política. El resultado principal establece que el partido que se ha convertido en el partido de gobierno, a través de la compra de votos, preferirá promover como establecedor de la agenda en la negociación política con otros jugadores con veto del sistema político municipal, aquellas agendas políticas con las cuales se redistribuyen los recursos, de tal manera que se empobrece tanto a los individuos wo (worse off persons como a los individuos BO (better off persons, con los cuales está vinculado en la red de intercambio. Esto último le permitirá promover reducciones en los precios de compra que son de equilibrio en los mercados de votos que tengan lugar en la siguiente contienda electoral, dado su objetivo por cooptar el cargo público a través de la compra de votos. Palabras clave: Juegos en redes, compra de votos, pobreza, competencia política.

  14. Biodegradation of the french reference nuclear glass SON 68 by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans : protective effect of the biofilm,U and REE retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J.; Stille, P.; Boutin, R.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2008-12-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 μm french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25°C. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, traces and ultra-traces elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 μm under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials can be found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium, molybdenum and caesium as tracers, showed that the biofilm has a protective effect against glass alteration. U and REE are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides (EPS) + bacterial cells). Biofilm analysis are in progress to determine whether these

  15. The Myth and Ritual in Sons and Lovers%《儿子与情人》中的神话和仪式原型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏

    2012-01-01

    As a masterpiece of the famous British writer D.H.Lawrence,Sons and Lovers had been regarded as his semi-autobiographical novel because of the similarities between himself and his created hero Paul Morel.Its unique plots,poetic writings had caught the eyeballs of readers and critics tightly since its first publish.There are many plots and details related with myth and ritual in text.This paper manages to resort to Canadian scholar Northrop Frye’s archetypal criticism and Britain anthropologist Frazer’s The Golden Bough,to trace and analyze the archetypes of myth and ritual in this novel,aiming at rereading the novel from a new perspective.%《儿子与情人》是英国作家D.H.劳伦斯的代表作品之一。小说塑造的男主角保罗.莫莱尔与劳伦斯本人年轻时的经历颇为相似,因而被认为带有半自传体小说的色彩,又凭借其独特的情节内容、诗化优美的语言,不仅赢得了读者的喜爱也受到了文学评论家们的垂青。小说文本中隐藏着大量与神话和仪式相关的内容和细节,本文试图从神话与仪式的角度,采用加拿大学者弗莱的原型批评理论,结合英国人类学家弗雷泽的人类学著作《金枝》对文本进行新的论述,追述文本中隐藏的神话与仪式原型,为小说的角色和内容试提供新的解读途径。

  16. ¿Son las herramientas recomendadas por la ASPEN y la ESPEN equiparables en la valoración del estado nutricional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª A. Valero

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: No existe un método de valoración nutricional universalmente aceptado. Los expertos de ASPEN (2002 sugieren utilizar la valoración subjetiva global (VSG, mientras que los de ESPEN (2002 recomiendan el sistema NRS-2002. Objetivos y ámbito: Este estudio transversal tiene como objetivos: 1 conocer la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario en un hospital terciario y 2 conocer el grado de asociación entre dos herramientas utilizadas para valorar el estado de nutrición: la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Material y métodos: Se estudian 135 pacientes (42,2 % mujeres y 58,8 % varones, edad 62,1 ± 14,5 años en los tres primeros días del ingreso hospitalario, ingresados en camas de Medicina Interna y Cirugía. Se analizan diferentes variables del estado nutricional. Se compara las necesidades calóricas (Harris Benedict x factor de agresión y la ingesta calórica del día anterior al ingreso, mediante recordatorio de 24 horas. Se calcula la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso con dos herramientas de screening: VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Resultados: El 42,2 % de los pacientes reconocen haber perdido peso y el 39,3 % ingieren una dieta inferior a sus necesidades al ingreso en el hospital. Según el método utilizado de valoración nutricional, la prevalencia de malnutrición es del 40,7 y del 45,1/100 pacientes ingresados con el VSG y el NRS-2002, respectivamente. Existe una asociación significativa entre los resultados obtenidos con ambas herramientas (p = 0,000. Los niveles de albúmina sérica y linfocitos totales son inferiores en los pacientes malnutridos. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario es elevada. Existe una asociación estrecha entre los resultados obtenidos con la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Aunque en la práctica clínica cualquiera de los dos métodos puede ser utilizado para valorar el estado de nutrición, consideramos que el sistema NRS-2002, aunque más complejo, es

  17. SURVIE EMBRYONNAIRE DU SAUMON ATLANTIQUE (SALMO SALAR L. DANS UN COURS D’EAU DU SUD DE SON AIRE DE RÉPARTITION, LA NIVELLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMAS J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available L’évaluation de la survie du saumon Atlantique entre la ponte et l’émergence des alevins hors des graviers est réalisée dans le bassin de la Nivelle dans les domaines accessible (trois tronçons et non accessible (trois tronçons aux géniteurs. Pour ce faire, des capsules d’incubation de 12 cm3, contenant des œufs fraîchement fécondés, sont insérées dans des frayères artificielles et naturelles. Le débit et la température de l’eau de surface, l’oxygène dissous des eaux de surface et interstitielle et les caractéristiques granulométriques du substrat des frayères sont contrôlés pendant toute la durée de l’expérience. La survie, de 28,6 % en moyenne dans l’ensemble des sites, est plus élevée dans les tronçons de l’amont (52,7 % dans la Très Haute Nivelle et son affluent, le Lapitxuri que dans les autres sites, dont ceux actuellement colonisés par l’espèce (21,5 %. Il n’est pas observé de différence de survie entre les frayères artificielles et naturelles. Les mortalités interviennent essentiellement lors des épisodes de crues avant l’éclosion. Une corrélation positive forte existe entre la saturation en oxygène de l’eau interstitielle et la survie. Pour une saturation minimum en oxygène au-dessous de 62 %, la survie reste inférieure à 27 %. En revanche, la composition granulométrique du substrat ne semble pas agir directement sur la survie. Ce facteur n’étant pas corrélé avec l’oxygène dissous, ceci suggère que dans ce cours d’eau, le flux circulant dans les frayères ne provient pas uniquement de l’eau de surface, mais aussi de la nappe alluviale pauvre en oxygène dissous.

  18. Population-based versus hospital-based controls: are they comparable? Controles poblaciones frente a controles hospitalarios: ¿son comparables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ruano-Ravina

    2008-12-01

    al día, el riesgo de ser un control hospitalario fue de 4,83 (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 2,55-9,14. Conclusiones: Podría haber algunas diferencias entre los controles poblacionales y los hospitalarios que deberían tenerse en cuenta cuando se diseñe un estudio de casos y controles. Es necesario saber si esas diferencias son similares en otras áreas geográficas y si podrían afectar a la estimación de las medidas de efecto entre exposición y enfermedad.

  19. 《李尔王》中父子冲突的伦理法则%Ethical Rules in the Father-son Conflict in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松林

    2016-01-01

    戏剧《李尔王》中的父子冲突体现了多重伦理原则。首先,父子冲突体现了社会伦理的演变,父权传统遭到了新思想的挑战,子辈中出现了敢于反抗父权的叛逆者,他们不择手段化解父权带来的焦虑和威胁,并最终在冲突中胜出。其次,父子冲突中对自然法则的崇拜破坏了人类社会文明,力量至上的丛林法则让传统道德伦理蒙羞,使其成为不堪一击的社会稳定遮羞布。从美学原则上看,善恶冲突具有使善者价值更为璀璨的作用,文学往往通过恶来衬托善,并通过恶带来的恶果来反思社会伦理的作用。%The father-son conflict in the play King Lear embodies multiple ethical principles .First, the conflict reflects the evolution of social ethics and the traditional patriarchy was challenged by new ideas .The young gen-eration appeared bold enough to rebel against patriarchy .They did anything to resolve anxiety and threats coming from patriarchy and eventually became the winner of the conflict .Secondly , the conflict shows worship for laws of nature which destroyed the civilization of human society .From aesthetic principles , the conflict between good and evil highlights good .So literature tends to zoom good in the background of evil and reflect social ethics through negative consequences brought by evil .

  20. “Yo soy del Son a la Salsa”: La re-edición de nuevas expresiones interculturales caribeñas en el espacio cinematográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydi Estrada Bayona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Yo soy del Son a la Salsa”: La re-edición de nuevasexpresiones interculturales caribeñas en el espacio cinematográfico,es un artículo reflexivo que forma parte dela investigación titulada: Claves Interculturales Caribeñasen la poética cinematográfica de Rigoberto López. El mismoconstituye un acercamiento al tratamiento del temade la diáspora cubana y caribeña en el contexto del Caribeafro-hispánico insular y en Nueva York. El estudio tomacomo antecedente el largometraje de ficción La Últimacena, (1976 de Tomás Gutiérrez Alea y como obra principalel documental: Yo soy del Son a la Salsa, (1996 deRigoberto López, para a través de los aportes de la narrativacinematográfica cubana valorar acerca del impactosociocultural del sujeto migrante en los espacios de acogiday de origen. Ambas obras son referentes en el análisisde estos fenómenos sociales en relación a: su evoluciónen el tiempo, unicidad y diversidad de manifestaciones.Asimismo visualiza la complejidad de las relaciones espacialesabordadas en sus narrativas y explica los nexosentre ellas como obras propiamente. Define la visión interculturale intertextual del documental Yo soy del Son ala Salsa dentro de la estética de la creolización de su creador.Se analiza el lenguaje de la música como expresiónsimbólica de una identidad multicultural caribeña visto, apartir de los géneros musicales del Son y la Salsa, de igualmodo al espacio cinematográfico como revitalizador detradiciones en el Caribe.

  1. Histone deacetylases: a common molecular target for differentiation treatment of acute myeloid leukemias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, S; Nervi, C; Lo Coco, F; Pelicci, P G

    2001-05-28

    Recent discoveries have identified key molecular events in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), caused by chromosomal rearrangements of the transcription factor RAR (resulting in a fusion protein with the product of other cellular genes, such as PML). Oligomerization of RAR, through a self-association domain present in PML, imposes an altered interaction with transcriptional co-regulators (NCoR/SMRT). NCoR/SMRT are responsible for recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which is required for transcriptional repression of PML-RAR target genes, and for the transforming potential of the fusion protein. Oligomerization and altered recruitment of HDACs are also responsible for transformation by the fusion protein AML1-ETO, extending these mechanisms to other forms of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and suggesting that HDAC is a common target for myeloid leukemias. Strikingly, AML1-ETO expression blocks retinoic acid (RA) signaling in hematopoietic cells, suggesting that interference with the RA pathway (genetically altered in APL) by HDAC recruitment may be a common theme in AMLs. Treatment of APLs with RA, and of other AMLs with RA plus HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), results in myeloid differentiation. Thus, activation of the RA signaling pathway and inhibition of HDAC activity might represent a general strategy for the differentiation treatment of myeloid leukemias.

  2. PERIODISMO, FICCIÓN Y REALIDAD: A PROPÓSITO DE TODO SON PREGUNTAS, EL OJO DE CERRADURA Y SOMBRAS SOBRE SOMBRAS DE JUAN JOSÉ MILLÁS Journalism, Fiction and Reality in Juan José Millás’ Todo son preguntas, El ojo de la cerradura, and Sombras sobre sombras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González Arce

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante los veranos de 2004, 2005 y 2006, el escritor español Juan José Millás publicó una serie de artículos que más tarde dieron lugar a tres recopilaciones tituladas Todo son preguntas, El ojo de la cerradura y Sombras sobre sombras. Entendidos, a la vez, como preguntas y respuestas suscitadas por fotografías aparecidas en la prensa, los tres volúmenes dan cuenta de una poética sostenida por una concepción espacial del mundo que, de manera explícita, remite a la imagen platónica de la caverna. El escritor utiliza la ficción literaria como una herramienta de interpretación de la realidad -representada aquí por la serie de fotografías- y, al hacer esto, pone en entredicho los límites entre la verdad y las apariencias. Agregar sombras a un mundo poblado por simulacros, parece decir Millás, es la única forma de entender algo en este galimatías en el que vivimos.In the summers of 2004, 2005 and 2006 the Spanish writer Juan José Millás published a series of articles that later appeared in three volumes titled Todo son preguntas, El ojo de la cerradura and Sombras sobre sombras. His essays are best understood as a meditation about press photos that inspire both questions and answers, expressing a poetics grounded in a spatial conception of the world that explicitly invokes the platonic image of the cave. The writer utilizes literary fiction as a tool to interpret reality -represented here in the series of photos- and, in so doing, problematizes the limits between truth and appearance. It is only by adding shadows to a world replete with simulacra, Millás seems to say, that we can make any sense of the world at all.

  3. ¿Son válidas las curvas y tablas de crecimiento españolas actuales? Are they valid Spanish growth reference charts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Durá Travé

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Modificar los resultados del Estudio longitudinal del crecimiento en Navarra (NA 09 mediante la exclusión en la muestra poblacional de los casos de obesidad; así como realizar un análisis comparativo con las curvas de crecimiento españolas e internacionales más cualificadas. Material y métodos: De los 930 participantes del NA-09 se han excluido todos los casos de obesidad según los estándares de Cole et al., siendo la muestra definitiva de 782 participantes (371 varones y 411 mujeres. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los estudios españoles de Serra-Majem et al (estudio enKid, Carrascosa et al (ESP 08 y NA 09, que no excluyen los casos de obesidad; así como, con las tablas del Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000 y de la OMS (WHO, 2007 que aplican criterios de depuración de valores antropométricos poco saludables (obesidad y malnutrición. Resultados: Se exponen los valores medios modificados de la talla, peso e IMC con su distribución percentilada, en ambos sexos. Al compararlos con los estudios españoles se observa que los valores evolutivos de los percentiles 3 y 50 correspondientes a la talla, peso e IMC son prácticamente similares; sin embargo, los valores evolutivos del percentil 97 correspondientes al peso e IMC se van distanciando progresivamente. Al compararlos con los estándares internaciones los valores evolutivos de los percentiles 3, 50 y 97 correspondientes al IMC se intercalaban entre ambas referencias. Conclusiones: Para que las curvas y tablas de crecimiento puedan servir como patrones de referencia convendría también excluir en su elaboración a todos los pacientes con obesidad; ya que, de otra manera, podrían llegar a considerarse como estudios meramente descriptivos de una población con una reconocida tendencia al exceso de peso corporal y, por tanto, su aplicabilidad clínica quedaría en entredicho.Objective: To modify the results of the longitudinal study on growth in

  4. Are calcium and fiber beneficial for poorly controlled diabetic patients? ¿Son calcio y fibras beneficiosos para pacientes diabéticos mal controlados?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. R. Matos

    2011-04-01

    ños, 75,4% mujeres, IMC 29,0 ± 5,3 kg/m² eran con moderada frecuencia insulino-dependentes (32,5% y también sistemicamiente inflamados (PCR 4,2 ± 3,9 mg/L. La dieta era pobre en calorias (1,365 ± 565 kcal/d pero globalmente acceptable, aún que baja en fibras (15,4 ± 8,6 g/d y muy baja en cálcio (592,4 ± 204,4 mg/d. El cálcio e la fibra de la dieta se correlacionaran con valores lipídicos, pero solo la fibra estuvo asociada a mejor panorama de diabetes (HbA1c, uso de insulina y de hipertensión arterial. Conclusiones: La ingestión de cálcio y fibra estuvieron correlacionadas con importantes marcadores de estado metabólico y riesgo cardiovascular. Estúdios futuros son recomendados con empleo de mayores proporciones de estes ingredientes en forma de dieta o suplementos.

