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Sample records for aminotransferases

  1. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003472.htm Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in ...

  2. Influence of convulsants on rat brain activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilová, M.; Haugvicová, Renata; Kubová, Hana; Dršata, J.; Mareš, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2001), s. 1285-1291 ISSN 0364-3190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : alanine aminotransferase * aspartale aminotransferase Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  3. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  4. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  5. Alanine Aminotransferase, ?-Glutamyltransferase, and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Abigail; Harris, Ross; Sattar, Naveed; Ebrahim, Shah; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare associations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ALT and GGT were studied as determinants of diabetes in the British Women's Heart and Health Study, a cohort of 4,286 women 60-79 years old (median follow-up 7.3 years). A systematic review and a meta-analysis of 21 prospective, population-based studies of ultrasonography, which diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NA...

  6. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  7. Perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e biometria do fígado de codornas japonesas

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Anderson de Almeida; Müller,Elisa Sialino; Moraes,George Henrique Kling de; Umigi,Regina Tie; Barreto,Sergio Luiz de Toledo; Ferreira,Ronaldo Martins

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar o perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e a biometria do fígado de codornas poedeiras (Coturnix coturnix japonica) de 1 a 25 dias de idade. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo e o peso do fígado e as atividades das aspartato e alanina aminotransferases no fígado utilizando-se 90 codornas de 1 dia de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis idades e cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. Aos 1,...

  8. Ornithine aminotransferase deficiency: Diagnostic difficulties in neonatal presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, M. A.; Dorland, L.; de Koning, T. J.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.; Mandell, R.; Shih, V. E.; Berger, R.; Olpin, S. E.; Besley, G. T. N.

    2005-01-01

    We describe two unrelated cases of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) deficiency with rare neonatal presentation of hyperammonaemia. The diagnosis in the neonatal presentation of OAT deficiency is hampered as hyperornithinaemia is absent. Enzyme and mutation studies confirmed the diagnosis. OAT

  9. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  10. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified recombinant enzyme. The enzyme accepted pyruvate, and oxaloacetate but not 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrate, which is in accordance with other characterised transaminases from the plant kingdom. The enzyme was also able to convert (S)-1-phenylethylamine into acetophenone with high stereo-selectivity. Additionally, it was shown to be active at a broad pH range. Conclusions We suggest PAMT to be renamed to VAMT (vanillin aminotransferase, abbreviation used in this study) as formation of vanillin from vanillylamine could be demonstrated. Furthermore, due to high stereoselectivity and activity at physiological pH, VAMT is a suitable candidate for biocatalytic transamination in a recombinant whole-cell system. PMID:24712445

  12. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  13. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  14. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  15. Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase Detection on Paper-Based Analytical Devices with Inkjet Printer-Sprayed Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General biochemistry detection on paper-based microanalytical devices (PADs uses pipette titration. However, such an approach is extremely time-consuming for large-scale detection processes. Furthermore, while automated methods are available for increasing the efficiency of large-scale PAD production, the related equipment is very expensive. Accordingly, this study proposes a low-cost method for PAD manufacture, in which the reagent is applied using a modified inkjet printer. The optimal reaction times for the detection of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT are shown to be 6 and 7 min, respectively, given AST and ALT concentrations in the range of 5.4 to 91.2 U/L (R2 = 0.9932 and 5.38 to 86.1 U/L (R2 = 0.9944. The experimental results obtained using the proposed PADs for the concentration detection of AST and ALT in real human blood serum samples are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a traditional spectrophotometric detection method by National Cheng Kung University hospital.

  16. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  17. Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamoto Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how liver markers are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 587 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20–89 years and 755 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21–88 years. The study sample consisted of 998 (74.4% non-obese [body mass index (BMI 2] and 344 (25.6% overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5, and HOMA-IR and potential confounders were compared between the groups. Areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was alanine aminotransferase (ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.63-0.77. In overweight subjects, AUC values for the ALT/AST ratio and ALT were 0.66 (0.59-0.72 and 0.66 (0.59-0.72, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses for HOMA-IR showed that ALT/AST ratios were independently and significantly associated with HOMA-IR as well as other confounding factors in both non-obese and overweight subjects. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: ALT/AST ratio of ≥0.82 in non-obese subjects and ≥1.02 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for ALT/AST ratio. Conclusions In non-obese Japanese adults, ALT/AST ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  18. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-06-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum: A new drug target candidate

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    Miguel Angel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. The disease is fatal without treatment, which has been based on antimonial pentavalents for more than 60 years. Due to resistances, relapses and toxicity to current treatment, the development of new drugs is required. The structure of the L. infantum tyrosine aminotransferase (LiTAT has been recently solved showing important differences with the mammalian orthologue. The characterization of LiTAT is reported herein. This enzyme is cytoplasmic and is over-expressed in the more infective stages and nitric oxide resistant parasites. Unlike the mammalian TAT, LiTAT is able to use ketomethiobutyrate as co-substrate. The pharmacophore model of LiTAT with this specific co-substrate is described herein. This may allow the identification of new inhibitors present in the databases. All the data obtained support that LiTAT is a good target candidate for the development of new anti-leishmanial drugs.

  20. Fragment Screening of Human Kynurenine Aminotransferase-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickrama, Gayan S; Nematollahi, Alireza; Sun, Guanchen; Church, W Bret

    2018-03-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase-II (KAT-II) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that acts in the tryptophan metabolic pathway by catalyzing the transamination of kynurenine into kynurenic acid (KYNA). It is one of four isoforms in the KAT family, of which it is the primary homologue responsible for KYNA production in the mammalian brain. KAT-II is targeted for inhibition as KYNA is implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, where it is found in elevated concentrations. Previously, many different approaches have been taken to develop KAT-II inhibitors, and herein fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approaches have been exploited to provide further lead compounds that can be designed into novel inhibitors. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to screen a fragment library containing 1000 compounds, of which 41 hits were identified. These hits were further evaluated with SPR, and 18 were selected for inhibition studies. From these hits, two fragments, F6037-0164 and F0037-7280, were pursued and determined to have an IC 50 of 524.5 (± 25.6) μM and 115.2 (± 4.5) μM, respectively. This strategy shows the viability of using FBDD in gleaning knowledge about KAT-II inhibition and generating leads for the production of KAT-II inhibitors.

  1. Multiphoton manipulations of enzymatic photoactivity in aspartate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa P; Freer, Lucy H; Vang, Mai C; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Larsen, Delmar S

    2011-04-21

    The aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) enzyme utilizes the chromophoric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor to facilitate the transamination of amino acids. Recently, we demonstrated that, upon exposure to blue light, PLP forms a reactive triplet state that rapidly (in microseconds) generates the high-energy quinonoid intermediate when bound to PLP-dependent enzymes [J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132 (47), 16953-16961]. This increases the net catalytic activity (k(cat)) of AAT, since formation of the quinonoid is partially rate limiting via the thermally activated enzymatic pathway. The magnitude of observed photoenhancement initially scales linearly with pump fluence; however when a critical threshold is exceeded, the photoactivity saturates and is even suppressed at greater excitation fluences. The photodynamic mechanisms associated with this suppression behavior are characterized with the use of ultrafast multipulse pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe transient absorption techniques in combination with complementary two-color, steady-state excitation assays. Via multistate kinetic modeling of the transient ultrafast data and the steady-state assay data, the nonmonotonic incident power dependence of the photoactivty in AAT is decomposed into contributions from high-intensity dumping of the excited singlet state and repumping of the excited triplet state with induces the repopulation of the ground state via rapid intersystem crossing in the higher-lying triplet electronic manifold.

  2. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  3. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  4. Alanine aminotransferase variants conferring diverse NUE phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chandra H; Good, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2), is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT) results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1) knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s) previously observed.

  5. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep

    2011-02-25

    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  7. Characterization of Potential Antimicrobial Targets in Bacillus spp. II. Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and Methionine Regeneration in B. cereus and B. anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berger, B

    2002-01-01

    .... Four putative family III aminotransferases, two with homology to branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases and two with homology to D- amino acid aminotransferases, were cloned from B. cereus...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF ALANIN-AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a comparative study on the activity of one aminotransferase - alaninaminotransferase, in the digestive tube of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp and Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp. The enzymatic activity has been determined colorimetrically, with 2, 4 - dinitrophenyl hydrazine, the results obtained being expressed as UE / g / min. It was observed that, comparatively with the alanin-aminotransferase activity recorded in silver carp, in the case of bighead carp, the values recorded are much lower.

  9. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...... for potential confounders and existing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Environmental developmental origins may explain the association, but larger twin studies are required to replicate our findings....

  10. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, RK; Diamant, M; Bakker, SJL; van Dijk, RAJM; Scheffer, PG; Teerlink, T; Kostense, PJ; Heine, RJ

    Background Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  11. Alanine aminotransferase and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-38)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Introduction Combined data suggest a bimodal association of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with mortality in the general population. Little is known about the association of ALT with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of ALT with all-cause,

  12. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R.K.; Diamant, M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; van Dijk, R.A.; Scheffer, P.G.; Teerlink, T.; Kostense, P.J.; Heine, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  13. Identification and Partial Characterization of an L-Tyrosine Aminotransferase (TAT from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav R. Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminotransferase gene family in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana consists of 44 genes. Twenty six of these enzymes are classified as characterized meaning that the reaction(s that the enzyme catalyzes are documented using experimental means. The remaining 18 enzymes are uncharacterized and are therefore deemed putative. Our laboratory is interested in elucidating the function(s of the remaining putative aminotransferase enzymes. To this end, we have identified and partially characterized an aminotransferase (TAT enzyme from Arabidopsis annotated by the locus tag At5g36160. The full-length cDNA was cloned and the purified recombinant enzyme was characterized using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro analysis showed that the enzyme is capable of interconverting L-Tyrosine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, and L-Phenylalanine and phenylpyruvate. In vivo analysis by functional complementation showed that the gene was able to complement an E. coli with a background of aminotransferase mutations that confers auxotrophy for L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine.

  14. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  15. Transient Elastography vs. Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index in Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A

    Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.

  16. Apoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase isozymes in serum and its diagnostic usefullness for hepatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, S; Ohkubo, A; Yamanaka, M

    1979-08-15

    Aspartate aminotransferase in the sera of normal subjects and of patients with hepatic diseases has been immunologically separated into two isoenzymes, cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The activity of the isoenzymes was measured in three different buffer solutions with or without pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. To attain maximal activation, the apoenzyme of mitochondrial fraction must be preincubated with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate longer than that of the cytosolic fraction in either of the three reaction mixtures. In most sera the activity of both isoenzymes increased substantially in the presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate regardless of the type of buffer solutions. Both the apoenzymatic activity and the ratio of apo- to holo-enzymatic activity of each of the isoenzymes varied among samples from the patients with hepatic diseases. However, significantly high ratios of apo- to holo-enzymatic activity of both isoenzymes were observed in the patients with hepatoma in contrast with those with other hepatic diseases. These findings suggest that the simultaneous measurement of both apo- and holo-enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes may be useful in the clinical assessment of hepatic diseases.

  17. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  18. Identification of (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases by exploring evolutionary sequence space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Joon Ho; Kim, Byung-Gee; Seo, Joo-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    Several (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases (R-ωATs) have been reported. The existence of additional R-ωATs having different sequence characteristics from previous ones is highly expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that R-ωATs are variants of aminotransferase group III. Based on these backgrounds, sequences in RefSeq database were scored using family profiles of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT) and d-alanine aminotransferase (DAT) to predict and identify putative R-ωATs. Sequences with two profile analysis scores were plotted on two-dimensional score space. Candidates with relatively similar scores in both BCAT and DAT profiles (i.e., profile analysis score using BCAT profile was similar to profile analysis score using DAT profile) were selected. Experimental results for selected candidates showed that putative R-ωATs from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (R-ωAT_Sery), Bacillus cellulosilyticus (R-ωAT_Bcel), and Bacillus thuringiensis (R-ωAT_Bthu) had R-ωAT activity. Additional experiments revealed that R-ωAT_Sery also possessed DAT activity while R-ωAT_Bcel and R-ωAT_Bthu had BCAT activity. Selecting putative R-ωATs from regions with similar profile analysis scores identified potential R-ωATs. Therefore, R-ωATs could be efficiently identified by using simple family profile analysis and exploring evolutionary sequence space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PPARα regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPARα agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum

  20. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Holly Jean [Chanhassen, MN; Liao, Hans H [Eden Prairie, MN; Gort, Steven John [Apple Valley, MN; Selifonova, Olga V [Plymouth, MN

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  1. Characterization of the different spectral forms of glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, S; Andersen, Jens S.; Kannangara, C G

    1995-01-01

    Glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase produces delta-aminolevulinate for the synthesis of chlorophyll, heme, and other tetrapyrrole pigments. The native enzyme from Synechococcus is pale yellow and has absorption maxima at 338 and 418 nm from vitamin B6. Yellow, colorless, and pink forms...

  2. Associated factors and clinical implications of serum aminotransferase elevation in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Hung; Liu, Chun-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Fu, Yang-Hsien; Chang, Chi-Hsien; Jao, Ping; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-12-01

    Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the complications of scrub typhus. It is thus important to find easy laboratory tests to help in the diagnosis, especially in patients without eschar at initial presentation. Because serum aminotransferase elevation is common in scrub typhus, its associated factors and clinical implications need further investigations. We conducted a retrospective study in Kinmen, Taiwan, to collect clinically suspected scrub typhus patients notified to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control for confirmation during 2005-2010. Scrub typhus was diagnosed and Orientia tsutsugamushi was genotyped by serological or molecular assays. The laboratory data and clinical information were recorded for analysis. Overall, 344 suspected scrub typhus patients were reported to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and 288 of them were certified scrub typhus. Scrub typhus patients had significantly more thrombocytopenia, serum aminotransferase elevation (76% vs. 54%, p = 0.001), higher frequency of fever, eschar, and lymphadenopathy, compared with nontyphus patients. Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus was associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy, but seemed to be unrelated to the rickettsial genotypes. Multivariate analysis showed that serum aminotransferase elevation (odds ratio: 3.75; p = 0.003; 95% confidence interval: 1.56-9.01) independently predicted scrub typhus. Furthermore, in suspected scrub typhus patients without eschar, 92% of true typhus patients had serum aminotransferase elevation compared with the nontyphus ones (odds ratio: 6.47; p = 0.028, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-34.11). Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus patients is associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy. Serum aminotransferase elevation can aid in the diagnosis of scrub typhus, especially in suspected patients without eschar. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2 and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil or the control group (with normal consumption of oil for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study (P = 0.004. In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (P<0.01. There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P<0.02. The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  4. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  5. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  6. Association of the Aspartate Aminotransferase to Alanine Aminotransferase Ratio with BNP Level and Cardiovascular Mortality in the General Population: The Yamagata Study 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early identification of high risk subjects for cardiovascular disease in health check-up is still unmet medical need. Cardiovascular disease is characterized by the superior increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT. However, the association of AST/ALT ratio with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and cardiovascular mortality remains unclear in the general population. Methods and Results. This longitudinal cohort study included 3,494 Japanese subjects who participated in a community-based health check-up, with a 10-year follow-up. The AST/ALT ratio increased with increasing BNP levels. And multivariate logistic analysis showed that the AST/ALT ratio was significantly associated with a high BNP (≥100 pg/mL. There were 250 all-cause deaths including 79 cardiovascular deaths. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that a high AST/ALT ratio (>90 percentile was an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after adjustment for confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that cardiovascular mortality was higher in subjects with a high AST/ALT ratio than in those without. Conclusions. The AST/ALT ratio was associated with an increase in BNP and was predictive of cardiovascular mortality in a general population. Measuring the AST/ALT ratio during routine health check-ups may be a simple and cost-effective marker for cardiovascular mortality.

  7. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  8. Analysis of the enzymatic properties of a broad family of alanine aminotransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra H McAllister

    Full Text Available Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT has been studied in a variety of organisms due to the involvement of this enzyme in mammalian processes such as non-alcoholic hepatocellular damage, and in plant processes such as C4 photosynthesis, post-hypoxic stress response and nitrogen use efficiency. To date, very few studies have made direct comparisons of AlaAT enzymes and fewer still have made direct comparisons of this enzyme across a broad spectrum of organisms. In this study we present a direct kinetic comparison of glutamate:pyruvate aminotransferase (GPAT activity for seven AlaATs and two glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferases (GGAT, measuring the K(M values for the enzymes analyzed. We also demonstrate that recombinant expression of AlaAT enzymes in Eschericia coli results in differences in bacterial growth inhibition, supporting previous reports of AlaAT possessing bactericidal properties, attributed to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin recognition and binding. A probable lipopolysaccharide binding region within the AlaAT enzymes, homologous to a region of a lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP in humans, was also identified in this study. The AlaAT enzyme differences identified here indicate that AlaAT homologues have differentiated significantly and the roles these homologues play in vivo may also have diverged significantly. Specifically, the differing kinetics of AlaAT enzymes and how this may alter the nitrogen use efficiency in plants is discussed.

  9. Hepatic aminotransferases of normal and IUGR fetuses in cord blood at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocylowski, Rafal; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Fritzer, Elfriede; Kiserud, Torvid; von Kaisenberg, Constantin

    2012-07-01

    The accepted standard for assessing the wellbeing of the newborn is the Apgar score and blood gas analysis. However, the prediction of neonatal morbidity or mortality is limited. In small-for-gestation (SGA) fetuses at 18-38 weeks of gestation, pO(2) is normals. To test the hypothesis, that fetuses with intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) have elevated AST (GOT) and ALT (GPT) aminotransferases as a result of hypoxic liver cell injury, and to establish references ranges. Prospective cohort study, serum of umbilical artery (n=156) and vein (n=180), 599 normal singletons at 37(+0)-42(+0)weeks, neonates with IUGR (n=41), analysis for pH, birthweight and maternal weight, spontaneous vs cesarean section, vein vs artery and for the sex. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, GOT) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, GPT) were measured in normals and IUGR neonates. Neonates with IUGR (n=41) had AST values that were not different from the reference group, but had significantly lower ALT (-1.49, 95% CI -1.98 to -1.00 vs 0.14, 95% CI -0.42-0.13), (pblood were not elevated. Rather, a substantially reduced ALT suggests a down-regulated hepatic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Pey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis.

  11. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Pei-Song

    2017-08-14

    The levels of liver function tests (LFTs) are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. In our study, the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Our purpose was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in ESCC patients. A retrospective study was performed in 447 patients with ESCC, and follow-up period was at least 60 months until death. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models. LFTs including ALT, AST, LSR, GGT, TBA and LDH were analyzed. Serum LSR (HR: 0.592, 95% CI = 0.457-0.768, p < 0.001 and GGT (HR: 1.507, 95% CI = 1.163-1.953, p = 0.002) levels were indicated as significant predictors of OS. The 5-year OS among patients with higher LSR levels was longer compared with those patients with decreased LSR levels, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T1-T2 subgroup, T3-T4 subgroup, N0 subgroup and M0 subgroup). We also found that patients with a higher GGT might predict worse OS than patients with a normal GGT, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T3-T4 subgroup and N1-N2 subgroup). Both increased levels of LSR and decreased levels of GGT might predict shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Our findings suggest that serum LSR and GGT levels could be used as a key predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  12. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Deok; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2015-04-01

    Aminotransferase activity is a surrogate marker of liver injury showing strong correlations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, elevated aminotransferase activity is not uncommon in non-obese and non-alcoholic patients in clinical practice. To examine the relationship between sarcopenia and aminotransferase activity in a large population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations were used. A total of 13,431 subjects were included. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed on each patient to measure total and regional muscle mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass indices were also obtained. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the normal liver enzyme group (males: 26.5% vs. 16.9%; females: 38.3% vs. 22.1%, plevels. The frequency of elevated aminotransferase increased in male patients with sarcopenia after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, fasting glucose level, dietary, and exercise habits. However, the correlation was no longer observed in women after adjusting for body mass index. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men, independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Adriana S; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  14. Impact of increasing alanine aminotransferase levels within normal range on incident diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Shan Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Shan-Tair Wang; Pesus Chou

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal alanine aminotransferase level (ALT) levels might be associated with type 2 diabetes, but whether higher ALT levels within the normal range predict the risk is unknown. Methods: We followed a community-based cohort of 3446 individuals who were ≥35 years old without diabetes and hepatitis B or C in southern Taiwan for 8 years (1997–2004) to study the risk for type 2 diabetes with different normal ALT levels. Results: Among the 337 incident diabetes cases, 16.0% were from those w...

  15. Inhibition study of alanine aminotransferase enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Chen, Yuanfang; Yang, Li

    2014-12-15

    We report the study of several inhibitors on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay. Using metal ions (Na(+) and Mg(2+)) as example inhibitors, we show that evolution of the ALT inhibition reaction can be achieved by automatically and simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and product formation as a function of reaction time. The inhibition mechanism and kinetic constants of ALT inhibition with succinic acid and two traditional Chinese medicines were derived from the sequential online CE assay. Our study could provide valuable information about the inhibition reactions of ALT enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Common reference intervals for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in serum: results from an IFCC multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Henny, Joseph; Queraltó, Josep; Ziyu, Shen; Özarda, Yeşim; Chen, Baorong; Boyd, James C; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) measurements are important for the assessment of liver damage. The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) for these enzymes in adults, paying attention to standardization of the methods used and careful selection of the reference population. AST, ALT and GGT were measured with commercial analytical systems standardized to the IFCC-recommended reference measurement systems. Three centers (two in Italy and one in China) measured their own freshly collected samples; one of these centers also measured frozen samples from the Nordic Countries RI Project and from a Turkish center. RIs were generated using non-parametric techniques from the results of 765 individuals (411 females and 354 males, 18-85 years old) selected on the basis of the results of other laboratory tests and a specific questionnaire. AST results from the four regions (Milan, Beijing, Bursa and Nordic Countries) were statistically different, but these differences were too small to be clinically relevant. Likewise, differences between the upper reference limits for genders was only 1.7 U/L (0.03 μkat/L), allowing a single RI of 11-34 U/L (0.18-0.57 μkat/L) to be defined. Interregional differences were not statistically significant for ALT, but partitioning was required due to significant gender differences. RIs for ALT were 8-41 U/L (0.13-0.68 μkat/L) for females and 9-59 U/L (0.15-0.99 μkat/L) for males, respectively. The upper reference limits for GGT from the Nordic Country population were higher than those from the other three regions and results from this group were excluded from final calculations. The GGT RIs were 6-40 U/L (0.11-0.66 μkat/L) for females and 12-68 U/L (0.20- 1.13 μkat/L) for males, respectively. For AST and ALT, the implementation of common RIs appears to be possible, because no differences between regions were observed. However, a common RI for GGT that is

  17. An LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase defines a novel variant of the lysine biosynthesis pathway in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O; Singh, Bijay K; Leustek, Thomas; Gilvarg, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Although lysine (Lys) biosynthesis in plants is known to occur by way of a pathway that utilizes diaminopimelic acid (DAP) as a central intermediate, the available evidence suggests that none of the known DAP-pathway variants found in nature occur in plants. A new Lys biosynthesis pathway has been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that utilizes a novel transaminase that specifically catalyzes the interconversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate and LL-diaminopimelate, a reaction requiring three enzymes in the DAP-pathway variant found in Escherichia coli. The LL-DAP aminotransferase encoded by locus At4g33680 was able to complement the dapD and dapE mutants of E. coli. This result, in conjunction with the kinetic properties and substrate specificity of the enzyme, indicated that LL-DAP aminotransferase functions in the Lys biosynthetic direction under in vivo conditions. Orthologs of At4g33680 were identified in all the cyanobacterial species whose genomes have been sequenced. The Synechocystis sp. ortholog encoded by locus sll0480 showed the same functional properties as At4g33680. These results demonstrate that the Lys biosynthesis pathway in plants and cyanobacteria is distinct from the pathways that have so far been defined in microorganisms.

  18. Elevated Aminotransferase Activity as an Indication of Muscular Dystrophy: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zamora

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Five male children are reported in whom incidental recognition of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity initiated investigation to identify the cause of suspected hepatocellular injury. All five were later diagnosed with X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy. The serum level of ALT, generally considered to be specific for hepatocellular injury, was increased two to 25 times above normal in all the reported cases. Paradoxically, the increase in ALT activity was greater than that of serum aspartate aminotransferase (three to 16 times normal, an enzyme whose elevation is generally recognized as being less specific and indicative of muscle, cardiac, kidney, pancreatic, red blood cell or hepatic injury. At presentation to the gastrointestinal service, one case, age 2.5 months, had no symptoms or signs of neuromuscular dysfunction, while the other four had previously unrecognized hypertrophy of the calves, proximal limb weakness, positive Gower’s sign or delayed gross motor skills. All five patients had marked elevation of serum creatine kinase activity and histopathologically confirmed muscular dystrophy. The practical clinical implication of this report is that children with elevated serum ALT, in the absence of other signs and symptoms of hepatic injury, may have occult muscular disease - most frequently muscular dystrophy. Although the clinical signs of muscular dystrophy may be subtle or absent, early determination of creatine kinase will suggest the correct diagnosis and minimize extensive and invasive investigation focusing on hepatic injury.

  19. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  20. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-li; Li, Wei; Ping, Fan; Ma, Liang-kun; Nie, Min

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated with WBC count;1-hour true insulin after 100 grams

  1. Sensitive, specific radioisotope assay for L-glutamine-D-fructose-6- phosphat aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, M.; Tourian, A.; Hung, W.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioassay for L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (EC 5.3.1.19) activity is presented. Picomoles of product are measurable, and the assay can be applied to systems having limited quantities of available protein, particularly in extracts of either cell or organ cultures. The assay is at least 10,000 times more sensitive under K 1 concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate than the modified Elson-Morgan colorimetric assay and 20 times more sensitive under saturating conditions of fructose 6-phosphate. As little as 0.5 μg of cell-extract protein will yield measurable product. In contrast, 280 μg of crude-extract protein from colon is required with the modified Elson-Morgan colorimetric assay

  2. A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Birgit; Dobritzsch, D.

    2007-01-01

    and related yeasts have two different genes/enzymes to apparently 'distinguish' between the two reactions in a single cell. It is likely that upon duplication similar to 200 million years ago, a specialized Uga1p evolved into a 'novel' transaminase enzyme with broader substrate specificity.......In humans, beta-alanine (BAL) and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) are transaminated by a single aminotransferase enzyme. Apparently, yeast originally also had a single enzyme, but the corresponding gene was duplicated in the Saccharomyces kluyveri lineage. SkUGA1 encodes a homologue...... to characterize the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the four enzymes. It was found that the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is needed for enzymatic activity and alpha-ketoglutarate, and not pyruvate, as the amino group acceptor. SkPyd4p preferentially uses BAL as the amino group donor (V...

  3. Structure and mechanism of a cysteine sulfinate desulfinase engineered on the aspartate aminotransferase scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco J; de Vries, Dominique; Peña-Soler, Esther; Coll, Miquel; Christen, Philipp; Gehring, Heinz; Vega, M Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The joint substitution of three active-site residues in Escherichia coli (L)-aspartate aminotransferase increases the ratio of l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase to transaminase activity 10(5)-fold. This change in reaction specificity results from combining a tyrosine-shift double mutation (Y214Q/R280Y) with a non-conservative substitution of a substrate-binding residue (I33Q). Tyr214 hydrogen bonds with O3 of the cofactor and is close to Arg374 which binds the α-carboxylate group of the substrate; Arg280 interacts with the distal carboxylate group of the substrate; and Ile33 is part of the hydrophobic patch near the entrance to the active site, presumably participating in the domain closure essential for the transamination reaction. In the triple-mutant enzyme, k(cat)' for desulfination of l-cysteine sulfinate increased to 0.5s(-1) (from 0.05s(-1) in wild-type enzyme), whereas k(cat)' for transamination of the same substrate was reduced from 510s(-1) to 0.05s(-1). Similarly, k(cat)' for β-decarboxylation of l-aspartate increased fromcat)' for transamination was reduced from 530s(-1) to 0.13s(-1). l-Aspartate aminotransferase had thus been converted into an l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase that catalyzes transamination and l-aspartate β-decarboxylation as side reactions. The X-ray structures of the engineered l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase in its pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form or liganded with a covalent coenzyme-substrate adduct identified the subtle structural changes that suffice for generating desulfinase activity and concomitantly abolishing transaminase activity toward dicarboxylic amino acids. Apparently, the triple mutation impairs the domain closure thus favoring reprotonation of alternative acceptor sites in coenzyme-substrate intermediates by bulk water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical characteristics associated with hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The main causes of hepatic steatosis (HS are alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis, the finding of abnormal aminotransferases in abstinent individuals, without known liver disease, suggests the diagnosis of NAFLD in 80-90% of the cases. Identification of clinical factors associated with HS on abdominal ultrasound may enable diagnoses of fatty liver non-invasively and cost-effectively. The aim here was to identify clinical variables associated with HS in individuals with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a single tertiary care center. METHODS: Individuals with elevated ALT, serologically negative for hepatitis B and C, were evaluated by reviewing medical files. Patients who did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography were excluded. RESULTS: Among 94 individuals included, 40% presented HS on ultrasonography. Compared with individuals without HS, those with fatty liver were older (P = 0.043, with higher body mass index (BMI (P = 0.003, diabetes prevalence (P = 0.024, fasting glucose levels (P = 0.001 and triglycerides (P = 0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that BMI (odds ratio, OR = 1.186; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.049-1.341; P = 0.006 and diabetes mellitus (OR = 12.721; 95% CI: 1.380-117.247; P = 0.025 were independently associated with HS. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical findings such as history of diabetes and high BMI may predict the presence of HS on ultrasonography in individuals with elevated ALT and negative serological tests for hepatitis.

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwa; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Kwang Min; Joo, Nam Seok

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, γ-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and γ-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS.

  6. Regional adipose tissue and elevations in serum aminotransferases in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Phyllis C; Kotler, Donald P; Overton, E Turner; Lewis, Cora E; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (-14.3%, 95% CI: -24.7 to -4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (-11.9%, 95% CI: -18.4 to -5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (-7.1%, 95% CI: -22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.

  7. Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren M; Beck, Hans Christian; Ravn, Peter

    2002-01-01

    . The first step in the catabolism is most likely a transamination reaction catalyzed by BCAA aminotransferases (IlvE proteins). In this study, we cloned the ilvE gene from S. carnosus by using degenerate oligonucleotides and PCR. We found that the deduced amino acid sequence was 80% identical...... were essential for optimal cell growth....

  8. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase as markers of alcohol consumption in out-patient alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Andersen, I; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    and alkaline phosphatase in 18% and 7%. Neither the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase nor alkaline phosphatase showed any significant (P greater than 0.05) correlation with the history of alcohol consumption. The activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase and aspartate...

