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Sample records for aminotransferases

  1. PROPERTIES OF AMINOTRANSFERASES FROM TELADORSAGIA CIRCUMCINCTA

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    Noorzaid MUHAMAD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of several aminotransferases were measured in L3 and adult Teladorsagia circumcincta, but most of these had maximal activity of less than 8 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein. Only aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT activities exceeded this value and some kinetic properties of these enzymes were characterised. For L3 AspAT, the apparent Kms were 1.2 mM, 0.13 mM, 0.11 mM and 0.04 mM for aspartate, -ketoglutarate, glutamate and oxaloacetate, respectively, and the apparent Vmaxs were 960 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for aspartate deamination and 420 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein in the direction of glutamate deamination. For L3 AlaAT, the apparent Kms were 5.2 mM, 0.5 mM, 0.5 mM and 1.2 mM for alanine, -ketoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate, respectively, and apparent Vmaxs were 107 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for alanine deamination and 48 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for alanine formation. Both enzymes required exogenous pyridoxal 5′-phosphate for optimal activity. The equilibrium constants for the AspAT and AlaAT reactions were consistent with those estimated from the estimated kinetic parameters. From these parameters we infer that T. circumcincta AlaAT is present predominantly as a mitochondrial enzyme favouring pyruvate formation while AspAT is predominantly a cytosolic enzyme favouring glutamate formation.

  2. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

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    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  3. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

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    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  4. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with normal aminotransferase values

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    H(u)eyin Saadettin Uslusoy; Selim Giray Nak; Macit G(u)lten; Zeynep Biyikli

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the aspects of liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) who had normal aminotransferase levels. METHODS: Thirty-four patients diagnosed with liver steatosis by ultrasonographic examination participated in the study. We compared all nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH cases, according to aminotransferase level, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and presence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Si x t e en of 25 pa t i ent s wi th high aminotransferase levels were diagnosed with NASH and nine with simple fatty liver according to liver histology. Among the nine patients with normal aminotransferase levels, seven had NASH and two had simple fatty liver. The patients with normal and high liver enzyme levels had almost the same prevalence of NASH and metabolic syndrome. Liver histology did not reveal any difference according to aminotransferase levels and AST/ALT ratio. CONCLUSION: Aminotransferase levels and AST/ALT ratio do not seem to be reliable predictors for NASH. Despite numerous non-invasive biomarkers, all patients with fatty liver should undergo liver biopsy.

  5. Kynurenine Aminotransferase Isozyme Inhibitors: A Review

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    Alireza Nematollahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenine aminotransferase isozymes (KATs 1–4 are members of the pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme family, which catalyse the permanent conversion of l-kynurenine (l-KYN to kynurenic acid (KYNA, a known neuroactive agent. As KATs are found in the mammalian brain and have key roles in the kynurenine pathway, involved in different categories of central nervous system (CNS diseases, the KATs are prominent targets in the quest to treat neurodegenerative and cognitive impairment disorders. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting these enzymes would produce effects beneficial to patients with these conditions, as abnormally high levels of KYNA are observed. KAT-1 and KAT-3 share the highest sequence similarity of the isozymes in this family, and their active site pockets are also similar. Importantly, KAT-2 has the major role of kynurenic acid production (70% in the human brain, and it is considered therefore that suitable inhibition of this isozyme would be most effective in managing major aspects of CNS diseases. Human KAT-2 inhibitors have been developed, but the most potent of them, chosen for further investigations, did not proceed in clinical studies due to the cross toxicity caused by their irreversible interaction with PLP, the required cofactor of the KAT isozymes, and any other PLP-dependent enzymes. As a consequence of the possibility of extensive undesirable adverse effects, it is also important to pursue KAT inhibitors that reversibly inhibit KATs and to include a strategy that seeks compounds likely to achieve substantial interaction with regions of the active site other than the PLP. The main purpose of this treatise is to review the recent developments with the inhibitors of KAT isozymes. This treatise also includes analyses of their crystallographic structures in complex with this enzyme family, which provides further insight for researchers in this and related studies.