  5. Analysis on Manase Dōson's Clinical Academic Characteristics%曲直濑道三临床学术特点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 王育林

    2016-01-01

    从日本汉方历史发展的角度,运用文献分析、综合对比、典型案例剖析等研究方法,概括了日本汉方医学后世派代表性医家曲直濑道三的个人生平,分析了《启迪集》《出证配剂》《云阵夜话》《针灸集要》等其临床代表著作,将曲直濑道三临床以阴阳五行学说为框架,擅长灵活运用经验药方,一贯运用"察证辨治"等学术特点,总结为临机应变、倡导察证辨治,医出正宗、强调经典理论,崇尚朱丹溪、重视气血痰,以及简素方便重视实用性四方面,并分析了曲直濑道三治疗伤寒四日少阳病、肺阴虚咳嗽和肝血虚肝气郁不妊的三个病案,进一步阐释其诊疗思维特色,以期为现今中医学临床实践和传承创新提供借鉴和启示.%From the perspective of historical development of Japanese Kampo,this paper summarized Quzhi Laidaosan ' s ( Manase Dōson ' s ) personal life , a representative practitioner in Gosei-ha school of Japanese Kampo medicine,analyzed the classical works including Qi Di Ji(Keiteki Shu),Chu Zheng Pei Ji(Corre-sponding Formula Based on Pattern ) , Yun Zhen Ye Hua ( Night Talks at Yunzhen ) , and Zhen Jiu Ji Yao (Collections of Acupuncture and Moxibustion),and clearly elaborated his ideas that he set Yin-yang theory and five phase theory as frames. He was expert in using empirical prescriptions and insisted on pattern ob-servation and treatment into four clinical academic features for the first time by literature analysis,compre-hensive comparison and discussion on typical cases. The four features were flexibility and advocation of pattern observation and treatment in clinic,origination from authentic school and stress on classical theory, adoration of Zhu Danxi and emphasis of Qi,blood,and phlegm,simplicity,convenience and practicability. Three medical cases including lesser Yang disease contracted by cold pathogen in the fourth day,cough in lung-yin deficiency,and infertility due to Qi

  6. Expulsion illégale d’un étranger gravement malade : le juge des référés enjoint à l’Etat d’organiser son retour en France

    OpenAIRE

    Klausser, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Le 25 juillet 2016, le juge des référés du tribunal administratif de Limoges a rendu une ordonnance inédite à la suite de l’expulsion d’un Iranien gravement malade par les préfectures de la Haute-Vienne et du Vaucluse. Au regard de la violation du droit à un recours effectif et de la liberté personnelle de l’intéressé, il a été enjoint aux préfectures concernées d’organiser son retour en France dans les meilleurs délais, et de lui permettre de bénéficier des traitements nécessaires à son état...

  7. Fauna malacològica de les Planes de Son i la Mata de València (Alt Àneu, Pallars Sobirà, Pirineu Català: revisió bibliogràfica i noves dades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadevall, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of molluscs from Planes de Son and Mata de València (Alt Àneu, Pallars Sobirà, Catalan Pyrenees: bibliographic survey and new data The survey of bibliograpic information on the presence of molluscs at the Planes de Son and Mata de València (municipality of Alt Àneu, county of Pallars Sobirà, Catalan Pyrenees has accounted for a list of 33 species of molluscs (seven of them are slugs inhabiting historically this area. A current field survey (2006-2007 has detected 50 species of molluscs not slugs, two of these species are splitted in two subspecies. Detailed data from both faunistic inventories are provided.

  8. Terapia fonológica a partir da estimulação de sons isolados e em conjunto Phonological therapy based on the stimulation of single sounds and groups of sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a estimulação de sons em conjunto resulta em maiores mudanças fonológicas do que a estimulação de sons isoladamente e analisar a ocorrência de generalização para dentro de uma classe e para outras classes de sons. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por dez sujeitos com desvio fonológico, com idades entre 4 anos e 8 meses a 7 anos e 3 meses, distribuídos em dois grupos. O Grupo 1 (G1 foi tratado pelo modelo de Oposições Múltiplas e o Grupo 2 (G2 pelo modelo ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas. O tratamento do G1 constou da estimulação do contraste de vários sons apresentados em conjunto enquanto que o tratamento do G2 envolveu a estimulação de apenas um som-alvo por ciclo de tratamento. Foi analisado o número de sons ausentes e a ocorrência de generalização para dentro de uma classe e para outras classes de sons pré e pós-tratamento. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente; também foi realizada análise descritiva. RESULTADOS: O G1 adquiriu maior número de sons que o G2; entretanto não houve diferença significativa. Em relação à generalização dentro da classe de sons, o G1 apresentou maiores mudanças, enquanto a generalização para outras classes foi maior para o G2; entretanto, não houve diferença estatística em nenhum desses resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Ambos os métodos favoreceram mudanças no sistema fonológico das crianças estudadas, levando à aquisição de fonemas e a generalizações. Não há diferença entre eles na efetividade do tratamento.PURPOSE: To verify whether the stimulation of groups of sounds results in greater phonological changes than the stimulation of single sounds, and to analyze the occurrence of generalization across and within sound classes. METHODS: The sample comprised ten children with phonological disorders, with ages between 4 years and 8 months and 7 years and 3 months, divided into two groups. Group 1 (G1 was treated by the Multiple Oppositions

  9. Isotope tracing ({sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O) of the alteration mechanisms of the French glass 'SON68' used for the storage of nuclear waste; Tracage isotopique ({sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O) des mecanismes de l'alteration du verre de confinement des dechets nucleaires: 'SON68'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, N

    2001-07-01

    This study aims to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of aqueous corrosion of the glasses used for the storage of nuclear waste. Glass samples 'SON68', doped with a different rare earth element (La, Ce or Nd), were altered simultaneously with water enriched in {sup 29}Si and {sup 18}O, throughout a period of 20 months. The aim of such isotope tracing was (i) to follow the 'real' exchanges between glass and solution and (ii) to understand the reactions involving Si-O bonds in the leached layer during alteration. Leachates were analyzed by ICP-MS and -AES, and elemental and isotopic variations in the altered glass layer were measured by ion-probe, using a depth profiling technique. Elemental analyses enabled the distribution of the elements in the two layers of altered glass (phyllosilicates and gel) to be established, and the results reveal a selective partitioning of elements between the two layers. Isotopic analyses of altered layers and leachates allowed phyllosilicates to be distinguished from gel, and suggest two different mechanisms of formation. Whilst phyllosilicates grow on the surface of the glass by a mechanism of precipitation, gel is formed by a succession of hydrolysis / condensation reactions taking place mainly at the gel / pristine glass interface. This gel is formed by the in situ rearrangement of hydrated species, without reaching equilibrium with the solution. Moreover, an experimental technique has been developed enabling one to trace the transport of silicon from the solution into the altered glasses, under an isotopic gradient. Diffusion profiles, obtained by ion-probe, have been modeled and have allowed the determination of the apparent silicon diffusion coefficient (DSi) in gels. Therefore, our experiments have permitted the quantification of the influence of both the alteration conditions (dynamic or static tests) and the solution composition on the value of DSi. (author)

  10. Escolha dos sons-alvo para terapia: análise com enfoque em traços distintivos Choice of target sounds for therapy: analysis focused on distinctive features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Ilha Ceron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os alvos de tratamento podem dificultar ou facilitar as aquisições no inventário fonológico. Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a eficácia da proposta de terapia de Oposições Múltiplas, considerando a escolha dos sons-alvo, e analisar a aquisição de sons no inventário fonológico e os traços distintivos, enfocados a partir dos sons-alvo. O grupo pesquisado constituiu-se de cinco crianças com desvio fonológico, média de idade de 6;1 (anos;meses. Foram realizadas avaliações fonoaudiológicas e complementares. Após as avaliações, os sujeitos foram submetidos à fonoterapia pelo Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas. Depois do tratamento, realizou-se uma reavaliação fonológica, a fim de comparar a evolução terapêutica e a eficácia dos alvos escolhidos para cada sujeito. Compararam-se os inventários fonológicos e o número de traços distintivos alterados pré e pós-terapia em cada sujeito, bem como os traços distintivos enfocados na terapia pelos sons-alvo. Os sujeitos que acrescentaram mais fonemas em seus inventários fonológicos foram os que mais diminuíram o número de traços distintivos alterados. Pode-se concluir que o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas proporcionou aquisições de fonemas no inventário fonológico, sendo esses relacionados às características dos alvos selecionados para cada sujeito. Os sujeitos cujos sons-alvo contemplavam o trabalho com a maioria dos traços alterados e com sons mais complexos na hierarquia apresentaram maiores aquisições em seus inventários fonológicos.The targets of the treatment can facilitate or difficult acquisitions in the phonological inventory. This study had the aim to verify the effectiveness of the therapy proposed by the Multiple Oppositions Model, taking into consideration the target sounds chosen, as well as to analyze the acquired sounds and the distinctive features, based on the target sounds. The researched group comprised five children with

  11. A Conception on Building the Economic Corridor from Nanning of China to Lang Son, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh of Vietnam%建设南宁-谅山-河内-海防-广宁经济走廊构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农立夫

    2005-01-01

    Leaders from both China and Vietnam have reached agreements on building“Two Corridors and One Ring”, in which “the Economic Corridor from Nanning of China to Lang Son, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh of Vietnam”is one of them.The paper mainly analyzes its favorable conditions, content and significance, suggesting that China and Vietnam cooperate in building projects of top priority and then extend their scope. The paper also suggests ways on how governments, research and e-ducational institutions guarantee the successful construction of the corridor.

  12. Medidas Fonológicas em Crianças com Perturbação dos Sons da Fala. Estudo comparativo entre o português europeu e o português brasileiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Filipa Barros dos

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é comparar as características de dois grupos de crianças com diagnóstico de Perturbação dos Sons da Fala (PSF), falantes de português europeu (PE) e falantes de português brasileiro (PB), considerando um conjunto de medidas fonológicas que incluem Percentagem de Consoantes Corretas (PCC), Percentagem de Consoantes Corretas Revista (PCC-R), Process Density Index (PDI), Índices Absolutos (IA) e Índices Relativos (IR) de Substituição, Omissão e Distorção, tipos de Process...

  13. Compound seabuckthorn oil bolt joint poly cresol son in cervical LEEP postoperative suffonylureas solution of application%复方沙棘子油栓联合聚甲酚磺溶液在宫颈LEEP术后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 孙建新

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨复方沙棘子油栓联合聚甲酚黄溶液在宫颈LEEP术后的临床疗效.方法 将120例阴道镜病理回报:宫颈上皮内瘤变1-2级患者随机分成治疗组及对照组,治疗组宫颈LEEP刀治疗后宫颈用聚甲酚黄溶液1:10冲洗,后给复方沙棘子油栓一枚日一次应用,对照组,宫颈LEEP刀术后未曾特殊治疗.结果 宫颈LEEP刀术后,阴道流液多,出血时间长,创面愈合时间长,复方沙棘子油栓联合聚甲酚黄溶液可减少术后阴道排液时间,缩短出血时间,促进创面愈合时间.结论 复方沙棘子油栓联合聚甲酚黄溶液在宫颈LEEP治疗过程中,效果好,疗程短,复发率低.%Objective Explore compound seabuckthom oil bolt joint sons gather cresol yellow solution in cervical LEEP postoperative clinical curative effect. Methods 120 cases of vaginal mirror pathological return:cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 variable 1-patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,the treatment group cervical LEEP knife after treatment cervical with polycarboxylate cresol yellow solution “flush,empress give compound seabuckthorn oil tethered to a medal,son,controls,cervix once application DaoShu LEEP after not special treatment. Results the cervix DaoShu LEEP after vaginal bleeding time,fluid flow,coagulant long long time,compound seabuckthorn oil bolt joint gather together son solution can reduce postoperative yellow cresol vaginal drainage time,reduce hemorrhage time, promote wound healing time. Conclusion compound seabuckthorn oil bolt joint gather together the son in cervical LEEP yellow cresol solution treatment process,good effect,short course,and the recurrence rate is low.

  14. 神话原型解析《儿子与情人》中的莫瑞尔太太%The Myth Archetype Analysis of Mrs. Morel in "the son and lover"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈文敬

    2016-01-01

    《儿子与情人》被认为是大卫·劳伦斯早期经典代表作之一,也是他的成名作。“大母神”形象是神话原型批评理论中典型的女性原型,具有“天使”与“恶魔”两种截然相反的内涵。本文从“大母神”形象出发,对《儿子与情人》中的母亲莫瑞尔太太进行解读,分析“大母神”莫瑞尔太太在整个家庭中的双重体现,揭示了其个人悲剧及家庭悲剧的主要原因。%"Sons and lovers" is one of the representative works of David Lawrence's early classics. "Mother of God" image is theory in typical feminine archetype of myth prototype criticism, with "angel" and "devil" two diametricaly opposite meaning. In this paper, from the perspective of"mother of God" image and interpretation of "sons and lovers" mother Mrs. Morel, analyzes "mother of God" Mrs. Morel’s double embodiment in the family, reveals the main reason for the personal tragedy and the tragedy of the family.