  9. A quest for normal values of serum aminotransferase and its association with age and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Farooq, Y.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference range for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for young healthy individuals in our population and to find out effects of age and body mass index on alanine aminotransferase. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi; from Dec 2009 to April 2010. Material and Methods: Five hundred and fifty three young healthy adults were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Parameters like Age, height and weight were measured. Relevant investigations were carried out for each subject which included blood complete picture, Chest X-Ray, ECG, Urine routine examination, liver function tests, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, plasma glucose (F), Anti HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV antibodies and VDRL. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Age of subjects ranged from 19 to 50 years (29 +- 6) years, BMI 15.59 to 29.8, (21.58 +- 2). Serum alanine aminotransferase ranged from 17 to 81 IU/l, (29.9 +- 8) IU/l. Serum alanine aminotransferase for subjects with body mass index more than 25 Kg/m2 was 29.6 +- 7 IU/L. There is no significant difference in value of mean ALT overall and in those with BMI of more than 25 (p=0.149) Conclusion: Mean serum alanine aminotransferase value in young healthy adults included in this study was 29.9 +- 8 IU/L which is lower than normal reference provided at present which is 40 IU/l. Statistical analysis revealed that serum ALT is not significantly influenced by age and BMI. (author)

  10. [Association between occupational stress and aminotransferase activity in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Song, L; Qiang, Y; Liu, H R; Qiu, F Y; Li, X Z; Song, H

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between occupational stress and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A case-control study was performed. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, among the staff members of enterprises and public institutions aged 20~60 years who underwent physical examination in The Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and The People's Hospital of Wuzhong from October 2011 to October 2012, 622 patients with metabolic syndrome who did not have a blood relationship with each other were enrolled as case group, and 600 healthy staff members who also did not have a blood relationshipwith each otherwere enrolled as control group. Questionnaire investigation, chronic occupational stress investigation, physical examination, and laboratory tests were performed for all subjects. Results: Compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher serum levels and abnormal rates of AST and ALT ( t =-4.338 and-5.485, χ(2)=11.168 and 34.302, all P occupational stresses in both groups ( F =2.192 and 2.567, χ(2)=2.694 and 5.402, all P >0.05) , but there were significant differencesbetween the subgroups in all subjects ( F =5.005, χ(2)=6.398, all P occupational stresses in the case group, the control group, and all subjects ( F =0.845, 0.450, and 1.416, χ(2)=2.564, 1.344, and 3.147, all P >0.05) . The partial correlation analysis showed that the total score of occupational stress was positively correlated withthe serum level of AST ( r =0.071, P 0.05) , and that the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.736, P occupational stress was positively correlated with the serum level of AST ( r =0.069, P 0.05) , and the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.730, P occupational stress ( b =0.131, P =0.013) . Conclusion: Occupational stress is associated with increased serum level

  11. Inactivation of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by γ-ethynyl- and γ-vinyl GABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, R.B.; Burke, J.R.; Nanavati, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    γ-Ethynyl- and γ-vinyl GABA (vigabatrin) are anticonvulsant agents that have been shown to be mechanism-based inactivators of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-T). The inactivation mechanisms of these compounds have been investigated. Inactivation of GABA-T by [ 3 H]γ-ethynyl GABA led to the incorporation of 1.0 equiv of 3 H into the enzyme which is not released by enzyme denaturation. Inactivation by γ-ethynyl GABA of GABA-T reconstituted with [ 3 H]PLP followed by denaturation resulted in release of 3 H as PLP. Eight different possible adducts are consistent with that result. Experiments have been carried out to differentiate these possibilities. Similar studies have been carried out with γ-vinyl GABA. Inactivation by [ 14 C]γ-vinyl GABA resulted in the incorporation of 1.0 equiv of 14 C per active site. Unlike the case with γ-ethynyl GABA, γ-vinyl GABA inactivation of GABA-T reconstituted with [ 3 H]PLP followed by denaturation resulted in release of 3 H as PMP

  12. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester amplifies the inductions of tyrosine aminotransferase and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, H.; Fukusen, N.; Katunuma, N.

    1987-01-01

    In adrenalectomized rats, the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) markedly enhanced the inductions of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoids, even with sufficient concentration of glucocorticoids to have a maximal effect, whereas it had no effect on TAT activity and increased ornithine decarboxylase activity only slightly in the absence of glucocorticoids. Phorbol derivatives and components of TPA such as 4β-phorbol, phorbol 12-tetradecanoate, phorbol 13-acetate, and 4-O-methylphorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, which have no tumor-promoting activity or ability to activate protein kinase C, did not have any effect on TAT induction by glucocorticoid. TPA enhanced the induction of TAT by various glucocorticoids but had no effect on induction of TAT by glucagon or insulin and did not enhance the induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by 17β-estradiol. These results suggest that TPA specifically enhances the induction of TAT and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoids. Similar effects of TPA on TAT induction by glucocorticoid were observed in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Another activator of protein kinase C, rac-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, was also found to have similar effects on the cells

  13. Jasmonate is involved in the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and tocopherol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandorf, Iris; Holländer-Czytko, Heike

    2002-11-01

    Coronatine-inducible tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), which catalyses the transamination from tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, is the first enzyme of a pathway leading via homogentisic acid to plastoquinone and tocopherols, the latter of which are known to be radical scavengers in plants. TAT can be also induced by the octadecanoids methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl-12-oxophytodienoic acid (MeOPDA), as well as by wounding, high light, UV light and the herbicide oxyfluorfen. In order to elucidate the role of octadecanoids in the process of TAT induction in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the jasmonate-deficient mutant delayed dehiscence (dde1) was used, in which the gene for 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3 is disrupted. The amount of immunodetectable TAT was low. The enzyme was still fully induced by coronatine as well as by MeJA although induction by the latter was to a lesser extent and later than in the wild type. Treatment with MeOPDA, wounding and UV light, however, had hardly any effects. Tocopherol levels that showed considerable increases in the wild type after some treatments were much less affected in the mutant. However, starting levels of tocopherol were higher in non-induced dde1 than in the wild type. We conclude that jasmonate plays an important role in the signal transduction pathway regulating TAT activity and the biosynthesis of its product tocopherol.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  15. Diversification of Transcriptional Regulation Determines Subfunctionalization of Paralogous Branched Chain Aminotransferases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, James; López, Geovani; Argueta, Stefany; Escalera-Fanjul, Ximena; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Strauss, Joseph; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; González, Alicia

    2017-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors BAT1 and BAT2 paralogous genes that encode branched chain aminotransferases and have opposed expression profiles and physiological roles . Accordingly, in primary nitrogen sources such as glutamine, BAT1 expression is induced, supporting Bat1-dependent valine-isoleucine-leucine (VIL) biosynthesis, while BAT2 expression is repressed. Conversely, in the presence of VIL as the sole nitrogen source, BAT1 expression is hindered while that of BAT2 is activated, resulting in Bat2-dependent VIL catabolism. The presented results confirm that BAT1 expression is determined by transcriptional activation through the action of the Leu3-α-isopropylmalate (α-IPM) active isoform, and uncovers the existence of a novel α-IPM biosynthetic pathway operating in a put3 Δ mutant grown on VIL, through Bat2-Leu2-Leu1 consecutive action. The classic α-IPM biosynthetic route operates in glutamine through the action of the leucine-sensitive α-IPM synthases. The presented results also show that BAT2 repression in glutamine can be alleviated in a ure2 Δ mutant or through Gcn4-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, when S. cerevisiae is grown on glutamine, VIL biosynthesis is predominant and is preferentially achieved through BAT1 ; while on VIL as the sole nitrogen source, catabolism prevails and is mainly afforded by BAT2 . Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Measurement and purification of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT enzyme activity in patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed U. Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is the most common genetically - based disease in correlation with food intolerance. The aim of this study is to measure the activity of ALT enzyme and purify enzyme from sera women with celiac disease. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity has been assayed in (30 women serum samples with celiac disease, age range between (20-40 year and (30 serum of healthy women as control group, age range between (22-38 year. In the present study, the mean value of ALT activity was significantly higher in patients with celiac disease than healthy group (p<0.01. The ALT enzyme was partial purified from sera women with celiac disease by dialysis, gel filtration using Sephadex G- 50 and ion exchange chromatography using DEAE- cellulose A-50 . The results showed a single peak by using gel filtration and the activity reached 31-15 U/L .Two isoenzymes were obtained by using ion exchange chromatography and the purity degree of isoenzymse (I, II were (5.7 and (5.53 fold respectively

  17. Theoretical studies on the inactivation mechanism of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, A T; Gökcan, H; Konuklar, F A S

    2011-07-21

    The inactivation mechanism of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) in the presence of γ-vinyl-aminobutyric acid, an anti-epilepsy drug, has been studied by means of theoretical calculations. Density functional theory methods have been applied to compare the three experimentally proposed inactivation mechanisms (Silverman et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2004, 279, 363). All the calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Single point solvent calculations were carried out in water, by means of an integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEFPCM) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The present calculations provide an insight into the mechanistic preferences of the inactivation reaction of GABA-AT. The results also allow us to elucidate the key factors behind the mechanistic preferences. The computations also confirm the importance of explicit water molecules around the reacting center in the proton transfer steps.

  18. Design and mechanism of tetrahydrothiophene-based γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang V; Hawker, Dustin D; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-04-08

    Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GABA. We have designed a series of conformationally restricted tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA analogues with a properly positioned leaving group that could facilitate a ring-opening mechanism, leading to inactivation of GABA-AT. One compound in the series is 8 times more efficient an inactivator of GABA-AT than vigabatrin, the only FDA-approved inactivator of GABA-AT. Our mechanistic studies show that the compound inactivates GABA-AT by a new mechanism. The metabolite resulting from inactivation does not covalently bind to amino acid residues of GABA-AT but stays in the active site via H-bonding interactions with Arg-192, a π-π interaction with Phe-189, and a weak nonbonded S···O═C interaction with Glu-270, thereby inactivating the enzyme.

  19. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nguyen Thanh Thuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy and Nafion® modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA, respectively. The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2 (N = 10, respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C. The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L and reasonable recoveries (70%~107% were obtained.

  20. Molecular basis of ornithine aminotransferase deficiency in B-6-responsive and -nonresponsive forms of gyrate atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.; McClatchey, A.I.; Ramesh, N.; Benoit, L.A.; Berson, E.L.; Shih, V.E.; Gusella, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Gyrate atrophy (GA), a recessive eye disease involving progressive loss of vision due to chorioretinal degeneration, is associated with a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine aminotransferase with consequent hyperornithinemia. Genetic heterogeneity of GA has been suggested by the demonstration that administration of pyridoxine to increase the level of pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor of OATase, reduces hyperornithinemia in a subset of patients. The authors have cloned and sequences cDNAs for OATase from two GA patients, one responsive and one nonresponsive to pyridoxine treatment. The respective cDNAs contained different single missense mutations, which were sufficient to eliminate OATase activity when each cDNA was tested in a eukaryotic expression system. However, like the enzyme in fibroblasts from the pyridoxine-responsive patient, OATase encoded by the corresponding cDNA from this individual showed a significant increase in activity when assayed in the presence of an increased pyridoxal phosphate concentration. These data firmly establish that both pyridoxine responsive and nonresponsive forms of GA result from mutations in the OATase structural gene. Moreover, they provide a molecular characterization of the primary lesion in a pyridoxine-responsive genetic disorder

  1. Aspartate aminotransferase: the kinetic barriers facing the covalent intermediates on the reaction pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, J.F.; Julin, D.A.; McLeish, M.; Wiesinger, H.

    1986-01-01

    The intermediates, aldimine (A), quinonoid (Q) and ketimine (K), along the transaminase reaction coordinate were probed by isotope transfer and solvent exchange kinetics. Less than 0.003% of 3 H is transferred from C/sub α/[ 3 H]-aspartate to pyridoxamine phosphate in the cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase (cAATase) reaction implying either that Q does not exist as a kinetically competent intermediate or that there is a rapid exchange of isotope with solvent. The ratio of the rate constants for C/sub α/ hydrogen exchange vs keto acid product formation (k/sub exge//k/sub prod/) are 2.5 and 0.5 for the reactions of cAATase with C/sub α/ [ 2 H]-aspartate and mitochondrial (m) AATase with C/sub α/[ 2 H]-glutamate respectively. The latter reaction was also probed from the α-keto-glutarate side with carbonyl 0-18 enriched keto acid. This experiment gave k/sub exge//k/sub prod/ = 1.0 for oxygen-18 exchange in α-ketoglutarate versus amino acid formation. The two exchange experiments with mAATase are interpreted in terms of a model in which the rate constant for diffusion of water from the active site is comparable with those for product forming steps

  2. Endocannabinoid receptor blockade reduces alanine aminotransferase in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alison J; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Coady, Anne-Marie; Elshewehy, Abeer M M; Dakroury, Youssra; Ahmed, Lina; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-07-14

    Evidence suggests that endocannabinoid system activation through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is associated with enhanced liver injury, and CB1 antagonism may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of rimonabant (CB1 antagonist) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a hepatocellular injury marker, and a hepatic inflammatory cytokine profile. Post hoc review of 2 studies involving 50 obese women with PCOS and well matched for weight, randomised to weight reducing therapy; rimonabant (20 mg od) or orlistat (120 mg tds), or to insulin sensitising therapy metformin, (500 mg tds), or pioglitazone (45 mg od). No subject had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Treatment with rimonabant for 12 weeks reduced both ALT and weight (p weight. There was a significant reduction of weight with orlistat (p weight loss and hepatic inflammatory markers in obese women with PCOS without NAFLD. ISRCTN58369615 (February 2007; retrospectively registered) ISRCTN75758249 (October 2007; retrospectively registered).

  3. Design and Mechanism of Tetrahydrothiophene-Based γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inactivators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Hoang V. [Departments; Hawker, Dustin D. [Departments; Wu, Rui [Department; Doud, Emma [Departments; Widom, Julia [Departments; Sanishvili, Ruslan [X-ray; Liu, Dali [Department; Kelleher, Neil L. [Departments; Silverman, Richard B. [Departments

    2015-03-25

    Low levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, Huntingtons disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the bloodbrain barrier and inhibit the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GABA. We have designed a series of conformationally restricted tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA analogues with a properly positioned leaving group that could facilitate a ring-opening mechanism, leading to inactivation of GABA-AT. One compound in the series is 8 times more efficient an inactivator of GABA-AT than vigabatrin, the only FDA-approved inactivator of GABA-AT. Our mechanistic studies show that the compound inactivates GABA-AT by a new mechanism. The metabolite resulting from inactivation does not covalently bind to amino acid residues of GABA-AT but stays in the active site via H-bonding interactions with Arg-192, a pi-pi interaction with Phe-189, and a weak nonbonded (SO)-O-...=C interaction with Glu-270, thereby inactivating the enzyme.

  4. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women....../L (interquartile range: 22-41 IU/L) in men. Elevated ALT was found in 16% of incident T2DM patients. The risk of elevated ALT was increased in patients who were diabetes debut [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.33], in those with alcohol overuse (>14...

  5. Clinical significance of elevated serum aminotransferases levels in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, M.; Ditta, A.; Jafferi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is a common and important cause of chronic liver disease that often remains asymptomatic and most of the times discovered incidentally by routine serologic or biochemical testing. Aminotransferases (AST and ALT) reflect alterations in liver function/inflammation in liver diseases. The current study was conducted to examine the utilization and limitations of these biochemical markers in subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection. Aims and Objectives: To find out how many subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection have normal or elevated serum AST and ALT levels. Subjects and Methods: Study Design: Cross sectional. Study Duration: Seven months from November 2008 to July 2009. Study Universe: Services Hospital, Lahore. Study Population: This study included 413 subjects attending the outpatient departments of hospital with minor complaints. The random population of subjects was referred to the clinical laboratory of Services Hospital, Lahore for LFTs, HBsAg and anti-HCV screening from OPD department of the hospital. A total of 413 persons of all ages were analyzed during this study. There were 263 subjects who were sero - positive for anti-HCV (141 females, 122 males; median age 35 +- 11.34 years) and 150 in the control group (80 of them were females and 70 males with median age 32 +- 12.97 years) were sero-negative for both HBsAg and anti - HCV. Subjects Selection Criteria: In this study, only anti - HCV sero - positive subjects were included who was sero - negative for HBsAg or dual infection (both HBsAg and anti - HCV) and not on anti - viral therapy. Control group was sero - negative for both - HBsAg and anti - HCV antibodies. Data Collection: We assayed levels of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and screened blood for HBsAg and anti-HCV. ELISA technique was used for viral hepatitis markers. Results: Out of 263 subjects tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies in their blood, 90.76 % and 87.45 % had elevated AST and ALT levels (ALT = 40 U

  6. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  7. Expression and Bioinformatic Analysis of Ornithine Aminotransferase 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfei ZHOU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that ornithine aminotransferase (OAT might play an important role in the oncogenesis and progression of numerous malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to detect the mRNA and protein expression of OAT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, as well as to analyze the bioinformatic features and binary interactions. Methods OAT mRNA expression was detected in A549 and 16HBE cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. OAT protein expression was determined in 55 cases of NSCLC and 17 cases of adjacent non-tumor lung tissues by immunohistochemical staining. The bioinformatic features and binary interactions of OAT were analyzed. Gene ontology annotation and signal pathway analysis were performed. Results OAT mRNA expression in A549 cells was 2.85-fold lower than that in 16HBE cells. OAT protein expression was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than that in adjacent non-tumor lung tissues. A significant difference of OAT protein expression was existed between squamous cell lung cancer and adenocarcinoma (P<0.05, but was not correlated with the gender, age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and TNM stages. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that OAT was a highly homologous and stable protein located in the mitochondria. An aminotran-3 domain and several sites of phosphorylation, which may function in signal transduction, gene transcription, and molecular transit, were found. In the 54 selected binary interactions of OAT, TNF and TRAF6 play roles in the NF-κB pathway. Conclusion OAT may play an important role in the oncogenesis and progression of NSCLC. Thus, OAT may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLC or a new target for its treatment.

  8. High serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang Mo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup. Subjects were categorized as adenoma-free, hyperplastic polyp, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. High-risk adenoma was defined as three or more adenomas, any adenoma ≥ 10 mm, or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia or villous features. Among all participants, 10.3% and 1.5% of cases were categorized as low-risk and high-risk adenoma, respectively. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol intake, regular exercise, aspirin and analgesics use, family history of colon cancer, education level, fatty liver, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, an increase in ALT was positively associated with the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk adenoma (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.027, respectively). The highest quartile group of ALT level showed a significantly increased prevalence in low-risk (odds ratio, 1.17) and high-risk adenoma (odds ratio, 1.48) groups compared with the lowest quartile group. This phenomenon persisted in the subgroup analysis in men, but not in women. In the asymptomatic healthy population, high serum ALT is significantly associated with the risk of CRA. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  10. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  11. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Renwick C J; Girón, Irma; Hudson, André O

    2011-01-01

    In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) (E.C. 2.6.1.83) is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA) to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP), in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL). The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  12. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick C J Dobson

    Full Text Available In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL (E.C. 2.6.1.83 is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP, in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL. The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  13. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae.

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    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  14. Allele-specific characterization of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with primary hyperoxaluria.

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    Melissa D Lage

    Full Text Available Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1 is a rare autosomal recessive kidney stone disease caused by deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, which is involved in glyoxylate detoxification. Over 75 different missense mutations in AGT have been found associated with PH1. While some of the mutations have been found to affect enzyme activity, stability, and/or localization, approximately half of these mutations are completely uncharacterized. In this study, we sought to systematically characterize AGT missense mutations associated with PH1. To facilitate analysis, we used two high-throughput yeast-based assays: one that assesses AGT specific activity, and one that assesses protein stability. Approximately 30% of PH1-associated missense mutations are found in conjunction with a minor allele polymorphic variant, which can interact to elicit complex effects on protein stability and trafficking. To better understand this allele interaction, we functionally characterized each of 34 mutants on both the major (wild-type and minor allele backgrounds, identifying mutations that synergize with the minor allele. We classify these mutants into four distinct categories depending on activity/stability results in the different alleles. Twelve mutants were found to display reduced activity in combination with the minor allele, compared with the major allele background. When mapped on the AGT dimer structure, these mutants reveal localized regions of the protein that appear particularly sensitive to interactions with the minor allele variant. While the majority of the deleterious effects on activity in the minor allele can be attributed to synergistic interaction affecting protein stability, we identify one mutation, E274D, that appears to specifically affect activity when in combination with the minor allele.

  15. Tyrosine Aminotransferase Contributes to Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and l-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent Km values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of l-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  16. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-08-24

    Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443-2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221-3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063-2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146-2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults.

  17. Hb and dyslipidaemia as predicting markers of serum alanine aminotransferase elevation in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Owaga, Eddy; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Tzu-chieh; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su

    2016-04-01

    Fe is an essential element for erythropoiesis and Hb synthesis. High Hb levels affect the blood's viscosity and are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of Hb and cardiometabolic abnormalities with the risk of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional study. National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010-2011, adolescents). Healthy adolescents aged 13-18 years. In total, 1941 adolescents (963 boys and 978 girls) were entered in the study. The mean age was 15·3 (sd 0·1) years (boys, 15·3 (sd 0·1) years; girls, 15·2 (sd 0·1) years). ALT tertile cut-off points for boys were 11 and 16 U/l, and for girls were 9 and 12 U/l. Girls without dyslipidaemia and presenting in the highest quartile (Q1) of Hb (>13·6 g/dl) were 1·89 and 3·76 times more likely to have raised serum ALT (9 and >12 U/l, respectively) than the reference (lowest quartile of Hb (Q1), 12 U/l) than the reference (Q1 of Hb, 15·4 g/dl), who were 7·40 times more likely to have elevated serum ALT of >16 U/l than the reference (Q1 of Hb, Hb level is a predictor of elevated serum ALT in adolescent girls with dyslipidaemia. Our study also highlights the importance of further research to establish cut-off points for Hb and its utility in diagnosing and preventing the onset of dyslipidaemia in adolescents.

  18. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT: genetic and pharmacological evidence for an involvement in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

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    Johan Jirholt

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is partly caused by genetic factors. The underlying susceptibility genes are currently unknown, with the exception of COL3A1. We used three independent GERD patient cohorts to identify GERD susceptibility genes. Thirty-six families, demonstrating dominant transmission of GERD were subjected to whole genome microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. Five linked regions were identified. Two families shared a linked region (LOD 3.9 and 2.0 on chromosome 16. We used two additional independent GERD patient cohorts, one consisting of 219 trios (affected child with parents and the other an adult GERD case control cohort consisting of 256 cases and 485 controls, to validate individual genes in the linked region through association analysis. Sixty six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers distributed over the nine genes present in the linked region were genotyped in the independent GERD trio cohort. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis followed by multiple testing adjustments revealed a significant genetic association for one SNP located in an intron of the gene 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT (P(adj = 0.027. This association did not replicate in the adult case-control cohort, possibly due to the differences in ethnicity between the cohorts. Finally, using the selective ABAT inhibitor vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA in a dog study, we were able to show a reduction of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs by 57.3 ± 11.4 % (p = 0.007 and the reflux events from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007. Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of ABAT in pathways affecting lower esophageal sphincter (LES control and identifies ABAT as a genetic risk factor for GERD.

  19. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT): genetic and pharmacological evidence for an involvement in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirholt, Johan; Asling, Bengt; Hammond, Paul; Davidson, Geoffrey; Knutsson, Mikael; Walentinsson, Anna; Jensen, Jörgen M; Lehmann, Anders; Agreus, Lars; Lagerström-Fermer, Maria

    2011-04-28

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is partly caused by genetic factors. The underlying susceptibility genes are currently unknown, with the exception of COL3A1. We used three independent GERD patient cohorts to identify GERD susceptibility genes. Thirty-six families, demonstrating dominant transmission of GERD were subjected to whole genome microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. Five linked regions were identified. Two families shared a linked region (LOD 3.9 and 2.0) on chromosome 16. We used two additional independent GERD patient cohorts, one consisting of 219 trios (affected child with parents) and the other an adult GERD case control cohort consisting of 256 cases and 485 controls, to validate individual genes in the linked region through association analysis. Sixty six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed over the nine genes present in the linked region were genotyped in the independent GERD trio cohort. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis followed by multiple testing adjustments revealed a significant genetic association for one SNP located in an intron of the gene 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) (P(adj) = 0.027). This association did not replicate in the adult case-control cohort, possibly due to the differences in ethnicity between the cohorts. Finally, using the selective ABAT inhibitor vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA) in a dog study, we were able to show a reduction of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by 57.3 ± 11.4 % (p = 0.007) and the reflux events from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007). Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of ABAT in pathways affecting lower esophageal sphincter (LES) control and identifies ABAT as a genetic risk factor for GERD.

  20. High Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Plasma Aminotransferase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Sanchez, Paola; Bril, Fernando; Maximos, Maryann; Lomonaco, Romina; Biernacki, Diane; Orsak, Beverly; Subbarayan, Sreevidya; Webb, Amy; Hecht, Joan; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, they are usually believed to largely affect those with elevated aminotransferases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NAFLD by the gold standard, liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases, and to characterize their metabolic profile. We recruited 103 patients with T2DM and normal plasma aminotransferases (age, 60 ± 8 y; body mass index [BMI], 33 ± 5 kg/m(2); glycated hemoglobin [A1c], 7.6 ± 1.3%). We measured the following: 1) liver triglyceride content by (1)H-MRS; 2) systemic insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance); and 3) adipose tissue insulin resistance, both fasting (as the adipose tissue insulin resistance index: fasting plasma free fatty acids [FFA] × insulin) and during an oral glucose tolerance test (as the suppression of FFA). The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH were much higher than expected (50% and 56% of NAFLD patients, respectively). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in obese compared with nonobese patients as well as with increasing BMI (P = .001 for trend). Higher plasma A1c was associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD and worse liver triglyceride accumulation (P = .01). Compared with nonobese patients without NAFLD, patients with NAFLD had severe systemic (liver/muscle) and, particularly, adipose tissue (fasting/postprandial) insulin resistance (all P < .01). The prevalence of NAFLD is much higher than previously believed in overweight/obese patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases. Moreover, many are at increased risk of NASH. Physicians should have a lower threshold for screening patients with T2DM for NAFLD/NASH.

  1. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

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    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  2. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

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    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2015-12-01

    3 Chair of Vascular and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland     Corresponding author: Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska, PT, PhD Chair of Clinical Neuropsychology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 9 Street, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland E-mail address: m_hagner-derengowska@wp.pl     ABSTRACT Background & Aims: Elevation of alanine (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities may appear as liver injury due to fat storage and other enzyme sources, such as rhabdomyolysis. Elevated ALT is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population. The aims of this study was to determine the effect of a 10-weeks training program on the serum activity of these enzymes in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity. Methods: The study comprised 81 postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity: 34 (42% of whom completed a 10-weeks Nordic Walking (NW rehabilitation program, 27 (33% of whom completed a Pilates rehabilitation program, and 20 (25% of whom were the control group. Blood for testing for ALT, AST, and other parameters of metabolic syndrome was collected before the program commenced and after it finished. Results: Elevated (> 34 U/l ALT and AST activities presented in 9 (11% and 7 (9% of the patients, respectively. A reduction in ALT and AST activities was observed in 43 (53% of the subjects, and in 61%, 59% and 40%, and 47%, 63% and 50% of the individuals who completed the NW and Pilates programs and were in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The outcome of the training programs on aminotransferase serum activities in postmenopausal women with overweight and obesity was individually different and not related to exercise type.   Keywords: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, obesity, Nordic Walking, Pilates.

  3. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil) on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Taketa, Kazuhisa; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yonesuke; Asahi, Toshihiko; Okimune, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relativel...

  4. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase product to predict hepatotoxicity in paracetamol overdose treated with a 2-bag acetylcysteine regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Gunja, Naren; McNulty, Richard; Graudins, Andis

    2018-03-01

    Paracetamol concentration is a highly accurate risk predictor for hepatotoxicity following overdose with known time of ingestion. However, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product can be used as a risk predictor independent of timing or ingestion type. Validated in patients treated with the traditional, "three-bag" intravenous acetylcysteine regimen, we evaluated the accuracy of the multiplication product in paracetamol overdose treated with a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen. We examined consecutive patients treated with the two-bag regimen from five emergency departments over a two-year period. We assessed the predictive accuracy of initial multiplication product for the primary outcome of hepatotoxicity (peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000IU/L), as well as for acute liver injury (ALI), defined peak alanine aminotransferase ≥2× baseline and above 50IU/L). Of 447 paracetamol overdoses treated with the two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, 32 (7%) developed hepatotoxicity and 73 (16%) ALI. The pre-specified cut-off points of 1500 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 82%, 100%], specificity 62% [56%, 67%]) and 10,000 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 70% [47%, 87%], specificity of 97% [95%, 99%]) were highly accurate for predicting hepatotoxicity. There were few cases of hepatotoxicity irrespective of the product when acetylcysteine was administered within eight hours of overdose, when the product was largely determined by a high paracetamol concentration but normal aminotransferase. The multiplication product accurately predicts hepatotoxicity when using a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, especially in patients treated more than eight hours post-overdose. Further studies are needed to assess the product as a method to adjust for exposure severity when testing efficacy of modified acetylcysteine regimens.

  5. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  6. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

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    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  7. Effect of Phenanthrene on the Tissue Structure of Liver and Aminotransferase Enzymes in Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagrus latus

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    Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs such as phenanthrene (Phe represent one of the most abundant forms of organic pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma levels of aminotransferase enzymes, total protein and liver tissue as biomarkers of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus exposed to Phe for 14 d. Methods: The research was carried out in January 2016 at Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran. Some 72 fish were injected with 2, 20, 40 and 70 mg/kg of Phe. Then tissue and blood samples were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 14 d after injection. Results: Exposure of fish to Phe resulted in a significant increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and decrease of total protein after 7 d of the experiment (P<0.05. The main histopathological alteration was showed in different sampling days including nucleus margination, hypertrophy, vacuolation, melanomacrophages aggregates, sinusoid dilation, degeneration and picnotic nucleus. Degree of tissue change (DTC of liver was recorded in the Phe-exposed fish from normal range to moderate changes. Conclusion: The studied biomarkers such as changes in concentrations of ALT, AST and total protein as well as tissue damages in liver may be served as beneficial biomarker to assess Phe toxicity in yellowfin seabream.

  8. Fibrosis index based on four factors better predicts advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis than aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index in chronic hepatitis C patients

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    Chia-Chi Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: FIB-4 could predict hepatic fibrosis in CHC patients. By adding two parameters (age and alanine aminotransferase, FIB-4 better predicts advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis than APRI in CHC patients.