  6. Substrate Specificity and Structure of Human aminoadipate aminotransferase/kynurenine aminotransferase II

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    Han, Q.; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Robinson, H; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) II is a primary enzyme in the brain for catalysing the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA (kynurenic acid). KYNA is the only known endogenous antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The enzyme also catalyses the transamination of aminoadipate to alpha-oxoadipate; therefore it was initially named AADAT (aminoadipate aminotransferase). As an endotoxin, aminoadipate influences various elements of glutamatergic neurotransmission and kills primary astrocytes in the brain. A number of studies dealing with the biochemical and functional characteristics of this enzyme exist in the literature, but a systematic assessment of KAT II addressing its substrate profile and kinetic properties has not been performed. The present study examines the biochemical and structural characterization of a human KAT II/AADAT. Substrate screening of human KAT II revealed that the enzyme has a very broad substrate specificity, is capable of catalysing the transamination of 16 out of 24 tested amino acids and could utilize all 16 tested alpha-oxo acids as amino-group acceptors. Kinetic analysis of human KAT II demonstrated its catalytic efficiency for individual amino-group donors and acceptors, providing information as to its preferred substrate affinity. Structural analysis of the human KAT II complex with alpha-oxoglutaric acid revealed a conformational change of an N-terminal fraction, residues 15-33, that is able to adapt to different substrate sizes, which provides a structural basis for its broad substrate specificity.

  7. Substrate Specificity and Structure of Human Aminoadipate Aminotransferase/kynurenine Aminotransferase II

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    Han,Q.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D.; Robinson, H.; Li, J.

    2008-01-01

    KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) II is a primary enzyme in the brain for catalysing the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA (kynurenic acid). KYNA is the only known endogenous antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The enzyme also catalyses the transamination of aminoadipate to a-oxoadipate; therefore it was initially named AADAT (aminoadipate aminotransferase). As an endotoxin, aminoadipate influences various elements of glutamatergic neurotransmission and kills primary astrocytes in the brain. A number of studies dealing with the biochemical and functional characteristics of this enzyme exist in the literature, but a systematic assessment of KAT II addressing its substrate profile and kinetic properties has not been performed. The present study examines the biochemical and structural characterization of a human KAT II/AADAT. Substrate screening of human KAT II revealed that the enzyme has a very broad substrate specificity, is capable of catalysing the transamination of 16 out of 24 tested amino acids and could utilize all 16 tested a-oxo acids as amino-group acceptors. Kinetic analysis of human KAT II demonstrated its catalytic efficiency for individual amino-group donors and acceptors, providing information as to its preferred substrate affinity. Structural analysis of the human KAT II complex with a-oxoglutaric acid revealed a conformational change of an N-terminal fraction, residues 15-33, that is able to adapt to different substrate sizes, which provides a structural basis for its broad substrate specificity.

  8. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

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    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor. PMID:27266631

  9. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

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    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  10. Purification and characterization of cysteine aminotransferase from rat liver cytosol.

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    Akagi,Reiko

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine aminotransferase (L-cysteine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.3 was purified over 400-fold from the high-speed supernatant fraction of rat liver. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by gel filtration, isoelectric focusing and disc electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was about 74,000 by gel filtration and the isoelectric point was 6.2 (4 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed transamination between L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate and the reverse reaction. The optimum pH was 9.7. The Km value for L-cysteine was 22.2 mM, and that for 2-oxoglutaric acid was 0.06 mM. L-Aspartate was a potent inhibitor of the cysteine aminotransferase reaction. The enzyme was very active toward L-alanine 3-sulfinic acid at pH 8.0, and was also very active toward L-aspartic acid (Km = 1.6 mM. Ratios of activities for L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine were essentially constant during the purification of the enzyme. Evidence based on substrate specificity, enzyme inhibition, and physicochemical properties indicates that cytosolic cysteine aminotransferase is identical with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1.