  15. El surgimiento de la agrupación HIJOS-La Plata: La discusión por quiénes son las víctimas del terrorismo de Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cueto Rúa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el proceso de formación de HIJOS, organismo de derechos humanos que nuclea principalmente a los HIJOS de las "víctimas del terrorismo de Estado" acaecido en la Argentina durante la última Dictadura militar y el período inmediato anterior. A partir del análisis de las disputas por la membresía del grupo, se indaga cómo HIJOS ha reactualizado una discusión que cruza a todo el movimiento de derechos humanos: ¿quiénes son las víctimas del terrorismo de Estado? A su vez se analiza la ambivalencia que el grupo muestra frente a la noción de "víctima". Por un lado, reconocen que son víctimas y que sus padres lo han sido, y por el otro intentan distanciarse de esa noción por el carácter pasivo y despolitizado que supone

  16. 母亲与儿子——"儿子与情人"中人性的荒芜%MOTHER VERSUS THE SONS——WASTE HUMANOTY IN SONS AND LOVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖丽

    2006-01-01

    《儿子与情人》是劳伦斯早期作品中最著名的小说.在这本小说里,劳伦斯从一切对人物精神感情和心灵上的影响方面落墨,着重表现了人物内心深层强烈的感情.本文从母亲与儿子的畸形爱恋关系这一点去探索小说表明的主题:资本主义工业化如何摧残人的自然本性,扭曲了人与人之间的和谐关系.%Sons and Lovers, the most famous works of D. H. Lawrence in his early period, focused greatly on the factors that had significant influence on people's character, and displayed the deepest feelings inside these people. Taking as example the twisted love between the mother and the sons, this paper explores the theme of the novel: the merciless expansion of industrialization dehumanized human nature and twisted human relationships.

  17. Three sons to support pro-Tang Erchen treatment of chronic bronchitis%三子养亲汤合二陈汤治疗慢性支气管炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯维峰; 吕巧珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of three sons to support parents two Tang Decoction Treatment of chronic bronchitis. Methods the 32 cases of chronic bronchitis patients with three sons to support parents Decoction decoction treatment two. Results the clinical total effective rate reached 96%. Conclusion the curative effect of chronic bronchitis treated by this method is accurate, it is worthy of clinical application.%目的探讨三子养亲汤合二陈汤治疗慢性支气管炎的临床疗效。方法本文慢性支气管炎患者32例应用三子养亲汤合二陈汤进行治疗。结果临床总有效率达到96%。结论慢性支气管炎应用此方法治疗疗效确切,值得临床推广应用。

  18. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  19. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi Son Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Problemleri Üzerine Bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Ali GİZİR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi son sınıf öğrencilerinin yaşadıkları en önemliproblemler ile fakülte ve cinsiyet arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, OrtaDoğu Teknik Üniversitesi’ndeki [ODTÜ] beş fakültede yer alan 34 bölüme devam eden 885 son sınıföğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın verileri, ODTÜ öğrencilerinin belirlenen alanlarındaki enönemli problemlerini tespit etmek ve ölçmek amacıyla araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen “ÖğrenciProblem Anketi”nden yararlanılarak toplanmıştır. Her bir problem alanı için yüzdelikler belirlenmişve belirlenen problem alanları ile öğrencilerin fakülteleri ve cinsiyetleri arasındaki ilişkileri incelemeküzere de ki-kare tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları, ODTÜ son sınıf öğrencilerinin akademik,mesleki ve sosyal alanlarda önemli problemlerinin olduğunu ortaya çıkarmakla birlikte, öğretimüyeleri, dersler, ödevler, sınavlar ve değerlendirme sistemi, yabancı dil, meslek, arkadaşlık ilişkileri,karşı cinsle ilişkiler ve sosyal aktiviteler ile ilgili problem alanları ile fakülte ve cinsiyetleri arasındaönemli ilişkiler bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur.

  20. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    using combination of cutting edge spectroscopic imaging and other technologies, including biochemistry assays and preclinical testing. The innovation of...research team has been assembled, with expertise in spectroscopic imaging & nanomedicine (Dr. J. X. Cheng, PI), biochemistry (Dr. X. Liu, co-PI), and...of cholesterol ester accumulation significantly suppressed prostate cancer aggressiveness without affecting normal cell viability. Based on these

  1. Parents as Therapists: A Responsible Alternative or Abrogation of Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia

    1986-01-01

    Literature dealing with parent involvement in home-based therapeutic programs for young developmentally disabled children is reviewed. Although research suggests such home based programs can be effective, professionals should carefully consider their expectations of parents as therapists, since they must also play the role of parents and primary…

  2. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by emodin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Husseini, Isehaq S; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa; Yasin, Javed; Fahim, Mohamed; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2013-04-01

    Nephrotoxicity of the anticancer drug cisplatin (CP) involves the generation of reactive oxygen species in renal cortex, and emodin (a rhubarb anthraquinone) has strong antioxidant and anticancer actions. Therefore, we tested here the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on CP nephrotoxicity in rats. Emodin was given orally (10 mg/kg/day for nine consecutive days), and on day 4, some of the treated rats were also injected intraperitoneally with either saline or CP (6 mg/kg). Five days after CP treatment, rats were killed, and blood and urine samples, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of histopathological renal damage and apoptosis, and for biochemical estimation of creatinine and urea concentrations in plasma and urine, several cytosolic antioxidant enzyme activities in kidneys, and urinalyses. CP significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine, and decreased creatinine clearance. It also significantly reduced cortical glutathione concentration and the activity of superoxide dismutase. CP treatment significantly increased urine volume and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity and significantly decreased osmolarity and protein concentrations. Emodin treatment markedly and significantly mitigated all these effects. Sections from saline- and emodin-treated rats showed apparently normal proximal tubules. However, kidneys of CP-treated rats had a moderate degree of necrosis. This was markedly lessened when CP was given simultaneously with emodin. The concentration of CP in the cortical tissues was not significantly altered by emodin treatment. The results suggested that emodin had ameliorated CP nephrotoxicity in rats. Pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies emodin may be considered a potentially useful nephroprotective agent.

  3. Sirtinol abrogates late phase of cardiac ischemia preconditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Fereshteh; Shekarforoosh, Shahnaz; Hashemi, Tahmineh; Namvar Aghdash, Simin; Fekri, Asefeh; Safari, Fatemeh

    2016-09-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR. In early and late IPC groups, IS and the number of arrhythmia were significantly decreased (P IPC, incidences of arrhythmia and IS were not different compared with the early IPC group. However, in S + late IPC the IS was different from the late IPC group (P IPC but not early IPC, transcription levels of catalase (P IPC group. Our results are consistent with the notion that different mechanisms are responsible for early and late IPC. In addition, sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases may be implicated in late IPC-induced cardioprotection.

  4. Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Peters

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy known to protect humans against natural exposure is "leishmanization," in which viable L. major parasites are intentionally inoculated into a selected site in the skin. We employed mice with healed L. major infections to mimic leishmanization, and found tissue-seeking, cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Leishmania at the site of challenge by infected sand fly bite within 24 hours, and these mice were highly resistant to sand fly transmitted infection. In contrast, mice vaccinated with a killed vaccine comprised of autoclaved L. major antigen (ALM+CpG oligodeoxynucleotides that protected against needle inoculation of parasites, showed delayed expression of protective immunity and failed to protect against infected sand fly challenge. Two-photon intra-vital microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that sand fly, but not needle challenge, resulted in the maintenance of a localized neutrophilic response at the inoculation site, and removal of neutrophils following vector transmission led to increased parasite-specific immune responses and promoted the efficacy of the killed vaccine. These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania.

  5. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 abrogates bleomycin-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Parra, G J; Vadivel, A; Coltan, L; Hall, A; Eaton, F; Schuster, M; Loibner, H; Penninger, J M; Kassiri, Z; Oudit, G Y; Thébaud, B

    2012-06-01

    Despite substantial progress, mortality and morbidity of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI), remain unacceptably high. There is no effective treatment for ARDS/ALI. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-generated Angiotensin II contributes to lung injury. ACE2, a recently discovered ACE homologue, acts as a negative regulator of the RAS and counterbalances the function of ACE. We hypothesized that ACE2 prevents Bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury. Fourteen to 16-week-old ACE2 knockout mice-male (ACE2(-/y)) and female (ACE2(-/-))-and age-matched wild-type (WT) male mice received intratracheal BLM (1.5U/kg). Male ACE2(-/y) BLM injured mice exhibited poorer exercise capacity, worse lung function and exacerbated lung fibrosis and collagen deposition compared with WT. These changes were associated with increased expression of the profibrotic genes α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Transforming Growth Factor ß1. Compared with ACE2(-/y) exposed to BLM, ACE2(-/-) exhibited better lung function and architecture and decreased collagen deposition. Treatment with intraperitoneal recombinant human (rh) ACE2 (2 mg/kg) for 21 days improved survival, exercise capacity, and lung function and decreased lung inflammation and fibrosis in male BLM-WT mice. Female BLM WT mice had mild fibrosis and displayed a possible compensatory upregulation of the AT2 receptor. We conclude that ACE2 gene deletion worsens BLM-induced lung injury and more so in males than females. Conversely, ACE2 protects against BLM-induced fibrosis. rhACE2 may have therapeutic potential to attenuate respiratory morbidity in ALI/ARDS.

  6. The Kasumi-1 cell line: a t(8;21)-kit mutant model for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizza, Lidia; Magnani, Ivana; Beghini, Alessandro

    2005-02-01

    The Kasumi-1 cell line is an intensively investigated model system of Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8;21) translocation, that represents 1 of the 2 main subtypes of Core Binding Factor Leukemia (CBFL). Since establishment in 1991 the Kasumi-1 cell line has provided the tool to study the peculiar molecular, morphologic, immunophenotypic findings of AML with t(8;21) and the functional consequences of the AML1-ETO fusion oncogene on myeloid differentiation. Leukemogenesis involves multiple genetic changes and, as suggested by murine experiments and other findings in humans, AML1-ETO expression may not be sufficient for full blown leukemia. In agreement with the "two hits" model of leukemogenesis, based on the cooperation between 1 class of mutations that impair hematopoietic differentiation and a second class of mutations that confer a proliferative and/or survival advantage to hematopoietic progenitors an activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the c-kit gene was identified in the AML1/ETO expressing Kasumi-1 cell line. The dosage of the Asn822Lys mutated allele was shown to be about 5-fold compared to the normal allele and c-kit amplification was found to map to minute 4cen-q11 marker chromosomes, likely derived from the extra chromosome 4 recorded in the newly established cell line. The combination of t(8;21) and trisomy 4 leading to enhanced dosage of a mutated kit allele is a feature of a few CBFL patients reproduced by the Kasumi-1 cell model. The Kasumi-1 cell line, paralleling the commitment stage of CBF leukemia also provides a valuable resource to investigate the effect of tyrosine kinase kit mutant on the main KIT-regulated signal transduction pathways, i.e. MAPK, PI3K/AKT and STAT3 and the diverse inhibitory effect exerted by STI 571 on these KIT mutant activated pathways. PI3K-dependent activation of AKT and STAT activation was observed in Kasumi-1 cells. Contrary to the expectations for an amplified tyrosine kinase kit mutant, we found that

  7. MAPAS COGNITIVOS. QUE SON. COMO EXPLORARLOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio De Castro Aguirre

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estos últimos años se maneja una terminología que en su multiplicidad de formas encubre una gran ambigüedad. Así sucede por ejemplo, cuando se habla de mapas mentales, mapas cognitivos, imágenes mentales etc. La imaginería mental cultivada con ardor entre los psicólogos nos ha prestado una óptica a los geógrafos. Este trabajo pretende realizar un trabajo de precisión que aquilate los términos y los conceptos. Concretamente busca abrir un camino de rigor conceptual a los mapas cognitivos.

  8. Los weblogs : ¿son literatura gris?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Felipe, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, along with the scientific magazines this "dark" literature has been vehicle of diffusion of science. The concept of gray Literature is analized and the conclusion is that the theoreticians do not agree in the limits of gray literature. The new forms of communication through Internet allow the exchange of information almost in real time; this is the greater revolution in relation with the past. Through the distribution lists, news, weblogs, etc., can be made an analysis and inte...

  9. Comment attirer une entreprise sur son territoire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean René MOREAU

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the local communities is very closely related to the economic environment; local public managers have to be able to establish a coherent strategy for creating valuable partnerships with the private firms.

  10. Mexican Americans: Sons of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Ruth S.

    Concerned with the Mexican Americans, who constitute the largest ethnic group in the southwestern United States, this book traces the history of these people from the early explorations and colonizing efforts of the Spanish in North and South America during the 16th century to the present. Major divisions of this book are the Introduction,…

  11. IGBP: Crown jewel or prodigal son?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    At its 1986 General Assembly in Bern, Switzerland, the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) launched what promises to be the biggest and most ambitious enterprise of international scientific cooperation (see “ICSU Gives Green Light to IGBP,” Eos, 67, p. 777, 1986). The International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), known also as “Global Change,” has as its main objective to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the total Earth system, the unique environment that it provides for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human actions.It should be no wonder, then, that this year's ICSU General Committee Meeting at the Academia das Ciencias de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal, October 11-14) was virtually dominated by IGBP matters, even during the discussion of agenda items that did not include this subject explicitly. It is fair to say that the Unions are just becoming fully aware of the real magnitude of the program they themselves helped launch in Bern in 1986—and of how little input and control they have had so far in its development. An indication of this “awakening” was already apparent during the ICSU General Assembly in Beijing in 1988, but the full realization of the enormous impact and ramifications of IGBP inside and outside ICSU is emerging only now.

  12. Nicolas Sarkozy a recu son homologue estonien

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Prantsusmaa president Nicolas Sarkozy pakkus 7. aprillil 2008 Elysée palees kohtumisel president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega Eestile Prantsusmaa abi tuumaenergeetika küsimustes. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Pariisis 6.-8.04.2008

  13. Demonstrator for objective driven SON operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmelz, L.C.; Eisenblätter, A.; Hahn, S.; Kürner, T.; Litjens, R.; Lobinger, A.; Lohmüller, S.; Sas, B.; Türke, U.

    2014-01-01

    The demonstrator shows a self-management system for heterogeneous mobile wireless networks that uses context-specific and weighted Key Performance Indicator (KPI) target values defined by the operator to automatically and autonomously configure and control the operation of Self-Organising Network (S

  14. André Gide et son Journal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albarda, Maria

    1942-01-01

    Nous croyons pouvoir dire, en terminant, gue c'est la musique, et Ia musique seule, qui a influencé Gide sans aucune interruption. Ses conceptions musicales n'ont pas varié. Il ne s'agit pas de considérations vagues sur les rapports de la musique et de la littérature: c'est la musique prise en soi q

  15. ¿Qué son las instituciones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Martin Hodgson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el término institución tiene una larga historia en las ciencias sociales, aún no existe consenso en torno a su definición. El autor primero muestra las ambigüedades que presentan los planteamientos de North al limitar el concepto de institución a los sistemas de reglas formales que rigen a las organizaciones. Luego, para superar estas dificultades, propone un concepto más amplio que tiene en cuenta la base informal de todo comportamiento estructurado y duradero.

  16. ¿Qué son plagas vertebradas?