  9. Early changes in GABA and dlutamine levels and aminotransferase activity in rat brain after total-body γ-irradiation with absolutely lethal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Karpovich, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of gaama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GL) as well as GABA-aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured in rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex and truncus cerebri 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr following total-body γ-irradiation ( 60 Co) with a dose of 30 Gy. All the indices under study changed in a similar way in the cortex and truncus cerebri while in the cerebellum, GABA level increased and GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransfearse activity decreased 60 min after irradiation. The levels of GABA and GL in the cortex and truncus cerebri decreased immediately and increased 24 hr after irradiation. Activity of aminotransferases changed in a phase manner: changes in aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activity were more pronounced than those of GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity and correlated with the glutamate level changes

  10. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in modified-release paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Graudins, Andis

    2017-06-01

    The paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product (APAP × ALT) is a risk predictor of hepatotoxicity that is somewhat independent of time and type of ingestion. However, its accuracy following ingestion of modified-release formulations is not known, as the product has been derived and validated after immediate-release paracetamol overdoses. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multiplication product to predict hepatotoxicity in a cohort of patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose. We assessed all patients with modified-release paracetamol overdose presenting to our hospital network from October 2009 to July 2016. Ingestion of a modified-release formulation was identified by patient self-report or retrieval of the original container. Hepatotoxicity was defined as peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000 IU/L, and acute liver injury (ALI) as a doubling of baseline ALT to more than 50 IU/L. Of 1989 paracetamol overdose presentations, we identified 73 modified-release paracetamol exposures treated with acetylcysteine. Five patients developed hepatotoxicity, including one who received acetylcysteine within eight hours of an acute ingestion. No patient with an initial multiplication product paracetamol overdose treated with acetylcysteine, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product demonstrated similar accuracy and temporal profile to previous reports involving mostly immediate-release formulations. Above a cut-point of 10,000 mg/L × IU/L, it was very strongly associated with the development of acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity, especially when calculated more than eight hours post-ingestion. When below 1500 mg/L × IU/L the likelihood of developing hepatotoxicity was very low. Persistently high serial multiplication product calculations were associated with the greatest risk of hepatotoxicity.

  11. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

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    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  12. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purification and characterization of an aminotransferase (AT) specific for the degradation of branched-chain amino acids from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHCC 2115. Methods and Results: The purification protocol consisted of anion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography...... of other metal ions, thiol- and carbonyl-binding agents. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was SVNIDWNNLGFDYMQLPYRYVAHXKDGVXD, and had at the amino acid level, 60 and 53% identity to a branched-chain amino acid AT of Lact. plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. Conclusions: The results suggest...

  13. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24?28?weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ?7.8?mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels wit...

  14. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska; Krystian Kałużny; Jacek Budzyński

    2015-01-01

    Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Kałużny Krystian, Budzyński Jacek. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):563-580. eISSN 2391-8306. DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44249 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A563-580 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/687148 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X...

  15. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Kałużny Krystian, Budzyński Jacek. Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates training programs on aminotransferase activity in overweight and obese elderly women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):563-580. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44248 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A563-580 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/687148 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665...

  16. Role of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase in catabolism of lysine as a nitrogen source for Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, J J; Winston, M K; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1983-01-01

    Wild-type and saccharopine dehydrogenaseless mutant strains of Rhodotorula glutinis grew in minimal medium containing lysine as the sole nitrogen source and simultaneously accumulated, in the culture supernatant, large amounts of a product identified as alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. The saccharopine dehydrogenase and pipecolic acid oxidase levels remained unchanged in wild-type cells grown in the presence of ammonium or lysine as the nitrogen source. Lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity was demonstrated in ammonium-grown cells. This activity was depressed in cells grown in the presence of lysine as the sole source of nitrogen. PMID:6408065

  17. Effect of X-irradiation on the alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver, kidney and spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungowska-Klin, B; Lozinska, M; Wojtaszek, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT and GPT) activities and the protein content were measured in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of mice exposed to a single whole body X-irradiation with a 900 R dose. The assays were performed in 6 h intervals during the first day and 24 h intervals from the 2nd until the 6th day after the exposure. Significant differences in the enzymatic activity were found in the course of 24 h in control animals and a marked increase of this activity was found after irradiation. This may be explained by changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane for enzyme molecules.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, André O.; Girón, Irma; Dobson, Renwick C. J.

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate/lysine pathway has recently been defined following the discovery of the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL). The cloning of the cDNA, recombinant expression, purification and preliminary diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga C. reinhardtii are presented. In the anabolic synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine in plants and in some bacteria, the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL; EC 2.6.1.83) catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDPA) to l,l-diaminopimelate, bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic steps in the bacterial acyl pathways. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions containing 25%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 200 mM lithium sulfate and initially diffracted to ∼1.35 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 91.8, c = 162.9 Å. The data were processed to 1.55 Å resolution with an R merge of 0.081, an R p.i.m. of 0.044, an R r.i.m of 0.093 and a V M of 2.28 Å 3 Da −1

  19. An ll-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase Defines a Novel Variant of the Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway in Plants1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O.; Singh, Bijay K.; Leustek, Thomas; Gilvarg, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Although lysine (Lys) biosynthesis in plants is known to occur by way of a pathway that utilizes diaminopimelic acid (DAP) as a central intermediate, the available evidence suggests that none of the known DAP-pathway variants found in nature occur in plants. A new Lys biosynthesis pathway has been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that utilizes a novel transaminase that specifically catalyzes the interconversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate and ll-diaminopimelate, a reaction requiring three enzymes in the DAP-pathway variant found in Escherichia coli. The ll-DAP aminotransferase encoded by locus At4g33680 was able to complement the dapD and dapE mutants of E. coli. This result, in conjunction with the kinetic properties and substrate specificity of the enzyme, indicated that ll-DAP aminotransferase functions in the Lys biosynthetic direction under in vivo conditions. Orthologs of At4g33680 were identified in all the cyanobacterial species whose genomes have been sequenced. The Synechocystis sp. ortholog encoded by locus sll0480 showed the same functional properties as At4g33680. These results demonstrate that the Lys biosynthesis pathway in plants and cyanobacteria is distinct from the pathways that have so far been defined in microorganisms. PMID:16361515

  20. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l -1 ), Pb (350-700 μg·l -1 ) and Cu (10-20 μg·l -1 ) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l -1 , 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l -1 , 5 days) were observed significant differences (P -1 . A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Enzyme characteristics of aminotransferase FumI of Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Doris; Schwartz, Heidi; Hametner, Christian; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Haltrich, Dietmar; Moll, Wulf-Dieter

    2011-08-01

    Fumonisins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that are frequently found as natural contaminants in maize from warm climate regions around the world. The aminotransferase FumI is encoded as part of a gene cluster of Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144, which enables this bacterial strain to degrade fumonisin B(1) and related fumonisins. FumI catalyzes the deamination of the first intermediate of the catabolic pathway, hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1). We used a preparation of purified, His-tagged FumI, produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli in soluble form, for enzyme characterization. The structure of the reaction product was studied by NMR and identified as 2-keto hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1). Pyruvate was found to be the preferred co-substrate and amino group receptor (K (M) = 490 μM at 10 μM hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1)) of FumI, but other α-keto acids were also accepted as co-substrates. Addition of the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate to the enzyme preparation enhanced activity, and saturation was already reached at the lowest tested concentration of 10 μM. The enzyme showed activity in the range of pH 6 to 10 with an optimum at pH 8.5, and in the range of 6°C to 50°C with an optimum at 35°C. The aminotransferase worked best at low salt concentration. FumI activity could be recovered after preincubation at pH 4.0 or higher, but not lower. The aminotransferase was denatured after preincubation at 60°C for 1 h, and the residual activity was also reduced after preincubation at lower temperatures. At optimum conditions, the kinetic parameters K (M) = 1.1 μM and k (cat) = 104/min were determined with 5 mM pyruvate as co-substrate. Based on the enzyme characteristics, a technological application of FumI, in combination with the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD for hydrolysis of fumonisins, for deamination and detoxification of hydrolyzed fumonisins seems possible, if the enzyme properties are considered.

  2. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Perioperative Liver-Related Complications Following Liver Resection for Colorectal Cancer Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amptoulach, S.; Gross, G.; Sturesson, C.

    2017-01-01

    -related). In multivariate regression analysis, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was independently associated with liver-related complications (odds ratio: 1.149, p = 0.003) and perioperative liver failure (odds ratio: 1.155, p = 0.012). The latter was also true in the subcohort of patients......Background and Aims: There are limited data on the potential role of preoperative non-invasive markers, specifically the aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, in predicting perioperative liver-related complications after hepatectomy...... collected from medical records. The nontumorous liver parenchyma in the surgical specimens of 31 patients was re-evaluated. Results: Overall, 215 patients were included. In total, 40% underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 47% major resection, while 47% had perioperative complications (6% liver...

  3. Aminotransferase elevation in HIV/hepatitis B virus co-infected patients treated with two active hepatitis B virus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Parekh, Nimisha K; Hester, Jill; Lee, William M

    2006-12-01

    Discerning drug hepatotoxicity from viral hepatitis flares remains an ongoing problem unique to patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV). We present three such coinfected patients who have been on two anti-HBV agents, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate simultaneously, as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). All three developed significant aminotransferase elevations 6-12 weeks after initiation of HAART despite being on two active HBV drugs. Two of the three patients were initially thought to have drug-related hepatotoxicity from HIV medications. It seems more likely that all three patients demonstrated hepatitis B reactivation of differing severity as the result of varying degrees of immune recovery. Distinguishing clearly between drug-related hepatotoxicity and hepatitis reactivation may be difficult but is important as their clinical management differs.

  4. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and α-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Identification of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases active towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine among PLP fold type IV transaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsudnova, Ekaterina Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Nikolaeva, Alena Yu; Rakitina, Tatiana V; Popov, Vladimir O

    2018-04-10

    New class IV transaminases with activity towards L-Leu, which is typical of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCAT), and with activity towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine ((R)-PEA), which is typical of (R)-selective (R)-amine:pyruvate transaminases, were identified by bioinformatics analysis, obtained in recombinant form, and analyzed. The values of catalytic activities in the reaction with L-Leu and (R)-PEA are comparable to those measured for characteristic transaminases with the corresponding specificity. Earlier, (R)-selective class IV transaminases were found to be active, apart from (R)-PEA, only with some other (R)-primary amines and D-amino acids. Sequences encoding new transaminases with mixed type of activity were found by searching for changes in the conserved motifs of sequences of BCAT by different bioinformatics tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycobacterium Lysine ε-aminotransferase is a novel alarmone metabolism related persister gene via dysregulating the intracellular amino acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiangke; Li, Yunsong; Du, Qinglin; Huang, Qinqin; Guo, Siyao; Xu, Mengmeng; Lin, Yanping; Liu, Zhidong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-25

    Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant upregulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3290c, a highly conserved mycobacterial lysine ε-aminotransferase (LAT) during hypoxia persistent model, suggested a role of LAT in persistence. To test this, a lat deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The expression of transcriptional regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (LrpA) and the amino acids abundance in M. smegmatis lat deletion mutants were lowered. Thus, the persistence capacity of the deletion mutant was impaired upon norfloxacin exposure under nutrient starvation. In summary, our study firstly reported the involvement of mycobacterium LAT in persister formation, and possibly through altering the intracellular amino acid metabolism balance.

  7. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... in rich medium and growth in defined medium supplemented with 2-methylpropanoic acid lead to extensive alteration of the fatty acid composition in the cell membrane. In rich medium, a change from 51.7% to 17.1% anteiso-C15:0, and from 3.6% to 33.9% iso-C14:0 fatty acids as compared to the wild-type strain...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  8. Enhancement of solubility in Escherichia coli and purification of an aminotransferase from Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartinger Doris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisin B1 is a cancerogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other fungi. Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 can degrade fumonisin B1, and a key enzyme in the catabolic pathway is an aminotransferase which removes the C2-amino group from hydrolyzed fumonisin B1. In order to study this aminotransferase with respect to a possible future application in enzymatic fumonisin detoxification, we attempted expression of the corresponding fumI gene in E. coli and purification of the enzyme. Since the aminotransferase initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, we compared the effects of induction level, host strain, expression temperature, solubility enhancers and a fusion partner on enzyme solubility and activity. Results When expressed from a T7 promoter at 30°C, the aminotransferase accumulated invariably in inclusion bodies in DE3 lysogens of the E. coli strains BL21, HMS174, Rosetta 2, Origami 2, or Rosetta-gami. Omission of the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction caused a reduction of expression level, but no enhancement of solubility. Likewise, protein production but not solubility correlated with the IPTG concentration in E. coli Tuner(DE3. Addition of the solubility enhancers betaine and sorbitol or the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate showed no effect. Maltose-binding protein, used as an N-terminal fusion partner, promoted solubility at 30°C or less, but not at 37°C. Low enzyme activity and subsequent aggregation in the course of purification and cleavage indicated that the soluble fusion protein contained incorrectly folded aminotransferase. Expression in E. coli ArcticExpress(DE3, which co-expresses two cold-adapted chaperonins, at 11°C finally resulted in production of appreciable amounts of active enzyme. Since His tag-mediated affinity purification from this strain was hindered by co-elution of chaperonin, two steps of chromatography with optimized imidazole concentration in the

  9. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  10. Association of kynurenine aminotransferase II gene C401T polymorphism with immune response in patients with meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leib Stephen L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kynurenine (KYN pathway has been shown to be altered in several diseases which compromise the central nervous system (CNS including infectious diseases such as bacterial meningitis (BM. The aim of this study was to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four genes of KYN pathway in patients with meningitis and their correlation with markers of immune response in BM. Methods One hundred and one individuals were enrolled in this study to investigate SNPs in the following genes: indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1 gene, kynureninase (KYNU gene, kynurenine aminotransferase I (CCBL1 gene, and kynurenine aminotransferase II (AADAT gene. SNP analyses were performed by primer-introduced restriction analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR followed by RFLP. Cytokines were measured using multiplex bead assay while immunoglobulins (IG by immunodiffusion plates and NF-kappaB and c-Jun by dot blot assay. Results The variant allele of SNP AADAT+401C/T showed prevalent frequency in patients with BM. A significant decrease (p AADAT+401C/T. Furthermore, a significant (p p KYNU+715G/A was found with low frequency in the groups, and the SNPs in IDO1+434T/G, KYNU+693G/A, CCBL1+164T/C, and AADAT+650C/T had no frequency in this population. Conclusions This study is the first report of an association of SNP AADAT+401C/T with the host immune response to BM, suggesting that this SNP may affect the host ability in recruitment of leukocytes to the infection site. This finding may contribute to identifying potential targets for pharmacological intervention as adjuvant therapy for BM.

  11. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  12. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target...

  13. Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum aminotransferases in the general Korean population and in those at high risk for hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Man Woo; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The favourable effects of coffee on liver enzymes have been reported worldwide. This study investigated the association between coffee consumption and serum aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults. Data were obtained from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration were defined as >30 IU/L for men and >19 IU/L for women. The risk of elevated ALT and AST according to general characteristics and frequency of coffee consumption were tested by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of elevated ALT was 27.4%, 27.8%, and 26.9% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The proportions of individuals with elevated AST were 32.5%, 33.1%, and 26.7% in subjects who drank =2 times/day, respectively. The aORs for elevated ALT and AST were significantly lower in subjects who drank >=2 times of coffee/day than in those who drank =2 times/day was associated with lower ORs for elevated ALT in the high-risk group overall and in the viral hepatitis and obesity subgroups, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, reduced frequency of coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk for elevated liver enzymes, although an association between coffee consumption and elevated ALT was not observed in women or current smokers. Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of elevated aminotransferase concentration in Korean adults.

  14. Serum aminotransferases in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are a signature of liver metabolic perturbations at the amino acid and Krebs cycle level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Castaño, Gustavo O; Scian, Romina; Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Dopazo, Hernán; Rohr, Cristian; Gaj, Graciela; San Martino, Julio; Sevic, Ina; Flichman, Diego; Pirola, Carlos J

    2016-02-01

    Extensive epidemiologic studies have shown that cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with serum concentrations of liver enzymes; however, fundamental characteristics of this relation are currently unknown. We aimed to explore the role of liver aminotransferases in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and MetS. Liver gene- and protein-expression changes of aminotransferases, including their corresponding isoforms, were evaluated in a case-control study of patients with NAFLD (n = 42), which was proven through a biopsy (control subjects: n = 10). We also carried out a serum targeted metabolite profiling to the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and Krebs cycle (n = 48) and an exploration by the next-generation sequencing of aminotransferase genes (n = 96). An in vitro study to provide a biological explanation of changes in the transcriptional level and enzymatic activity of aminotransferases was included. Fatty liver was associated with a deregulated liver expression of aminotransferases, which was unrelated to the disease severity. Metabolite profiling showed that serum aminotransferase concentrations are a signature of liver metabolic perturbations, particularly at the amino acid metabolism and Krebs cycle level. A significant and positive association between systolic hypertension and liver expression levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2) messenger RNA (Spearman R = 0.42, P = 0.03) was observed. The rs6993 located in the 3' untranslated region of the GOT2 locus was significantly associated with features of the MetS, including arterial hypertension [P = 0.028; OR: 2.285 (95% CI: 1.024, 5.09); adjusted by NAFLD severity] and plasma lipid concentrations. In the context of an abnormal hepatic triglyceride accumulation, circulating aminotransferases rise as a consequence of the need for increased reactions of transamination to cope with the liver metabolic derangement that is associated with greater gluconeogenesis and

  15. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  16. Kynurenine aminotransferase in the supratentorial dura mater of the rat: effect of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth; Chadaide, Zoltán; Okuno, Etsuo; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Toldi, József; Varga, Csaba; Molnár, Andor; Csillik, Bert; Vécsei, László

    2004-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion has been widely used as a model of nociception, characterizing migraine. This treatment is known to evoke release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from nerve fibers of the dura mater. On the basis of immunocytochemical investigations, we found that under normal conditions, surface membranes of Schwann cells surrounding nerve fibers in the supratentorial dura mater display kynurenine aminotransferase-immunoreaction (KAT-IR); also KAT-IR are the granules of mast cells and the cytoplasms of macrophages (histiocytes). In consequence of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, Schwann cells in the dura mater became conspicuously swollen while their KAT-IR decreased considerably; also KAT-IR of mast cells and macrophages decreased significantly. At the same time, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-IR of nerve fibers in the dura mater increased, suggesting release of nitric oxide (NO), this is known to be involved in NMDA receptor activation leading to vasodilation followed by neurogenic inflammation. Because kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that KYNA and its synthesizing enzyme, KAT, may play a role in the prevention of migraine attacks.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O; Girón, Irma; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2011-01-01

    In the anabolic synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine in plants and in some bacteria, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL; EC 2.6.1.83) catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDPA) to L,L-diaminopimelate, bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic steps in the bacterial acyl pathways. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions containing 25% (w/v) PEG 3350 and 200 mM lithium sulfate and initially diffracted to ∼1.35 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=58.9, b=91.8, c=162.9 Å. The data were processed to 1.55 Å resolution with an Rmerge of 0.081, an Rp.i.m. of 0.044, an Rr.i.m of 0.093 and a VM of 2.28 Å3 Da(-1).

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risks of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase in Hispanics: a population-based study.

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    Jen-Jung Pan

    Full Text Available Study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and risk factors for and association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic injury in a large Hispanic health disparity cohort with high rates of obesity.Analysis of data from a prospective cross-sectional population based study. From 2004-7, we randomly recruited 2000 community participants to the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort collecting extensive socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data. We excluded 153 subjects due to critical missing data. Pearson chi-square tests and Student's t-tests were used for categorical and continuous variable analysis, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for elevated ALT.The mean age of the cohort was 45 years and 67% were females. The majority of the cohort was either overweight (32.4% or obese (50.7%. Almost half (43.7% had MS and nearly one-third diabetes. Elevated ALT level was more prevalent in males than females. Obesity was a strong risk for abnormal ALT in both genders. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and young age were risks for elevated ALT in males only, whereas increased fasting plasma glucose was associated with elevated ALT in females only.We identified high prevalence of MS and markers of liver injury in this large Mexican American cohort with gender differences in prevalence and risk factors, with younger males at greatest risk.

  19. Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT): recombination between an X-linked OAT sequence (7.5 kb) and the Norrie disease locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, J T; Bateman, J B; Spence, M A; Cortessis, V; Sparkes, R S; Kivlin, J D; Mohandas, T; Inana, G

    1990-01-01

    A human ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) locus has been mapped to the Xp11.2, as has the Norrie disease locus. We used a cDNA probe to investigate a 3-generation UCLA family with Norrie disease; a 4.2-kb RFLP was detected and a maximum lod score of 0.602 at zero recombination fraction was calculated. We used the same probe to study a second multigeneration family with Norrie disease from Utah. A different RFLP of 7.5 kb in size was identified and a recombinational event between the OAT locus represented by this RFLP and the disease loci was observed. Linkage analysis of these two loci in this family revealed a maximum load score of 1.88 at a recombination fraction of 0.10. Although both families have affected members with the same disease, the lod scores are reported separately because the 4.2- and 7.5-kb RFLPs may represent two different loci for the X-linked OAT.

  20. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

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    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  1. Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the effects of mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppici, Elisa; Montioli, Riccardo; Cellini, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) (EC 2.6.1.44) catalyses the conversion of l-alanine and glyoxylate to pyruvate and glycine, a reaction that allows glyoxylate detoxification. Inherited mutations on the AGXT gene encoding AGT lead to Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1), a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals primarily in the urinary tract. Here we describe the results obtained on the biochemical features of AGT as well as on the molecular and cellular effects of polymorphic and pathogenic mutations. A complex scenario on the molecular pathogenesis of PH1 emerges in which the co-inheritance of polymorphic changes and the condition of homozygosis or compound heterozygosis are two important factors that determine the enzymatic phenotype of PH1 patients. All the reported data represent relevant steps toward the understanding of genotype/phenotype correlations, the prediction of the response of the patients to the available therapies, and the development of new therapeutic approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

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    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2 and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1 play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01 from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita.

  3. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen

    Objectives: Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) have been linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We examined ALAT levels in newly diagnosed T2D...... quartile (>32IU/L / >41IU/L for women/men). As compared to people with ALAT values in the lowest quartile, those with high ALAT were younger (median age 57 vs. 64 years, pobese (median BMI 31.2 vs. 29.1 kg/m2, p=0.004), and had a larger waist circumference (111 vs. 101 cm, p....0001) and higher median CRP levels (2.8 vs. 1.8 mg/L, p=0.0147). They also had substantially poorer glucose control (HbA1c 7.40 vs. 6.90%, p=0.084; fasting blood glucose 7.56 vs. 6.86 mmol/L, pvs. 4.15 mmol/L, p=0.006), whereas blood pressure was similar...

  4. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  5. Effects of x-rays or aseptic inflammatory reaction on the circadian rythm of tyrosine aminotransferase in mouse liver (TAT activity of mouse liver)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungowska-Klin, B.

    1979-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) was investigated during 48 hours in the liver of mice subjected to: a/ subcutaneous inflammatory reaction, b/ ionizing radiation. The cyclic changes in the circadian enzyme activity were described with a harmonic function. In relation to the control mice in the experimental mice statistically significant changes were demonstrated in the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase associated with desynchronization of the circadian TAT rhythm, particularly evident in the first hours of the first day of the experiment. The functions of enzyme activity changed in the second 24-hours period showed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, a tendency for a gradual return of normal TAT activity in the 24-hour periods. (author)

  6. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagias, S; Ernersson, A; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T; Nystrom, F H

    2008-05-01

    To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r = 0.62, p = 0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred.

  7. Pre-steady-state kinetics of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase catalyzed reactions and thermodynamic aspects of its substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramitsu, Seiki; Hiromi, Keitaro; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Morino, Yoshimasa; Kagamiyama, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    The four half-transamination reactions [the pyridoxal form of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) with aspartate or glutamate and the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme with oxalacetate or 2-oxoglutarate] were followed in a stopped-flow spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance change at either 333 or 358 nm. The reaction progress curves in all cases gave fits to a monophasic exponential process. Kinetic analyses of these reactions showed that each half-reaction is composed of the following three processes: (1) the rapid binding of an amino acid substrate to the pyridoxal form of the enzyme; (2) the rapid binding of the corresponding keto acid to the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme; (3) the rate-determining interconversion between the two complexes. This mechanism was supported by the findings that the equilibrium constants for half- and overall-transamination reactions and the steady-state kinetic constants agreed well with the predicted values on the basis of the above mechanism using pre-steady-state kinetic parameters. The significant primary kinetic isotope effect observed in the reaction with deuterated amino acid suggests that the withdrawal of the α-proton of the substrates is rate determining. The pyridoxal form of E. coli AspAT reacted with a variety of amino acids as substrates. The substrate specificity of the E. coli enzyme was much broader than that of pig isoenzymes, reflecting some subtle but distinct difference in microenvironment accommodating the side chain of the substrate between e. coli and mammalian AspATs

  8. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

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    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  9. Expression of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase and α-keto-acid dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neurotransmitter metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey T.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The BCATs are thought to participate in a α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC) catalyzes the second, irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron. PMID:22654736

  10. Complex association of serum alanine aminotransferase with the risk of future cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarideh, Mohsen; Aryan, Zahra; Ghajar, Alireza; Noshad, Sina; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Baber, Usman; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the prospective association between baseline serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes. In an open cohort setting, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for their first ever CVD presentation from 1995 to 2015. Statistical methods included Cox regression analysis for reporting of hazard ratios (HRs), artificial neural network modelings, and risk reclassification analyses. We found a nearly constant CVD hazard with baseline serum ALT levels below the 30 IU/L mark, whereas baseline serum ALT levels ≥ 30 IU/L remained an independent predictor of lower CVD rates in patients with type 2 diabetes in the final multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model (HR: 0.204, 95%CI [0.060-0.689], p for trend value = 0.006). Age, male gender and fasting plasma insulin levels independently predicted baseline serum ALT ≥ 30 IU/L among the population cohort. Augmentation of serum ALT into the weighted Framingham risk score resulted in a considerable net reclassification improvement (NRI) of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction in the study population (NRI = 9.05% (8.01%-10.22%), p value < 0.05). Serum ALT could successfully reclassify about 9% of the population with type 2 diabetes across the CHD-affected and CHD-free categories. Overall, our findings demonstrate a complex and nonlinear relationship for the risk of future CVD by baseline serum ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are warranted to confirm whether this complex association could be translated into a clearly visible U or J-shaped figure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  12. Role of arginine-292 in the substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase as examined by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, C.N.; Kirsch, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic data have implicated Arg-292 as the residue responsible for the preferred side-chain substrate specificity of asparate aminotransferase. It forms a salt bridge with the β or γ carboxylate group of the substrate. In order to test this proposal and, in addition, to attempt to reverse the substrate charge specificity of this enzyme, Arg-292 has been converted to Asp-292 by site-directed mutagenesis. The activity k/sub cat//K/sub M/) of the mutant enzyme, R292D, toward the natural anionic substrates L-aspartate, L-glutamate, and α-ketoglutarate is depressed by over 5 orders of magnitude, whereas the activity toward the keto acid pyruvate and a number of aromatic and other neutral amino acids is reduced by only 2-9-fold. These results confirm the proposal that Arg-292 is critical for the rapid turnover of substrates bearing anionic side chains and show further that, apart from the desired alteration no major perturbations of the remainder of the molecule have been made. The activity of R292D toward the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine is increased by 9-16-fold over that of wild type and the ratio (k/sub cat//K/sub M/)/sub cationic//(k/sub cat//K/sub M/)/sub anionic/ is in the range 2-40-fold for R292D, whereas this ratio has a range of [(0.3-6) x 10 -6 ]-fold for wild type. Thus, the mutation has produced an inversion of the substrate charge specificity. Possible explanations for the less-than-expected reactivity of R292D with arginine are discussed

  13. Serum alanine aminotransferase predicts interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Juan; Fernández, Sandra; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Romeo, June H; Ballesta-Lopez, Carlos; Guell, Javier; Mearin, Fermin

    2014-06-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a marker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) as well as coronary events independently of traditional risk factors and the features of the metabolic syndrome. The extent to which interventricular septum thickness (IVS) and left ventricular mass (LVM) are associated with ALT levels in cohorts of individuals with body weights ranging from overweight to morbid obesity and NAFLD remains still unknown. This was a cross-sectional pilot study involving 151 young White participants with liver ultrasound-proven NAFLD. Standard echocardiograms were used to define LVM, IVS, and left ventricle diastolic function [mitral inflow velocity pattern (E/A ratio) and mitral annulus velocity by tissue Doppler imaging (Em/Am ratio)]. Participants were classified according to ALT quartiles: p25, p50, p75, and p100. The study included 36 men and 115 women with an age of 38.4 ± 0.7 years and BMI of 43.9 ± 0.6 kg/m2. p100 participants disclosed significantly higher homeostasis model assessment (P=0.003), DM2 (P=0.002), and hypertension (P=0.01) prevalence, whereas LVM, IVS, E/A, and Em/Am ratios were significantly higher in this group when compared with their p25 peers (PDM2. ALT levels predict both IVS and LVM in NAFLD individuals irrespective of their BMI, DM2, hypertension, age, and sex. ALT levels behave as a surrogate marker of left ventricular hypertrophy in overweight and/or obese NAFLD patients. Hence, it seems worth obtaining cardiac ultrasounds in NAFLD patients with elevated ALT levels.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

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    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1Δ bat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  15. Influence of Preoperative Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST Level on the Prognosis of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Shu-Lin Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze preoperative serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels and their effect on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after surgical operation. These analyses were performed retrospectively in patients with NSCLC followed by surgery; participants were recruited between January 2004 and January 2008. All clinical information and laboratory results were collected from medical records. We explored the association between preoperative serum AST and recurrence-free survival (RFS, and the overall survival (OS of NSCLC patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by the AST median value, were used to evaluate the prognostic effect. A chi-squared test was performed to compare clinical characteristics in different subgroups. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were enrolled. The median RFS and OS were 22 and 59 months, respectively. The AST levels were divided into two groups, using a cut-off value of 19 U/L: High AST (>19 U/L, n = 113 vs. low AST (≤19 U/L, n = 118. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative serum AST > 19 U/L (hazard ratio (HR = 0.685, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.493–0.994, p = 0.046 for RFS, HR = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.438–0.954, p = 0.028 for OS was an independent prognostic factor for both RFS and OS. High preoperative serum AST levels may serve as a valuable marker to predict the prognosis of NSCLC after operation.

  16. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

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    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  17. Sex-Specific Association between Metabolic Abnormalities and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in a Military Cohort: The CHIEF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of metabolic syndrome (MetS components with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, a marker of hepatic injury, may differ between men and women. However, the sex-specific association in a military young population which has a low prevalence of MetS was unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional examination in 6738 men and 766 women, aged 18–50 years, from the cardiorespiratory fitness study in armed forces (CHIEF in eastern Taiwan. The components of MetS were defined according to the updated International Diabetes Federation (IDF ethnic criteria for Asians. Elevated ALT levels were defined as ≥40 U/L for both sexes and ≥30 U/L for women alternatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the sex-specific association between MetS components and elevated ALT. The prevalence of MetS and elevated ALT in men were 11.9% and 12.7% respectively, and in women were 3.5%, and 3.8% respectively. In men, high-density lipoprotein < 40 mg/dL, blood pressures ≥ 130/85 mmHg, serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, and waist size ≥ 90 cm were associated with elevated ALT (odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals: 1.59 (1.34–1.90, 1.40 (1.19–1.65, 2.00 (1.68–2.39, and 1.68 (1.38–2.04; all p < 0.001; whereas in women, only fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL was associated with elevated ALT ≥ 40 U/L (OR: 7.59 (2.35–24.51, p = 0.001 and ALT ≥ 30 U/L (2.67 (0.89–7.95, p = 0.08. Our findings suggest that the relationship between metabolic abnormalities and elevated ALT may differ by sex, possibly due to the MetS more prevalent in young adult men than in women.