  11. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Khedmat; Nasrin Zarei; Farahnaz Fallahian; Hassan Abolghasemi; Bashir Hajibeigi; Zohre Attarchi; Farshid Alaeddini; Mohammad Taghi Holisaz; Masoumeh Pourali; Shahin Sharifi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles.RESULTS: Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 ± 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 ± 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 ± 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P < 0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B = 6.988, P = 0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B = 15.763, P < 0.001), (B = 32.345, P < 0.001), (B =24.415, P < 0.001), respectively.CONCLUSION: Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  12. Elevated Serum Aminotransferases Secondary to Rippling Muscle Disease

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    Kumanan Nalankilli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man was referred by his general practitioner to the hepatology clinic with deranged serum aminotransferases, discovered as part of routine blood tests. The objective was to identify the cause of elevated serum aminotransferases in this patient in a systematic manner. Thorough history and physical examination revealed a background history of rippling muscle disease secondary to caveolin-3 protein deficiency, with typical clinical signs. There was a positive family history of musculoskeletal disease in the patient's father and brother. Previous diagnostic tests performed to investigate the patient's musculoskeletal symptoms, including muscle biopsies, were revisited. Subsequent systematic investigations such as blood tests, liver ultrasound scan and Fibroscan® were performed to exclude potential causes of the deranged serum aminotransferases. Liver biopsy was not performed. A consistent pattern of chronic low-grade elevations of serum aminotransferases, less than three times the upper limit of the normal range, was found. This was associated with a consistently elevated serum creatine kinase and normal renal function tests. Previous muscle biopsies had revealed chronic degenerative and regenerative changes suggestive of a focal necrotizing myopathy. Liver ultrasound scan and Fibroscan® were normal. With exclusion of other liver diseases and identification of profoundly elevated serum creatine kinase concentration, the deranged aminotransferases were attributed to rippling muscle disease.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in human serum

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    Leung, F.Y.; Niblock, A.E.; Henderson, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    A description is given of the development of a sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of human aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.1). Isoenzymes from human heart tissue were purified to homogeneity and used to raise high-titer antisera in rabbits. The antisera were partly purified by selective column chromatography. The Bolton-Hunter reagent was used to radioiodinate the isoenzymes. The assay requires 100 microL of serum, includes a solid-phase second-antibody separation, and can be completed in less than 3 h. There was no cross reactivity between the two isoenzymes. As little as 5 micrograms (50 pmol) of each aspartate aminotransferase can be measured per liter of serum.

  14. Structure of putrescine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli provides insights into the substrate specificity among class III aminotransferases.

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    Hyung Jin Cha

    Full Text Available YgjG is a putrescine aminotransferase enzyme that transfers amino groups from compounds with terminal primary amines to compounds with an aldehyde group using pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP as a cofactor. Previous biochemical data show that the enzyme prefers primary diamines, such as putrescine, over ornithine as a substrate. To better understand the enzyme's substrate specificity, crystal structures of YgjG from Escherichia coli were determined at 2.3 and 2.1 Å resolutions for the free and putrescine-bound enzymes, respectively. Sequence and structural analyses revealed that YgjG forms a dimer that adopts a class III PLP-dependent aminotransferase fold. A structural comparison between YgjG and other class III aminotransferases revealed that their structures are similar. However, YgjG has an additional N-terminal helical structure that partially contributes to a dimeric interaction with the other subunit via a helix-helix interaction. Interestingly, the YgjG substrate-binding site entrance size and charge distribution are smaller and more hydrophobic than other class III aminotransferases, which suggest that YgjG has a unique substrate binding site that could accommodate primary aliphatic diamine substrates, including putrescine. The YgjG crystal structures provide structural clues to putrescine aminotransferase substrate specificity and binding.

  15. Serum Aminotransferases in Thai Children With Dengue Infection

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    Olarn Prommalikit; Usa Thisyakorn; Chule Thisyakorn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatic manifestations are one of the unusual manifestations of dengue infection. Objectives: We conducted this study in order to study the pattern of serum aminotransferases and sequential changes before and after shock in Thai children with dengue infection. Patients and Methods: Children who were clinically and serologically diagnosed as dengue infection and were adm...