    OpenAIRE

    Monge, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Se ofrece un panorama de la problemática con especies vertebradas plaga. Se define plaga vertebrada y se contrasta con el concepto de condición de plaga, al asumirse que ninguna especie vertebrada es plaga de manera permanente, sino que una determinada población puede adquirir esa condición en un momento y lugar específicos. Se hace referencia a las causas por las cuales una especie vertebrada puede convertirse en plaga, y se analiza la influencia del ser humano para que eso suceda. Finalment...

  17. Premières réflexions théoriques d’Otomar Krejča, prémices de son théâtre ?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A l’âge de 23 ans, Krejča, comédien sous la direction d’Emil František Burian, publia un texte dans lequel il tenta de cerner la notion contemporaine de mise en scène. Son article, « Qu’est-ce que l’hégémonie du metteur en scène », fut suivi par une série d’autres considérations. Datant principalement de 1945 à 1948, ces quelques notes théoriques couvrent un moment d’intense réflexion artistique en Tchécoslovaquie. Par ailleurs, elles mettent en lumière les principes philosophiques et esthéti...

  18. Sistema eletrônico para captação de sons respiratórios adventícios em animais submetidos à ventilação mecânica

    OpenAIRE

    Valenga, Marcelo Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Nesta dissertação, apresenta-se o projeto e a implementação de um instrumento portátil para captação dos sons respiratórios adventícios de forma não invasiva, a partir das vias aéreas, em animais submetidos a ventilação mecânica e com lavagem previa com solução salina. Descrevem-se os ensaios para avaliação da resposta em frequência e sensibilidade do microfone de eletreto que foi fixado nos tubos de um ventilador mecânico de uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva – UTI, o comportamento da propagaç...

  19. How general are current comparative physiology studies?: A quantitative review ¿Cuán general son los estudios en fisiología comparada actualmente?: Una revisión cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO F. NESPOLO

    2005-06-01

    ómicas, las cuales representan un tercio de los phyla animales existentes. La caracterización no taxonómica de los animales (endotermia/ectotermia, acuático/terrestre, sin embargo, produjo un panorama más equilibrado. Además, los resultados sugieren que los ecólogos fisiológicos son eminentemente biólogos intraespecíficos pues la gran mayoría de los trabajos fueron estudios de una especie. Los estudios multiespecíficos son minoritarios y comparables en proporción a estudios comparativos entre dos especies. Estos últimos, a pesar de haber sido fuertemente criticados en el pasado, siguen siendo publicados. El análisis de tablas de contigencia sugiere que poblaciones naturales y vertebrados son preferidos por sobre poblaciones artificiales, invertebrados y animales acuáticos. Aunque reconocemos las limitaciones de esta revisión, el presente trabajo sugiere que los sesgos históricos deben considerarse cuando se están originando enfoques más globales dentro de la disciplina

  20. Le grammaire du Français et son historiographie: appréhensions, à deux siècles de distance d'in objet de débats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, consacré àl 'historiographie de la grammaire française, on abordera d'abord le problème de la définition du champ de l'histoire (ou de l'historiographie de la grammaire française (et de la linguistique française. La deuxième partie du texte sera consacrée à un problème central de l 'epistémologie historique de la grammaire française: celui de la "récurrence du fait historique ", problème que je voudrais analyser à travers un cas concret, celui de l 'accueil fait à la grammaire de l 'Académie. L'historiographie de la grammaire/de la linguistique: la question de l'objet Ona tentéde concevoir et, parfois, de définir (ou d'expliciter l'historiographie de la grammaire/linguistique cornme étant dans un rapport d'iconicité partielle avec un objet appelé "l'histoire de la linguistique". Une telle attitude permet d'éluder la difficulté de devoir définir l'objet ou le domaine de cette discipline. Que cet objet ne soit guère donné d'avance, cela ressort déjà de l'histoire mȇme de l'historiographie de la linguistique: il suffira de comparer à ce propos des travaux cornme ceux de Thomsen (1902 et de Pedersen (1916, 1924 à ceux de Robins (19792 ou de Mounin (1967. En fait, cela ne doit guère nous étonner: cornme l'historiographie de la linguistique est une représentation de connaissances à propos de l 'histoire, il est inéluctable que la notion de son objet varie, du moins dans son extension, dans la mesure où les connaissances à propos de l 'histoire de la linguistique se sont élargies, enrichies ou modifiées.

  1. Crisis de representación y de participación. ¿son las comunidades virtuales nuevas formas de agregación y participación ciudadana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster Morell, Mayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Democratic political systems are currently undergoing something of an upheaval. Based on an analysis of two case studies concerning Online Creation Communities (OCCs, which are conceived of and implemented on the Internet, this paper presents some conclusions regarding the specific characteristics of the participation and the political agency that have the potential to become more widespread as the profound transformation of contemporary democracy proceeds. The cases studied are the project of memory viva of the European Social Forum and Wikipedia.

    Los sistemas políticos democráticos están atravesando un período de fuertes convulsiones. A partir del análisis de dos casos de estudio de Comunidades de Creación Online (CCOs, como formas pensadas e implementadas en y desde Internet, el artículo presenta algunas conclusiones sobre las características específicas de la participación y la agencia política que puedan resultar generalizables en un proceso de transformación profunda de la democracia contemporánea. Los casos de estudio son el proyecto de memoria viva del Foro Social Europeo y Wikipedia.

  2. Kidney transplantation from a mother with unrecognized Fabry disease to her son with low α-galactosidase A activity: A 14-year follow-up without enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Keiko; Okumi, Masayoshi; Honda, Kazuho; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of kidney transplantation from mother to son, both of whom were likely to have had an unrecognized renal variant phenotype of Fabry disease. The patient was a 54-year-old man, with an unknown primary cause of end stage renal disease. He had no notable past medical history, other than end stage renal disease. He underwent living-related kidney transplantation from his mother at age 40 years. Foam cells in the glomeruli were identified on histology assessment of a 0-hour allograft biopsy, with zebra bodies identified in the glomerular visceral epithelial cells by electron microscopy. These findings were indicative of Fabry disease in the donated kidney. As a definitive diagnosis of Fabry's disease could not be confirmed, enzyme replacement therapy was not initiated. Thirteen years after kidney transplantation, the patient underwent left nephrectomy for a left renal tumour, with pathological findings of clear cell carcinoma, foam cells and zebra bodies in the native kidney. Detailed examinations identified low α-galactosidase A activity and mutation of the α-Gal A gene, confirming a diagnosis of a renal variant phenotype of Fabry disease. Histology of several allograft biopsies performed over the 14 years from the time of kidney transplantation revealed only moderate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, with no evidence of disease progression on electron microscopy, despite the presence of zebra bodies in the glomerular visceral epithelial cells.

  3. A Study of the Husband - and - Son - loving Women Image in the Baogong Drama of the Yuan Dynasty%元代包公戏中爱夫爱子的女性形象述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩云

    2012-01-01

    The Baogong Drama of the Yuan Dynasty presents many distinctive female images. Some are clear about what to love and what to hate; some are kindhearted or delicate; and others are overbear- ing and vicious; and still others are licentious. Through about twenty female images the playwrights have shown us the characteristics of the economy, politics and culture of the Yuan Dynasty society. Through the female husband - and - son loving images, the playwrights have shown their aesthetic value and emotional orientation.%元代包公戏中塑造了众多的女性形象,这些女性形象各具特色,她们或爱憎分明,或善良柔弱,或霸道狠毒,或放荡淫乱,剧作者通过这二十几位女性形象向我们展示了元代社会特殊的经济、政治及文化风貌,并通过剧中爱夫爱子的女性形象展现了他们的审美价值和情感取向。

  4. L’écriture de l’histoire dans la Crónica Sarracina de Pedro de Corral : le roi et son conseiller sous le regard d’Eleastras, l’historien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric ALCHALABI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La Crónica Sarracina de Pedro de Corral est une œuvre singulière. Issue en grande partie de l’imagination de l’auteur, l’œuvre n’en appartient pas moins au genre historiographique : il s’agit donc d’une chronique complexe à mi-chemin entre histoire et fiction que Corral essaie de rendre crédible. L’analyse des relations entre Rodrigue et Julián – son conseiller –, la présence et le rôle du chroniqueur constituent un bon exemple de cette tentative de (reconstruction historique.La Crónica Sarracina de Pedro de Corral es una obra singular. Si bien es cierto que el libro se debe a la imaginación del autor, es una obra que pertenece al género historiográfico : es pues una crónica compleja que se sitúa entre lo ficticio y lo histórico, en la cual Corral se esfuerza por dar credibilidad a su ficción. Tanto el análisis de las relaciones entre el rey Rodrigo y su consejero el conde Julián como la presencia y el papel del cronista constituyen un buen ejemplo de ese intento de (reconstrucción histórica.

  5. ¿Son los clubes de fútbol eficientes? Aplicación del análisis DEA a los equipos de la liga profesional de fútbol de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giner Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del trabajo es analizar la eficiencia de los clubes de fútbol de la primera división de España. Para ello se ha utilizado como muestra de medida el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, técnica no paramétrica de análisis, que incorpora dos outputs y cuatro inputs. Presenta como novedad que los datos utilizados son económicos y no técnicos. Los datos obtenidos nos indican que sólo hay dos empresas eficientes y que el resto de empresas si quieren ser eficientes necesitan conseguir, obligatoriamente, éxitos deportivos que acompañen lo mismo en la gestión económica. También hemos obtenido datos que indican que la mayoría de las empresas analizadas podrían disminuir la cantidad de inputs utilizados, especialmente gastos de personal y amortización, sin que su output final (clasificación se viera afectado.

  6. ¿Por qué son mejores los organismos de agua de Baja California que los de Sonora? Instituciones locales y desempeño de los organismos públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pineda Pablos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desempeño de los principales organismos operadores de agua para uso urbano de Baja California, a juzgar por los indicadores de gestión, es superior al de los de Sonora. El objetivo de este artículo es compararlos, y reflexionar sobre las variables explicativas de dicha diferencia. Los dos estados tienen características geográficas y demográficas similares: son fronterizos, su clima es semidesértico y su población comparte la misma cultura y comportamientos. El estudio indaga las causas, y revisa las reglas institucionales que pueden explicar el desempeño diferenciado: la instancia gubernamental responsable del servicio, la duración de los directores, la tarifa, facturación y cobranza, así como la alternancia de partido político en el gobierno local y aquél del cual han emanado los gobiernos responsables del servicio. El estudio concluye que las instituciones importan, y que sus reglas han hecho la diferencia en el desempeño de los organismos de agua de ambas entidades.

  7. Value of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in diagnosing acute myeloid leukemia M2 and M3%间期荧光原位杂交技术在急性髓系白血病M2和M3型诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许民; 周永安; 赵瑾; 杜苏萌; 吴坚锐

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨间期荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)在急性髓系白血病(AML)M2和M3诊断中的意义.方法 对初治的9例AML-M3、12例AML-M3及10例未能确定M2或M3的AML患者,应用FISH和反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测AMLI/ETO和PML/RARα融合基因,协助诊断和指导治疗.结果 9例AML-M2中AMLI/ETO融合基因阳性率44.4%(4/9);12例AML-M3中PML/RARα融合基因阳性率83.3%(10/12),其中1例AML1/ETO融合基因阳性.确诊为AML-M2;10例AML中AML1/ETO融合基因阳性率30%(3/10),PML/RAR Ot融合基因阳性率50%(5/10),其余2例未检测到以上两种融合基因.结论 FISH是一种敏感、简便的分子遗传学新技术,具有高效、快速、灵敏等优点,对诊断AML的分型具有重要帮助,可进一步指导临床治疗.%Objective To investigate the value of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH)technique and the detection of fusion gene in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML)M2 and M3 Methods FISH was used to detect the AML1/ETO fusion gene and/or PML/RARα fusion gene in incipient cases including 9 AML-M2, 12 AML-M3 and 10 AML undetermined as AML-M2 or AML-M3 primarily diagnosed by routine morphology though bone marrow,cytochemical staining and immunophenotyping,which can help diagnose and guide clinical therapy.Results 4 of 9 AML-M2 cases were AML1/ETO positive.Among 12 AML-M3 cases,10 were PML/RARα positive.1 case was detected AML1/ETO fusion gene.In 10 untonfirmed M3 or M2,3 case8 showed AML1/ETO,5 showed PMIJRARot fusion gene and the rest showed neither of the genes.Conclusion As a new technique of the molecular genetics,FISH is accurate, rapid and efficient.It would be of significance not only at diagnosis of AML,but also for subsequent clinical decision-making.