  18. Effect of mammals’ excretory function on aspartate aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis of research of Cd impact on the activity of the enzyme of aspartate aminotransferase (AST nitrogen metabolism and the content of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, which dominated in the research area (in natural floodplain oak forest with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts of Cd(NO32 in the range of concentrations of: 0.25, 1.25, 2.5 g/m2, equivalent to the inclusion of Cd in 1, 5, 10 doses of MAC. Increase (P < 0.05 in the activity of AST 2.6–3.0 times (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС and albumin content by 37% (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС compared to control (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals was shown. Using of excreta of some representatives of mammals (for example, Capreolus capreolus L. contributed to reduction of Cd toxic effects and restoring of the functional metabolic activity of AST by 23% (with Cd 1 МAС and by 34% (Cd 5 МAС. It is the evidence of protective function of mammals and their normalization effect at the above concentrations of Cd. Whereas the adding of Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС led to 3 times’ inhibition of AST activity, the toxic effect of metal by excretory function of mammals was not reduced. Observations revealed the albumin content normalization by 22% in the presence of Cd 1MAC respectively (with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta and to the control level (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals with the excreta of Sus scrofa L. in the setting of Cd 10 MAC. It proves the need to use the different mammal species for integrated and comprehensive normalization of ecosystems under conditions of uncontrolled anthropogenic pollution.

  19. Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-11-07

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) and L-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Characterization of a bordetella pertussis diaminopimelate (DAP) biosynthesis locus identifies dapC, a novel gene coding for an N-succinyl-L,L-DAP aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, T M; Schneider, B; Krumbach, K; Eggeling, L; Gross, R

    2000-07-01

    The functional complementation of two Escherichia coli strains defective in the succinylase pathway of meso-diaminopimelate (meso-DAP) biosynthesis with a Bordetella pertussis gene library resulted in the isolation of a putative dap operon containing three open reading frames (ORFs). In line with the successful complementation of the E. coli dapD and dapE mutants, the deduced amino acid sequences of two ORFs revealed significant sequence similarities with the DapD and DapE proteins of E. coli and many other bacteria which exhibit tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase and N-succinyl-L,L-DAP desuccinylase activity, respectively. The first ORF within the operon showed significant sequence similarities with transaminases and contains the characteristic pyridoxal-5'-phosphate binding motif. Enzymatic studies revealed that this ORF encodes a protein with N-succinyl-L,L-DAP aminotransferase activity converting N-succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate, the product of the succinylase DapD, to N-succinyl-L,L-DAP, the substrate of the desuccinylase DapE. Therefore, this gene appears to encode the DapC protein of B. pertussis. Apart from the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate binding motif, the DapC protein does not show further amino acid sequence similarities with the only other known enzyme with N-succinyl-L,L-DAP aminotransferase activity, ArgD of E. coli.

  1. Correlation of circadian changes in tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenase in rat liver to irradiation at different times of the day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.; Ahlersova, E.

    1987-01-01

    Male SPF Wistar rats adapted to a 12:12 h light:dark regimen were irradiated at 3-hour intervals in the course of 24 h with a dose of 14.35 Gy of X-rays; 24 h after irradiation or sham irradiation and starvation for the same length of time, and also in fed intact rats, tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenase activities in the liver, and the serum corticosterone level were determined. Although lethal irradiation modified the given enzyme activities, it did not abolish their circadian rhythm, evidently in association with the low sensitivity of the liver to ionizing radiation. In the irradiated animals (compared with sham-irradiated animals), the serum corticosterone concentration fell during the light part of the day and at the beginning of the dark part. (author). 3 figs., 13 refs

  2. Cumulative effect of X-ray radiation and inflammatory reaction on the circadian rhythm of tyrosine aminotransferase in the liver of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungowska-Klin, B.

    1980-01-01

    The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of mice subjected simultaneously to ionizing radiation and to local inflammatory process showed in the first 24 hours of the experiment statistically significant changes resulting from summation of the harmful effects of both factors. In the second 24-hour period an evident tendency was observed for return of a normal circadian rhythm of the enzyme. This points to presence of an endogenous mechanism of suppression of the manifestations of significant desynchronization of the circadian rhythm. The paper contains also a trial of mathematical analysis of changes in TAT activity in the circadian rhythm, a description and analysis or the suppression process, qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenomenon of cumulation of the effects of powerful stress factors acting on the animal organism. The obtained results were compared with the results of investigations of TAT activity changes obtained in the case of separate application of the stress factors selected for this experiment. (author)

  3. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase, a trans-kingdom enzyme shared by Chlamydia and plants for synthesis of diaminopimelate/lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Andrea J; Adams, Nancy E; Hudson, André O; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2006-11-21

    The synthesis of meso-diaminopimelic acid (m-DAP) in bacteria is essential for both peptidoglycan and lysine biosynthesis. From genome sequencing data, it was unclear how bacteria of the Chlamydiales order would synthesize m-DAP in the absence of dapD, dapC, and dapE, which are missing from the genome. Here, we assessed the biochemical capacity of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 to synthesize m-DAP. Expression of the chlamydial asd, dapB, and dapF genes in the respective Escherichia coli m-DAP auxotrophic mutants restored the mutants to DAP prototrophy. Screening of a C. trachomatis genomic library in an E. coli DeltadapD DAP auxotroph identified ct390 as encoding an enzyme that restored growth to the Escherichia coli mutant. ct390 also was able to complement an E. coli DeltadapD DeltadapE, but not a DeltadapD DeltadapF mutant, providing genetic evidence that it encodes an aminotransferase that may directly convert tetrahydrodipicolinate to L,L-diaminopimelic acid. This hypothesis was supported by in vitro kinetic analysis of the CT390 protein and the fact that similar properties were demonstrated for the Protochlamydia amoebophila homologue, PC0685. In vivo, the C. trachomatis m-DAP synthesis genes are expressed as early as 8 h after infection. An aminotransferase activity analogous to CT390 recently has been characterized in plants and cyanobacteria. This previously undescribed pathway for m-DAP synthesis supports an evolutionary relationship among the chlamydiae, cyanobacteria, and plants and strengthens the argument that chlamydiae synthesize a cell wall despite the inability of efforts to date to detect peptidoglycan in these organisms.

  4. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

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    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  5. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

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    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  6. Biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of a novel diaminopimelate biosynthesis pathway in prokaryotes identifies a diverged form of LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate (DAP)-lysine biosynthesis pathway uses an LL-DAP aminotransferase (DapL, EC 2.6.1.83) to catalyze the direct conversion of L-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to LL-DAP. Comparative genomic analysis and experimental verification of DapL candidates revealed the existence of two diverged forms of DapL (DapL1 and DapL2). DapL orthologs were identified in eubacteria and archaea. In some species the corresponding dapL gene was found to lie in genomic contiguity with other dap genes, suggestive of a polycistronic structure. The DapL candidate enzymes were found to cluster into two classes sharing approximately 30% amino acid identity. The function of selected enzymes from each class was studied. Both classes were able to functionally complement Escherichia coli dapD and dapE mutants and to catalyze LL-DAP transamination, providing functional evidence for a role in DAP/lysine biosynthesis. In all cases the occurrence of dapL in a species correlated with the absence of genes for dapD and dapE representing the acyl DAP pathway variants, and only in a few cases was dapL coincident with ddh encoding meso-DAP dehydrogenase. The results indicate that the DapL pathway is restricted to specific lineages of eubacteria including the Cyanobacteria, Desulfuromonadales, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochaeta, and Chloroflexi and two archaeal groups, the Methanobacteriaceae and Archaeoglobaceae.

  7. PsAAT3, an oomycete-specific aspartate aminotransferase, is required for full pathogenicity of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongbo; Zhang, Meixiang; Liu, Hong; Xu, Jing; Yu, Jia; He, Feng; Zhang, Xiong; Dong, Suomeng; Dou, Daolong

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen nutrient acquisition and metabolism are critical for successful infection and colonization. However, the nutrient requirements and metabolic pathways related to pathogenesis in oomycete pathogens are unknown. In this study, we bioinformatically identified Phytophthora sojae aspartate aminotransferases (AATs), which are key enzymes that coordinate carbon and nitrogen metabolism. We demonstrated that P. sojae encodes more AATs than the analysed fungi. Some of the AATs contained additional prephenate dehydratase and/or prephenate dehydrogenase domains in their N-termini, which are unique to oomycetes. Silencing of PsAAT3, an infection-inducible expression gene, reduced P. sojae pathogenicity on soybean plants and affected the growth under N-starving condition, suggesting that PsAAT3 is involved in pathogen pathogenicity and nitrogen utilisation during infection. Our results suggest that P. sojae and other oomycete pathogens may have distinct amino acid metabolism pathways and that PsAAT3 is important for its full pathogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Keratin-18 and microRNA-122 complement alanine aminotransferase as novel safety biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury in two human cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulin, Petra; Nordahl, Gunnar; Gry, Marcus; Yimer, Getnet; Aklillu, Eleni; Makonnen, Eyasu; Aderaye, Getachew; Lindquist, Lars; Mattsson, C Mikael; Ekblom, Björn; Antoine, Daniel J; Park, B Kevin; Linder, Stig; Harrill, Alison H; Watkins, Paul B; Glinghammar, Björn; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina

    2014-03-01

    There is a demand for more sensitive, specific and predictive biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) than the gold standard used today, alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of this study was to qualify novel DILI biomarkers (keratin-18 markers M65/M30, microRNA-122, glutamate dehydrogenase and alpha-foetoprotein) in human DILI. Levels of the novel biomarkers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in two human DILI cohorts: a human volunteer study with acetaminophen and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) study. In the acetaminophen study, serum M65 and microRNA-122 levels were significantly increased at an earlier time point than ALT. Furthermore, the maximal elevation of M65 and microRNA-122 exceeded the increase in ALT. In the HIV/TB study, all the analysed novel biomarkers increased after 1 week of treatment. In contrast to ALT, the novel biomarkers remained stable in a human cohort with exercise-induced muscular injury. M65 and microRNA-122 are potential biomarkers of DILI superior to ALT with respect to sensitivity and specificity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Partial amino acid sequence of the branched chain amino acid aminotransferase (TmB) of E. coli JA199 pDU11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feild, M.J.; Armstrong, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    E. coli JA199 pDU11 harbors a multicopy plasmid containing the ilv GEDAY gene cluster of S. typhimurium. TmB, gene product of ilv E, was purified, crystallized, and subjected to Edman degradation using a gas phase sequencer. The intact protein yielded an amino terminal 31 residue sequence. Both carboxymethylated apoenzyme and [ 3 H]-NaBH-reduced holoenzyme were then subjected to digestion by trypsin. The digests were fractionated using reversed phase HPLC, and the peptides isolated were sequenced. The borohydride-treated holoenzyme was used to isolate the cofactor-binding peptide. The peptide is 27 residues long and a comparison with known sequences of other aminotransferases revealed limited homology. Peptides accounting for 211 of 288 predicted residues have been sequenced, including 9 residues of the carboxyl terminus. Comparison of peptides with the inferred amino acid sequence of the E. coli K-12 enzyme has helped determine the sequence of the amino terminal 59 residues; only two differences between the sequences are noted in this region

  10. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pnegative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  11. Norrie disease: linkage analysis using a 4.2-kb RFLP detected by a human ornithine aminotransferase cDNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, J T; Bateman, J B; Cortessis, V; Sparkes, R S; Mohandas, T; Inana, G; Spence, M A

    1989-05-01

    Previous study has shown that the usual DNA marker for Norrie disease, the L1.28 probe which identifies the DXS7 locus, can recombine with the disease locus. In this study, we used a human ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) cDNA which detects OAT-related DNA sequences mapped to the same region on the X chromosome as that of the L1.28 probe to investigate the family with Norrie disease who exhibited the recombinational event. When genomic DNA from this family was digested with the PvuII restriction endonuclease, we found a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 4.2 kb in size. This fragment was absent in the affected males and cosegregated with the disease locus; we calculated a lod score of 0.602, at theta = 0.00. No deletion could be detected by chromosomal analysis or on Southern blots with other enzymes. These results suggest that one of the OAT-related sequences on the X chromosome may be in close proximity to the Norrie disease locus and represent the first report which indicates that the OAT cDNA may be useful for the identification of carrier status and/or prenatal diagnosis.

  12. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

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    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  13. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  14. Identificação de ponto de corte no nível sérico da alanina aminotransferase para rastreamento da hepatite C em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise Identification of the cutoff value for serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis C screening of patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

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    Ericson Cavalcanti Gouveia

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise apresentam níveis séricos mais baixos de alanina aminotransferase. Para estabelecer melhor ponto de corte nos níveis de ALT, no diagnóstico da hepatite C, avaliaram-se mensalmente, durante 6 meses os níveis desta enzima em 235 pacientes em hemodiálise, sendo excluídos aqueles que apresentassem média acima do limite superior da normalidade. O ponto de corte foi identificado através da construção de curva ROC. Entre 202 pacientes, 15 (7,4% apresentavam anti-VHC positivo e 187 (92,6% negativo, com média de ALT de 0,7 e de 0,5 do limite superior (p The patients with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis present low levels of serum alanine aminotransferases. In order to establish a better cutoff value for ALT in hepatitis C screening of hemodialysis patients, the ALT levels were measured monthly in 235 patients, being excluded those that presented average above the upper limit of normality. The cutoff value was identified by construction of a ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic. Among 202 patients, 15 (7.4% presented antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV and 187 (92.6% were anti-HCV negative , with an ALT average of 0.7 and of 0.5 from ULN (p <0.0001, respectively. The better cutoff value for ALT was at 0.6 from ULN, with sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 75% in anti-HCV screening. These results suggest that ULN of ALT could be reduced for 60% from conventional limit, when we are evaluating patients with CRF in hemodialysis.

  15. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

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    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  16. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment. Methods A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4–8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence. Results The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 562 patients (77.8%), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 74 (10.2%), and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%). There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001) and non-viral causes (p<0.05), and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Conclusion Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT. PMID:27304617

  17. Essential roles of aspartate aminotransferase 1 and vesicular glutamate transporters in β-cell glutamate signaling for incretin-induced insulin secretion.

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    Naoya Murao

    Full Text Available Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS that requires two critical processes: 1 generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2 glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1, a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively, which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles. Got1 knockout (KO β-cell lines were defective in cytosolic glutamate production from glucose and showed impaired IIIS. Unexpectedly, different from the previous finding that global Slc17a7 KO mice exhibited impaired IIIS from pancreatic islets, β-cell specific Slc17a7 KO mice showed no significant impairment in IIIS, as assessed by pancreas perfusion experiment. Single Slc17a7 KO β-cell lines also retained IIIS, probably due to compensatory upregulation of Slc17a6. Interestingly, triple KO of Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8 diminished IIIS, which was rescued by exogenously introduced wild-type Slc17a7 or Slc17a6 genes. The present study provides direct evidence for the essential roles of AST1 and VGLUTs in β-cell glutamate signaling for IIIS and also shows the usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for studying β-cells by simultaneous disruption of multiple genes.

  18. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Mechanism of inactivation of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbeom; Doud, Emma H; Wu, Rui; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Juncosa, Jose I; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-02-25

    γ-Aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian cells. When the concentration of GABA falls below a threshold level, convulsions can occur. Inhibition of GABA-AT raises GABA levels in the brain, which can terminate seizures as well as have potential therapeutic applications in treating other neurological disorders, including drug addiction. Among the analogues that we previously developed, (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115) showed 187 times greater potency than that of vigabatrin, a known inactivator of GABA-AT and approved drug (Sabril) for the treatment of infantile spasms and refractory adult epilepsy. Recently, CPP-115 was shown to have no adverse effects in a Phase I clinical trial. Here we report a novel inactivation mechanism for CPP-115, a mechanism-based inactivator that undergoes GABA-AT-catalyzed hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group to a carboxylic acid with concomitant loss of two fluoride ions and coenzyme conversion to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The partition ratio for CPP-115 with GABA-AT is about 2000, releasing cyclopentanone-2,4-dicarboxylate (22) and two other precursors of this compound (20 and 21). Time-dependent inactivation occurs by a conformational change induced by the formation of the aldimine of 4-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and PMP (20), which disrupts an electrostatic interaction between Glu270 and Arg445 to form an electrostatic interaction between Arg445 and the newly formed carboxylate produced by hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group in CPP-115, resulting in a noncovalent, tightly bound complex. This represents a novel mechanism for inactivation of GABA-AT and a new approach for the design of mechanism-based inactivators in general.

  20. Crystal structure of the S187F variant of human liver alanine: Aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I and its functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppici, Elisa; Fodor, Krisztian; Paiardini, Alessandro; Williams, Chris; Voltattorni, Carla Borri; Wilmanns, Matthias; Cellini, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The substitution of Ser187, a residue located far from the active site of human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), by Phe gives rise to a variant associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I. Unexpectedly, previous studies revealed that the recombinant form of S187F exhibits a remarkable loss of catalytic activity, an increased pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) binding affinity and a different coenzyme binding mode compared with normal AGT. To shed light on the structural elements responsible for these defects, we solved the crystal structure of the variant to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Although the overall conformation of the variant is similar to that of normal AGT, we noticed: (i) a displacement of the PLP-binding Lys209 and Val185, located on the re and si side of PLP, respectively, and (ii) slight conformational changes of other active site residues, in particular Trp108, the base stacking residue with the pyridine cofactor moiety. This active site perturbation results in a mispositioning of the AGT-pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) complex and of the external aldimine, as predicted by molecular modeling studies. Taken together, both predicted and observed movements caused by the S187F mutation are consistent with the following functional properties of the variant: (i) a 300- to 500-fold decrease in both the rate constant of L-alanine half-transamination and the kcat of the overall transamination, (ii) a different PMP binding mode and affinity, and (iii) a different microenvironment of the external aldimine. Proposals for the treatment of patients bearing S187F mutation are discussed on the basis of these results. Proteins 2013; 81:1457–1465. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23589421

  1. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects.

  2. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABAA receptor antagonist NP260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA A receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity

  3. Evaluation of the effects of a VEGFR-2 inhibitor compound on alanine aminotransferase gene expression and enzymatic activity in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Carmen; Bera, Monali; Jessen, Bart; Sace, Fred; Stevens, Greg J; Trajkovic, Dusko; Yang, Amy H; Evering, Winston

    2011-08-17

    Traditional assessment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity includes morphological examination of the liver and evaluation of liver enzyme activity in serum. The objective of the study was to determine the origin of drug-related elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the absence of morphologic changes in the liver by utilizing molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups (control and treated, n = 4 per group) and treated rats were dosed orally twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for 7 days with a VEGFR-2 compound (AG28262), which in a previous study caused ALT elevation without morphological changes. Serum of both treated and control animals were evaluated on day 3 of treatment and at day 8. Three separate liver lobes (caudate, right medial, and left lateral) were examined for determination of ALT tissue activity, ALT gene expression and morphological changes. ALT activity was significantly (p < 0.01) elevated on day 3 and further increased on day 8. Histologic changes or increase in TUNEL and caspase3 positive cells were not observed in the liver lobes examined. ALT gene expression in the caudate lobe was significantly up-regulated by 63%. ALT expression in the left lateral lobe was not significantly affected. Statistically significant increased liver ALT enzymatic activity occurred in the caudate (96%) and right medial (41%) lobes but not in the left lateral lobe. AG28262, a VEFG-r2 inhibitor, causes an increase in serum ALT, due in part to both gene up-regulation. Differences between liver lobes may be attributable to differential distribution of blood from portal circulation. Incorporation of molecular data, such as gene and protein expression, and sampling multiple liver lobes may shed mechanistic insight to the evaluation of hepatotoxicity.

  4. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2 polymorphisms have considerable impact on methylarginine and β-aminoisobutyrate metabolism in healthy volunteers.

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    Anja Kittel

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA and symmetric (SDMA dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2. It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB, a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu. Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002 as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001. ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [²H₆]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05. In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper

  5. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples.

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    Sidhartha Jain

    Full Text Available A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time.96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi; subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis.For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L. Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L; a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L.The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be

  6. Evaluation of the aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and enhanced liver fibrosis tests to detect significant fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John R; Stevenson, Heather L; Kasturi, Krishna S; Naniwadekar, Ashutosh; Parkes, Julie; Cross, Richard; Rosenberg, William M; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Snyder, Ned

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients is important for prognosis and making decisions regarding antiviral treatment. Although liver biopsy is considered the reference standard for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, it is invasive and associated with sampling and interobserver variability. Serum fibrosis markers have been utilized as surrogates for a liver biopsy. We completed a prospective study of 191 patients in which blood draws and liver biopsies were performed on the same visit. Using liver biopsies the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values for both aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) were determined. The patients were divided into training and validation patient sets to develop and validate a clinically useful algorithm for differentiating mild and significant fibrosis. The area under the ROC curve for the APRI and ELF tests for the training set was 0.865 and 0.880, respectively. The clinical sensitivity in separating mild (F0-F1) from significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was 80% and 86.0% with a clinical specificity of 86.7% and 77.8%, respectively. For the validation sets the area under the ROC curve for the APRI and ELF tests was, 0.855 and 0.780, respectively. The clinical sensitivity of the APRI and ELF tests in separating mild (F0-F1) from significant (F2-F4) fibrosis for the validation set was 90.0% and 70.0% with a clinical specificity of 73.3% and 86.7%, respectively. There were no differences between the APRI and ELF tests in distinguishing mild from significant fibrosis for either the training or validation sets (P=0.61 and 0.20, respectively). Using APRI as the primary test followed by ELF for patients in the intermediate zone, would have decreased the number of liver biopsies needed by 40% for the validation set. Overall, use of our algorithm would have decreased the number of patients who needed a liver biopsy

  7. The Enantiomers of 4-Amino-3-fluorobutanoic Acid as Substrates for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase. Conformational Probes for GABA Binding†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Michael; Ji, Haitao; Deniau, Gildas P.; O’Hagan, David; Silverman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzyme, catalyzes the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to succinic semialdehyde with concomitant conversion of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) to pyridoxamine 5’-phosphate (PMP). The enzyme then catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate. Racemic 4-amino-3-fluorobutanoic acid (3-F-GABA) was shown previously to act as a substrate for GABA-AT, not for transamination, but for HF elimination. Here we report studies of the reaction catalyzed by GABA-AT on (R)- and (S)-3-F-GABA. Neither enantiomer is a substrate for transamination. Very little elimination from the (S)-enantiomer was detected using a coupled enzyme assay; The rate of elimination of HF from the (R)-enantiomer is at least 10 times greater than that for the (S)-enantiomer. The (R)-enantiomer is about 20 times more efficient as a substrate for GABA-AT catalyzed HF elimination than GABA is a substrate for transamination. The (R)-enantiomer also inhibits the transamination of GABA 10 times more effectively than the (S)-enantiomer. Using a combination of computer modeling and the knowledge that vicinal C-F and C-NH3+ bonds have a strong preference to align gauche rather than anti to each other, it is concluded that on binding of free 3-F-GABA to GABA-AT the optimal conformation places the C-NH3+ and C-F bonds gauche in the (R)-enantiomer but anti in the (S)-enantiomer. Furthermore, the dynamic binding process and the bioactive conformation of GABA bound to GABA-AT have been inferred based on the different biological behavior of the two enantiomers of 3-F-GABA when they bind to the enzyme. The present study suggests that the C-F bond can be utilized as a conformational probe to explore the dynamic binding process and provide insight into the bioactive conformation of substrates, which cannot be easily determined by other biophysical

  8. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  9. Independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase level

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    LI Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes (SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 previously untreated patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load (HBV DNA≥105 copies/ml chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level (<50 U/L who were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University from June 2013 to August 2015. The definition of SLHCs was inflammation ≥G2 and/or fibrosis≥S2. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine independent predictive factors for SLHCs. ResultsOf all the 116 patients, 47(40.5% had SLHCs. The multivariate analysis showed that age (OR=2.828, P<0.05, ALT (OR=1.011, P<0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT (OR=1.089, P<0.05 were independent predictors for SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level. The patients aged ≤30 years had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those aged>30 years (21.6% vs 49.4%, χ2=6.42, P=0.015, the patients with ALT ≤30 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with 30 U/L<ALT≤50 U/L (17.6% vs 50.0%, χ2=19.86, P<0.001, and the patients with GGT≤40 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with GGT>40 U/L (28.8% vs 66.7%, χ2=28.63, P<0.001. ConclusionIn patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level, those with an age of>30 years, ALT>30 U/L, and GGT>40 U/L tend to develop SLHCs and need liver biopsy.

  10. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

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    Andreia Salezze Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e

  11. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

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    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  12. Alanine-aminotransferase: an early marker for insulin resistance? Alanino-aminotransferasa: ¿un marcador temprano de resistencia a la insulina?

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    Martín R. Salazar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In a population-based sample, after excluding alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic drugs and hepatitis Band C infected, we investigated if alanine-aminotransferase (ALT was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and if this association was caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The sample (432 female and 119 male was divided into two ALT thresholds corresponding to the 50th and 75th percentiles (P (female ≤ 15 and ≤ 19 U/L; male ≤ 17 and ≤ 23 U/l, respectively. Blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLc, triglyceride (TG, TG/HDLc ratio, glycemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were compared between those above and below each ALT threshold. Female placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher levels of TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.029, glycemia (p=0.028, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, (p=0.045, and above the 75th P had higher SBP (p=0.036, DBP (p=0.018, TG (p=0.024, TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.028, glycemia (p=0.004 and HOMA-IR (p=0.0014. Male placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher BMI (p=0.017 and TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.048, and above the 75th P had lower values of HDLc (p=0.042. Only 16.5% of women and 14.5% of men, above the 75th P of ALT, showed an increase in liver brightness in the echography. This work shows in woman an early association of ALT with TG/HDLc ratio and HOMA-IR. Since the last two are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk, attention should be drawn to ALT values near the upper limit of the normal range even in the absence of NAFLD and obesity.En una muestra poblacional, luego de excluir a quienes consumían alcohol y drogas hepatotóxicas y a los infectados con virus B y C de la hepatitis, investigamos si la alanino-aminotransferasa (ALT, o transaminasa glutámico pirúvica (TGP, se asociaba con el síndrome metabólico y con resistencia a la insulina y si esta asociación se explicaba por enfermedad hep

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-01-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2 1 2 1 2 1 . A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution

  14. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  15. Clinical implications in the prevalence and associated cardiovascular factors of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels among elderly agricultural and fishing population in Taipei, Taiwan: experience at a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Hu, Yi-Chun; Shen, Hsi-Che; Chang, Hui-Te; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To discuss the prevalence and associated factors related to an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level among the elderly agricultural and fishing population. A total of 6542 (3989 males and 2553 females) healthy adults voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical checkup in 2010 in Taipei, Taiwan. Fasting blood samples were drawn via venipuncture, and clinical nurses interviewed the study participants using a structured questionnaire from. The overall prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level was 18.2% and revealed a statistically significant decrease with increasing age (P < 0.001). The men exhibited a higher prevalence than the women (19.7% vs 15.9%; P < 0.001). Male sex; younger age; and presence of obesity, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with an elevated serum ALT level. Sex-related differences were also revealed. For the men, type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.57), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22-2.83), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.73), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51) were significantly related to an elevated serum ALT level, but this was not so for the women. The disparity of ALT in age groups was revealed. Several sex-related differences were indicated pertaining to the prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level among elderly specific occupational population.

  16. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Alison H., E-mail: ahharrill@uams.edu [College of Public Health, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Eaddy, John S. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rose, Kelly [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cullen, John M. [College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Ramanathan, Lakshmi [QPS, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu [NeuroTherapeutics Pharma, Inc., Chicago, IL 60631 (United States); Watkins, Paul B. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  17. Quantitative measurement of hepatic fibrosis with gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: A comparative study on aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrosis-4 index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Guy Mok; Kim, Youe Ree; Cho, Eun Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Ryu, Jong Hyun; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and identify the correlations with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) values. This study on gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T MR imaging included 81 patients with CHB infection. To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis, MR images were analyzed with an aim to identify inhomogeneous signal intensities calculated from a coefficient of variation (CV) map in the liver parenchyma. We also carried out a comparative analysis between APRI and FIB-4 based on metaregression results. The diagnostic performance of the CV map was evaluated using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In the MR images, the mean CV values in control, groups I, II, and III based on APRI were 4.08 ± 0.92, 4.24 ± 0.80, 5.64 ± 1.11, and 5.73 ± 1.28, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHB patients grouped by FIB-4, the mean CV values of groups A, B, and C were 4.22 ± 0.95, 5.40 ± 1.19, and 5.71 ± 1.17, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean CV values correlated well with APRI (r = 0.392, p < 0.001) and FIB-4 (r = 0.294, p < 0.001). In significant fibrosis group, ROC curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.875 using APRI and 0.831 using FIB-4 in HB, respectively. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for calculating a CV map showed moderate correlation with APRI and FIB-4 values and could be employed to quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHB

  18. Quantitative measurement of hepatic fibrosis with gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: A comparative study on aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and fibrosis-4 index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Guy Mok; Kim, Youe Ree; Cho, Eun Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jong Hyun; Kim, Tae Hoon [Imaging Science Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and identify the correlations with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) values. This study on gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3T MR imaging included 81 patients with CHB infection. To quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis, MR images were analyzed with an aim to identify inhomogeneous signal intensities calculated from a coefficient of variation (CV) map in the liver parenchyma. We also carried out a comparative analysis between APRI and FIB-4 based on metaregression results. The diagnostic performance of the CV map was evaluated using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In the MR images, the mean CV values in control, groups I, II, and III based on APRI were 4.08 ± 0.92, 4.24 ± 0.80, 5.64 ± 1.11, and 5.73 ± 1.28, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHB patients grouped by FIB-4, the mean CV values of groups A, B, and C were 4.22 ± 0.95, 5.40 ± 1.19, and 5.71 ± 1.17, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean CV values correlated well with APRI (r = 0.392, p < 0.001) and FIB-4 (r = 0.294, p < 0.001). In significant fibrosis group, ROC curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.875 using APRI and 0.831 using FIB-4 in HB, respectively. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for calculating a CV map showed moderate correlation with APRI and FIB-4 values and could be employed to quantitatively measure hepatic fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  19. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  20. Mechanism of Inactivation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase by (1 S ,3 S )-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic Acid (CPP-115)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunbeom [Department; Doud, Emma H. [Department; Department; Wu, Rui [Department; Sanishvili, Ruslan [X-ray; Juncosa, Jose I. [Department; Liu, Dali [Department; Kelleher, Neil L. [Department; Department; Silverman, Richard B. [Department; Department

    2015-02-10

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian cells. When the concentration of GABA falls below a threshold level, convulsions can occur. Inhibition of GABA-AT raises GABA levels in the brain, which can terminate seizures as well as have potential therapeutic applications in treating other neurological disorders, including drug addiction. Among the analogues that we previously developed, (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115) showed 187 times greater potency than that of vigabatrin, a known inactivator of GABA-AT and approved drug (Sabril) for the treatment of infantile spasms and refractory adult epilepsy. Recently, CPP-115 was shown to have no adverse effects in a Phase I clinical trial. Here we report a novel inactivation mechanism for CPP-115, a mechanism-based inactivator that undergoes GABA-AT-catalyzed hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group to a carboxylic acid with concomitant loss of two fluoride ions and coenzyme conversion to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The partition ratio for CPP-115 with GABA-AT is about 2000, releasing cyclopentanone-2,4-dicarboxylate (22) and two other precursors of this compound (20 and 21). Time-dependent inactivation occurs by a conformational change induced by the formation of the aldimine of 4-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and PMP (20), which disrupts an electrostatic interaction between Glu270 and Arg445 to form an electrostatic interaction between Arg445 and the newly formed carboxylate produced by hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group in CPP-115, resulting in a noncovalent, tightly bound complex. This represents a novel mechanism for inactivation of GABA-AT and a new approach for the design of mechanism-based inactivators in general.