  16. Aspartate Aminotransferase - Bridging Carbohydrate and Energy Metabolism in Plasmodium Falciparum

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    Wrenger, Carsten; Mueller, Ingrid B.; Silber, Ariel M.; Jordanova, Rositsa; Lamzin, Victor S.; Groves, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review we briefly examine and summarize evidence on the role of the plasmodial aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) of the malarial parasite. Recent data have provided information on the products of the purine salvage pathway as well as the glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation pathway

  17. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

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    Weber, Nora; Ismail, Abdelrahman; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified rec...

  18. Aspartate aminotransferase – key enzyme in the human systemic metabolism

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    Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ - nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms - cytoplasmic (AST1 and mitochondrial (AST2, that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys – 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate. The differences in the primary structure of AST isoforms determine their physico-chemical, kinetic and immunological properties. Because of the low concentration of L-aspartate (L-Asp in the blood, AST is the only enzyme, which supply of this amino acid as a substrate for many metabolic processes, such as urea cycle or purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in the liver, synthesis of L-arginine in the kidney and purine nucleotide cycle in the brain and the skeletal muscle. AST is also involved in D-aspartate production that regulates the metabolic activity at the auto-, para- and endocrine level. Aspartate aminotransferase is a part of the malate-aspartate shuttle in the myocardium, is involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidney, glyceroneogenesis in the adipose tissue, and synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuro-glial pathway in the brain. Recently, the significant role of AST in glutaminolysis - normal metabolic pathway in tumor cells, was demonstrated. The article is devoted the role of AST, known primarily as a diagnostic liver enzyme, in metabolism of various human tissues and organs.

  19. Design and Mechanism of Tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA Aminotransferase Inactivators

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    Le, Hoang V.; Hawker, Dustin D.; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GA...

  20. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

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    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  1. Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase

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    Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

  2. Inverse linear associations between liver aminotransferases and incident cardiovascular disease risk : The PREVEND study

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    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Blokzijl, Hans; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) have been linked with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but their relationships with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of ALT and AST with CVD risk and determine their po

  3. Comparative aspects of aminotransferases in the rat, pigeon and rainbow trout.

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    Cornish, E C; Cussen, C M; Hird, F J; Todd, P E

    1978-01-01

    1. The activities of aminotransferases catalysing the transfer of amino groups from aspartate, alanine and leucine to 2-oxoglutarate in different tissues of the rat, pigeon and trout have been determined. 2. Alanine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase was high in the liver of the rat and trout and low in that of the pigeon. 3. Aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase was usually the dominant aminotransferase in all tissues and was highest in oxidative tissues where the TCA cycle is active. Its activity in the various livers is not correlated with the function of aspartate in nitrogen excretion. 4. The activity of aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in oxidative tissues argues that aspartate in conjunction with this enzyme serves as a buffer of oxaloacetate to keep the TCA cycle running and/or to mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents across mitochondrial membranes. PMID:318383

  4. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

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    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  5. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

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    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  6. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  7. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  8. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  9. Alanine aminotransferase variants conferring diverse NUE phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra H McAllister

    Full Text Available Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2, is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent (PLP enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1 knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s previously observed.

  10. Normal serum alanine aminotransferase activity in uncomplicated obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Iacobellis; Antonio Moschetta; Maria Cristina Ribaudo; Alessandra Zappaterreno; Concetta Valeria Iannucci; Frida Leonetti

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)activity in a well-characterized group of uncomplicated obese subjects and its correlation with insulin resistance,plasma adiponectin, and leptin concentrations.METHODS: One hundred and five uncomplicatedobese subjects (87 women, 18 men, age 34.3±9.6 years,BMI 39.9±8.3 kg/m2)were studied. Serum ALT activity was evaluated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M index) and fasting insulin. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were also measured.RESULTS: Serum ALT concentration in the whole group of uncomplicated obese subjects was 17.73±6.33 U/L with none of the subjects presenting ALT levels greater than 43 U/L and only 9 (11%) women and 3 (19%) men showed ALT levels >19 and >30 U/L for women and men,respectively. No significant difference was detected in serum ALT levels between severe obese subjects (BMI >40 kg/m2) and those with BMI <40 kg/m2 (18.63±6.25 vs 17.26±6.02 U/L). ALT was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.485, P = 0.02) and triglycerides (r= 0.358, P= 0.03).CONCLUSION: Serum ALT activity is practically normal in uncomplicated obese subjects, independently of their obesity degree. These findings suggest the role of obesityrelated comorbidities and not of BMI as main risk factors for elevated ALT levels in obese subjects.