  8. Inhibition of leukemic cells by valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor, in xenograft tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhihua Zhang,1 Changlai Hao,1 Lihong Wang,1 Peng Liu,2 Lei Zhao,1 Cuimin Zhu,1 Xia Tian31Hematology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde, Hebei Province, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Shijiazhuang Municipal No 1 Hospital, Hebei Province, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Rizhao Municipal People’s Hospital, Shandong Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The chimeric fusion protein, AML1-ETO, generated by translocation of t(8;21, abnormally recruits histone deacetylase (HDAC to the promoters of AML1 target genes, resulting in transcriptional repression of the target genes and development of t(8;21 acute myeloid leukemia. Abnormal expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, especially p21, is considered a possible mechanism of the arrested maturation and differentiation seen in leukemia cells. A new generation of HDAC inhibitors is becoming an increasing focus of attention for their ability to induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells and to block the cell cycle. Our previous research had demonstrated that valproic acid induces G0/G1 arrest of Kasumi-1 cells in t(8;21 acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we further confirmed that valproic acid inhibits the growth of Kasumi-1 cells in a murine xenograft tumor model, and that this occurs via upregulation of histone acetylation in the p21 promoter region, enhancement of p21 expression, suppression of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, blocking of transcription activated by E2F, and induction of G0/G1 arrest.Keywords: valproic acid, acute myeloid leukemia, AML1-ETO, p21, E2F

  9. Sulindac sulfide reverses aberrant self-renewal of progenitor cells induced by the AML-associated fusion proteins PML/RARα and PLZF/RARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Gunnar; Oancea, Claudia; Roos, Jessica; Hagemeyer, Heike; Maier, Thorsten; Ruthardt, Martin; Puccetti, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations can lead to the formation of chimeric genes encoding fusion proteins such as PML/RARα, PLZF/RARα, and AML-1/ETO, which are able to induce and maintain acute myeloid leukemia (AML). One key mechanism in leukemogenesis is increased self renewal of leukemic stem cells via aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Either X-RAR, PML/RARα and PLZF/RARα or AML-1/ETO activate Wnt signaling by upregulating γ-catenin and β-catenin. In a prospective study, a lower risk of leukemia was observed with aspirin use, which is consistent with numerous studies reporting an inverse association of aspirin with other cancers. Furthermore, a reduction in leukemia risk was associated with use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), where the effects on AML risk was FAB subtype-specific. To better investigate whether NSAID treatment is effective, we used Sulindac Sulfide in X-RARα-positive progenitor cell models. Sulindac Sulfide (SSi) is a derivative of Sulindac, a NSAID known to inactivate Wnt signaling. We found that SSi downregulated both β-catenin and γ-catenin in X-RARα-expressing cells and reversed the leukemic phenotype by reducing stem cell capacity and increasing differentiation potential in X-RARα-positive HSCs. The data presented herein show that SSi inhibits the leukemic cell growth as well as hematopoietic progenitors cells (HPCs) expressing PML/RARα, and it indicates that Sulindac is a valid molecular therapeutic approach that should be further validated using in vivo leukemia models and in clinical settings.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Different Approaches to Measure Treatment Response in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Cao, Xueyuan; Pounds, Stanley B.; Shurtleff, Sheila A.; Wang, Kathleen Y.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Jacobsen, Jeffrey; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Dahl, Gary V.; Bowman, W. Paul; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Degar, Barbara; Leung, Wing; Downing, James R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Campana, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), initial treatment response by morphologic analysis of bone marrow predicts long-term outcome. Response can now be assessed by minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring with flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined the relation among the results of these approaches and their prognostic value. Patients and Methods In the multicenter AML02 study, follow-up bone marrow samples from 203 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed AML were examined by flow cytometry (n = 1,514), morphology (n = 1,382), and PCR amplification of fusion transcripts (n = 508). Results were correlated with treatment outcome. Results Among 1,215 samples with less than 5% leukemic myeloblasts by morphology, 100 (8.2%) were MRD positive (≥ 0.1%) by flow cytometry, whereas 96 (57.5%) of the 167 samples with ≥ 5% blasts were MRD negative. Virtually all (308 of 311; 99.0%) MRD-negative samples by PCR were also MRD negative by flow cytometry. However, only 19 (9.6%) of the 197 PCR-positive samples were flow cytometry positive, with analyses of AML1-ETO and CBFβ-MYH11 accounting for most discrepancies, whereas eight of 13 MLL-positive samples had detectable MRD by flow cytometry. MRD by flow cytometry after induction 1 or 2 predicted lower event-free survival and higher relapse rate (P < .001) and was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariable analysis; prediction was not improved by morphologic information or molecular findings. Conclusion In childhood AML, morphologic assessment of treatment response has limited value if MRD is measured by flow cytometry. MLL fusion transcripts can provide prognostic information in some patients, whereas monitoring of AML1-ETO and CBFβ-MYH11 transcripts is largely uninformative. PMID:22965955

  11. Sulindac sulfide reverses aberrant self-renewal of progenitor cells induced by the AML-associated fusion proteins PML/RARα and PLZF/RARα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Steinert

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations can lead to the formation of chimeric genes encoding fusion proteins such as PML/RARα, PLZF/RARα, and AML-1/ETO, which are able to induce and maintain acute myeloid leukemia (AML. One key mechanism in leukemogenesis is increased self renewal of leukemic stem cells via aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Either X-RAR, PML/RARα and PLZF/RARα or AML-1/ETO activate Wnt signaling by upregulating γ-catenin and β-catenin. In a prospective study, a lower risk of leukemia was observed with aspirin use, which is consistent with numerous studies reporting an inverse association of aspirin with other cancers. Furthermore, a reduction in leukemia risk was associated with use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, where the effects on AML risk was FAB subtype-specific. To better investigate whether NSAID treatment is effective, we used Sulindac Sulfide in X-RARα-positive progenitor cell models. Sulindac Sulfide (SSi is a derivative of Sulindac, a NSAID known to inactivate Wnt signaling. We found that SSi downregulated both β-catenin and γ-catenin in X-RARα-expressing cells and reversed the leukemic phenotype by reducing stem cell capacity and increasing differentiation potential in X-RARα-positive HSCs. The data presented herein show that SSi inhibits the leukemic cell growth as well as hematopoietic progenitors cells (HPCs expressing PML/RARα, and it indicates that Sulindac is a valid molecular therapeutic approach that should be further validated using in vivo leukemia models and in clinical settings.

  12. Quelles aides les formations hybrides en langues proposent-elles à l'apprenant pour favoriser son autonomie ? What kind of assistance do blended language learning courses provide to learners in order to foster their autonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available L'apprenant qui suit une formation hybride en langues travaille partiellement à distance, ce qui lui demande une certaine autonomie. La question alors est de savoir si ces formations soutiennent l'apprenant dans le développement de son autonomie et si oui, comment. Les réponses des concepteurs de huit formations hybrides à un questionnaire auto-administré montrent que les nécessaires développement et soutien de l'autonomie sont toujours respectés ; ainsi, ces huit formations proposent des aides pour favoriser l'autonomie dans les domaines technique, méthodologique, social et, bien sûr, langagier. Développer ces autonomies semble donc être devenu un standard dans le cadre des formations observées. En revanche, les autonomies de type psycho-affectif, informationnel, cognitif et métacognitif ne sont pas prises en considération dans toutes les formations.When taking a blended learning course, a learner works partially at a distance, which requires some autonomy. The aim of this study is to find out whether blended learning courses sustain the development of learner autonomy and if they do so, how they do it. The statements that 8 course designers made in a questionnaire show that their courses always help the learners to become or to be autonomous. All 8 courses provide assistance (advice, information and activities in order to foster technical, methodological, social and, of course, language autonomy. Consequently, sustaining these four types of autonomy seems to have become a standard in blended learning courses. But, on the contrary, assistance for other types of autonomy is not systematically provided: only several of these courses help the learners to develop psycho affective, informational, cognitive and metacognive autonomy.

  13. 别格的身份构建--《土生子》的存在主义解读%The Identity Construction of Bigger-Existential Analysis of Native Son

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑丹

    2015-01-01

    存在主义产生于20世纪的二十年代,是探讨人的生存状态的哲学,而基于此又产生了存在主义文学。存在主义文学延续了存在主义的基本思想,描绘了世界的荒谬及人生的痛苦。而存在主义的大师——萨特,更是对存在主义进行了系统地论述。他的存在主义观点为解读理查德·赖特的《土生子》提供了新的视角,而分别从自我、他人和责任三个方面来构建别格的黑人身份,可以展现出一个不同的新黑人形象,深化对《土生子》的认识。%Existentialism, emerging in 1920s, is a philosophy, which talks about the living state of human being. And based on it, existential literature came into being. The existential literature has kept the basic ideas of existentialism, which describes the absur⁃dity of the world and the sorrow of its people. Sartre, the master of existentialism, had once made a systematic study of it. Based on the ideas of Sartre, the novel Native Son can be interpreted from three aspects:self, the other and responsibility, through which a new image of the black is constructed and a deeper comprehension about the novel is achieved.

  14. Silêncios, os Sons dos Rios, os Sons das Cidades: Los Muertos e Liverpool

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    COSTA, Fernando Morais da

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This arcticle aims to analyze the relation between sounds and images in Lisandro Alonso’s Los Muertos and Liverpool. It is of our interest to think about the narrative roles given to sound effects and ambient sounds, to speak of the importance given to such sound elements, opposite to the minor role played by music and dialogue, all that working within the cinematic regime of the sequence shot. Therefore, this work tries, most of all, to investigate how ambient sounds and diegetic noises contribute for such a particular temporal construction. It is also a secundary goal to establish some relationship between those films and other examples of a cinema that has declined the usual dialogue’s central narrative part, as well as to recall the ideia and definition of a cinema of poetry.

  15. Libros que son eso, libros, y no son, ni remotamente, productos literarios

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    Julio Daniel Chaparro H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available La tragedia de Armero. Augusto Cardona Agudelo. Ediciones Pijao, Bogotá, 1988, 127 págs. El último mártir de las bananeras. Miguel Madrid García. Ediciones Pijao, Bogotá, 1988, 55 págs. La muerte no respeta banderas. Antonio Echeverry Gil. Ediciones Pijao, Bogotá, 1988, 126 págs. Los oficios del hambre. Miguel Torres. Editorial Tiempo Presente, Bogotá, 1988, 126 págs. Los duros de la salsa también bailan bolero. Laureano Alba. Secretaría de Educación, Cultura y Recreación de Cali, Cali, 1987, 154 págs. Jepira. José Soto. Arango Editoriales, Bogotá, 1989, 169 págs.

  16. ¿Qué son los observatorios y cuáles son sus funciones?

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Angulo Marcial

    2009-01-01

    La falta de consensos en cuanto a las funciones y definición del término observatorio en el ámbito de las ciencias sociales hace evidente que el concepto está en proceso de construcción. Sugiere también la necesidad de contar con elementos de referencia para su caracterización, además de precisar los atributos que le dan la calidad de observatorio; no obstante este es un espacio abierto a la investigación y desde luego a la creatividad y la innovación. Por su aplicación se asocia y articula c...

  17. Like father, like son? The relationships between conviction trajectories of fathers and their sons and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M.G.A. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Graaf, N.D. de

    2008-01-01

    This study elaborates on the relationship between convictions of fathers and the development of convictions of their offspring over the lifespan. Unique official data from the Netherlands Criminal Career and Life Course Study (CCLS) are used to investigate the intergenerational transmission of crimi

  18. Like Father, Like Son : The Relationships between Conviction Trajectories of Fathers and their Sons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, Marieke van der; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2008-01-01

    This study elaborates on the relationship between convictions of fathers and the development of convictions of their offspring over the lifespan. Unique offi cial data from the Netherlands Criminal Career and Life Course Study (CCLS) are used to investigate the intergenerational transmission of crim

  19. La variabilité climatique et son impact sur les ressources en eau dans le degré carré de Grand-Lahou (Sud-Ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire

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    Tanina Drissa Soro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à montrer l'existence d'une variabilité climatique au niveau de la région de Grand-Lahou et à comprendre son impact sur l'alimentation des ressources en eau. Pour ce faire, diverses données et méthodes (indices centrés réduits, test de PETTIT, méthode bayésienne de LEE et HEGHINIAN ont été utilisées.L'application des indices centrés réduits aux séries pluviométriques et hydrologiques a mis en évidence une variabilité climatique caractérisée par une alternance de phases humides, normales et sèches. Les méthodes statistiques indiquent des ruptures entre 1966 et 1981, qui marquent une modification des régimes pluviométrique et hydrologique. Ces ruptures s'accompagnent d'une diminution de la pluviométrie de 13 à 28 % et de l'écoulement du Bandama de 58 %. Les manifestations de cette variabilité climatique se répercutent sur les ressources en eau souterraine. Ainsi les résultats du bilan hydrique montrent une baisse de la recharge des nappes souterraines.This study aims to show the existence of a climatic variability to the level of the region of Grand-Lahou and to understand its impact on the food of water resource. For that to make, various data and methods have been used (reduced centered indexes, PETTIT test, LEE and HEGHINIAN method.The application of the reduced centered indexes to the sets rainfall and runoff times series put in evidence a climatic variability characterized by an alternation of humid, normal and dry phases. The statistical methods show some breaks between 1966 and 1981 that mark a modification of the rainfall and runoff regimes. These breaks are accompanied by a rainfall decrease of 13 to 28 % and a flow decrease of 58 % for the river Bandama. This variability induces some effects on groundwater. Thus, water balance results show the decrease of groundwater recharge.

  20. Esas empeñadas luchas a que son muy aficionados los naturales de este país: un acercamiento a la etnicidad a través de la lucha canaria (1840-1943

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    Alonso, Víctor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports in general, and traditional sports in particular, make a key contribution to the processes linked to the configuration of any identity. These activities can be studied as a reality «in its own right» (with a certain relative autonomy, as a part of a specific social subject, or as a diacritical social matter that enables us to characterize structures and social processes which, over time, could favour the changes, meanings and visions, whether considered legitimate or maligned, that are contained in these practices. This article deals with the traditional sport of lucha canaria [Canary-island wrestling], which has proved a revealing historical construct, to the extent that this popular game turned sports discipline underwent intense transformation during the 19th and early- 20th centuries. Its analysis provides an insight into the different social meanings, supports and principles associated with this activity, revealing a complex space of relations where the indigenous Guanche, historical tradition and an ongoing link with modernity are particularly relevant. All of this endorses the debate in recent decades in social anthropology and the social sciences regarding ethnicity, identity and sports.El deporte, y especialmente los deportes tradicionales, son una contribución de primer orden a los procesos de construcción identitaria. Puede ser estudiado como realidad «en sí» (dotada de relativa autonomía, al modo de un campo social específico, o bien en modo de diacrítico social que permite caracterizar unas estructuras y procesos sociales que, a lo largo del tiempo, favorecen las transformaciones, sentidos y visiones legitimadas o denostadas contenidas en las prácticas. Este artículo trata la lucha canaria, un deporte tradicional que se manifiesta como constructo histórico revelador, al tratarse de un juego popular deportivizado que vive una intensa transformación a lo largo del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del XX. Su

  1. 6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

    CERN Document Server

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

  2. “Matemáticas en los estudios de Economía y Gestión de Empresas: ¿Por que?¿Para qué? ¿Cuáles? ¿Son posibles?”.

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    Rodríguez Uría, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo pretendemos realizar una reflexión y promover un debate acerca de cuáles son las Matemáticas que deberíamos explicar en los estudios económico-empresariales marco de nuestra docencia.

  3. ¿Qué indicadores son considerados por enfermería para conseguir una diálisis perfecta en el paciente en hemodiafiltración en línea?