  1. Intact Protein Analysis at 21 Tesla and X-Ray Crystallography Define Structural Differences in Single Amino Acid Variants of Human Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Amino Acid Aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lissa C.; Håkansson, Maria; Walse, Björn; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2017-09-01

    Structural technologies are an essential component in the design of precision therapeutics. Precision medicine entails the development of therapeutics directed toward a designated target protein, with the goal to deliver the right drug to the right patient at the right time. In the field of oncology, protein structural variants are often associated with oncogenic potential. In a previous proteogenomic screen of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) tumor materials, we identified a sequence variant of human mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 as a putative factor of resistance of GBM to standard-of-care-treatments. The enzyme generates glutamate, which is neurotoxic. To elucidate structural coordinates that may confer altered substrate binding or activity of the variant BCAT2 T186R, a 45 kDa protein, we applied combined ETD and CID top-down mass spectrometry in a LC-FT-ICR MS at 21 T, and X-Ray crystallography in the study of both the variant and non-variant intact proteins. The combined ETD/CID fragmentation pattern allowed for not only extensive sequence coverage but also confident localization of the amino acid variant to its position in the sequence. The crystallographic experiments confirmed the hypothesis generated by in silico structural homology modeling, that the Lys59 side-chain of BCAT2 may repulse the Arg186 in the variant protein (PDB code: 5MPR), leading to destabilization of the protein dimer and altered enzyme kinetics. Taken together, the MS and novel 3D structural data give us reason to further pursue BCAT2 T186R as a precision drug target in GBM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Kinetic isotope effect studies on aspartate aminotransferase: Evidence for a concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism for the cytoplasmic isozyme and L-aspartate and dichotomy in mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, D.A.; Kirsch, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The C alpha primary hydrogen kinetic isotope effects (C alpha-KIEs) for the reaction of the cytoplasmic isozyme of aspartate aminotransferase (cAATase) with [alpha-2H]-L-aspartate are small and only slightly affected by deuterium oxide solvent (DV = 1.43 +/- 0.03 and DV/KAsp = 1.36 +/- 0.04 in H 2 O; DV = 1.44 +/- 0.01 and DV/KAsp = 1.61 +/- 0.06 in D 2 O). The D 2 O solvent KIEs (SKIEs) are somewhat larger and are essentially independent of deuterium at C alpha (D 2 OV = 2.21 +/- 0.07 and D 2 OV/KAsp = 1.70 +/- 0.03 with [α-1H]-L-aspartate; D 2 OV = 2.34 +/- 0.12 and D 2 OV/KAsp = 1.82 +/- 0.06 with [α-2H]-L- aspartate). The C alpha-KIEs on V and on V/KAsp are independent of pH from pH 5.0 to pH 10.0. These results support a rate-determining concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism by the multiple KIE criteria. The large C alpha-KIEs for the reaction of mitochondrial AATase (mAATase) with L-glutamate (DV = 1.88 +/- 0.13 and DV/KGlu = 3.80 +/- 0.43 in H 2 O; DV = 1.57 +/- 0.05 and DV/KGlu = 4.21 +/- 0.19 in D 2 O) coupled with the relatively small SKIEs (D 2 OV = 1.58 +/- 0.04 and D 2 OV/KGlu = 1.25 +/- 0.05 with [α-1H]-L-glutamate; D 2 OV = 1.46 +/- 0.06 and D 2 OV/KGlu = 1.16 +/- 0.05 with [alpha-2H]-L-glutamate) are most consistent with a two-step mechanism for the 1,3 prototropic shift for this isozyme-substrate pair

  3. Efeito da adição de cloreto de cálcio sobre a qualidade espermática e atividade da aspartato amino transferase no sêmen resfriado de suíno Effect of adding calcium chloride on the spermatic quality and aminotransferase aspartate in cool swine semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinheiro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar dois processos de resfriamento de sêmen suíno, analisar o efeito da adição de CaCl2 ao diluidor BTS e testar o método de avaliação do perfil enzimático da Aspartato Aminotransferase (AAT sobre a qualidade espermática. Foram utilizados 12 ejaculados suínos de animais procedentes do setor de Suinocultura - DZO/UFLA. Estes ejaculados foram diluídos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CaCl2 (A: 0,0; B: 2,5; C: 5,0 e D: 7,5 mM. As amostras dos ejaculados foram submetidas a três processos de resfriamento (1: convencional - 15º C ; 2: lento - 15º C/5º C; 3: rápido - 5º C, sendo que cada ejaculado ficou armazenado por um período de 72 horas para avaliações da qualidade espermática, constituindo os tratamentos experimentais. Os parâmetros seminais avaliados foram motilidade e vigor espermáticos e perfil enzimático da AAT. Houve diferença significativa (P0,05. Conclui-se que a adição de CaCl2 melhora a motilidade espermática das amostras dos ejaculados suínos e que o processo de resfriamento lento substitui o processo convencional sem afetar a qualidade espermática do sêmen submetido à refrigeração. A avaliação da AAT não é válida para sêmen resfriado.The study was carried out with objective to test two swine semen cooling processes and verify the effects of adding chloride of calcium (CaCl2 on semen dilutor BTS and also to test the evaluation method of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT enzymatic profile on the cooled swine semen spermatic quality. Were used twelve samples of ejaculation of breeders supplied by the Swine Breeding section at the DZO/UFLA. The samples were diluted and received different concentrations of CaCl2 (A: 0.0; B: 2.5; C 5.0; D 7.5mM. The samples of ejaculation were submitted to three processes of cooling: 1 - standard cooling (15º C; 2 - slow cooling (15º C/ 5º C; 3 - fast cooling (5º C, and each sample of ejaculation was stored for

  4. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reham Al Swaff

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... RNA titer and/or serum ALT level in patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 4) infection. .... Other liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, non- .... Insulin resistance, obesity, and steatosis are associated with a.

  5. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, an insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade of necroinflammation. In conclusion neither ALT level nor HCV viremia can reflect the histological liver change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other noninvasive procedures that measure liver stiffness (i.e., Fibroscan) remain essential for ...

  6. effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on aminotransferase activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The feeding experiment lasted for a period of twenty one days after which ... low cost. Different food processing techniques have been found to have adverse effects on consumers. Groundnut .... Some physic- chemical properties of thermally ...

  7. Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Mary C; Stridh, Malin H; McNair, Laura Frendrup

    2016-01-01

    to the presynaptic neurons as the nonexcitatory amino acid glutamine. The cycle was initially thought to function with a 1:1 ratio between glutamate released and glutamine taken up by neurons. However, studies of glutamate metabolism in astrocytes have shown that a considerable proportion of glutamate undergoes...... the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH......The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back...

  8. effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on aminotransferase activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    age of globalization. Makurdi, Nigeria. 82. Osim, E. E., Owu, D. U., Isong, E. U and Umoh, I. B.,. 1994. Influence of chronic consumption of thermoxidised palm oil diet on basal metabolic rate, body weight and morphology of tissues in rats. Discovery and Innovation (6): 389- 396. Owu, D. U., Osim, E. E and Ebong, P. E., 1998.

  9. The Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Rangboo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Based on recent basic and clinical investigations, the extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus leaf has been revealed to be used for hepatoprotective and cholesterol reducing purposes. We aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of artichoke on biochemical and liver biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 60 consecutive patients suffering NASH were randomly assigned to receive Cynara scolymus extract (as 6 tablets per day consisting of 2700 mg extract of the herb as the intervention group or placebo as the control group for two months. Results. Comparing changes in study markers following interventions showed improvement in liver enzymes. The levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the group treated with Cynara scolymus when compared to placebo group. To compare the role of Cynara scolymus use with placebo in changes in study parameters, multivariate linear regression models were employed indicating higher improvement in liver enzymes and also lipid profile particularly triglycerides and total cholesterol following administration of Cynara scolymus in comparison with placebo use. Conclusion. This study sheds light on the potential hepatoprotective activity and hypolipidemic effect of Cynara scolymus in management of NASH. This clinical trial is registered in the IRCT, Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, by number IRCT2014070218321N1.

  10. The Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangboo, Vajiheh; Noroozi, Mostafa; Zavoshy, Roza; Rezadoost, Seyed Amirmansoor; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Based on recent basic and clinical investigations, the extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf has been revealed to be used for hepatoprotective and cholesterol reducing purposes. We aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of artichoke on biochemical and liver biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 60 consecutive patients suffering NASH were randomly assigned to receive Cynara scolymus extract (as 6 tablets per day consisting of 2700 mg extract of the herb) as the intervention group or placebo as the control group for two months. Results. Comparing changes in study markers following interventions showed improvement in liver enzymes. The levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the group treated with Cynara scolymus when compared to placebo group. To compare the role of Cynara scolymus use with placebo in changes in study parameters, multivariate linear regression models were employed indicating higher improvement in liver enzymes and also lipid profile particularly triglycerides and total cholesterol following administration of Cynara scolymus in comparison with placebo use. Conclusion. This study sheds light on the potential hepatoprotective activity and hypolipidemic effect of Cynara scolymus in management of NASH. This clinical trial is registered in the IRCT, Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, by number IRCT2014070218321N1.

  11. Effect of Eight Weeks Forced Swimming Training with Methadone Supplementation on Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, and Alkaline Phosphatase of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hoseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Narcotics abuse can induce liver disorders; nevertheless, exercises improve liver disorders. The present research aimed to review the effect of eight weeks forced swimming training with methadone supplementation on liver enzymes of rats. Material & Method: In this experimental research, 48 rats were selected, and after one week adaptation to lab environment, they were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats including (1 forced swimming training, (2 methadone supplementation, (3 forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, and (4 control. Groups 2 and 3 used 2 mg/kg methadone daily for 8 weeks. Also, groups 1 and 3 swam for 8 weeks, three sessions per week and each session for 30 minutes. For statistical analysis of data, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used (α≤0.05. Results: Findings showed that forced swimming training, methadone supplementation, and forced swimming training with methadone supplementation had no significant effect on AST (P=0.90 and ALT (P=0.99 enzymes; forced swimming training had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001; also, forced swimming training, compared with methadone supplementation and combination of forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001. Conclusion: Accordingly, 8 weeks of forced swimming training with methadone has possibly no significant effect on liver enzymes.

  12. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, R.K.; Diamant, M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Dijk, van R.A.; Scheffer, P.G.; Teerlink, T.; Kostense, P.J.; Heine, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    and -0.31 [-0.58 to -0.03] respectively). Conclusions In metabolically well-controlled patients with DM2, ALT levels are related to decreased insulin-sensitivity and an impaired conduit vessel vascular function. Eur J Clin Invest 2005; 35(6): 369 -374

  13. Linkage analysis of Norrie disease with an X-chromosomal ornithine aminotransferase locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, J B; Kojis, T L; Cantor, R M; Heinzmann, C; Ngo, J T; Spence, M A; Inana, G; Kivlin, J D; Curtis, D; Sparkes, R S

    1993-01-01

    Norrie disease is a rare disease of newborn males caused by prenatal or perinatal retinal detachment, which may be associated with mental retardation, psychosis, and/or hearing loss. DXS7 (L1.28) and MAO A and B loci have been linked to the ND locus on the short arm of the X chromosome. Sequences homologous to OAT also have been mapped to the short arm of the X chromosome. We performed linkage analyses between the ND locus and one of the OAT-like clusters of sequences on the X chromosome (OATL1), using a ScaI RFLP in a ND family, and increased the previously calculated lod score (z) to over 3 (3.38; theta = 0.05). Similarly, we calculated a lod score of 4.06 (theta = 0.01) between the OATL1 and DXS7 loci. Alone, the OATL1 ScaI RFLP system is expected to be informative in 48% of females. If this system were used in combination with the DXS7 TaqI polymorphism, 71% of females would be informative for at least one of the markers and 21% would be informative for both. Because the OATL1 ScaI RFLP is a relatively common polymorphism, this system should be useful for the identification of ND carriers and affected male fetuses and newborns.

  14. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  15. Application of microfluidics for the development of intensified aminotransferase (ATA) processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren

    Development of biocatalytic processes is greatly dominated by well-established batch process based screening technologies, e.g. glass vials (mL) and microtiter plates (μL). However, there is still a need for improvement of currently available technologies and for new technologies enabling...... relatively easy screening and characterization of different process options. For example, small-scale microfluidic platforms enable testing of complex process options, by combining multiple process steps in a plug-and-play manner, that are difficult to assess with conventional methods. Early...... of biocatalytic processes. Within this thesis, microfluidic modules are applied as tools to screen, characterize, and test reactor and separation process options. Furthermore, multiple microfluidic modules are combined in order to test complex process configurations, i.e. reactor modules combined with separation...

  16. HCV carriers with normal aminotransferase levels: “normal” does not always mean “healthy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Puoti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Approximately 30% of patients with chronic HCV infection show persistently normal ALT levels (PNALT, and another 40% have minimally raised ALT values. Although formerly referred to as “healthy” or “asymptomatic” HCV carriers, it has now become clear that the majority of these patients have some degree of histological liver damage. Controversies still exist regarding the definition of “persistent” ALT normality, the virological and histological features of these subjects, and the natural history and optimal management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC with normal ALT. Most patients with normal ALT have histologically proven liver damage that may be significant (> F2 in up to 20% of patients, and might progress toward more severe degree of liver fibrosis. A significant proportion of patients (≥ 20% experiences periods of increased serum ALT (flare associated with disease progression. AIM OF THE STUDY The introduction of the new combination therapy of PEG-IFN plus ribavirin allowed response rates higher than 50%, with a favourable risk-benefit ratio also in patients with benign or slow progressive disease. Given the efficacy of the new treatments, which soon became the standard of care for CHC, it has been suggested that the issue of whether or not to treat subjects with PNALT should be re-evaluated. ALT levels may have less importance in deciding who should be treated. Many other factors might influence the decision to treat, such as the age of the patient, HCV genotype, liver histology, patient’s motivation, symptoms, extrahepatic manifestations, comorbid illness. The role of non-invasive tools for the assessment of liver fibrosis (transient hepatic elastography remains to be further validated.

  17. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without ...

  18. [A young boy with elevated aminotransferases in physical examination--Two novel missense mutations associated with Wilson's disease were found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Deng, Si-Yan; Wan, Chao-Min

    2015-07-01

    A 3-year-old boy had abnormal liver function, which was found in physical examination, for 5 months before admission. He had no symptoms such as anorexia, poor appetite, and jaundice, had normal growth and development, and showed no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examination revealed significantly reduced ceruloplasmin (35 mg/L), as well as negative hepatotropic virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. There were normal muscle enzymes, blood glucose, and blood ammonia and negative liver-specific autoantibodies. The boy had negative K-F ring and normal 24-hour urine copper (0.56 μmol/L). The ATP7B gene testing for the boy, his sister, and their parents detected two novel missense mutations in the boy and his sister, i.e., compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.2075T>C, p.L692P) and exon 13 (c.3044T>C, p.L1015P), which were inherited from their father and mother, respectively. Wilson's disease was confirmed by genetic diagnosis in the boy and his sister. The boy and his sister were given a low-copper diet. The boy was administered with penicillamine for decoppering and zinc supplement against copper uptake. His sister received zinc supplement alone because no clinical symptoms were observed. The boy showed normal liver function in the reexamination after 3 months of treatment.

  19. A Rare Cause of Fatty Liver and Elevated Aminotransferase Levels: Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdal Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder of neutral lipid storage characterized by ichthyosis, lipid vacuoles in leukocytes, and involvement of several internal organs, mostly the liver. Since the initial case was reported by Dorfman in 1974, nearly 50 cases have been reported, and the majority were from Middle East countries. Here, we report a 20-year-old patient with ichthyosis from Turkey, diagnosed as Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome presented with asypmtomatic elevated transaminases and hepatosteatosis, and also briefly review the updated clinical implications and management of this rarely seen syndrome. Prompt diagnosis of this syndrome avoids further unnecessary investigations in patients with ichthyosis

  20. TMEM199 Deficiency Is a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis Characterized by Elevated Aminotransferases, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Cholesterol and Abnormal Glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jos C.; Timal, Sharita; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Michelakakis, Helen; Vicogne, Dorothée; Ashikov, Angel; Moraitou, Marina; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; van den Boogert, Marjolein A. W.; Porta, Francesco; Calvo, Pier Luigi; Mavrikou, Mersyni; Cenacchi, Giovanna; van den Bogaart, Geert; Salomon, Jody; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Foulquier, François; Veltman, Joris A.; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) form a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with aberrant protein glycosylation as a hallmark. A subgroup of CDGs can be attributed to disturbed Golgi homeostasis. However, identification of pathogenic variants is seriously

  1. Development of an Electrochemical-Based Aspartate Aminotransferase Nanoparticle Ir-C Biosensor for Screening of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chiun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST is a hepatocelluar enzyme released into the bloodstream when hepatic cells are damaged, resulting in elevated blood levels of AST. A single use, disposable biosensor prototype, composed of catalytic iridium nano-particles dispersed on carbon paste, was developed to detect enzymatically-produced H2O2 in AST-mediated reactions. This biosensor is capable of measuring AST levels in a phosphate buffer and undiluted human serum over the concentration range of 0 to 0.89 μg/mL AST concentration (corresponding to 0–250 UL−1 specific activity. The biosensor operates at relatively low oxidation potential (+0.3 volt (V versus the printed Ag/AgCl, minimizing any potential chemical interference in human serum. The measurements of AST in human serum using the biosensor compared well with those measured by standard hospital spectrophotometric assays. This Ir-C biosensor may be useful for AST measurements in the clinical environment.

  2. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    -sectionally associated with obesity and whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance and prospectively associated with a decline in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that high ALT is a marker of risk for type 2 diabetes and suggest a potential role of the liver...... with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion and whether these elevated enzymes predict the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. We measured ALT, AST, and GGT in 451 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (aged 30 +/- 6 years, body fat...... 33 +/- 8%, ALT 45 +/- 29 units/l, AST 34 +/- 18 units/l, and GGT 56 +/- 40 units/l [mean +/- SD]) who were characterized for body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M), and hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose output [HGO...

  3. Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren M; Beck, Hans Christian; Ravn, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus are widely used as aroma producers in the manufacture of dried fermented sausages. Catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by these strains contributes to aroma formation by production of methyl-branched aldehydes and carboxy acids. The ...

  4. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  5. ELEVATED ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT IN BLOOD DONORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MAIN ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes GONÇALES Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of aminotranferases levels is very useful in the diagnosis of hepatopathies. In recent years, an elevated serum ALT level in blood donors has been associated with an increased risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH. The purpose of the study was to research the factors associated with elevated ALT levels in a cohort of voluntary blood donors and to evaluate the relationship between increased ALT levels and the development of hepatitis C (HCV infection. 166 volunteer blood donors with elevated ALT at the time of their first donation were studied. All of the donors were questioned about previous hepatopathies, exposure to hepatitis, exposure to chemicals, use of medication or drugs, sexual behaviour, contact with blood or secretions and their intake of alcohol. Every three months, the serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia are assessed over a two year follow-up. The serum thyroid hormone levels as well as the presence of auto-antibodies were also measured. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients with persistently elevated ALT or AST levels. A needle biopsy of liver was performed in 9 donors without definite diagnostic after medical investigation. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in 116 donors were assayed again the first clinical evaluation. At the end of follow-up period (2 years later 71 donors were tested again for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. None of donors resulted positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C markers during the follow-up. Of the 116 donors, 101 (87% had persistently elevated ALT serum levels during the follow-up. Obesity and alcoholism were the principal conditions related to elevated ALT serum levels in 91/101 (90.1% donors. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus also were associated with increased ALT levels. Only 1/101 (0.9% had mild chronic active non A-G viral hepatitis and 3/101 (2.9% had liver biopsy with non-specific reactive hepatitis. The determination of ALT levels was not useful to detect donors infected with HCV at donation in Brazil, including the initial seronegative anti-HCV phase.A determinação dos níveis de alanina aminostransferase (ALT tem sido útil para o diagnóstico de hepatopatias. Ultimamente, a elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em doadores de sangue, tem sido associada a um maior risco de hepatites pós-transfusionais. Este estudo busca identificar os fatores associados com elevados níveis de ALT entre doadores voluntários de sangue e avaliar as relações entre estes aumentos de ALT e o desenvolvimento de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C. Assim, 116 doadores voluntários de sangue com níveis de ALT elevados, quando da primeira doação, foram estudados. Todos foram questionados sobre hepatopatias prévias, exposição a hepatites, exposição a produtos químicos, uso de drogas ou medicamentos, comportamento sexual, contacto com sangue ou secreções e consumo de álcool. A cada 3 meses foram medidos os níveis de AST, ALT, fosfatase alcalina, gama-glutamil transferase, colesterol, triglicérides e glicemia durante o período de 1-2 anos. Os níveis séricos de hormônios tireoidianos e a presença de auto-anticorpos também foram mensurados. Ultrassonografia abdominal foi realizada em todos os pacientes com elevação persistente dos níveis de AST ou ALT. Foi realizada biópsia hepática em 9 doadores sem diagnóstico definido após investigação clínica. A presença de anticorpos anti-HCV foi novamente pesquisada em 116 doadores no momento da primeira avaliação clínica. Ao final do follow-up (2 anos 71 doadores foram re-testados para a presença do anti-HCV. Nenhum doador se tornou reagente para os marcadores dos virus da hepatite B ou hepatite C, durante o seguimento. Dos 116 doadores, 101 (87% mantiveram níveis séricos de ALT persistentemente aumentados. Obesidade e alcoolismo foram as principais condições associadas à elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em 91/101 (90,1% doadores. Hipertrigliceridemia, hipercolesterolemia, hipotireoidismo e diabetes mellitus também se associaram a níveis aumentados de ALT. Somente 1/101 (0,9% apresentou hepatite crônica ativa não A-G e 3/101 (2,9% apresentaram biópsia hepática com diagnóstico de hepatite reacional. A determinação rotineira dos níveis de ALT, em bancos de sangue não foi útil para detectar doadores infectados com o vírus da hepatite C no Brasil no período que antecede a soroconversão para anti-vhc.

  6. Optimal cut?off value of alanine aminotransferase level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver in patients with poorly controlled type?2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Akihito; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Okauchi, Seizo; Yabe, Hiroki; Tsuda, Tomohiro; Okutani, Kazuma; Yamashita, Kazuki; Nakashima, Koji; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Optimal cut?off value of ALT level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver was as low as 28.0?U/L. We should consider the possibility of fatty liver even when ALT level is within normal range in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

  7. Characterization of a Bordetella pertussis Diaminopimelate (DAP) Biosynthesis Locus Identifies dapC, a Novel Gene Coding for an N-Succinyl-l,l-DAP Aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Thilo M.; Schneider, Boris; Krumbach, Karin; Eggeling, Lothar; Gross, Roy

    2000-01-01

    The functional complementation of two Escherichia coli strains defective in the succinylase pathway of meso-diaminopimelate (meso-DAP) biosynthesis with a Bordetella pertussis gene library resulted in the isolation of a putative dap operon containing three open reading frames (ORFs). In line with the successful complementation of the E. coli dapD and dapE mutants, the deduced amino acid sequences of two ORFs revealed significant sequence similarities with the DapD and DapE proteins of E. coli...

  8. Characterization of a Bordetella pertussis diaminopimelate (DAP) biosynthesis locus identifies dapC, a novel gene coding for an N-succinyl-L, L-DAP aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, T. M.; Schneider, B.; Krumbach, K.; Eggeling, L.; Gross, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    The functional complementation of two Escherichia coli strains defective in the succinylase pathway of meso-diaminopimelate (meso DAP) biosynthesis with a Bordetella pertussis gene library resulted in the isolation of a putative dap operon containing three open reading frames (ORFs), In line with the successful complementation of the E, coli dapD and dapE mutants, the deduced amino acid sequences of two ORFs revealed significant sequence similarities with the DapD and DapE proteins of E, coli...

  9. Potential of Red Spinach Leaves Ethanolic Extract (Amaranthus tricolor L. as a Complementary Therapy For Hiperlipidemia: Study in Vivo of Histopathologic and Activity of Alanin Aminotransferase (ALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Adhi Pradana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the potential of ethanolic extract of red spinach leaves (Amaranthus tricolor L. with control quality as a complementary treatment of hyperlipidemic based on histopathology and activity of alanin aminotrasferase (ALT. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomized in 6 groups: normal group; positive control group were given the drug simvastatin; negative control group; 1st treatment group was given extract at dose of 400mg/kgBW rat, 2nd group was given extract at dose of 400mg/kgBW rat and simvastatin dose 0.18 mg/kgBW rat; 3rd treatment groups were given extract at dose of 800mg/kgBW rat and simvastatin dose 0.18 mg/kgBW rat. Induction hyperlipidemic using high fat diet and poloxamer. The data obtained were tested normality with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Statistical analysis using Oneway ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey HSD to determine the significance of differences between groups for ALT parameter. Result show the use of ethanolic extract of red spinach leaves can reduce fatty liver condition based on decreased level of ALT and liver histopathologic. It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of red spinach leaves dose 400mg/kgBW rat combine with simvastatin can reduce activity of ALT until 31.57 U1-1.

  10. Frequency of hepatitis C viral RNA in anti-hepatitis C virus non-reactive blood donors with normal alanine aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Moinuddin, A.; Ahmed, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of HCV RNA in an anti-HCV non-reactive blood donor population with normal ALT, and its cost effectiveness. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, and Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2008. Methodology: After initial interview and mini-medical examination, demographic data of blood donors was recorded, and anti-HCV, HBsAg and HIV were screened by third generation ELISA. Those reactive to anti-HCV, HbsAg and/or HIV were excluded. Four hundred consecutive donors with ALT within the reference range of 15-41 units/L were included in study. HCV RNA RT-PCR was performed on 5 sample mini-pools using Bio-Rad Real time PCR equipment. Results: All 400 donors were male, with mean age 27 years SD + 6.2. ALT of blood donors varied between 15-41 U/L with mean of 31.5+6.4 U/L, HCV RNA was detected in 2/400 (0.5%) blood donors. Screening one blood bag for HCV RNA costs Rs 4,000.00 equivalent to 50 US dollars, while screening through 5 sample mini-pools was Rs. 800.00 equivalent to approximately 10 US dollars. Conclusion: HCV RNA frequency was 0.5% (2/400) in the studied anti-HCV non-reactive normal ALT blood donors. Screening through mini-pools is more cost-effective. (author)

  11. Fish to meat intake ratio and cooking oils are associated with hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Momoka; Uchida, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kitani, Shingo; Itou, Minoru; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Suiko; Yagi, Minoru; Sata, Michio

    2012-10-01

      Dietary habits are involved in the development of chronic inflammation; however, the impact of dietary profiles of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine transaminase levels (HCV-PNALT) remains unclear. The decision-tree algorithm is a data-mining statistical technique, which uncovers meaningful profiles of factors from a data collection. We aimed to investigate dietary profiles associated with HCV-PNALT using a decision-tree algorithm.   Twenty-seven HCV-PNALT and 41 patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled in this study. Dietary habit was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. A decision-tree algorithm was created by dietary variables, and was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (AUROC).   In multivariate analysis, fish to meat ratio, dairy product and cooking oils were identified as independent variables associated with HCV-PNALT. The decision-tree algorithm was created with two variables: a fish to meat ratio and cooking oils/ideal bodyweight. When subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of 1.24 or more, 68.8% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT. On the other hand, 11.5% of the subjects were HCV-PNALT when subjects showed a fish to meat ratio of less than 1.24 and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight of less than 0.23 g/kg. The difference in the proportion of HCV-PNALT between these groups are significant (odds ratio 16.87, 95% CI 3.40-83.67, P = 0.0005). Fivefold cross-validation of the decision-tree algorithm showed an AUROC of 0.6947 (95% CI 0.5656-0.8238, P = 0.0067).   The decision-tree algorithm disclosed that fish to meat ratio and cooking oil/ideal bodyweight were associated with HCV-PNALT. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. Low normal thyroid function attenuates serum alanine aminotransferase elevations in the context of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in white people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Eline H.; van der Klauw, Melanie; Blokzijl, Hans

    Objectives: Thyroid hormones play a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Although hypothyroidismis associated with increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship of NAFLD with low normal thyroid function is unclear. We tested the association of serum alanine

  13. High protein diet induces pericentral glutamate dehydrogenase and ornithine aminotransferase to provide sufficient glutamate for pericentral detoxification of ammonia in rat liver lobules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, L.; Geerts, W. J.; Jonker, A.; Lamers, W. H.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in nitrogen metabolism. Nitrogen enters the liver as free ammonia and as amino acids of which glutamine and alanine are the most important precursors. Detoxification of ammonia to urea involves deamination and transamination, By applying quantitative in situ

  14. A low-pungency S3212 genotype of Capsicum frutescens caused by a mutation in the putative aminotransferase (p-AMT) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Matsushima, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic mechanism underlying capsinoid biosynthesis in S3212, a low-pungency genotype of Capsicum frutescens. Screening of C. frutescens accessions for capsaicinoid and capsiate contents by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that low-pungency S3212 contained high levels of capsiate but no capsaicin. Comparison of DNA coding sequences of pungent (T1 and Bird Eye) and low-pungency (S3212) genotypes uncovered a significant 12-bp deletion mutation in exon 7 of the p-AMT gene of S3212. In addition, p-AMT gene transcript levels in placental tissue were positively correlated with the degree of pungency. S3212, the low-pungency genotype, exhibited no significant p-AMT transcript levels, whereas T1, one of the pungent genotypes, displayed high transcript levels of this gene. We therefore conclude that the deletion mutation in the p-AMT gene is related to the loss of pungency in placental tissue and has given rise to the low-pungency S3212 C. frutescens genotype. C. frutescens S3212 represents a good natural source of capsinoids. Finally, our basic characterization of the uncovered p-AMT gene mutation should contribute to future studies of capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum.