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    Ana Vanessa Fernández Martínez

    Full Text Available Tanto las guías, como las indicaciones del Grupo de Gestión de Calidad de la Sociedad Española de Nefrología nos proponen una serie de indicadores para medir la calidad de la prestación de la hemodiálisis. El objetivo del presente estudio fué, tras conocer cuales son los principales indicadores de una diálisis óptima para el personal de enfermería, evaluar objetivamente cada sesión de diálisis, en el convencimiento de que del conocimiento de los aciertos/fallos de cada sesión, obtendríamos propuestas de mejora de una forma más precoz que con los indicadores comúnmente utilizados. Para ello, se realizó una encuesta entre el personal de enfermería (n=26 solicitándole que enumerara los 10 parámetros que le parecían fundamentales para una sesión de diálisis óptima. Los 10 ítems más nombrados se utilizaron para elaborar la hoja de recogida de datos, con respuestas si/no. En cada paciente (n=160 se analizaron 3 sesiones consecutivas (n=480 sesiones, con la misma pauta de tratamiento. El enfermero que realiza las sesiones desconoce que sesiones se van a evaluar, así como la identidad de un segundo enfermero evaluador, que será el encargado de marcar si/no en cada uno de los ítems. Por cada objetivo conseguido se otorga 1 punto. La puntuación máxima por cada paciente es de 30 puntos (10 por sesión, excepto en los portadores de catéter tunelizado, en los que es de 27 puntos (9 por sesión, al no ser procedente valorar la hemostasia. Hemos obtenido como resultado que el 41,3% de las sesiones realizadas obtuvieron la máxima puntuación (42,1% con Fístula arteriovenosa y 35,1% con catéter tunelizado, p=0,043. La puntuación porcentual obtenida fue 88,7 ± 11,9%, porcentaje significativamente mayor con FAV que con catéter (89,9 ± 9,9 versus 79,7 ± 19,4, p<0,001. No se aprecian diferencias por sexo, edad, etiología o permanencia. 30 pacientes (18,8% obtienen la puntuación máxima en las tres sesiones. El 77,7% de los

  4. La Première guerre carliste ou la guerre de la dernière chance : la communauté légitimiste face à son destin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Blanchard Rubio

    2011-06-01

    opinion, essentially through the press and some magazines, but also through numerous circumstantial works that mostly are testimonies of soldiers having taken part to the conflict. This article will develop an analysis of the argument of the European legitimists that have been part of the first Carlist war as observers or active participants in a conflict which challenges went well beyond a mere dynastic dispute. An unfavourable conclusion for carlism in that civil war would mean for them the end of the legitimist influence in Europe. They are conscious that those fights could seal the fate of the legitimist cause. The possibility to fight for ideals that they could not always defend in their own countries leads some officers to engage into the Carlist army, but also to publish some works due to celebrate the heroism of their own party. Those defenders of legitimacy aim at meeting a collective memory, the one of the defeated that would deny them the right to existence. They are conscious that the present does not belong to them anymore and place all their hopes in the future and in the mark they will leave in History that, some day maybe, will do justice to them.Cuando empieza la primera guerra carlista en España, es allí donde parece ventilarse la suerte del absolutismo europeo que se enfrenta con un liberalismo cada vez más poderoso. Los actores de esta contienda así como el eco de ciertas batallas despiertan el interés de la opinión pública europea esencialmente a través de la prensa pero también a través de numerosos escritos de circunstancias que son la mayoría de las veces testimonios de militares comprometidos en esta contienda. En este artículo, se trata de analizar el discurso de los legitimistas europeos que participaron en la primera guerra carlista como observadores o actores de una guerra en la que lo que estaba en juego iba mucho más allá de un simple pleito entre dos monarcas españoles. Un desenlace desfavorable al carlismo en esta guerra

  5. Être tenu par son erreur : les conséquences du fait de se tromper Remaining Caught up in Error: The Consequences of Being Wrong. An Example Based on Schütz’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Marquis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peut-on sortir indemne de ses erreurs ? En empruntant une voie dessinée par les recherches récentes relatives au fait de se tromper qui se démarquent d’une appréhension purement cognitiviste, cet article vise à explorer ce que fait l’erreur à la personne qui la commet. L’hypothèse qui est développée à la suite de Wittgenstein est que chaque acte, chaque contenu cognitif qui se verra qualifié d’erreur “tient” la personne, et risque de porter à conséquence sur la manière dont l’auteur de l’erreur pourra s’engager dans le monde. Il est ainsi possible de proposer une classification des erreurs en fonction du réarrangement qu’elles impliquent dans le système de ce que la personne sait, croit, vit. Afin d’approfondir cette hypothèse, l’article s’appuie sur le fameux texte d’A. Schutz intitulé Don Quichotte et le problème de la réalité. Le phénoménologue y analyse la manière dont le héros fantasque de Cervantès, figure extrême de ce que nous sommes au quotidien, s’arrange un temps pour continuer à vivre dans son sous-univers de chevalerie grâce à un environnement bienveillant, mais aussi comment le chevalier auto-proclamé sera inéluctablement amené à qualifier d’erreur l’ensemble de ce qu’il sait, croit ou vit lorsque le monde qui l’entoure se fera confrontant.Can we emerge unscathed from our errors ? In taking a path sketched out in recent research on the fact of being wrong that distances itself from a purely cognitivist understanding, this article seeks to explore what an error does to the person who makes it. The hypothesis that is developed, following Wittgenstein, is that every act, every cognitive content that ends up being described as error has “a hold” on the person and risks having consequences on the way the error’s author will be able to involve him/herself in the world. Hence it is possible to propose a classification of errors according to the rearrangement

  6. "Escute, pai": diálogos entre filhos(as e pais em canções populares brasileiras "Listen to me, dad": dialogs between fathers and sons in Brazilian popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Penna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre pais e filhos(as configuram um tipo particular de relação entre gerações, na medida em que ocorrem no seio da família, instituição social marcada por vínculos de dependência e responsabilidade e por laços emocionais. Diversas canções que têm essas relações como tema são reunidas no CD Como nossos pais (2008, que exemplifica a tendência, também presente na indústria fonográfica, de preservação da produção musical, na medida em que apresenta diversas gravações com datas entre 1966 e 1988. Deste CD, selecionamos três canções que claramente configuram uma fala filial dirigida ao pai como interlocutor: Papai me empresta o carro (de Roberto de Carvalho e Rita Lee; Já fui (de Marina Lima e Antônio Cícero; Pai (de Fábio Jr.. Numa análise que articula contribuições da sociologia e da psicologia, mostramos como essas canções revelam diferentes momentos do processo de conquista da maturidade e da autonomia pelos jovens, com suas contradições, refletindo também as transformações sociais na configuração da família e no comportamento sexual. Discutimos, ainda, com base na tipologia proposta por TATIT, como essas canções tratam diferentemente a relação entre letra e melodia.The relationships between parents and their children configure a specific part of the relationship between generations, as they occur on the nucleus of the family, which is a social institution linked together by dependency, responsibility and emotional bounds. Several songs which have these relationships as a theme are grouped on the album Como nossos pais (2008 (Like our parents. This album exemplifies a tendency, also present in the phonographic industry, of the preservation of musical production, as it presents several recordings from dates varying between 1966 to 1988. From this album, we have selected three songs that clearly fits the scenario of a son/daughter speaking to his/her father: Papai me empresta o carro

  7. Principes de détermination de la peine, politiques publiques et modération en matière de recours à l’incarcération : la rupture du Canada avec son histoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony N. Doob

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bien que le Canada n’ait jamais réussi à atteindre une grande cohérence en matière de détermination de la peine, pendant plus d’un siècle, les taux d’incarcérations y sont demeurés constants, alors que d’autres pays, notamment les États-Unis, ont vu leurs niveaux d’emprisonnement augmenter considérablement. Une explication partielle de cette stabilité réside dans la tradition canadienne de scepticisme à l’égard des bénéfices de l’emprisonnement – une position qui fut jusqu’en 2006 partagée par les gouvernements fédéraux libéraux et conservateurs. Toutefois, les juges chargés de prononcer les peines n’ont jamais reçu de directives claires du Parlement sur les objectifs qui devraient être concrètement associés aux décisions portant sur les sentences. Les politiques de détermination de la peine basées sur des principes clairs ont connu un rapide déclin à partir de 2006 avec l’introduction par les Conservateurs de nombreux projets de lois pénales modifiant l’économie de la punition. Dans son ensemble, cette activité législative représente l’antithèse d’une réforme de la justice pénale réfléchie et fondée sur des principes. En 1999, Jean-Paul Brodeur décrivait les valeurs qui sous-tendaient les politiques de détermination de la peine comme « rien de moins qu’une catastrophe morale ». Il ne fait aucun doute sur la manière dont il aurait qualifié la période qui s’est amorcée en 2006.Although Canada has never achieved coherence in its sentencing policy, it has managed, for over a century, to maintain a fairly constant level of imprisonment even at a time when other countries, most notably the US, have experienced large increases in imprisonment. A partial explanation for Canada’s stability is that Canada has a long history of scepticism about the value of imprisonment – a view that, until 2006, was endorsed by both Liberal and Conservative national governments

  8. ¿Son las herramientas recomendadas por la ASPEN y la ESPEN equiparables en la valoración del estado nutricional? Are the tools recommended by ASPEN and ESPEN comparable for assessing the nutritional status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª A. Valero

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: No existe un método de valoración nutricional universalmente aceptado. Los expertos de ASPEN (2002 sugieren utilizar la valoración subjetiva global (VSG, mientras que los de ESPEN (2002 recomiendan el sistema NRS-2002. Objetivos y ámbito: Este estudio transversal tiene como objetivos: 1 conocer la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario en un hospital terciario y 2 conocer el grado de asociación entre dos herramientas utilizadas para valorar el estado de nutrición: la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Material y métodos: Se estudian 135 pacientes (42,2 % mujeres y 58,8 % varones, edad 62,1 ± 14,5 años en los tres primeros días del ingreso hospitalario, ingresados en camas de Medicina Interna y Cirugía. Se analizan diferentes variables del estado nutricional. Se compara las necesidades calóricas (Harris Benedict x factor de agresión y la ingesta calórica del día anterior al ingreso, mediante recordatorio de 24 horas. Se calcula la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso con dos herramientas de screening: VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Resultados: El 42,2 % de los pacientes reconocen haber perdido peso y el 39,3 % ingieren una dieta inferior a sus necesidades al ingreso en el hospital. Según el método utilizado de valoración nutricional, la prevalencia de malnutrición es del 40,7 y del 45,1/100 pacientes ingresados con el VSG y el NRS-2002, respectivamente. Existe una asociación significativa entre los resultados obtenidos con ambas herramientas (p = 0,000. Los niveles de albúmina sérica y linfocitos totales son inferiores en los pacientes malnutridos. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario es elevada. Existe una asociación estrecha entre los resultados obtenidos con la VSG y el sistema NRS-2002. Aunque en la práctica clínica cualquiera de los dos métodos puede ser utilizado para valorar el estado de nutrición, consideramos que el sistema NRS-2002, aunque más complejo, es

  9. Influence de l'énergie de surface d'un tambour deshuileur sur son efficacité de relevage Influence of the Surface Energy of a Deoiling Drum on Its Gathering Efficiency

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    Aurelle Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de cette étude est analysée l'influence de l'énergie de surface d'un tambour déshuileur sur son efficacité et sa sélectivité de relevage. Quatre tambours en acier inoxydable, en polychlorure de vinyle, en polypropylène et en dérivé fluorocarboné de tensions critiques de mouillage différentes sont testés comparativement en fonction de l'histoire de leur expositionvis-à-vis de phases hydrocarbure (kérosène et eau. Les essais réalisés montrent que seuls les tambours en dérivé fluorocarboné de très faible tension critique de mouillage s'avèrent intéressants pour des utilisations industrielles. En effet, ils présentent un comportement indépendant de l'histoire de leur exposition ce qui les rend très faciles à utiliser, sans précautions particulières, du fait de leur très grande sélectivité vis-à-vis des hydrocarbures. Par contre, les autres tambours, qui présentent des contributions polaires non négligeables à leur énergie de surface, ont des comportements vis-à-vis des hydrocarbures fonction de l'histoire de leur exposition et ne s'avèrent pas sélectifs vis-à-vis des hydrocarbures à récupérer. The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of the surface energy of a deoiling drum on its gathering efficiency and selectivity. The project consists in testing drums having the same size but made of materials having different surface energies so as to evaluate the influence of this key parameter that had previously been poorly analyzed. Four materials were chosen : stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and a fluorocarbon derivative. These materials are representative, a priori, of the behavior of most materials because of the position of their critical wetting tension (gamma c compared to the superficial tension values of water (72 dyn/cm and the hydrocarbon phases to be gathered (25 to 35 dyn/cm (Fig. 1. It should be noted that the fluorocarbon derivative drum tested was patented by

  10. 疤痕子宫再次剖产手术时机对母儿的影响%Scar uterus cutting production operation time influence on female son again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪玉梅

    2014-01-01

    探讨瘢痕子宫再次剖宫产手术时机对母儿的影响及预防措施。方法将疤痕子宫再次妊娠进入产程后再次剖宫产的85例产妇作为观察组,将疤痕子宫再次妊娠未进入产程择期剖宫产的76例产妇作为对照组。对2组产妇的手术时间、出血量、手术开始至胎儿娩出时间、术后并发症以及新生儿出生后的状况进行比较分析。结果观察组手术时间、手术开始至胎儿娩出时间、胎儿娩出至术毕时间、剖宫产总时间及术中出血量均显著高于对照组,P<0.05。观察组术后血红蛋白水平较对照组低。观察组术中大出血,术后并发症以及新生儿窒息例数明显高于对照组,P<0.05。结论瘢痕子宫再次分娩手术时机的选择一般常选在预产期前1~2周,通过 B 超了解胎盘的成熟度、胎头大小及子宫切口处的厚薄,若出现胎膜早破,胎儿窘迫或巨大儿分娩前兆等其他剖宫产指征时,可随时手术,结束妊娠。加强孕期保健,术前 B 超预测瘢痕子宫切口厚度,在严密检测下鼓励瘢痕子宫再次妊娠者阴道试产,可降低瘢痕子宫患者再次妊娠的母婴围产期并发症。%objective to explore the scar uterine cesarean section surgery timing effect on female son again and preventive measures. Line method wil once again in 85 cases of cesarean section scar uterus as observation group, maternal line wil be in the same period in 76 cases of cesarean section scar uterus women as control group. On two groups of maternal operation time, blood loss, postoperative complications, and comparative analysis of the status of after birth. Results the observation group operation to the fetus, fetal childbirth time to postoperative time, cesarean section when asked about the total amount of bleeding was significantly higher than that in the control group, P<0.05. The patients in the observation group than in the control group and low

  11. Plantilla de enfermería y demanda de cuidados de ancianos hospitalizados, ¿son suficientes los recursos? Nursing staff and care needs in hospitalized elders, are there enough resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Jesús Cruz Lendínez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El aumento de la población de personas mayores de 65 años hace cada vez más frecuente su ingreso en los hospitales. El tiempo de estancia hospitalaria de los ancianos suele ser más prolongado que el del resto de pacientes. Objetivo: Analizar la capacidad de prestación de cuidados de 3 unidades de hospitalización de un hospital público y compararla con la demanda de cuidados de los ancianos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo observacional en 3 unidades de hospitalización de medicina interna de un hospital universitario de la red pública de Andalucía (España. Se ha incluido una muestra de 190 pacientes ancianos hospitalizados. Las variables recogidas fueron: demográficas, relacionadas con la hospitalización, demanda de cuidados y capacidad de prestación de cuidados de la plantilla de enfermería. Los datos se han obtenido del sistema de información del hospital, del conjunto mínimo básico de datos de pacientes y por observación directa mediante el método de nivel de cuidados (MNC. Resultados: La edad media de los ancianos hospitalizados fue de 77,4 años, con 21,1% de mayores de 85 años. La estancia media fue de 15,68 días. La estimación de la capacidad de prestación de cuidados de la plantilla de enfermería fue de 2,8 horas/paciente/día (con un índice de enfermeras tituladas del 60%. A partir de la medición de niveles de dependencia, la demanda de cuidados media de los ancianos fue de 4,9 horas/paciente/día. Esta diferencia supone un déficit anual de 51 profesionales de enfermería en la plantilla de las 3 unidades de hospitalización. Los factores que influyen en la demanda de cuidados de los ancianos son la edad, días de estancia hospitalaria, el diagnóstico médico y el destino del paciente al alta. También se encuentra una relación con la presencia de un familiar acompañando al paciente (cuidador familiar. Los cuidados básicos representan un 65,7% del total de cuidados requeridos. Conclusiones: La

  12. 儿子养老还是女儿养老?基于家庭内部的比较分析%Sons or Daughters?Who Are Caring for Aging Parents:A Gender Comparative Study of Chinese Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琪

    2015-01-01

    本文使用2010年中国家庭追踪调查数据,通过家庭内部比较,从经济支持和生活照料两个方面对儿子和女儿的赡养行为进行系统的比较研究。结果发现,在当代中国家庭中,儿子在赡养父母时的总效应依然显著大于女儿,这主要是因为他们更可能与父母同住。一旦控制子女与父母的居住方式,儿子的直接效应就仅在经济支持方面大于女儿。在生活照料方面,女儿的直接效应已经显著超过儿子。从城乡对比来看,这种“儿子出钱、女儿出力”的性别分工模式主要出现在农村。在城市,女儿在经济支持和生活照料两个方面的直接效应都超过儿子。所以,中国传统的以儿子为核心的赡养方式虽然没有彻底瓦解,但已发生明显变化,快速的人口转变和女性社会经济地位的提高是导致这些变化的重要原因。%The traditional Chinese family has long been characterized as patriarchal,patrilineal, and patrilocal, placing women at a severe social disadvantage in relation to men.Under srch a system,sons were permanent members of the natal family and were expected to live with parents after marriage and contribrte to their economic well-being.In contrast,darghters were temporary members of the natal family.Upon marriage,a woman was expected to serve her hrsband's extended family and bore no filial obligation to her own parents.Nevertheless,in recent years some strdies have fornd that the tradition of sons as the sole provider for aging parents has rndergone significant changes in contemporary China.To frrther investigate this issre, orr strdy examines two aspects of intergenerational srpport:financial srpport and aging care, and highlights the gender difference between sons and darghters in this regard.Taking into consideration of the commonly practiced patrilocal living arrangement in China, we separate the gender difference between sons and darghters in care

  13. 超越自然主义的自然主义作品*--美国黑人经典小说《土生子》写作特征探析%A Naturalism Literature Work Beyond Traditional Naturalism-An Analysis on the Writing Characteristics of Native Son

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青

    2015-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初是自然主义文学蓬勃发展的时期,自然主义理论从欧洲大陆传播到美国,在美国本土形成了独特的自然主义理论。美国黑人作家理查德・赖特的代表作《土生子》就成功地采用了自然主义的创作手法,作为美国黑人文学史上的一个里程碑,它不仅体现了美国自然主义文学的特征,同时对原有的自然主义理论有所超越。笔者从美国自然主义文学的特征出发,对比分析“赖特式”的自然主义在《土生子》中的具体表现。%Naturalism Literature experienced a vigorous development in the period of the late nineteenth cen-tury and the early twentieth century.The theory of Naturalism had been spread from Europe to America and had formed a unique Naturalism theory there.Richard Wright, a famous African American writer, successfully applied the theory of Naturalism to his representative work Native Son.Native Son, as a milestone in the history of African American Literature, not only reflects the traits of traditional Naturalism, but also transcends the original theory. This paper will compare and analyze the characteristics of Naturalism which reflected in Native Son from the per-spective of American Naturalism Literature.

  14. 宋代给侍之法:"养儿防老"的古代实践%The Law of Gei-Shi in Song Dynasty: the Ancient Practice of the Concept of "Bring up Sons to Support Parents in their Old Age"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石璠

    2015-01-01

    为保证老年人能够得到儿子的居家侍养,宋代继承了前代的给侍之法,包括侍丁免役、侍丁的刑罚变通以及禁止"委亲之官"等制度.但由于时代的变迁,上述制度在宋代又有所变化:其侍丁免役制度似乎呈现出弱化的趋势;由于折杖法的实施,侍丁在刑罚上的优待主要体现在编配等刑的变通执行上;"委亲之官"之禁出于平衡忠孝的动机,也有了一些变通的方法,包括给予解官侍亲者重新朝参注官的机会、给予有养老责任的职官以就近注官的便利等.%In order to ensure the old man can get son's support at home, Song Dynasty inherited the law of Gei-Shi. By means of regulations of exempting from service, probation, changing punishment, and resigning to go back home, the son who had parents to support could avoid defaulting their responsibility because of "official business" or punishment. Under the changes of social, institution of service-exempt weakened in Song Dynasty.Because of enforcement of Zhe-Zhang-Fa, the son's legal privilege consisted on the relieving of punishment such as Bian-Guan and Pei-Yi. In order to balance loyalty and iflial piety, there were some provisions in Song Dynasty which authorized resigned ofifcials to resume their career while prohibiting Wei-Qin-Zhi-Guan, and permitted ofifcials to work in local ofifce while demanding assignment evasion.

  15. Enfoque diferencial y de género para la protección de mujeres víctimas de violencia sexual de hechos ocurridos en el contexto de las acciones de los grupos armados que son postulados a la aplicación de Ley 975 de 2005 -de Justicia y Paz-

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Hidalgo, Helka Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    El tema de esta investigación se enmarca en el contexto del conflicto armado colombiano, que se ha constituido en un escenario para la manifestación de diferentes formas de violencia, entre estas la violencia sexual como estrategia de guerra. Analiza el contenido del Decreto 1737 de 2010, y propone la aplicación de un Protocolo de Protección diferencial a las mujeres víctimas de violencia sexual de los hechos ocurridos en el contexto de las acciones de los grupos armados que son postulados a ...

  16. Els pedagògics sons dels silencis. Enllà del silenci d’Auschwitz Los pedagógicos sonidos de los silencios. Más allá del silencio de Auschwitz The pedagogical sounds of silences. Beyond the silence of Auschwitz

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Després del gran silenci d’Auschwitz, en aquest passeig pedagògic descriptiu pels sons dels silencis, ens introduïm en les semàntiques dels silencis, acceptant la seva polisèmia i descrivintne algunes de les accepcions més vinculades a l’àmbit educatiu. S’analitza, d’una banda, la genealogia dels silencis, algunes de les seves claus d’origen, i de l’altra, la teleologia dels silencis, la finalitat, pedagògica o no, dels mateixos. Alhora, partint del silenci com a valor pedagògic en aquesta ed...

  17. 论《儿子与情人》中的俄荻蒲斯情节和劳伦斯的潜意识%Also on the Oedipus Complex in Sons and Lovers and D.H.Lawrence。′s Sub-Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建立

    2001-01-01

    Sons and Lovers is the masterpiece of one of the greatest psychological novelists D.H.Lawrence in British literature history. This article has explored the relationship of the Oedipus Complex in the novel Sons and Lovers and D.H.Lawrence′s sub-consciousness from the dimension of the psycho-analysis, and analyzed the novel and Lawrence himself, using the method of psycho-analysis of Freud′s sub-consciousness.%《儿子与情人》是英国文学史上最伟大的心理小说家之一劳伦斯的代表作。本文从心理分析的角度论述了《儿子与情人》中的俄狄浦斯情结与劳伦斯本人的“潜意识”的关系;用弗洛伊德的潜意识论的精神分析方法对该作品及劳伦斯本人进行了剖析。

  18. 伴有ins(8;21)(q22;q22.1q22.3)髓系白血病的荧光原位杂交研究%Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on a myeloid leukemia patient with ins (8;21) (q22;q22.1q22.3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚芳; 马勤芬; 薛永权; 白淑潇; 张俊; 姚利; 王勇; 仇惠英; 沈娟; 潘金兰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with the insertion (8;21) (q22; q22.1q22.3). A 33-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our hospital. Hematologic data showed WBC 42.7 ~ 109/L with monocytosis (monocyte counts 7.296 X 109/L). Bone marrow aspirate was hypercellular with 4.5% monoblasts and 7.5% promonocytes. At first she was diagnosed with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) according to the FAB criteria. Initially the patient received supportive care only, but her general condition rapidly became worse three months later. The monoblasts and promonocytes in the bone marrow rose to 20.50%. After two cycles of combined chemotherapy she obtained complete remission. Methods Chromosome specimens were prepared by short-term culture of bone marrow cells. Karyotype analysis was carried out by R-banding technique. Three fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed using AML1-ETO dual color, dual fusion probe, whole chromosome painting 8 and 21 probes, and cen-8 and Tel 21qter probes, respectively. Reverse transcription polyrnerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assay for detecting the AML1-ETO fusion transcript was also performed. Results Conventional cytogeuetie analysis showed a karyotype of 46,XX,ins(8;21) (q22;q22.1q22.3)[7]/46,XX[3]. FISH tests confirmed the insertion. RT-PCR analysis detected the AML1-ETO fusion transcript. Conclusion We consider that this patient should be rediagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia according to the criteria proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) and that FISH and RT-PCR play an important role in verification of the ins(8;21).%目的 对1例临床诊断为慢性粒单核细胞白血病患者进行荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situhybridization,FISH)研究.方法 将患者骨髓细胞24 h培养后按常规方法制备染色体.采用R显带技术进行染色体核型分析;采用AML1-ETO双色双融合探针、8号和21号整条染色体涂染探针、8号染色体着丝粒探针和21号

  19. Corium spreading issue; Le corium et son etalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Brayer, C.; Cranga, M.; Journeau, C.; Laffont, G.; Splinder, B.; Veteau, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique (DPT), 38 (France)

    1999-07-01

    Safety is one of the major issues for nuclear power plants; its improvement is a constant R and D axis for the CEA. In the event of a highly unlikely core melt-down accident in Light Water Reactors, the Safety Authorities of several EU countries have requested the industries and utilities to consider severe accidents with reactor pressure vessel failure for the design of the next generation of nuclear power plants. The objective is to preserve the integrity of the containment as the main barrier of fission product release to the environment. This can only be achieved if the core melt mixture (called corium, essentially composed of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, Fe and fission products) is stabilized before it can penetrate the basement. Consequently, various core-catcher concepts are under investigation for future reactors in order to prevent basement erosion, and to stabilize and control the corium within the containment. In particular, in the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept, the corium is mixed with a special concrete, and the molten mixture spread over a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom; with subsequent cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading requires intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify the key phenomena, which govern the spreading. For some years now, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has been conducting a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental (with simulant and prototypic materials) and theoretical investigations, which are finally gathered into scenario and mechanistic computer codes. Within this framework, a large part is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. After a reminder of the general objectives and a description of the DRn approach and facilities, this paper presents the most important results. (authors)

  20. The Gender Weight Gap: Sons, Daughters, and Maternal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although the effect of parents on their children has been the focus of much research on health and families, the influence of children on their parents has not been well studied. In this paper, I examine the effect of the sex composition of children on mothers' physical condition, as proxied by their weight. Using two independent datasets, I find that, many years after the birth of their children, women who have first-born daughters weigh on average 2-6 pounds less than women who have first-b...

  1. Listening to Oedipus: two poems by sons about fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Using the writings of Thomas Ogden, Donald Spence, Jessica Benjamin, Roy Schafer, Evelyn Schwaber, and others, the author discusses the "kinship" between poets and psychoanalysts. The author also attempts to demonstrate how reading and listening to poetry can greatly enhance analytic listening, as well as illuminate how language that is contained within a guiding structure, such as a poem or an analysis, can "surprise" us into new awareness and meaning. Two poems are chosen, in which the speakers describe their relationships with their fathers in order to evoke oedipal associations. A brief discussion follows of how contemporary analysts are using intersubjective and relational lenses in order to expand on and revise traditional oedipal metaphor and theory and capture new levels of meaning. Each poem is then analyzed to underline how the sounds and selection, as well as sense of language, reveal the speaker's inner world and process. Poetry provides a mirror for the increasing richness, scope, and dialectical play that can be found in contemporary psychoanalysis.

  2. La reciprocidad y el don no son la misma cosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gabriel Abduca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El autor se propone mostrar por qué la noción de reciprocidad, aunque ha sido muchas veces tomada como sinónimo del fenómeno de intercambios de dones, corresponde a diversas situaciones sociales, por lo cual tiene poca utilidad descriptiva y explicativa. Examina algunos hitos de la historia antropológica, mostrando que más que un concepto, 'reciprocidad' es un palimpsesto sobre el cual, de Durkheim a Polanyi, se han ido escribiendo variadas nociones. En cambio, sugiere una definición de don más estricta, cercana a las ideas de Mauss y acorde con los avances de la etnografía y la teoría contemporánea. Sugiere distinguir entre circuitos cerrados de dones, donde circulan bienes de consumo final, y circuitos abiertos, donde los dones que circulan condensan el conjunto de las relaciones sociales.O objetivo deste texto é mostrar que a expressão 'reciprocidade', ainda foi considerada como sinônimo de 'câmbio de domes', é outra coisa. O autor sugere um breve esquema de alguns marcos do desenvolvimento da noção de 'reciprocidade' em a teoria antropológica, mostrando que o sentido dela expressão foi mudando até assemelhar um palimpsesto com múltiplas rescritas, no processo que vá de Durkheim a Polanyi. Defende um conceito de dom próximo às idéias de Mauss e a certos avances dela etnografia contemporânea e a teoria social. Distingue deus tipos de circuitos de circulação de domes: fechados, onde circulam bens de consumação direita, e apertos, onde circulam certo tipo de bens que condensam o conjunto das relações sociais.The aim of this text is to show how the notion of 'reciprocity', although have been considered a synonymous of gift exchange, veils different social situations. A brief survey of the history of the use of the word shows how 'reciprocity', from Durkheim to Polanyi, seems as a palimpsest of various notions. Although, he essays a defense of a concept of 'gift' related to the Maussian texts, and closer to some issues of recent ethnography and social theory. He distinguishes two types of gifts paths: closed, where final consumption goods circulates, and open ones, where we find not-consumption goods, which resume the whole of social relationship.