  15. LIMITED ELEVATIONS IN ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUG-INDUCED SERUM ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT) LEVELS IN A COHORT OF NIGERIANS ON TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV INFECTION IN YENAGOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikuabe, Peter Ogie; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond; Harry, Tubonye Clement

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study, undertaken in a major tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was designed to examine the incidence of elevation in serum alanine aminotransference (ALT) in our patients who were on treatment for HIV/AIDS with some of them on antituberculosis drugs. METHOD:

  16. The cross-sectional association between insulin resistance and circulating complement C3 is partly explained by plasma alanine aminotransferase, independent of central obesity and general inflammation (the CODAM study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Jacobs, M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Vermeulen, V.M.M.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background Complement C3, a central component of the innate immune system is increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the strong association between insulin resistance and circulating amounts of C3 may be

  17. Physiological and biochemical effects of morphactin IT 3233 on callus and tumour tissues of Nicotiana tabacum L. cultured in vitro III. Transamination processes catalysed by aminotransferase L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An active alanine transaminase was found both in callus and tumour tissues of tobacco. The enzyme is more active in the latter tissue, and the reaction balance is strongly shifted towards alanine production, while in callus tissue towards glutamic acid formation. Morphactin applied to the tissue cultures stimulates markedly the enzyme activity only in callus. A negative correlation was observed between the intensity of transamination processes and enhanced synthesis of proteins in the tissues studied. Morphactin disturbs nitrogen metabolism in the callus tissue. Tumour tissue is more resistant to the action of this substance. The different hormonal activities in these tissues may be the cause of the different effects of morphactin.

  18. A SYNOVIAL SARCOMA WITH A COMPLEX T(X/18/5/4) AND A BREAK IN THE ORNITHINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (OAT)LI CLUSTER ON XP11.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEGHUIS, DO; STOEPKER, MEJ; DELEEUW, B; VANDENBERG, E; SUIJKERBUIJK, RF; MOLENAAR, WM; DEJONG, B; VANKESSEL, AG

    The initial cytogenetic analysis of a biphasic synovial sarcoma revealed complex anomalies involving six different chromosomes: 46,Y,t(X;18;5;4)(p11;q11;p13;q12),t(2;5)(q35;q11). After fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome X-specific plasmid library and YAC probes, the

  19. A synovial sarcoma with a complex t(X;18;5;4) and a break in the ornithine aminotransferase (OAT)L1 cluster on Xp11.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weghuis, D Olde; Stoepker, M E; Leeuw, B de; van den Berg, Eva; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Molenaar, W M; Jong, B de; Kessel, A Geurts van

    1994-01-01

    The initial cytogenetic analysis of a biphasic synovial sarcoma revealed complex anomalies involving six different chromosomes: 46,Y,t(X;18;5;4)(p11;q11;p13;q12),t(2;5)(q35;q11). After fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome X-specific plasmid library and YAC probes, the

  20. Changes in Liver Function Enzymes of HIV/AIDS Patients Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on liver enzyme markers (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase ... the diagnosis and advanced infection of the liver cells by HIV. ... recommended guideline for the treatment of HIV ... HIV-positive patients not on treatment and.

  1. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de Knodell (IK > 7, e indicativa de tratamiento la inflamación lobulillar ≥ 2 o fibrosis ≥ 2 según la clasificación de Scheuer. Resultados: existió un IK > 7 y lesión indicativa de tratamiento en 47,8 y 60,7%, respectivamente. La edad, sexo varón, ALT y carga viral se relacionaron con lesión avanzada (p USN (69,1 vs. 47,1%, p = 0,04. La frecuencia de lesión avanzada no fue significativamente mayor cuando se consideraron como puntos de corte la edad de 40 años o DNA-VHB > 2 x 10³ UI/mL o positividad de HBeAg. Se observó menor actividad histológica en pacientes con genotipo D respecto a aquellos infectados con otros genotipos (p < 0,05. Conclusión: una mayor frecuencia de lesión avanzada en pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT hacen recomendable la biopsia hepática independientemente de la carga viral y positividad de HBeAg. Factores como la edad, sexo o genotipo pueden ayudar de forma individual a dicha indicación.

  2. Retrospective analysis of hepatitis B virus chronic infection in 247 patients: clinical stages, response to treatment and poor prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlone Cunha-Silva

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Elevations of viral load and serum alanine aminotransferase may select patients with worse prognosis, especially progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which were strongly association with death.

  3. Clinical experience with ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa in complex therapy of chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic virus hepatitis (32 patients, 13 with chronic hepatitis B and 19 with chronic hepatitis C ages from 20 to 72 with elevated levels of bilirubin and active alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, received ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa over the course of 12 weeks. During therapy alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels decreased. Urdoxa demonstrated good tolerance, efficacy and no visible side effects. Thus, Urdoxa could be used in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes.

  4. ALT Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT); p. 31. Lab ...

  5. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  6. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2-5 years) being seen for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, Daniel R; Ariza, Adolfo J; Fishbein, Mark H; Binns, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2-5 years) and school-age children. Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L) were examined. A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6-9 years), 68 older school-age (10-11 years)). Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%). In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%). Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m(2) vs 24.0 kg/m(2); Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.003), but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  7. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2–5 years being seen for obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Beacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2–5 years and school-age children. Methods: Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L were examined. Results: A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6–9 years, 68 older school-age (10–11 years. Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%. In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%. Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m2 vs 24.0 kg/m2; Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.003, but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Conclusion: Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  8. Crizotinib-induced fatal fulminant liver failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Robin M J M; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Vahl, Jelmer E.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; van den Broek, Daan; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schellens, Jan H M; Burgers, Sjaak A.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a case of a 62-year-old female in good clinical condition with non-small-cell lung cancer who was treated with crizotinib. After 24 days of crizotinib therapy she presented with acute liver failure. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels had increased

  9. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Toropila, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  10. Biochemical assessement of liver enzymes in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims at the estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutmyltransferase GGT (Liver enzymes) in Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and/or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) patients in parts of Edo State, Nigeria.

  11. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes and biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver marker enzymes, total protein, amylase and glucose were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with aqueous extract of Pennisetum purpureum. The liver marker enzymes evaluated were alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Sixteen wistar rats were grouped into ...

  12. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  13. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  14. Possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver on the kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of eight weeks of a diesel-contaminated diet on liver and kidney of Wistar Albino rats, as well as the possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver. There was a significant increase in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of rats fed with ...

  15. Degradation of pyrimidines in Saccharomyces kluyveri: transamination of beta-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnackerz, K D; Andersen, G; Dobritzsch, D

    2008-01-01

    Beta-alanine is an intermediate in the reductive degradation of uracil. Recently we have identified and characterized the Saccharomyces kluyveri PYD4 gene and the corresponding enzyme beta -alanine aminotransferase ((Sk)Pyd4p), highly homologous to eukaryotic gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase ...

  16. Weight reduction improves markers of hepatic function and insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There was a 26.99%, 40.8%, 33.81%, 32.73%, 37.8% and 15 % reduction in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma – Glutamyltransferase (GGT) and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance- index (HOMA-IR) and BMI ...

  17. Biochemical Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood sample was collected by vacutainer tube without anticoagulant and transported to Jimma University Specialized Hospital laboratory for determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides, total serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatnine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data were ...

  18. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  19. Effect of quality protein maize diet on liver integrity and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of quality protein maize (QPM) diet on the histology of the liver and on the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in albino wistar rats. The AST level in rats fed QPM diet was 57.4 ± 8.92U/L which compared favourably with that ...

  20. Evaluation of toxic effects of metformin hydrochloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities of hepatic and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase were not significantly (p>0.05) affected in MET and GB-treated rats, whereas testicular SOD, CAT, glutathione, serum aspartate aminotransferase and ...

  1. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  2. Cholecystectomy without Operative Cholangiography. | Sule | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased 7.8, 1.6, 2.95 and 3.85 times beyond their average normal reference values. The mean CBD diametter was 1.74cm. All CBDS were palpated at operation. Serum amylase was normal in all our patients including ...

  3. Effect of subchronic administration of ethanolic leaf extract of croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical effcts of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on serum alkaline phosphatase(SAP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum total protein and albumin were studied.The levels of these enzymes and that of total protein and albumin in the extract treated rats were not ...

  4. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  5. Determination of toxic effects of commercial and local mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase were seen with statistical significance at P < 0.05 between the group exposed to rice husk and the control and also between the rice husk and mosquito coil groups respectively. The results showed increased levels of alanine aminotransferase which could indicate acute liver ...

  6. Comparative study of C-Reactive Protein and other biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin and globulins were investigated using high sensitivity Immunoturbidometric and colorimetric techniques in individuals with hepatitis (n=50), Malaria (n=50) and 40 control subjects in age ...

  7. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol related hepatocellular liver injury was assessed using aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels. A combination of CAGE score ≥2 and De Ritis ratio ≥2 defined alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and viral hepatitis B and C serologies were evaluated in all ...

  8. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  9. nvj 34 4 corrected.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRAPHICS DEPT

    Brommer et al, 2001) Errors that affect the results of biochemical tests may be ... pH. Total protein and albumin. Vitamins. Lactate. Aminotransferases. (ALT and ... inappropriate container, handling, storage ... undetected failure in quality control) or.

  10. Pages 498 - 506.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    dehydrogenase, creatinine, urea and alanine aminotransferase were observed in untreated diabetic rats. Also, untreated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) elevated urinary glucose and protein and, lowered .... 12-h light–dark cycle.

  11. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB.

  12. Diversity among Leishmania isolates from the Sudan: isoenzyme homogeneity of L. donovani versus heterogeneity of L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M E; Evans, D A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania isolates from patients in the Sudan suffering from either visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis were characterized using a battery of 12 enzymes. Aspartate aminotransferase separated the L. donovani isolates into 2 distinct zymodemes, but the overall results showed no significant...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q7VRZ3) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BORPE 1e-52 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q9JWN9) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_NEIMA 3e-66 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q9ZJ94) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_HELPJ 1e-31 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8CX33) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_SHEON 3e-68 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q9PH05) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_XYLFA 3e-64 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q8RG65) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_FUSNN 2e-47 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q6HPL2) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BACHK 3e-41 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK107595 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107595 002-131-A11 (Q74GH6) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GEOSL 1e-11 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (O86781) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STRCO 2e-50 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (P72720) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_SYNY3 4e-49 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q6F6U8) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_ACIAD 4e-88 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8DRA8) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STRR6 4e-54 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q74GH6) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GEOSL 1e-59 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (P57963) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_PASMU 3e-98 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8NND3) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CORGL 2e-90 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q8Y915) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_LISMO 1e-41 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8KA75) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BUCAP 1e-96 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q7MP62) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_VIBVY 4e-69 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q7NIG8) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GLOVI 3e-62 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q8XHZ7) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CLOPE 9e-55 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q9Z6U0) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CHLPN 2e-51 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107595 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107595 002-131-A11 (Q6FZH6) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BARQU 2e-11 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q56275) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_THIFE 3e-82 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q8CX33) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_SHEON 4e-53 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8CY30) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BRUSU 4e-69 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q56213) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_THET8 5e-55 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (P17169) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_ECOLI 4e-72 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q98LX5) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_RHILO 6e-90 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q8DJI6) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_SYNEL 6e-49 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q5HM69) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STAEQ 1e-40 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O19908) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CYACA 1e-46 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q97SQ9) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STRPN 1e-53 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q9Z6U0) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CHLPN 1e-36 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q890U2) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CLOTE 1e-50 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q663R1) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_YERPS 2e-56 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q5FUY5) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GLUOX 4e-49 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (P40831) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_MYCLE 5e-62 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q821Z7) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CHLCV 1e-39 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q81VN5) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BACAN 2e-41 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8DEF3) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_VIBVU 9e-70 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q9KUM8) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_VIBCH 9e-52 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O57981) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_PYRHO 3e-59 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q5QZH5) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_IDILO 2e-51 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (P40831) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_MYCLE 9e-47 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O68956) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_MYCSM 2e-62 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q9HT00) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_HALSA 6e-44 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q88YE7) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_LACPL 1e-47 ...

  20. Stability of 35 biochemical and immunological routine tests after 10 hours storage and transport of human whole blood at 21°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Linda O; Faber, Nina R; Moller, Mette F

    2014-01-01

    , antitrypsin, bilirubin, creatinine, free triiodothyronine, γ-glutamyl transferase, haptoglobin, immunoglobulin G, lactate dehydrogenase, prostate specific antigen, total carbon dioxide, and urea. Alanine aminotransferase, amylase, C-reactive protein, calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase, ferritin, free...

  1. AST Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/asttest.html AST Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an AST Test? AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme that is ...

  2. Epidemiology of Acute Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Murine Typhus, and Identification of Their Clinical Characteristics Compared to Patients with Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    2009-05-01

    Conclusion: In southern Taiwan, acute Q fever is the most common rickettsiosis. QSM diseases should be suspected in febrile patients who present with relative bradycardia, hepatomegaly, and elevated serum aminotransferases, but without leukocytosis.

  3. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... tion and media optimization are the methods applied for improving ... lanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entry point enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. .... As determined by HPLC,.

  4. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  5. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    body mass index; FTO gene; metabolic phenotypes; obesity; ... Obesity-related metabolic traits such as triglyceride, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood ... creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and fasting glucose were measured.

  6. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  7. Effects of 45Ca on murine skeletal muscle. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.; Asotra, K.; Katoch, S.S.; Krishan, K.

    1983-01-01

    Swiss albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7x10 4 Bq and 7.4x10 4 Bq 45 Ca/g body weight. Mice of both dose groups were autopsied on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase bioassayed in diaphragm and gastrocnemius in 45 Ca-treated and normal mice. Alanine aminotransferase activity in the two muscles increased in response to 45 Ca administration suggesting a stepped up utilization of alanine in glucose generation. Aspartate aminotransferase levels, on the other hand, diminished in both the 45 Ca-treated muscles and are maintained at low values throughout the 28 day period of study. The results suggest an innate ability of skeletal muscle to selectively utilize either of the two glucogenic amino acids during radiation stress. The data are discussed in light of previous findings on glycogen accumulation in irradiated skeletal muscle. (author)

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation and zinc on changes of the activity of adaptive enzymes in the poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Kafka, I.; Kalenicova, Z.; Luptakova, L.

    2008-01-01

    We observed changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum of broiler chicks after single whole-body gamma irradiation in time gap 3., 7., 14. and 21 day. We applied zinc to organism of chicks after irradiation. Our observations showed that most of the changes in the enzyme activity were very different at irradiation groups and zinc groups of chickens compared to controls. (authors)

  9. Chinese medicine Jinlida (JLD) ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Sha-Sha; Song, An; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Chao; Song, Guang-Yao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Liu, Chen-Xi; Kang, Jun-Cong; Ren, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Jinlida (JLD), a traditional Chinese medicine which has been given as a treatment for high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted to provide evidence in support of the affects of JLD on insulin resistance induced by HFD. The affect of JLD on blood glucose, lipid, insulin, adiponectin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum and lipid conten...

  10. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disarrangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to biosynthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  11. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphata...

  12. Control of utilization of L-arginine, L-ornithine, agmatine, and putrescine as nitrogen sources in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaibe, E; Metzer, E; Halpern, Y S

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of the synthesis of the enzymes involved in the utilization of L-arginine, L-ornithine, agmatine, and putrescine as a sole nitrogen source in Escherichia coli K-12 was examined. The synthesis of agmatine ureohydrolase, putrescine aminotransferase, and pyrroline dehydrogenase is dually controlled by catabolite repression and nitrogen availability. Catabolite repression of agmatine ureohydrolase, but not that of putrescine aminotransferase or pyrroline dehydrogenase, is relieved ...

  13. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita, Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  14. Indicators of inflammation and cellular damage in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with alteration of bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical and hematimetric indicators of inflammation and cell damage were correlated with bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes in 30 chronic male alcoholics admitted into psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were altered, respectively, in 90%, 63%, 87%, 23% and 23% of the cases. None of the indicators of inflammation (lactic dehy...

  15. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  16. Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Mahmood; O. H. Azeez; J. S. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats) and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nit...

  17. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setji, Tracy L; Holland, Nicole D; Sanders, Linda L; Pereira, Kathy C; Diehl, Anna Mae; Brown, Ann J

    2006-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are both associated with insulin resistance. Thus, women with PCOS may have an increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of NASH and abnormal aminotransferase activity in women with PCOS. The study is a retrospective chart review. The setting is an academic endocrinology clinic. Patients were 200 women with PCOS, defined as irregular menses and hyperandrogenism. Biopsy-documented NASH and aminotransferase levels were the main outcome measures. Fifteen percent (29 of 200) had aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase more than 60 U/liter. Women with aminotransferase elevations had lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (41 vs. 50 mg/dl, P = 0.006), higher triglycerides (174 vs. 129 mg/dl, P = 0.024), and higher fasting insulin (21 vs. 12 microIU/ml, P = 0.036) compared with women with normal aminotransferases. Six women (mean age 29 yr) with persistent aminotransferase elevations underwent liver biopsy. All six had NASH with fibrosis. Compared with the 194 of 200 PCOS women who did not undergo biopsy, women with biopsy-documented NASH had lower HDL (median 34 vs. 50 mg/dl, P PCOS. Low HDL, high triglycerides, and high fasting insulin were associated with abnormal aminotransferase activity. Some women already had evidence of NASH with fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether to screen PCOS women for liver disease at an earlier age than is currently recommended for the general population.

  18. Changes of basic metabolic parameters after single gamma irradiation in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falis, M.; Benova, K.; Toropila, M.; Sesztakova, E.; Vargova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms helps us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The presented study focused on changes in the concentration of corticosterone, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers irradiated with gamma rays. The serum corticosterone had increased on day one after irradiation. The increase in serum corticosterone can be ascribed to the stress action of ionizing radiation on the broilers. (authors)

  19. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  20. Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal K; Das, Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.). In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava methanolic leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity whereas P. guajava aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava plant possesses better hepatoprotective activity compared to other extracts.

  1. Frequency of worsening liver function in severe dengue hepatitis patients receiving paracetamol: A retrospective analysis of hospital data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.A.; Aslam, F.; Hakeem, H.; Siddiqui, F.; Nasir, N.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of worsening liver function among hospital in-patients with severe dengue hepatitis receiving paracetamol. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of dengue patients with severe hepatitis who received paracetamol for control of fever between June 2007 and December 2014. Alanine aminotransferase at baseline and following paracetamol administration was noted, as well as dosage and duration of paracetamol, along with participants' demographic details. Frequency of patients who developed worsening or improvement of alanine aminotransferase was also noted. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 113 subjects, 73(64.6%) were male and 40(35.4%) were female. Overall improvement was observed in subsequent alanine aminotransferase levels (491 units per litre, IQR 356.5 TO 775 vs 151 units per litre, IQR 49.5 to 299.5). Most commonly prescribed dose of paracetamol was 2g (IQR 1 to 5 grams), which was taken for a median duration of 1 day (IQR 1 to 3 days). Moreover, 100(88.5 %) patients showed improvement in alanine aminotransferase. Only 13(11.5 %) patients developed worsening of alanine aminotransferase. Of those with worsening liver function, 8(61.5 %) were discharged home with no clinical deterioration and 5(38.5 %) deaths were observed. However, causes of deaths were unrelated to liver dysfunction. Conclusion: The frequency of worsening liver function following paracetamol administration in patients with severe dengue hepatitis was relatively low. (author)

  2. Liver enzymes serum levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bezerra Cavalcanti Sette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature regarding the serum levels of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis with and without viral hepatitis. Original articles published up to January 2013 on adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were selected. These articles contained the words “transaminases” “aspartate aminotransferase” “alanine aminotransferase” “gamma glutamyl transferase,” “liver enzymes”, AND “dialysis” OR “hemodialysis”. A total of 823 articles were retrieved. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 49 articles were selected. The patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis had reduced serum levels of aminotransferases due to hemodilution, lower pyridoxine levels, or elevated homocysteine levels. The chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis infected with the hepatitis C virus also had lower aminotransferase levels compared with the infected patients without chronic kidney disease. This reduction is in part due to decreased viremia caused by the dialysis method, the production of a hepatocyte growth factor and endogenous interferon-α, and lymphocyte activation, which decreases viral action on hepatocytes. Few studies were retrieved on gamma-glutamyl transferase serum levels; those found reported that there were no differences between the patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (with or without viral hepatitis than in the patients with normal renal function; this reduction has a multifactorial origin.

  3. Influence of ionizing irradiation to enzymatic metabolism and concentration of triacylglycerols in serum of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Danova, D.; Benova, K.; Toropila, M.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of ionizing irradiation helps to develop methods of protection against its negative influences. In the study we investigated the effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation on the organism of chicken. We investigated changes of activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and changes of concentration of triacylglycerols in time gap 1, 4, 14 and 25 days after expose with a single whole-body gamma irradiation of 3 Gy. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased on day of 1. after irradiation and concentration of triacylglycerols was significantly increased on day of 14. and 25. after irradiation. From this study we can see by this relatively low dose of irradiation in view of higher radioresistance of chickens the organism of poultry sensitive responds with visible changes of selected biochemical parameters. (authors)

  4. Effects of insulin on messenger RNA activities in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.E.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Liver poly(A) RNA, isolated from adrenalectomized rats after insulin treatment, was translated in a nuclease-treated lysate of rabbit reticulocytes and quantitated for both total activity and the capacity to synthesize the insulin-inducible enzyme tyrosine amino-transferase. Analysis of the translated products from poly(A) RNA isolated 1 h after insulin treatment showed a 2.7-fold increase in activity of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. During the same interval, the capacity of poly(A) RNA to direct the synthesis of total protein in lysates also changed, showing a 30 to 40% increase in translational activity/unit of RNA. Increased translatability was apparent in all fractions of poly(A) RNA separated by centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Insulin thus appears to mediated a generalized changed in mRNAs leading to increased capacity for translation; induction of tyrosine aminotransferase may reflect unusual sensitivity to this effect of the hormone

  5. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...... semialdehyde. The yeast may also express a 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) and a 3-hydroxypropanoate dehydrogenase (3-HPDH) and aspartate 1-decarboxylase. Additionally the yeast may express pyruvate carboxylase and aspartate aminotransferase....

  6. Effects of adenosine on the organ injury and dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Adenosine has been shown in animal and human studies to decrease the post-ischemic myocardial injury by lowering the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a. The objectives of the study was to examine the protective effects of adenosine on the organ injury (liver, kidney, pancreas) associated with hemorrhagic shock in rats. Methodology: The study was conducted at Cardiovascular Physiology laboratory, King Saud University, Riyadh in 2007-2008. Anesthetized male Sprague- Dawley rats were assigned to hemorrhage and resuscitation treated with 20mM adenosine , untreated, or similar time matched control groups (n=6 per group). Rats were hemorrhaged for one hour using a reservoir model. Arterial blood pressure was monitored for one hour, and maintained at a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Adenosine 20mM was injected intra-arterially, before resuscitation in the adenosine treated group. Resuscitation was performed by re infusion of the sheded blood for 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were analyzed for biochemical indicators of multiple organ injury: 1) liver function: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 2) renal function: urea and creatinine, 3) pancreatic function: amylase. Results: In the control group there was no significant rise in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine, (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (iii) amylase. While in the adenosine treated group, resuscitation from one hour of hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rises in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine, (ii) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (iii) amylase. Treatment of rats with 20mM adenosine before resuscitation following one hour of hemorrhagic shock decreased the multiple organ injury and dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: Adenosine attenuated the renal, liver and pancreatic injury caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Thus

  7. Liver enzymes in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Ramos de Oliveira Liberato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to analyze the serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and the hematocrit in patients with chronic kidney disease who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis and 40 on hemodialysis were assessed, and the patients were matched according to the length of time that they had been on dialysis. Blood samples were collected (both before and after the session for those on hemodialysis to measure the enzymes and the hematocrit. RESULTS: In the samples from the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels were slightly higher compared with the samples collected from the patients before the hemodialysis session and slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the hemodialysis session. The levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the hemodialysis patients were slightly higher than the levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis. In addition, the levels of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyl transferase that were collected before the hemodialysis session were significantly lower than the values collected after the session. The hematocrit levels were significantly lower in the patients who were on peritoneal dialysis compared with the patients on hemodialysis (both before and after the hemodialysis session, and the levels were also significantly lower before hemodialysis compared with after hemodialysis. CONCLUSION: The aminotransferase levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis were slightly higher compared with the samples collected before the hemodialysis session, whereas the aminotransferase levels were slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the session. The hematocrits and the aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of the samples collected after the

  8. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  9. How to interpret liver function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Careful interpretation of liver function tests within the clinical context can help elucidate the cause and severity of the underlying pathology. Predominantly raised alkaline phosphatase represents the cholestatic pattern of biliary pathology, whilst predominantly raised alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase represent the hepatocellular pattern of hepatocellular pathology. The severity of liver dysfunction or biliary obstruction is reflected in the bilirubin level and the degree of liver synthetic function can also be indicated by the albumin level. Beyond the liver function tests, prothrombin time provides another marker of liver synthetic function and a low platelet count suggests portal hypertension.

  10. Níveis séricos de enzimas de função hepática em frangos de corte de criação industrial clinicamente saudáveis Serum levels of hepatic enzyme function in clinically healthy broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borsa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The values for the main hepatic enzymes included in the profiles of screen clinical biochemistry, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (FA, lactate desidrogenase (LDH and gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT, in samples of serum of broiler chickens in industrial system, clinically healthy, starting from the seventh day of life, until the slaughter (42 days in weekly intervals were determined. Significant variations were not observed in the analyses in relation to the age of the birds for none of the appraised enzymes.

  11. Comparison of two types of acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogusz, M.; Cholewa, L.; Pach, J.; Mlodkowska, K.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 patients treated at the Toxicological Clinic in Krakow for coal-stove-gas poisoning, the aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, LDH/sub 1/ isoenzyme activities, and the lactate level were studied. Findings were compared with those of earlier investigations carried out on a group of patients poisoned by lighting gas; qualitatively changes in both groups were similar. The biochemical parameters studied aided in quantitative evaluation of the patients' condition: a threefold increase in lactate level on admission to the hospital and a likewise threefold increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity after 24 hrs of treatment are indications of severe poisoning.

  12. Histopathologic and biochemical liver test abnormalities in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: a review Alterações histopatológicas e testes bioquímicos hepáticos em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To review the medical literature regarding the histopathologic and biochemical liver test abnormalities in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics. METHODS: Review of articles in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases regarding serum levels and prevalence of alterations in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, in relation to liver histopathology, with or without discrimination of types of histopathologic alteration. RESULTS: Global mean prevalence rates of aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase alterations were 86.3% and 51.1%; in cases with steatosis they were 79.1% and 38.5%; and in cases of hepatitis, 90.1% and 58%. In all studies, prevalence rates of aspartate-aminotransferase alterations were significantly higher with lower variability than those of alanine-aminotransferase. Mean aspartate-aminotransferase levels were higher than 2N (N is the upper normal limit of the method employed in all cases with hepatitis histopathology, while those of alanine-aminotransferase were 1.48N, in the same cases. Prevalence of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin abnormalities were 74.5% and 74.9% globally; in cases of steatosis, they were 70.9% and 67.9%; and in cases of hepatitis, 75.9% and 77.7%. Mean alkaline phosphatase levels were above the upper normal limit in all cases, but those of total bilirubin were above normal in 4 of 7 hepatitis studies. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of aspartate-aminotransferase alteration was consistently related to presence of histopathologic abnormalities; an enzyme level higher than 2N suggests the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis.OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura médica referente às relações entre alterações histopatológicas e testes bioquímicos hepáticos em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos. MÉTODOS: Levantamento, a partir das bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS e referências em publicações, das

  13. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Biochemical tests for the detection of liver damage were specific for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-ALT ratio (AST/ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, coagulation factors, and erythrocyte...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...

  14. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  15. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...

  16. Toxic effect of volatile products of thermooxidizing decomposition of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faff, J.; Dudkiewicz, J.; Kauczak, M.; Waniewski, E.; Tokarzewski, E.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic effects of thermo-oxidizing decomposition products of conveying belts made of PVC and rubber have been tested. The resultant smokes were passed through a protective absorber. During 14-days' post-exposure observation, an increased activity of asparagine, aminotransferase and in some animal alanine aminotransferase was found. Moderately increased pathomorphological changes were found in lungs (emphysema, oedema interstitial and bronchogenic inflammations), along with slight degenerative changes in the liver and kidneys. In the peripheral blood, increased amounts of erythrocytes and leukocytes were found.

  17. Evaluation of the risk of liver damage from the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid for intra-operative identification and resection in patients with malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Cecilie Mørck; Skjoeth-Rasmussen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for fluorescence-guided surgery of malignant gliomas is evident from several studies; however, as post-operative elevations of liver enzymes have been seen, there is a potential risk of liver damage upon administration. The aim...... (September 2012-September 2014) at the University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, was conducted. All patients received a pre-operative dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight 5-ALA. The pre- and post-operative enzyme levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase...

  18. Stereoselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of the four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine and pharmacological characterization at human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Sophie; Jensen, Anders A.; Maurat, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine, l-CBG-I, l-CBG-II, l-CBG-III, and l-CBG-IV, were synthesized in good yield and high enantiomeric excess, from the corresponding cis and trans-2-oxalylcyclobutanecarboxylic acids 5 and 6 using the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AAT......) and branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) from Escherichia coli. The four stereoisomeric compounds were evaluated as potential ligands for the human excitatory amino acid transporters, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in the FLIPR membrane potential assay. While the one trans-stereoisomer, l...

  19. Glycogen metabolism in the liver of Indian desert gerbils (Meriones hurrianae, Jerdon) exposed to internal beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Glycogen content and the activities of phosphorylase, glycogen synthetase, phosphohexose isomerase, glucose-6-phosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases have been biochemically determined in the liver of Indian desert gerbils following radiocalcium internal irradiation. Decline in glycogen, phosphohexose isomerase, with a concomitant increase in phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase reveals a switch over from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism in liver. Activities of aminotransferases indicate the utilization of transamination products of alanine and aspartate in oxidative pathway during early periods. Transiently increased glucose-6-phosphatase seems to restrict glycogenolytic and glycolytic metabolism and thereby pave way for the acceleration of oxidative metabolism. (author). 52 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  1. Assessment of ranges plasma indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under conditions of intensive aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Kopp; Jan Mareš; Štěpán Lang; Tomáš Brabec; Andrea Ziková

    2011-01-01

    Plasma parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from three various trout farms in the Czech Republic were assessed using automated blood plasma analyser. Non-haemolysed serum from the heart of 48 healthy, randomly selected fish (standard length, mean ± SD = 247.3 ± 24.2 mm; body mass, mean ± SD = 262.18 ± 87.28 g) was analysed for the following plasma parameters: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creat...