  3. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  4. Son of SPECOPS: Rethinking the Nature and Operationalization of Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    Defense (DOD). The tectonic realignment of the US Army Air Corps into an independent Service constituted an astute policy decision necessary to meet the...serves the U.S. citizenry as the launch pad for digital instruments employed in the best interests of the national policy; the outcomes of command

  5. De Barbare à Babel, des sons qui bredouillent et excluent

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    L’analyse externe et l’analyse interne ne sont nullement en contradiction, mais reflètent cependant deux attitudes, deux approches, deux angles de vue différents. La première cherche d’abord l’étymon historique et n’admet une origine onomatopéique qu’en dernier ressort, alors que nous postulons d’abord la structure onomatopéique et cherchons ensuite le mot dans lequel elle s’est actualisée.(Pierre Guiraud) Parmi les « structures onomatopéiques » des mots français, que Pierre Guiraud a si bien...

  6. Microwave Brightness Temperature and Lunar Son Dielectric Property Retrieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu; D.H. Li; A.T. Altyntsev; B.I. Lubyshev

    2005-01-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become more and more attractive to the scientists duo to the existence of abundant 3He and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization. Although the soil composition determination on the lunar surface is available by visible light spectrometer, γ/X-ray spectrometer etc, the evaluations on the total reserves of 3He and ilmenite in the lunar deep and on the thickness of the lunar soil are still impossible so far. In this paper, the authors first give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope; then introduce our researches on the microwave dielectric properties of lunar soil simulators; finally, discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  7. Cuando alguien habla la maya, se nota que son pobres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bellon Cárdenas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examinan las narrativas de identidad de los receptores culturalesde la radiodifusora indigenista “La Voz de los Mayas, Xepet”, respecto de su relacióncon la oferta radiofónica de esta emisora ubicada en la cabecera municipal de Peto,al sur de Yucatán, México. El propósito es, por un lado, sistematizar, desde el análisisargumentativo, el uso, estructura y estrategias argumentativas de los maya hablantesradioescuchas de Xepet (bilingües o monolingües en torno a la oferta cultural de lamisma, así como a la presencia cotidiana de esta emisora en su mundo de vida; y, porotro, reflexionar acerca de la radio indigenista en México como un recurso que podríacontribuir a la “cultura de paz”.“U chíikul u t’aan maayao’ob” o “La voz de los mayas”, salió al aire el 29 de noviembrede 1982, en la frecuencia de los 740 khz de AM y fue reubicada al 730 en enero de2001. Su área de cobertura abarca unos 100 km a la redonda, alcanzando cerca de milcomunidades de la península y parte de Quintana Roo, con una audiencia potencial de500 mil personas. Su programación incluye géneros musicales y no musicales, compuestosestos últimos por programas informativos, de difusión cultural, servicio e infantiles.Xepet ha sido una de las radiodifusoras pioneras del sistema indigenista promovido porel Estado mexicano desde 1979, modelo que habría de extenderse en las más de veinteemisoras que aparecieron después. Hoy en día, la crítica respecto de la función, contenidosy operación de estas emisoras “oficiales” o “voceras del Gobierno” permanence,debido a que tanto la práctica indigenista como su experiencia radiofónica parecieranestar rebasadas por las demandas de los pueblos indios que reivindican su derecho a lalibre determinación y a la autonomía, así como a la propiedad y gestión de sus propiosmedios de comunicación. Lo anterior reitera la necesidad de una propuesta radiofónicaque se constituya en interlocutor válido para los mayas yucatecos.Alejándonos de quienes de manera simple celebran la diferencia cultural del “mundoglobalizado” al igual que la “interculturalidad” como la integración, convivencia o relaciónpacífica de elementos de distintas culturas de forma “más o menos satisfactoria”,recordamos que la relación entre grupos diferentes siempre implicará luchas simbólicaspor el reconocimiento y, en consecuencia, un proceso incesante de reconfiguración deidentidades y de su poder. Con base en el análisis argumentativo de las narrativas de losmayas yucatecos en torno a la “escucha” de Xepet, advertimos que la radio podría serun recurso para, a través de la lengua, evocar la memoria colectiva de quienes afirmanno hablar “la maya auténtica” o no ser los “verdaderos mayas” sino tan sólo “mayeros”,“los que hablan la maya”. La radio como un instrumento para recordar, afirmar,apropiarse y reconfigurar algunos elementos de la identidad, constituyéndose comoun espacio de diálogo hacia una “cultura de paz”. Conformarse con el valor simbólicode las emisoras indigenistas sería ignorar, una vez más, las demandas actuales de estospueblos, que exigen una comunicación en donde no sólo se hable su lengua, sino quese escuche su voz.

  8. Mesure et simulation temporelle de sons multiphoniques au trombone.

    OpenAIRE

    Velut, Lionel; Vergez, Christophe; Gilbert, Joël

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Multiphonic sounds of brass instruments are studied in this article. They are produced by playing a note on a brass instrument while simultaneously singing another note in the mouthpiece. This results in a peculiar sound, heard as a chord or a cluster of more than two notes in most cases. This effect is used in different artistic contexts.Measurements of the mouth pressure, the pressure inside the mouthpiece and the radiated sound are recorded while a trombone player p...

  9. Le CERN prépare son avenir

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    Hubert Curien elected President of CERN Council. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 17 Member States of the Organization decide on CERN's scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 97th Session on June 25 under the chairmanship of Sir William Mitchell (United Kingdom).

  10. Nuestros Sentimientos Son Iguales, La Diferencia Es En La Experiencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Uvaldo H.

    1971-01-01

    The author concludes that counselors may be the prime cause of miscommunication and prejudicial evaluation in relations with persons from divergent racial and ethnic groups. Counselors must recognize and value the ethnicity of other persons if they are to foster an open, trusting, and productive counseling relationship with them. (Author/BY)

  11. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňková, Š.; Šulc, J.; Nouzová, K.; Fajfrlík, K.; Frynta, D.; Flegr, J.

    2007-02-01

    The boy-to-girl ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio) is around 0.51 in most populations. The sex ratio varies between societies and may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age, primiparity, the sex of the preceding siblings and the socioeconomic status of the parents. As parasite infection affects many immunological and physiological parameters of the host, we analyzed the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on sex ratios in humans. Clinical records of 1,803 infants born from 1996 to 2004 contained information regarding the mother’s age, concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies, previous deliveries and abortions and the sex of the newborn. The results of our retrospective cohort study suggest that the presence of one of the most common parasites (with a worldwide prevalence from 20 to 80%), Toxoplasma gondii, can influence the secondary sex ratio in humans. Depending on the antibody concentration, the probability of the birth of a boy can increase up to a value of 0.72, C.I.95 = (0.636, 0.805), which means that for every 260 boys born, 100 girls are born to women with the highest concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. The toxoplasmosis associated with immunosuppression or immunomodulation might be responsible for the enhanced survival of male embryos. In light of the high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in most countries, the impact of toxoplasmosis on the human population might be considerable.

  12. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  13. Pescados procesados: ¿son todos recomendables para pacientes renales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Castro-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Es indispensable un buen manejo nutricional en pacientes renales. La dieta debe incluir proteína de buena calidad con cantidades limitadas de fósforo (P y potasio (K. Los ácidos grasos n-3 (AGPIn-3 de los pescados proporcionan beneficios contra la progresión del daño renal. El objetivo fue evaluar el contenido de proteína (PR, (P, (K, calcio (Ca y AGPIn-3 en pescados procesados como una opción para pacientes renales. Se analizó atún en agua (AA, en aceite (AAC, sardina en tomate (ST, en chipotle (SC y salmón ahumado (SA. (SA presentó la mayor concentración de (PR, (P y (K y la menor cantidad de (AGPIn-3. Las sardinas presentaron el doble de la concentración de (P y (K en comparación con los atunes, así como (Ca en elevada concentración. Atunes y sardinas tuvieron altas concentraciones de AGPIn-3 (4256-5213 mg/100g; las relaciones P:AGPIn-3 y K: P:AGPIn-3 fueron muy bajas (0.03 a 0.06, para atunes y sardinas, respectivamente; (AA y (AC aportaron (10.1 y 11.1 mg(P/g(PR; (ST (26.4 y (SC(19.1. AGPIn-3/g(PR fue similar para atunes y sardinas (302-424. Se detectó diferencia significativa para (P y (K entre tipos de pescados. Se recomienda incluir de manera individualizada (AA y (AC en la dieta de pacientes renales, no así el consumo de sardina y salmón.

  14. La banane : de son origine à sa commercialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana: from origin to market. Cultivated bananas are giant herbaceous plants within the genus Musa. They are both sterile and parthenocarpic. There are well over a thousand domesticated Musa cultivars, they are mostly triploid (a few are diploid or tetraploid and are derived from crosses between two wild species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. In terms of production, bananas are the fourth agricultural product after rice, wheat, and maize. They constitute the basis of food security for many people. Cropping systems vary widely around the world and contrasting objectives are encountered: consumption by the producer, sale on local or national markets, export, etc. Cooking bananas, including plantains, must be distinguished from dessert bananas, which constitute a major international trade. This international trade started only in the early 1900s but it has since grown continuously. Banana is currently the most exported fruit, in terms of both value and quantity. Despite the high genetic diversity found within the genus Musa, the export market is mainly based on single Cavendish. There are major challenges to banana production from biotic or abiotic stresses to continue to meet the criteria of sustainability, quality and yield that are imposed.

  15. Survey Paper on Image Denoising Using Spatial Statistic son Pixel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Nigam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical non-local means image denoising approach, the value of a pixel is determined based on the weighted average of other pixels, where the weights are determined based on a fixed isotropic ally weighted similarity function between the local neighbourhoods. It is demonstrate that noticeably improved perceptual quality can be achieved through the use of adaptive anisotropic ally weighted similarity functions between local neighbourhoods. This is accomplished by adapting the similarity weighing function in an anisotropic manner based on the perceptual characteristics of the underlying image content derived efficiently based on the Mexican Hat wavelet. Experimental results show that the it can be used to provide improved perceptual quality in the denoised image both quantitatively and qualitatively when compared to existing methods.

  16. Oedipus was not the son of Laius and Jocasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garma, A

    Neurotics have family-romance fantasies, which they sometimes take to be real and which make them think that their parents are not really their parents. They have other unconscious fantasies in which they feel that their sexual objects are really their parents and in which trivial acts acquire the value of incest and parricide. From these psychoanalytic findings we can interpret the Oedipus legend as a special manifestation of the family romance which has arisen from guilt feelings and an intense desire for punishment. Oedipus fantasies the rulers of Thebes to be his parents and takes his behavior toward them as both incestuous and parricidal. As a displacement on the adult level, the Oedipus legend symbolizes the genital situation of the child both before and during the creation of the superego. As Oedipus was happy in his love life before the plagues afflicted Thebes, the child enjoys, during his infancy, sexual pleasure with his mother and rejects his father as his rival. Later just as Oedipus did, the child learns from his parents and from the rest of his environment, that his incestuous and parricidal behavior is dreadful and that he must feel very guilty and be punished severely. The child also learns this must be repressed: He must no longer perceive these things. In the legend this is symbolized by Oedipus blinding himself. The usual interpretation of the Oedipus legend, which wrongly believes that he really committed incest and parricide, does not take into account the distortions of judgement and preception which guilt feelings can give rise to.

  17. Los derechos de usuarios y consumidores son derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Tambussi, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir a confirmar que los derechos de los llamados usuarios y consumidores en la relación de consumo, así como el derecho de acceso al consumo mismo, forman parte de ese logro de la civilización que consiste en el amplio espectro que conforman los llamados “derechos humanos”, gracias a su desarrollo original en el derecho internacional público, su impregnación en las normas internas de los Estados y la progresividad del reconocimiento y protección de los m...

  18. What Carnot's Father Taught His Son about Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erich A.

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of the classical postulates of the second law of Thermodynamics can be traced back to the book by Sadi Carnot, "Reflections on the motive power of fire." While unique in its own right and in some sense revolutionary, the book starts with an analogy between heat engines and waterwheels. Waterwheels were common engines of…

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

    2002-12-01

    This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third part, "The separation", is a very interesting account of Houzeau's emigration to North America, in vain search for his revolutionary dream. Of course he also ran into trouble in the US due to publications such as "The white terror in Texas" and because of his loyalty with the slaves, his advocacy for black civil rights and his refusal to join the confederate army, so he had to flee Texas too. The book gives many details on the civil war era. His absence from Belgium led to a very significant scientific work, in the first place his most homogeneous and extensive star atlas (6000 stars to declination -65) which was made in very good atmospheric conditions by one and only one observer, totally independent from previously published catalogues. The last part "The builder" tells the story of the construction of the new Royal Observatory in the suburb of Uccle, a new and better site than the one established in the city center by the Dutch regime in 1826. When the succession of Adolphe Quetelet was discussed, Houzeau was about the only candidate with a vast publication record and a broad observational expertise. Surprisingly, he was appointed as the second director of the Observatory and remained in function till 1883. One chapter in the fourth part of the book deals with Houzeau's participation at a Venus transit expedition of 1882. Jean-Charles Houzeau made very significant contributions to astronomy and his major works include "Vade-mecum de l'Astronomie", the "Uranometrie Generale" and his monumental "Bibliographie Generale de l'Astronomie", an early precursor of our modern web-based ADS (NASA Astrophysics Data System). This is a book which every Belgian astronomer should read because it is an eye opener on the history of the establishment of the kingdom, and because it explains the roots and difficult early development of astronomy in this country. This history is internationally linked and refers to many contemporary scientists such as Argelander, Heis, Herschel, von Humboldt etc. The book by Verhas includes many details on observational techniques and geodetic triangulation, and explains very well the underlying principles of the described experiments. There are various nice diagrams and many high-quality photographic reproductions. Technically, the work is very well made and is printed on high-quality glossy paper. There are only a small number of typographical errors, and some low-resolution photographs have been reproduced on a scale much too large to be esthetic. The two-column format of 22 x 28 cm makes it very suitable for consultation at the library desk but not very adequate for armchair enjoyment or travel reading. The single shortcoming is the absence of a Name and Subject Index.

  20. De la A a la U, todas son...

    OpenAIRE

    Martha E. Arizmendi Domínguez; J. Humberto Florencia Saldívar; Gerardo Meza García

    2007-01-01

    Conocer la producción literaria de un escritor es una de las actividades que debemos realizar quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la literatura. Y es justamente lo que se pretende realizar, además de especificar las formas de escritura que emplea en una de sus obras. Óscar de la Borbolla en Las vocales malditas demuestra su conocimiento literario y nos invita a reflexionar a propósito de los temas desarrollados en la obra, así como el tratamiento que da a cada uno, utilizando para ello una té...