  2. Short article: A randomized-controlled study of sitagliptin for treating diabetes mellitus complicated by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Long; Ma, Rui; Zhu, Hong-Xia; Zhu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin for treating Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In total, 72 Chinese T2DM patients with NAFLD were divided randomly into two groups of 36 patients each group. All 72 patients were assigned to receive either sitagliptin or diet and exercise for 52 weeks between January 2013 and December 2015. The outcomes' measurements included serum levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Seventy patients completed the study. Sitagliptin showed greater efficacy than the diet and exercise in decreasing the hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels at weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. In addition, no significant changes in the average aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were found during the 52-week follow-up in both the sitagliptin and the control groups. The results of this study indicate that sitagliptin is an effective and safe treatment for patients with T2DM and NAFLD.

  3. AcEST: DK949543 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CAT2_BOVIN Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase... 31 6.7 sp|P0C6F0|ACFD_VIBCH Accessory colonizatio...n factor AcfD OS=Vibri... 31 6.7 sp|A5F372|ACFD_VIBC3 Accessory colonization factor

  4. Biochemical and haematological responses in African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in the plasma throughout the exposure period. Prolonged exposure of C. gariepinus juveniles to NPK can lead to physiological dysfunction in the fish. Keywords: enzymes, fish, glucose, physiology, sublethal, ...

  5. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  6. 81 GUIATEU TAMO IDA MARLENE 1, DJUIDJE NGOUNOUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... study was to evaluate the importance of the biochemical exploration of the liver function in ... test in Yaoundé central hospital, from November 2015 to February 2016. .... aminotransferase (AST) reflects direct ... Inclusion and exclusion criteria .... recruitment ... relatively lower mean CD4 T cell values than HIV.

  7. APRI: A simple bedside marker for advanced fibrosis that can avoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index (APRI) is a simpler calculation than NFS, but has never been studied in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim. To validate APRI as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD to be used in clinical practice. Design/Methods. The cohort ...

  8. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H

    2012-01-01

    levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:  Data from 10 065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase were extracted from our laboratory database. Correlations were investigated in four patient...

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CC EtOH ). The hepatoprotective effect of CC EtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CC EtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl₄ were significantly reduced by CC EtOH . In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CC EtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Peng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH. The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  11. Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé - Vol 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Place des alanine-aminotransferases dans la securite transfusionnelle : Etude au centre national de transfusion sanguine de Lome au Togo · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. LY Fekete, Y Nabagou, IM Kueviakoe, M Kolou, J Padaro, KSE Amouzou, AY Segbena ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de la densite erythrocytaire par la methode des grandients de phtalate chez les patients drepanocytaires au Chu-campus de Lome(Togo) Abstract · Vol 8, No 1 (2006): Serie D - Articles Place des alanine-aminotransferases dans la securite transfusionnelle : Etude au centre national de transfusion sanguine de Lome ...

  13. Sequence Classification: 891219 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase) involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathwa...ys; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; Uga1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321456 ...

  14. Association between ALT level and the rate of cardio/cerebrovascular events in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Ryom, Lene; Kovari, Helen

    2013-01-01

    An inverse association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in the general population. We investigated associations between ALT levels and the risk of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in a large cohort ...

  15. Evaluating the Efficiency of Hepatoprotector Hepa Veda in Patients with Liver Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of efficiency of monotherapy with hepatoprotector Hepa veda in patients with liver pathology. There were found a significant decrease of aminotransferase level in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and a tendency to decrease in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C that showed the efficiency of this hepatoprotector.

  16. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Gu, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. PMID:29343942

  17. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Ozougwu, J. C.1* and ... Key words: Allium cepa, paracetamol, hepatoprotective effects, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate ...... function tests to different stages of chronic liver diseases in HCV .... activity of alcoholic and aqueous extacts of Allium cepa linn.

  18. Evaluation of liver function tests of HIV positive patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes-alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (AST, ALT and ALP), bilirubin and serum proteins were determined using standard laboratory methods and these parameters were used to evaluate the liver function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive patients receiving ...

  19. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  20. The effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn) on aspartate aminostransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes and on body weight of normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing between 74 g and 90.5 g, of both sexes ...

  1. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is the one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, widely used in East Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered to be the principal active component in C. militaris and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of polysaccharide from C. militaris (PCM) on physical fatigue induced in animals through a forced swimming test. The mice were divided into 4 groups receiving 28 days' treatment with drinking water (exercise control) or low-, medium-, and high-dose PCM (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 28 days, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test; the exhaustive swimming time was measured and fatigue-related biochemical parameters, including serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathi- one peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen, were analyzed. The results showed that PCM could significantly prolong the exhaustive swimming time of mice; decrease concentrations of serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde; and increase liver and muscle glycogen contents and the concentrations of serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione per- oxidase, and catalase. The data suggest that PCM has an antifatigue effect, and it might become a new functional food or medicine for fatigue resistance.

  2. Safety and protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, isolated from fresh cow milk, was studied in vivo. Toxicological data of rat serum revealed that the Lactobacillus isolates had liver improvement functions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities of the rats dosed with Lactobacillus isolates ...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK060423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060423 001-010-H01 AY498612.1 Rhodococcus opacus putative GntR type regulator of taurine... degradation (tauR) gene, partial cds; and alanine dehydrogenase (ald) and taurine-pyruvate aminotransferase (tpa) genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 7e-32 +3 ...

  5. [Establishing biological reference intervals of alanine transaminase for clinical laboratory stored database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Song, Binbin; Shen, Junfei; Wu, Jiong; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baishen

    2015-08-25

    To establish an indirect reference interval based on the test results of alanine aminotransferase stored in a laboratory information system. All alanine aminotransferase results were included for outpatients and physical examinations that were stored in the laboratory information system of Zhongshan Hospital during 2014. The original data were transformed using a Box-Cox transformation to obtain an approximate normal distribution. Outliers were identified and omitted using the Chauvenet and Tukey methods. The indirect reference intervals were obtained by simultaneously applying nonparametric and Hoffmann methods. The reference change value was selected to determine the statistical significance of the observed differences between the calculated and published reference intervals. The indirect reference intervals for alanine aminotransferase of all groups were 12 to 41 U/L (male, outpatient), 12 to 48 U/L (male, physical examination), 9 to 32 U/L (female, outpatient), and 8 to 35 U/L (female, physical examination), respectively. The absolute differences when compared with the direct results were all smaller than the reference change value of alanine aminotransferase. The Box-Cox transformation combined with the Hoffmann and Tukey methods is a simple and reliable technique that should be promoted and used by clinical laboratories.

  6. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  7. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  8. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiyaporn Dondee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P. berghei Methods: For extraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera leaves, microwave with hot water method was used and acute toxicity study was then be done. Standard Peters’ test was carried out to test the efficacy of M. oleifera extract in vivo. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 red blood cells infected with P. berghei strain by intraperitoneal injection. They were subsequently given with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of this extract by intragastric route once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated using microscopy and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were also measured. Results: The M. oleifera leaf extract showed the protective activity on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei in a dose-dependent fashion. It can be indicated by normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin in mice treated with extract. The 1000 mg/kg of extract was observed to present the highest activity. Interestingly, the dosedependent antimalarial activity was also found in the mice treated with extract. Conclusions: The M. oleifera leaf extract presented protective effect on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei.

  9. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... included changes in clinical chemistry (increased serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase... white matter of the central nervous system was observed in subchronic and chronic studies in mice and..., including adults, youth (11 to http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative...

  10. Do serum ALAT values reflect the inflammatory activity in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahen, D. L.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Blok, A. P.; Oosting, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in 40 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, to assess whether serum alanine aminotransferase reflects the inflammatory process in the liver. Twenty liver biopsy specimens were included for each disease. Five histological aspects were scored: periportal

  11. The essential oil of Artemisia capillaris protects against CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghan Gao

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the hepatoprotective effect of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Asteraceae, on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assayed. Administration of the essential oil of A. capillaris at 100 and 50 mg/kg to mice prior to CCl4 injection was shown to confer stronger in vivo protective effects and could observably antagonize the CCl4-induced increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and malondialdehyde levels as well as prevent CCl4-induced decrease in the antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.01. The oil mainly contained β-citronellol, 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, thymol and myrcene. This finding demonstrates that the essential oil of A. capillaris can protect hepatic function against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

  12. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus E antigen among Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the prevalence of hepatitis B virus 'e' antigen (HBeAg) among individuals determined to be hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen- positive and analyzed the gender/age category associated with more active HBV infection and whether alteration in the levels of alanine aminotransferase could be associated with ...

  13. Haematological and serum biochemical characteristics of weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, monocyte, eosinophil, creatinine, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, aspartate aminotranferase and alanine aminotransferase did not differ (P>0.05) significantly among the treatment means. The result indicated that raw bambara groundnut offal can be incorporated into diet for weaner pigs at 30% level of ...

  14. Assessment the effect of N Acetyl Cysteine on liver function test in patient with elective Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver ischemic insults are important sources of liver injuries leading to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and mediating liver cell injury. Glutathione mediated mechanisms are among the most important defense mechanisms of the liver; N-acetylcysteine (NAC provides cysteine for glutathione defense mechanisms. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at increased risk of liver ischemia. This study was performed to assess the role of NAC in prevention of liver ischemia.Materials and Methods: In a double blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients entered the study in two groups (45 in each. Patients in the NAC group received 150 mg/Kg NAC after induction of anesthesia and the other group, the same volume of placebo. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin were checked before and after the surgery. ANOVA was used for data analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: No difference between the two groups regarding basic variables; however, the postoperative values of AST and ALT were lower in the NAC group with statistically significant difference. Also, postoperative levels of total bilirubin were lower in the NAC group compared with the control group; a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: Patients undergoing CABG are advised to receive prophylactic 150 mg/Kg NAC to improve their postoperative levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin.Keywords: glutathione antioxidant mechanism, N-acetylcysteine; Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, bilirubin, liver ischemia.

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA); C W N Spearman, FCP (SA), PhD. Division of Hepatology ... elevated alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels for up to 18 months. Risk factors include female gender (2:1), age >55 years and duration of.

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a series of 4-substituted glutamate analogues and pharmacological characterization at human glutamate transporters subtypes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaux, Sebastien; Kusk, Mie; Sagot, Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    A series of nine L-2,4-syn-4-alkylglutamic acid analogues (1a-i) were synthesized in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (>99% ee) from their corresponding 4-substituted ketoglutaric acids (2a-i), using the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) from pig heart or E. coli. The synthesized com...... subtypes EAAT1-3 while maintaining inhibitory activity....

  17. Effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (Scorpiones: Buthidae venom on rat metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions are venomous arthropods of the Arachnida class and are considered relatives of spiders, ticks and mites. There is not any study about the biochemical effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 venom. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed at evaluating the toxicity of the venom from A. crassicauda, which is responsible for a number of deaths of infants, children and adults in tropical and subtropical countries. For this purpose, rats (n=35 were divided into seven groups of five animals each; venom solutions (250µg/kg were subcutaneously injected into rats; blood samples were taken from each animal at various times; and serum biochemical parameters were measured (levels of total proteins, total bilirubin, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, sodium, chlorine, potassium and calcium, and the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and uric acid increased in envenomed animals, compared to controls. There was a statistically positive correlation between Na+ and Cl- ions.

  18. Protective Role of Commiphora molmol Extract against Liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2016; 15 (1): 65-72 ... aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides showed a ... rabbits and Giardia lamblia infection in rats [11]. ... [12], antigastric ulcer and cytoprotective effects ... temperature and humidity, fed with commercial.

  19. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters. The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern) had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern) had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern) had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP. The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients. UMIN000010932.

  20. measurements of iron status and survival in african iron overload

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), garnma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (-yGT), bilirubin, glucose and sodi~ were measured using an automated clinical chemistry analyser. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined using the Westergren method. C-reactive ...

  1. The performance of the 'CentrifiChem' parallel fast analyser using packaged reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P; Saunders, R A

    1975-05-01

    The CentrifiChem system was used with packaged reagent kits for the following determinations: albumin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatinine, glucose, and alpha-hydroxybutyrate and lactate dehydrogenases. The linearity obtainable for each assay was investigated, and particular attention was paid to finding the most suitable instrument settings.

  2. Effect of transportation stress on heat shock protein 70 concentration and mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues and serum enzyme activities and hormone concentrations of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Bao, En-Dong; Zhao, Ru-Qian; Lv, Qiong-Xia

    2007-11-01

    To determine the enzymatic and hormonal responses, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production, and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues of transport-stressed pigs. 24 pigs (mean weight, 20 +/- 1 kg). Pigs were randomly placed into groups of 12 each. One group was transported for 2 hours. The other group was kept under normal conditions and used as control pigs. Sera were used to detect triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. The heart and kidneys of anesthetized pigs were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen for quantification of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA. No significant differences were detected in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triiodothyronine and cortisol concentrations between groups; however, the serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and thyroxine concentrations were higher in transported pigs. Densitometric readings of western blots revealed that the amount of Hsp70 in heart and kidney tissues was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Results of fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the Hsp70 mRNA transcription in heart tissue, but not kidney tissue, was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Transportation imposed a severe stress on pigs that was manifested as increased serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase and increased amounts of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues. Changes in serum enzyme activities were related to the tissue damage of transport-stressed pigs.

  3. Liver synthesis function in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with other liver tests A função de síntese hepática em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos. Correlações com outros testes hepáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver function and its correlation with bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were evaluated in 30 male chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics admitted into the psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Hypoalbuminemia, lowered prothrombin activity, hypotransferrinemia and hypofibrinogenemia were detected in 32 %, 32 %, 28 %, and 24 % of patients, respectively. Transferrin was elevated in 8 %. Greater prevalence of hyperbilirubinemia was found in patients with lowered prothrombin activity, hypofibrinogenemia, or hypotransferrinemia. No correlation was found between serum bilirubin or aminotransferase levels and normal or elevated albumin levels, time or activity of prothrombin, and fibrinogen levels. Serum alkaline phosphatase was elevated in normoalbuminemics and gamma-glutamyltransferase in patients with lowered prothrombin activity. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with hypofibrinogenemia, hypotransferrinemia with elevated aspartate aminotransferase or gamma-glutamyltransferase, and hypertransferrinemia with elevation of alanine aminotransferase. These data indicated the occurrence of hepatic dysfunction due to liver damage caused directly by alcohol or by alcoholism-associated nutritional deficiencies.A função hepática e suas correlações com a bilirrubina e as enzimas hepáticas foram avaliados em 30 alcoolistas crônicos do sexo masculino, assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos, internados em hospital psiquiátrico para desintoxicação e tratamento do alcoolismo. Hipoalbuminemia, hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogenemia e hipotransferrinemia ocorreram em 32%, 32%, 24% e 28% dos pacientes, respectivamente. A transferrina estava elevada em 8%. Maior prevalência de hiperbilirrubinemia foi encontrada em pacientes com hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogemia e hipotransferrinemia. Não observou-se correlações entre os níveis séricos da bilirrubina e das aminotransferases e os níveis normais

  4. The effects of saline water consumption on the ultrasonographic and histopathological appearance of the kidney and liver in Barki sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Zeineldin, Mohamed; Eissa, Attia; El Ebissy, Eman; Mohammed, Rasha; Abdelraof, Yassein

    2018-03-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying degrees of water salinity on the ultrasonographical and histopathological appearance of the liver and kidneys in Barki sheep. Thirty Barki sheep (initial weight, 29.48 ± 0.81 kg) were allocated into three groups (n=10 per group) based on the type of drinking water for 9 months: the tap water (TW) group (350 ppm total dissolved solids [TDS]); the moderate saline water (MSW) group (4557 ppm TDS); and the high saline water (HSW) group (8934 ppm TDS). After 9 months, the body weight was significantly decreased in sheep subjected to MSW (P=0.0347) and HSW (P=0.0424). Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine were significantly increased (Pinfiltration and vacuolar changes of hepatocytes in both MSW and HSW groups. In conclusion, water salinity negatively affects the body weight, liver and kidney appearance of Barki sheep and thus sheep production.

  5. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs...... the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO; CRD42013005779....

  6. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  7. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  8. Changes of plasma VEGF levels and liver function in patients with liver cancer before and after interventional treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Qi Jun; Gao Jia

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of the interventional treatment for the angiogenesis and liver function in patients with liver cancer within short time, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of VEGF in plasma. The level of liver function was measured through automatic biochemistry analyzer. The results indicated that the level of VEGF in patients with liver cancer decreased after interventional treatment than that of before treatment (P<0.05). The level of total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bile acid decreased after interventional treatment (P<0.05). The level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were increased than before (P<0.05). The interventional treatment inhibit the expression of the VEGF in the tumor tissue and limited the angiogenesis within short time, but to some extent may caused the injury of the hepatocytes and the synthetic and excremental function in patients with liver cancer. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice employing Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Infections and endotoxemia continue to be the principal causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructions of the bile duct. The objective of the present work was the investigation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice utilizing Tc-99m E.coli. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly higher in jaundiced rats than in the control animals (p 3 ), but no significant alterations were observed in the lungs of either group. This dates could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cases of bacteraemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction observed in clinical analyses of obstructive jaundice.(author)

  10. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL STATUS OF BLOOD SERUM OF RAINBOW TROUT Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792 UNDER DIFFERENT KEEPING AND FEEDING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhem Hasković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the blood serum of the rainbow trout in relation to various physico-chemical properties of water and diet composition. Fish were reared in two ponds that were supplied by water from different sources. The identified differences in the biochemical parameters are caused by different environmental factors in ponds and different feed composition. Low oxygen values caused by different temperatures is a key stress factor of the noted differences. Statistically significant differences are noted for AST (aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, urea and iron (0.00. Evident were also different mineral concentrations of Ca and P (0.05 as well as glucose and cholesterol (0.05.

  12. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citral on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sayuri Uchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP lead to acute liver damage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of citral in a murine model of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of citral. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO production and in histological analysis. The effect of citral on leukocyte migration and antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. Citral pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and γGT, MPO activity, and NO production. The histopathological analysis showed an improvement of hepatic lesions in mice after citral pretreatment. Citral inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that citral protects the liver against liver toxicity induced by APAP.

  14. A retrospective study of 100 cases of feline distal aortic thromboembolism: 1977-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laste, N.J.; Harpster, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The medical records of 100 cats with distal aortic thromboembolism were reviewed. The average age was 7.7 years, with the neutered male being the most common signalment (63%). Evidence of preexisting cardiac disease was noted in 11% of the cases. A murmur or arrhythmia was noted in 57% of the cases on presentation. Frequent laboratory abnormalities included elevations in blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Radiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common (89% and 85%, respectively). The most frequent, underlying disease was hypertrophic feline cardiomyopathy (58%), with the left atrial size (as measured by M-mode) significantly increased in the majority of cases (mean left atrial-to-aortic ratio, 2.08). The average, long-term survival in the 37% of cases which survived the initial thromboembolic episode was 11.5 months. The remaining cases either died (28%) or were euthanized (35%)

  15. Some biochemical aspects of the protective effect of strontium chloride on gamma-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, F.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Biochemistry); Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abady, M.I. (National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of treatment with SrCl{sub 2} (10 mg/100 g rat) on rats 15 minutes prior to whole body {gamma}-irradiation (7,5 Gy) was studied. The hazardeous effects of irradiation were greatly corrected in the treated group. The hyperglycemic effect and liver glycogen accumulation in the untreated group decreased to normal level. The enzymatic activities of serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase und lactate dehydrogenase were greatly affected showing insignificant changes in the treated group of animals. Life span calculated on 50% survival was also significantly elongated by 36.3%. These results show the potentiality of SrCl{sub 2} as a radioprotective agent which was not used before. (orig.).

  16. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. TMC pretreatment also increased the hepatic levels of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and reduced serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in mice administered APAP (Phepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS by 87%, 84%, 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, in mice treated with APAP (Phepatic damage.

  17. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  18. Evaluation of the effects of bitter yam tuber supplementation on serum parameters used to assess hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWAYNE K. STENNETT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides (ITIS is known to possess potent antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties and can therefore be exploited for associated nutraceutical/pharmaceutical purposes. It however possesses bioactive compounds known to promote organ damage when ingested in excess. This study investigates the effects of bitter yam consumption at a concentration of 5% on liver and kidney damage/function parameters. Normocholesterolemic mice fed bitter yam supplemented diets experienced significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and bilirubin, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations. Significant increases were also observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood urea nitrogen concentration of the genetically modified hypercholesterolemic mice fed supplemented diets. These results suggest mild kidney damage in both mice species and a significant increase in the rate of erythrocyte haemolysis in the normocholesterolemic mice.

  19. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  20. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract.

  1. ELEVATED ALT AND AST IN AN ASYMPTOMATIC PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEW ST

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -Abnormal liver function test with raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT and raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST are commonly seen in primary care setting. -Chronic alcohol consumption, drugs, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and chronic viral hepatitis are common causes associated with raised ALT and AST. -In chronic viral hepatitis, the elevation of liver enzyme may not correlate well with the degree of liver damage. -Non-hepatic causes of raised ALT and AST include polymyositis, acute muscles injury, acute myocardial infarction and hypothyroidism. -In the primary care setting, the doctor should obtain a complete history regarding the risk factors for viral hepatitis, substance abuse and request investigations accordingly. -Suspected chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are best referred to hepatologist for further management.

  2. Valores bioquímicos de jiboia (Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalena Barros da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores médios dos indicadores bioquímicos sanguíneos: glicose, ureia, creatinina, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, amilase e lipase de jiboias (Boa constrictor e comparados os valores das concentrações encontradas entre os grupos de machos e fêmeas. Foram utilizados 12 espécimes de Boa constrictor, dos quais sete machos e cinco fêmeas. A comparação das médias dos indicadores bioquímicos entre os grupos de machos e fêmeas indicou ausência de influência significativa de fatores sexuais. As técnicas bioquímicas tradicionais foram adequadas para a determinação desses indicadores para esta espécie.

  3. Activity of some enzymes of the blood serum during irradiation of intrathoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikova, E N; Kallistova, L P; Vasil' eva, I G; Korkina, L V; Goncharova, I M; Golovchenko, A G [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Rentgenologii i Radiologii, Moscow (USSR)

    1978-08-01

    Out of 90 patients with intrathoracic tumours (71) and with tumours of other localizations (19 patients - the control) by the end of the radiation therapy course in 13 patients with tumours of the thoracic cavity organs (the lung and esophagus) the activity of creatine phosphokinase increased with simultaneous increase of aspartate aminotransferase in 6 patients and lactate dehydrogenase in one patient. Electrocardiographically pathological shifts in the heart were registered only in 8 out of 13 patients that makes it possible to make a conclusion about the necessity of studying the enzymes of creatine phosphokinase, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase in patients with intrathoracic tumours during the process and after radiation therapy for the diagnosis of the cardiac muscle affection.

  4. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Tung, Shui-Yi; Lee, Kamfai; Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Hsiung

    2012-02-28

    To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compared with other noninvasive tests. This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment. FibroQ, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index, cirrhosis discriminant score, age-platelet index (API), Pohl score, FIB-4 index, and Lok's model were calculated and compared. FibroQ, FIB-4, AAR, API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test: P fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests. FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  5. Fast and Cost-Effective Biochemical Spectrophotometric Analysis of Solution of Insect “Blood” and Body Surface Elution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łoś

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using insect hemolymph (“blood” and insect body surface elutions, researchers can perform rapid and cheap biochemical analyses to determine the insect’s immunology status. The authors of this publication describe a detailed methodology for a quick marking of the concentration of total proteins and evaluation of the proteolytic system activity (acid, neutral, and alkaline proteases and protease inhibitors, as well as a methodology for quick “liver” tests in insects: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and urea and glucose concentration analyses. The meaning and examples of an interpretation of the results of the presented methodology for biochemical parameter determination are described for the example of honey bees.

  6. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  7. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities.

  8. Relationships between cerebral autoregulation and markers of kidney and liver injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J K; Perin, J; Parkinson, C; O'Connor, M; Gilmore, M M; Reyes, M; Armstrong, J; Jennings, J M; Northington, F J; Chavez-Valdez, R

    2017-08-01

    We studied whether cerebral blood pressure autoregulation and kidney and liver injuries are associated in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). We monitored autoregulation of 75 newborns who received hypothermia for NE in the neonatal intensive care unit to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulation (MAP OPT ). Autoregulation parameters and creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using adjusted regression models. Greater time with blood pressure within MAP OPT during hypothermia was associated with lower creatinine in girls. Blood pressure below MAP OPT related to higher ALT and AST during normothermia in all neonates and boys. The opposite occurred in rewarming when more time with blood pressure above MAP OPT related to higher AST. Blood pressures that optimize cerebral autoregulation may support the kidneys. Blood pressures below MAP OPT and liver injury during normothermia are associated. The relationship between MAP OPT and AST during rewarming requires further study.

  9. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5...... of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels......, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood...

  10. Investigation of impairment of liver function in local residents of Miaofeng Village, Wushan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhongxia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo assess the impairment of liver function and investigate possible causes in local residents in Miaofeng Village, Mali Town, Wushan County, Gansu Province, China, and to provide a basis for the etiological study of idiopathic liver damage. MethodsThe residents in Miaofeng Village were screened for liver function and an epidemiological study was conducted. Serological testing was performed for those with abnormal screening results. Trace elements in drinking water and soil such as arsenic, chromium, and selenium were also tested. ResultsOf all residents, 23.8% and 10.7% showed abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Positivity of HBsAg was detected in 11 cases, fatty liver was identified in 3 cases, and absence of selenium in soil was also confirmed. ConclusionA proportion of local residents in Miaofeng Village have impaired liver function and the absence of selenium in soil may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon.

  11. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  12. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements. (Auth.)

  13. Protective effects of tropisetron on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Rashidian, Amir; Kazmi, Sareh; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Karimi, Gholamreza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) causes morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tropisetron against AP induced by cerulein. Cerulein (50μg/kg, 5 doses) was used to induce AP in mice. Six hours after final cerulein injection, animals were decapitated. Hepatic/pancreatic enzymes in the serum, pancreatic content of malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Tropisetron significantly attenuated pancreatic injury markers and decreased the amount of elevated serum amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), MPO activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels caused by AP in mice. Tropisetron didn't affect the pancreatic levels of MDA. Our results suggest that tropisetron could attenuate cerulein-induced AP by combating inflammatory signaling. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy in patients with AP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Chapman, B.J. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1983-10-31

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements.

  15. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  16. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase...

  17. Shenfu injection provides protection for perinatal asphyxia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of shenfu injection for the protection of neonates with asphyxia. Eighty neonates with asphyxia were randomly divided into two groups, treatment group and control group (n=40. Both groups received interventions such as ventilation, oxygen, and circulation support. Treatment group was administrated with shenfu injection additionally. Serum levels of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, and neuron-specific enolase were significantly lower but the oxygenation index was significantly higher in treatment group on day 7 and day 14. The neurobehavioral score was significantly higher in treatment group than in control group. On the 14th day, the survival rate of treatment group (77.5% was higher than that of control group (55%. Shenfu injection could protect the function of the brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney by attenuating ischemia reperfusion after severe asphyxia resuscitation, improve neurobehavioral ability and increase the survival of neonates.

  18. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P Mycotoxins also altered (P effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers.

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

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    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  20. Burkitt's lymphoma causing acute pancreatitis in a child

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    Muhammed Akıl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 8-year-old boy admitted with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting for the previous 10 days. Sensitivity was detected in the epigastric area. There was not defense and rebond. Aspartate aminotransferase was 106 U/L, alanine aminotransferase 25 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 311 U/L, blood amylase level 748 U/L, blood lipase level 391 U/L. In thoracic CT, soft tissue with smooth contours measuring 32 mm×28 mm was identified in the posterior mediastinum. Bone marrow aspiration biopsy was normal. A mass specimen obtained from the duodenum endoscopic biopsy. This specimen was diffuse staining by leukocyte common antigen, CD10 and CD20. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis associated with stage 3 duodenal Burkitt's lymphoma. Modified LMB-98 was initiated. Burkitt's lymphoma may rarely cause acute pancreatitis.

  1. Gamma radiation effects on liofilized human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Chavez Ardanza, A.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Martin Gonzalez, O.; Garcia Gonzalez, I.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human freeze dried serum was artificially contaminated with Flavobacterium sp. for studying the effects of gamma radiation of it. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator were determined and the sterilization dose was set. The quality of the product irradiated at both, calculated sterilization dose (8.5 kGy) an another one about 25 kGy was determined. It was made according to: sterility testing, total proteins, pH enzymes (alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), protein electrophoresis, fast performance liquid chromatographic and effect on the cellular growth. From the latter was concluded that the calculated sterilization dose was adequate form keeping the biological properties and viability of the irradiated serum. Nevertheless, the dose of 25 k Gy was not adequate because of its dangerous effects on the cell culture

  2. Toxicological evaluation of Cladophora glomerata Kützing and Microspora floccosa Thuret in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahprathanchai, Prannapus; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Aritajat, Salika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa ethanolic extracts in rats. Acute toxicity was tested with a single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 25 g/kg bd wt. Mortality, behavior, amount of food intake, body weight, and any abnormalities of the visceral organs, were observed. The results showed that the extract caused neither mortality, nor abnormalities. Subchronic toxicity was tested by administering the extract at doses of 0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg for 60 days. Differences in body weight, hematology and blood biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; blood urea nitrogen, BUN and creatinine, Cre) were not detected among the control and treatment groups. Although the packed cell volume of the male rats treated with 1.0 g/kg extract was significantly lower than the controls (p< or =0.05), the level was in the standard range for rat hematocrit.

  3. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, I.Z.A.; Kattab, H.A.H.; Sheashea, E.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  4. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, M; Barak, A J; Beckenhauer, H C; Rahko, T

    1998-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride-injected rats were given liquid diets with and without betaine for 7 d. Hepatic lipidosis was induced by 4 daily injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Animals were killed and their livers and blood taken for analysis of betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Liver samples were also processed and stained for histological examination. Supplemental betaine reduced triglyceride in the liver and centrilobular hepatic lipidosis induced by the CCl4 injections. In both the control and experimental groups receiving betaine, liver betaine, BHMT and SAM were significantly higher than in their respective groups not receiving betaine. This study provides evidence that betaine protects the liver against CCl4-induced lipidosis and may be a useful therapeutic and prophylactic agent in ameliorating the harmful effects of CCl4.

  5. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (ptraining slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  6. Analysis of circulating angiopoietin-like protein 3 and genetic variants in lipid metabolism and liver health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Anne Lundby; Carayol, Jérôme; Blædel, Trine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-derived protein, plays an important role in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using data available from the DiOGenes study, we assessed the link with clinical improvements (weight, plasma lipid, and insulin levels) and changes in liver...... markers, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), adiponectin, fetuin A and B, and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), upon low-calorie diet (LCD) intervention. We also examined the role of genetic variation in determining the level of circulating ANGPTL3 and the relation between the identified...... genetic markers and markers of hepatic steatosis. Methods: DiOGenes is a multicenter, controlled dietary intervention where obese participants followed an 8-week LCD (800 kcal/day, using a meal replacement product). Plasma ANGPTL3 and liver markers were measured using the SomaLogic (Boulder, CO) platform...

  7. Effect of parenterally administered cystamine and gammaphos (WR-2721) on some biochemical parameters in dog blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsa, J.; Tichy, M.; Podzimek, F.; Spelda, S.; Resl, M.; Kuna, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of intravenous and intramuscular administration of radioprotectives cystamine and gammaphos in dogs on the biochemical parameters of the blood serum. The activities were studied of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase. The contents were determined of total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, lipids, calcium, sodium and potassium. Cystamine was shown to be hepatotoxic. The intramuscular administration of gammaphos was found to be more advantageous than of cystamine. Only slight increase was observed in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and alpha-amylase. With cystamine, the changes in all biochemical parameters were most marked. (M.D.). 17 figs., 18 refs

  8. Comparison of biomedical evaluation for white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Dutton, Christopher J; Knightly, Felicia; Williams, Cathy V; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Louis, Edward E

    2008-12-01

    Health and nutritional assessments of wildlife are important management tools and can provide a means to evaluate ecosystem health. Such examinations were performed on 37 white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar. Comparison of health parameters between sites revealed statistically significant differences in body weight, body temperature, respiratory rate, hematology parameters (white cell count, hematocrit, segmented neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count), serum chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chloride, and creatinine phosphokinase), and nutrition parameters (copper, zinc, ferritin, retinol, tocopherol, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol). Two of 10 lemurs tested were positive for toxoplasmosis; none of 10 were positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Enteric bacteria and endo- and ectoparasites were typical. Statistically different values in hematology and chemistry values probably do not reflect clinically significant differences, whereas nutrition parameter differences are likely related to season, soil, and forage availability.

  9. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  10. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Dong, Xiujuan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics. This protective effect coincided with reduced malondialdehyde and increased glutathione in both serum and lung tissues, indicating attenuated oxidative stress in crocin-treated rats. Myeloperoxide levels in lung, kidney and liver were also reduced. Crocin can potentially be used to protect organs from HS-induced damages during resuscitation due to its anti-oxidative role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and after the exercise intervention. The Matsuda index was used to assess insulin sensitivity. We observed significant decreases in CK18 fragments (558.4 ± 106.8 vs. 323.4 ± 72.5 U/l, P vs. 24.3 ± 4.8 U/l, P vs. 69...... changes in fat oxidation and circulating sFasL (rho = -0.65, P vs. 17.5 ± 2.1%, NS). We conclude that short-term exercise reduces a circulatory marker of hepatocyte apoptosis in obese individuals with NAFLD and propose that changes....... We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis-plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)-in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1...

  13. Analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Iraj; Abdi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Abbas; Wahedi, Mohammad Saleh; Menbari, Shahoo; Lahoorpour, Fariba; Rahbari, Rezgar

    2011-08-01

    To determine adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a possible diagnostic marker in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infected patients. Blood samples were collected from 72 healthy, 33 HIV positive and 30 HIV-HBV co-infected subjects. Blood CD4+ cell count was recorded and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total ADA, and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were determined. Serum ALT, AST, total ADA and ADA2 isoenzyme activities were significantly higher in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected groups compare to the control (pADA activities (R(2)=0.589, pADA was significantly increased in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infections. Therefore, because of its low cost and simplicity to perform, ADA activity might be considered as a useful diagnostic tool among the other markers in these diseases. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antihyperglycaemic and organic protective effects on pancreas, liver and kidney by polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Juan; Hu, Chunlong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-07

    The present work was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic and protective effects of two Hericium erinaceus intracellular polysaccharide (HIPS) purified fractions (HIPS1 and HIPS2) from mycelia of H. erinaceus SG-02 on pancreas, liver and kidney in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The supplementation of HIPS1 and HIPS2 significantly decreased the blood glucose (GLU) levels; suppressed the abnormal elevations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels in serum; improved the antioxidant enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)) activities; and attenuated the pathological damage to these organs. The HIPS1 showed superior effects in antihyperglycaemia and organic protection than HIPS2 possible owing to the abundant functional groups (-NH 2 , -COOH and S=O) in HIPS1, indicating that H. erinaceus SG-02 could be used as a functional food and natural drug for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  15. Estimation of liver parameters and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis in Erbil governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakey, Musher Ismail Salih; Abdoulrahman, Kamaran Kaiani

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate iron related parameters in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out in Kidney Dialysis Center of Hawler Teaching Hospital in Erbil governorate. This study comprised (76) patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and 41 healthy subjects as a control group of same ages. All hemodialysis patients were taking erythropoietin. The blood samples were taken from the patients before and after the process of hemodialysis for liver parameters and oxidative stress estimations. The results of this study showed lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), while higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin and malondialdeyhde (MDA) before analysis was seen. Hemodialysis causes increasing in AST, ALT, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and decreasing in ALP, direct bilirubin MDA and TAC.

  16. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision......BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore...... algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation...

  17. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  18. The parametars of liver functional status in the wood industry workers exposed to organic solvent volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective-prospective controlled research was conducted in order to determine changes of the liver functionsin the workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, whose concentrations did not exceed limits set for the working environment. One hundred and twenty five workers of the„Krivaja“wood factory were involved in this research, 66 of whom had been exposed during their working hours to a mixture of organic solvents for two years and even longer. Average age of workers was 40 +/-15. Another group comprised 59 workers of the same sex, similar age and anthropomorphic characteristics, but they had not been exposed to the mixture of organic solvents (controlled group. The mixture of acetone, xylene, toluene, butyl acetate and isobutanol was found in the air of the working environment. The workers with existing liver diseases, chronic alcoholics, diabetics and those who had recently been exposed to a trauma or surgery, were excluded from the research. The participants’ blood samples were tested for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total proteins and albumins. The Student’s t-test has shown that there was no significant difference between the controlled and exposed groups for albumin, aminotransferase and bilirubin values, but there was a highly significant difference in the total protein concentrations between thet wogroups.Since there is a correlation between blood concentration and duration of exposure to the mixture of organic solvents, it has been found that correlation coefficient of the bilirubin,aminotransferase and albumin was not significant,however,therewasa considerable positive correlation for total proteins of plasma. Based on the results of the research it could be concludedthat there was no indicative cumulative impact of the mixture of organic solvents to the liver functions.

  19. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  20. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  1. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ogihara

    Full Text Available While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters.The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses.Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP.The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients.UMIN000010932.

  2. Liver Enzymes and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Junxi; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    We used Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal effects of the liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), on diabetes and cardiovascular disease, using genetic variants predicting these liver enzymes at genome wide significance applied to extensively genotyped case-control studies of diabetes (DIAGRAM) and coronary artery disease (CAD)/myocardial infarction (MI) (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes). Genetically higher ALT ...

  3. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  4. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  5. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy,...

  7. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  8. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  9. Verification of chemistry reference ranges using a simple method in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irith De Baetselier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemistry safety assessments are interpreted by using chemistry reference ranges (CRRs. Verification of CRRs is time consuming and often requires a statistical background. Objectives: We report on an easy and cost-saving method to verify CRRs. Methods: Using a former method introduced by Sigma Diagnostics, three study sites in sub- Saharan Africa, Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria and Bloemfontein, South Africa, verified the CRRs for hepatic and renal biochemistry assays performed during a clinical trial of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. The aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and phosphorus results from 10 clinically-healthy participants at the screening visit were used. In the event the CRRs did not pass the verification, new CRRs had to be calculated based on 40 clinically-healthy participants. Results: Within a few weeks, the study sites accomplished verification of the CRRs without additional costs. The aspartate aminotransferase reference ranges for the Bondo, Kenya site and the alanine aminotransferase reference ranges for the Pretoria, South Africa site required adjustment. The phosphorus CRR passed verification and the creatinine CRR required adjustment at every site. The newly-established CRR intervals were narrower than the CRRs used previously at these study sites due to decreases in the upper limits of the reference ranges. As a result, more toxicities were detected. Conclusion: To ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, verification of CRRs should be standard practice in clinical trials conducted in settings where the CRR has not been validated for the local population. This verification method is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed by any medical laboratory.

  10. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil Scientific Note: biochemical profile of rats fed yogurt containing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Taís Ril

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42 foram divididos em três grupos (n=14, e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado no presente estudo efeito significativo do extrato de erva-mate sobre os níveis de colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina, glicose e na atividade das enzimas fosfatase alcalina, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase. O extrato de erva-mate, 0,1% no iogurte, não interfere no metabolismo de ratos alimentados por 30 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoghurt containing yerba-mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis, with and without probiotic cultures, on the lipidic, glycemic, hepatic and kidney profiles of rats fed these types of yoghurt. Wistar rats (42 were divided into three groups (n=14 and for 30 days were fed yoghurt without yerba-mate extract, yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and probiotic cultures. No significant effect of the yerba mate extract on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose and the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed in the present study. The addition of 0.1% yerba mate extract to the yoghurt did not interfere with the metabolism of the rats during 30 days.

  11. Verification of chemistry reference ranges using a simple method in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baetselier, Irith; Taylor, Douglas; Mandala, Justin; Nanda, Kavita; Van Campenhout, Christel; Agingu, Walter; Madurai, Lorna; Barsch, Eva-Maria; Deese, Jennifer; Van Damme, Lut; Crucitti, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry safety assessments are interpreted by using chemistry reference ranges (CRRs). Verification of CRRs is time consuming and often requires a statistical background. We report on an easy and cost-saving method to verify CRRs. Using a former method introduced by Sigma Diagnostics, three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa, Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria and Bloemfontein, South Africa, verified the CRRs for hepatic and renal biochemistry assays performed during a clinical trial of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. The aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and phosphorus results from 10 clinically-healthy participants at the screening visit were used. In the event the CRRs did not pass the verification, new CRRs had to be calculated based on 40 clinically-healthy participants. Within a few weeks, the study sites accomplished verification of the CRRs without additional costs. The aspartate aminotransferase reference ranges for the Bondo, Kenya site and the alanine aminotransferase reference ranges for the Pretoria, South Africa site required adjustment. The phosphorus CRR passed verification and the creatinine CRR required adjustment at every site. The newly-established CRR intervals were narrower than the CRRs used previously at these study sites due to decreases in the upper limits of the reference ranges. As a result, more toxicities were detected. To ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, verification of CRRs should be standard practice in clinical trials conducted in settings where the CRR has not been validated for the local population. This verification method is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed by any medical laboratory.

  12. Possible Ameliorative Effect of Chicory Extract (Cichorium Intybus) on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N. N; Farag, M. F. S.; Darwish, M. M

    2011-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Chicorium intybus (Chicory) against radiation induced-oxidative stress and changes in the levels of 150-180 g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with chicory extract at a daily dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt/day for four weeks, group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with chicory extract two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid profile was measured.also concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and TBARS level was estimated in the cardiac tissue. The results showed decreased body weight and heart weight in irradiated animals. Compared to the control normal rats, irradiated rats had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine phosphokinase(CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, cardiac tissue TBARS was markedly increased while SOD, GSH and CAT were significantly decreased. Oral and heart weights, serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile. Cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased while TBARS was markedly reduced, membrane bound enzymes in rats' heart was investigated. Rats weighing about administration of chicory extract at doses of 250 mg/kg b.wt. improved the body compared to irradiated rats. These results may suggest a strong antioxidant effect of chicory, which was effective in mitigating adverse effect of γ irradiation on animals

  13. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  14. Semen quality, lipid peroxidation, and seminal plasma antioxidant status in horses with different intensities of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Härtlová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare markers of semen quality, sperm membrane damage, and the seminal plasma antioxidant activity in warmblood stallions with and without sport workload stress. Four stallions were used for breeding only (control and four both for breeding and competition in jumping. Semen samples were collected at 14-day intervals (from June to August from each stallion (5 ejaculates per stallion. Immediately after sperm collection, a conventional examination of the ejaculate was processed. Catalytic activities of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and indicator of lipoperoxidation - F2α isoprostanes were measured in samples of seminal plasma. Contrary to basic semen quality indicators, the values of seminal plasma pH, aspartate aminotransferase and alanin aminotransferase were significantly (P 2α isoprostanes and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly (P 0.05 increased by stress. The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase increased during the monitored period and reflected changes in F2α isoprostane concentration. We can conclude that even the conventional basic sperm indicators stay within the reference ranges of the biochemical indicators of seminal plasma such as pH or AST/ALT activity may be negatively influenced by sport workload stress. Increased concentrations of F2α isoprostanes indicate that lipoperoxidation can be a mechanism of cell membrane destabilization, which is counteracted by an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. This is the first report of oxidative stress symptoms in normospermic equine semen in relation to stallion sport workload.

  15. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase ...

  16. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  17. Gene-enzyme relationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids have been isolated from Nicotiana silvestris. Isozymes of chlorismate mutase were isolated, partially purified and subjected to enzyme kinetic analysis. In addition, studies investigating the role of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthetase, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase, shikimate dehydrogenase, prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in regulation of aromatic amino acids levels in tobacco are reported

  18. Routine Laboratory Blood Tests May Diagnose Significant Fibrosis in Liver Transplant Recipients with Chronic Hepatitis C: A 10 Year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sheen, Victoria; Nguyen, Heajung; Jimenez, Melissa; Agopian, Vatche; Vangala, Sitaram; Elashoff, David; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aims of our study were to determine whether routine blood tests, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) and Fibrosis 4 (Fib-4) scores, were associated with advanced fibrosis and to create a novel model in liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods: We performed a cross sectional study of patients at The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center who underwent liver transplantation for HCV. ...

  19. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio is not superior to APRI,FIB-4 and RPR for diagnosing liver fibrosis in CHB patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Guiyang; Tian, Chen; Liu, Yong; Jia, Bei; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yue; Li, Yang; Sun, Zhenhua; Yan, Xiaomin; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Song, Peixin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Ding, Weimao

    2017-01-01

    The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a novel index to estimate liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Few studies compared diagnostic accuracy of GPR with other non-invasive fibrosis tests based on blood parameters. We analyzed diagnostic values of GPR for detecting liver fibrosis and compared diagnostic performances of GPR with APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index), FIB-4 (fibrosis index based on the four factors), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocy...

  20. Adverse events and treatment completion for latent tuberculosis in jail inmates and homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Mark N; Reves, Randall R; Jasmer, Robert M; Grabau, John C; Bock, Naomi N; Shang, Nong

    2005-04-01

    Recently, a short-course treatment using 60 daily doses of rifampin and pyrazinamide was recommended for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). To determine the acceptability, tolerability, and completion of treatment. Observational cohort study. Five county jails and TB outreach clinics for homeless populations in three cities. Study staff enrolled 1,211 patients (844 inmates and 367 homeless persons). Sites used 60 daily doses of rifampin and pyrazinamide, an approved treatment regimen for LTBI. Types and frequency of drug-related adverse events and outcomes of treatment. Prior to treatment, 25 of 1,178 patients (2.1%) had a serum aminotransferase measurement at least 2.5 times the upper limit of normal. Patients who reported excess alcohol use in the past 12 months were more likely than other patients to have an elevated pretreatment serum aminotransferase level (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.1; p = 0.03). Treatment was stopped in 66 of 162 patients (13.4%) who had a drug-related adverse event. Among 715 patients who had serum aminotransferase measured during treatment, 43 patients (6.0%) had an elevation > 5 times the upper limits of normal, including one patient who died of liver failure attributed to treatment. In multivariate analyses, increasing age, an abnormal baseline aspartate aminotransferase level, and unemployment within the past 24 months were independent risk factors for hepatotoxicity. Completion rates were similar in jail inmates (47.5%) and homeless persons (43.6%). This study detected the first treatment-associated fatality with the rifampin and pyrazinamide regimen, prompting surveillance that detected unacceptable levels of hepatotoxicity and retraction of recommendations for its routine use. Completion rates for LTBI treatment using a short-course regimen exceeds historical rates using isoniazid. Efforts to identify an effective short-course treatment for LTBI should be given a high priority.

  1. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research in the following areas: use of liver for mechanistic studies of multistage hepatocarcinogenesis and for screening of environmental contaminants for tumor initiating and promoting activity; molecular properties of rat liver ornithine aminotransferase; regulation of gene expression in rat liver; methods of tumor detection; mechanisms of radiation and viral oncogenesis; biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes; and studies on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity

  2. Fast and Cost-Effective Biochemical Spectrophotometric Analysis of Solution of Insect “Blood” and Body Surface Elution

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Łoś; Aneta Strachecka

    2018-01-01

    Using insect hemolymph (“blood”) and insect body surface elutions, researchers can perform rapid and cheap biochemical analyses to determine the insect’s immunology status. The authors of this publication describe a detailed methodology for a quick marking of the concentration of total proteins and evaluation of the proteolytic system activity (acid, neutral, and alkaline proteases and protease inhibitors), as well as a methodology for quick “liver” tests in insects: alanine aminotransferase ...

  3. Imidacloprid enhances liver damage in Wistar rats: Biochemical, oxidative damage and histological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Chakroun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the potential adverse effects of imidacloprid on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and liver damage induced in the rat by oral sub-chronic imidaclopride exposure. Methods: Rats received three different doses of imidacloprid (1/45, 1/22 and 1/10 of LD50 given through gavage for 60 days. Two dozen of male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. Liver damage was determined by measuring aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase leakages. The prooxidant-antioxydant status in hepatic tissue homogenate was evaluated by measuring the degree of lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Results: The relative liver weight was significantly higher than that of control and other treated groups at the highest dose 1/10 of LD50 of imidacloprid. Additionally, treatment of rats with imidacloprid significantly increased liver lipid peroxidation (P ≤ 0.05 or 0.01 which went together with a significant decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Parallel to these changes, imidacloprid treatment enhanced liver damage as evidence by sharp increase in the liver enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. These results were also confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: In light of the available data, it is our thought that after imidacloprid sub-chronic exposure, depletion of antioxidant enzymes is accompanied by induction of potential oxidative stress in the hepatic tissues that might affect the function of the liver which caused biochemical and histopathological alteration.

  4. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  5. Estudo funcional e morfológico da hipotermia sistêmica ou tópica no fígado de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Venilton José

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as alterações morfo-funcionais hepáticas produzidas por dois tipos de hipotermia; a sistêmica ou tópica (localizada. MÉTODOS: 20 cães foram distribuídos em dois grupos: G I (n=10 submetido a hipotermia tópica e G II (n=10 submetido à hipotermia sistêmica. Dosagens bioquímicas de alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, bilirrubina direta (BD e estudo morfológico à microscopia óptica (MO e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET foram realizados antes da hipotermia (T0, após a estabilização da temperatura corporal em 10ºC menor que a temperatura inicial (Test e após sessenta minutos de hipotermia (T60. RESULTADOS: A dosagem bioquímica das enzimas, aspartato aminotransferase e bilirrubina direta, evidenciaram maiores níveis de lesões no grupo submetido à hipotermia tópica, quando comparado ao grupo de animais submetidos à hipotermia sistêmica. Por sua vez, a dosagem da Alanina aminotransferase não apresentou alterações em ambos os grupos. Tanto a MO quanto a MET, revelou que nos animais do grupo com hipotermia tópica, as lesões hepáticas foram mais intensas quando comparadas ao do grupo com hipotermia sistêmica. CONCLUSÃO: A hipotermia tópica é mais lesiva ao fígado do que a sistêmica.

  6. The Effect of Metformin and Standard Therapy Versus Standard Therapy Alone in Nondiabetic Patients with Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    histology in nondiabetic patients with insulin resistance and NASH. Decrease in BMI through diet and exercise significantly improved HOMA - IR scores, serum...BMI through diet and exercise significantly improved HOMA - IR scores, serum aminotransferases and liver histology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...insulin resistance (or HOMA - IR ) score was calculated using the formula: fasting insulin (mIU/ml) fasting glu- cose (mg/dl)/405 [Matthews et al. 1985

  7. Evaluation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice employing Tc- 99m Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections and endotoxemia continue to be the principal causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructions of the bile duct. The objective of the present work was the investigation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice utilizing Tc-99m E.coli. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher in jaundiced rats than in the control animals (p Nos pacientes com obstrução do ducto biliar, as infecções e a endotoxemia continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar a capacidade fagocitária do sistema mononuclear, em um modelo experimental de icterícia obstrutiva, utilizando Tc-99m E.coli. Os níveis de aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT e fosfatase alcalina (PAL nos ratos com ligadura do ducto biliar comum (CBD encontram-se significativamente mais elevados do que nos ratos sham. (p < 0.001. O fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou uma significativa redução na captação da Tc-99m E.coli quando comparado com o controle. Os dados mostraram também, que houve um aumento significativo na captação da Tc-99m E.coli pelo pulmão dos ratos ictéricos (p < 0.01. O exame histológico dos cortes de fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou proliferação intensa e difusa dos ductos biliares e uma acentuada poliploidia dos hepatócitos (volume médio: 843 µm³, Não foram observadas alterações significativas nos pulmões de nenhum grupo.

  8. Control of alanine metabolism in rat liver by transport processes or cellular metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Fafournoux, P; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    1983-01-01

    1. Factors governing hepatic utilization of alanine were studied in vivo and in vitro in rats adapted to increasing dietary protein. 2. Hepatic alanine utilization was enhanced 5-fold with a 90%-casein diet, compared with a 13%-casein diet. The increased uptake resulted from enhanced fractional extraction in the presence of high concentrations of alanine in the portal vein. 3. The increase in alanine metabolism on high-protein diets was associated with an increase in alanine aminotransferase ...

  9. A unique case of Babesia gibsoni infected dog with paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonde, Suresh; Chhabra, S.; Uppal, S. K.; Singla, L. D.; Randhawa, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 4 year old male Rottweiler was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinics of GADVASU with a primary complaint of paraplegia, fever and inappetence. The dog was found to be dull with elevated rectal temperature (105 °F), heart rate (158 per minute) and respiration rate (57 per minute). Blood smear examination and PCR assay revealed that dog was positive for Babesia gibsoni. Elevated bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, total leucocyte count, neutrophils and hy...

  10. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Patel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The exact pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is not known. Previous studies suggest that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs can cause oxidative stress in liver. We aim to study the effects of dietary AGEs on liver health and their possible role in the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: Two groups of mice were fed the same diet except the AGE content varied. One group was fed a high AGE diet and the second group was fed a regular AGE diet. Liver histology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were assessed. RESULTS: Histology revealed that neutrophil infiltration occurred in the livers of the high AGE group at week 26; steatosis did not accompany liver inflammation. At week 39 livers from both groups exhibited macro- or micro-steatosis, yet no inflammation was detected. Higher insulin levels were detected in the regular AGE group at week 26 (P = 0.034, compared to the high AGE group. At week 39, the regular AGE group showed higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.02 than those of the high AGE group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a high AGE diet can cause liver inflammation in the absence of steatosis. Our results show that dietary AGEs could play a role in initiating liver inflammation contributing to the disease progression of NASH. Our observation that the inflammation caused by high AGE alone did not persist suggests interesting future directions to investigate how AGEs contribute to pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative pathways in the liver.

  11. Aspects of fetal physiology from 18 to 37 weeks' gestation as assessed by blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Bocconi, L; Zuliani, G; Kustermann, A; Nicolini, U

    1996-06-01

    To construct reference ranges for fetal pH, oxygen pressure (PO2), and hematologic and biochemical blood constituents, which can be used to analyze changes with gestation and differences with maternal values, thus elucidating some aspects of fetal biology and the effects of the maternal and placental environments. We assayed venous pH, PO2, hematocrit, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations in 157 fetuses and 134 mothers who underwent fetal blood sampling from 18 to 37 weeks' gestation. None of the fetuses was infected or had chromosomal, hematologic, or hormonal abnormalities. All the variables analyzed were similar in fetuses sampled at the placental cord insertion (n = 125) or at the intrahepatic vein (n = 32). Maternal and fetal concentrations of glucose (r = 0.79, P PO2 decreased with gestational age, whereas hematocrit increased, similar to what has been described previously. All of the other variables, with the exception of amylase and cholesterol, changed significantly during the investigated period of pregnancy. Gestational age explained at least 40% of the variance in values of fetal total protein, pseudocholinesterase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and triglycerides, but only 3-25% of the variation in the remainder. Most enzymes were higher in the fetus than in the maternal circulation, and all except alkaline phosphatase increased with gestational age. The maternal-fetal glucose difference correlated significantly with hematocrit, pH, and PO2, independent of gestational age and independent of each other. With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, all of the analyzed fetal variables were different from the maternal values, and most changed with gestational age. The mechanisms

  12. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: An Evolving Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a histological diagnosis applied to a constellation of liver biopsy findings that develop in the absence of alcohol abuse. Steatosis, a mixed cellular inflammatory infiltrate across the lobule, evidence of hepatocyte injury and fibrosis are the findings that can be seen. This entity is often identified during evaluation of elevated aminotransferases after exclusion of viral, metabolic and other causes of liver disease. Obesity is a major risk factor for NASH. The role of diabetes is less certain, although evidence is accumulating that hyperinsulinism may play an important pathophysiological role. Patients sometimes suffer from right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fatigue; examination may reveal centripetal obesity and hepatomegaly. Although patients are often discovered because of persistent aminotransferase elevations, these enzymes can be normal in NASH. When they are elevated, the alanine aminotransferase level is typically significantly greater than the aspartate aminotransferase level. This can be particularly helpful for excluding occult alcohol abuse. Imaging studies identify hepatic steatosis when the amount of fat in the liver is significant; however, imaging does not distinguish benign steatosis from NASH. Ultimately a liver biopsy is needed to diagnose NASH. The biopsy may be useful for establishing prognosis based on the presence or absence of fibrosis and for excluding other unexpected causes of liver enzyme elevations. Weight loss is the mainstay of treatment for obese patients. About 15% to 40% of NASH patients develop fibrosis; how many of these cases progress to cirrhosis is unknown, but about 1% of liver transplants are performed with a pretransplant diagnosis of NASH.

  13. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana (CRASSULACEAE) EM CÃES

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira; Raimundo Alblberto Tostes; Silvia Franco Andrade; Michiko Sakate; Raquel Ferraz Laurenti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratorial aspects of the oral administration of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in dogs. Twelve dogs, from two to five years of age, without breed or sex preferences, were used. The animals were inoculated with the K. blossfeldiana extract and monitored by complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemical analysis of creatinokinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosfatase (FA) and electrocardiographic exam for any cardio-toxic...

  14. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5?g/kg?BW) by gavage every 12?hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200?mg/kg?BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activat...

  15. Perfil hematológico, bioquímico sérico e sorológico de Felis domesticus com lagochilascariose experimental Hematological, serum biochemical and serological profile of Felis domesticus with experimental lagochilascariosis

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    Mariana Félix de Souza Prudente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o hemograma, diversas proteínas e enzimas séricas ou plasmáticas e a produção de anticorpos específicos em Felis domesticus, experimentalmente infectados por Lagochilascaris minor. Verificou-se nos animais infectados aumento de leucócitos totais, principalmente eosinófilos; queda do número de plaquetas; aumento de aspartato-aminotransferase e alanina-aminotransferase; e principalmente a presença de anticorpos IgG específicos para antígenos do parasita. A reação com extrato bruto de parasitas adultos mostrou-se mais específica, permitindo a discriminação de soros de animais: não infectados, com infecção por outros parasitas, e com lagochilascariose. Esta é a primeira descrição da padronização de uma reação sorológica para diagnóstico da lagochilascariose em Felis domesticus.The present study evaluated the hemogram, different proteins, plasma enzymes, serum enzymes and specific antibody production of Felis domesticus experimentally infected by Lagochilascaris minor. The infected animals were seen to present increased total leukocytes (particularly eosinophils, decreased platelet counts, increased aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase and, especially, the presence of specific IgG antibodies against antigens of the parasite. The reaction with crude extract of adult parasites was shown to be more specific, thereby enabling serum discrimination between the animals: non-infected, infected with other parasites and infected with lagochilascariosis. This is the first description of the standardization of a serological reaction for diagnosing lagochilascariosis in Felis domesticus.

  16. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Liver Function Test in On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

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    Shahrbano Shahbazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver dysfunction during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG is a rare complication but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The ability to identify high-risk patients may be helpful in planning appropriate management strategies. We aimed to evaluate the factors influencing liver function tests during on-pump CABG. Methods: In 146 patients scheduled for on-pump CABG, the liver function test was done preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. Some preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were checked and then the postoperative liver function tests were compared with the preoperative ones. Probable relationships between these changes and the preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were studied. Results: A medical history of diabetes had a significant relationship with the changes in direct bilirubin. Preoperative central venous pressure had a significant relationship with the changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Use of intra-aortic balloon pump and duration of aortic cross-clamp were significantly related to the changes in the liver function tests except for alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion: It seems that the techniques for the reduction of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp duration may be useful to protect liver function. We recommend that a larger population of patients be studied to confirm these findings.

  17. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

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    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  18. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

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    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  19. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

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    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  20. Longitudinal study of the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on skeletal muscle in dogs.

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    Rossmeisl, John H; Duncan, Robert B; Inzana, Karen D; Panciera, David L; Shelton, G Diane

    2009-07-01

    To study the effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on skeletal muscle and characterize any observed myopathic abnormalities in dogs. 9 female, adult mixed-breed dogs; 6 with hypothyroidism induced with irradiation with 131 iodine and 3 untreated control dogs. Clinical examinations were performed monthly. Electromyographic examinations; measurement of plasma creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme activities; and skeletal muscle morphologic-morphometric examinations were performed prior to and every 6 months for 18 months after induction of hypothyroidism. Baseline, 6-month, and 18-month assessments of plasma, urine, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations were also performed. Hypothyroid dogs developed electromyographic and morphologic evidence of myopathy by 6 months after treatment, which persisted throughout the study, although these changes were subclinical at all times. Hypothyroid myopathy was associated with significant increases in plasma creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme activities and was characterized by nemaline rod inclusions, substantial and progressive predominance of type I myofibers, decrease in mean type II fiber area, subsarcolemmal accumulations of abnormal mitochondria, and myofiber degeneration. Chronic hypothyroidism was associated with substantial depletion in skeletal muscle free carnitine. Chronic, experimentally induced hypothyroidism resulted in substantial but subclinical phenotypic myopathic changes indicative of altered muscle energy metabolism and depletion of skeletal muscle carnitine. These abnormalities may contribute to nonspecific clinical signs, such as lethargy and exercise intolerance, often reported in hypothyroid dogs.