  11. The investigation of the alanin-aminotransferase and aspartat-aminotransferase activity in the white rats organs on the total γ-irradiation and the physical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe investigations of enzyme activity such as aspartat aminotransferase (AST, KE 2.6.1.1.) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, KE 2.6.1.2.) playing an important role in proteins metabolism were carried out in cell fraction of rat liver, miocard and sceleton muscle after the influence of ionizing radiation (6 Gy) and the maximum physical loading. It was shown that physical loading furthered the increases of ALT-activity in all fractions except liver cytosol. And it was noted a strongly pronounced tendency of AST-activity to lowering, except muscle cell fractions. It was shown that the physical tiredness made worse penetrated radiation action on the investigated anzymes

  12. AMINOTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN THE LIVER OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS UNDER VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dragan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of the use of indirect (express- method for the detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of trout by investigating aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in fish liver, as the most sensitive enzymes for the diagnostics of many pathological conditions of human and animal organisms associated with liver diseases. Methodology. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in trout liver was performed by Reitman-Frankel method. The functional status of liver was also evaluated using De Ritis coefficient (AST/ALT ratio, which serves as an integral index of the changes related to the degree of the damage of this organ. Findings. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss found out a considerable increase in the activity of these enzymes under the effect of the virus of infectious pancreatic necrosis. It is set that direction of aspartate aminotransferase reactions in the conditions of viral infection takes place mainly in the side of formation of keto-acids, providing the synthesis of glucose which is needed above all things for energetic supply of synthetic processes. The increase of activity of AsAT plays an important role in synchronization of energetic and nitrous exchange which is carried out at the level of mitochondrias. Increase of DeRitisa (DRr coefficient in the conditions of our experiment characteristic for viral hepatitis and can specify on activating of synthesis of glucose which is needed for support of adequate level in the conditions of viral intoxication and determines the orientation of metabolic streams toward predominance of catabolytic reactions. According to the results of the performed tests, the most informative was the test of the determination of alanine aminotransferase activity. Originality. Evaluation of the effect of

  13. Structural studies of the catalytic reaction pathway of a hyperthermophilic histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, F.J. (Francisco J.); Vega, M C; Lehmann, F; Sandmeier, E; Gehring, H; Christen, P; Wilmanns, M.

    2004-01-01

    In histidine biosynthesis, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group from glutamate to imidazole acetol-phosphate producing 2-oxoglutarate and histidinol phosphate. In some organisms such as the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima, specific tyrosine and aromatic amino acid transaminases have not been identified to date, suggesting an additional role for histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase in other transamination reactions generating aromatic amino acid...

  14. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectiona...

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF ALANIN-AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a comparative study on the activity of one aminotransferase - alaninaminotransferase, in the digestive tube of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp and Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp. The enzymatic activity has been determined colorimetrically, with 2, 4 - dinitrophenyl hydrazine, the results obtained being expressed as UE / g / min. It was observed that, comparatively with the alanin-aminotransferase activity recorded in silver carp, in the case of bighead carp, the values recorded are much lower.

  16. Properties of serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Kendziorek; Andrzej Paszkowski

    2008-01-01

    The photorespiratory enzyme L-serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT; EC 2.6.1.45) was purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The final enzyme was approximately 80% pure as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. The identity of the enzyme was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis.The molecular mass estimated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150 under non-denaturing conditions, mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization/time of flight technique) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 82.4 kDa,42.0 kDa, and 39.8 kDa, respectively, indicating dimer as the active form. The optimum Ph value was 9.2. The enzyme activity was inhibited by aminooxyacetate and β-chloro-L-alanine both compounds reacting with the carbonyl group of pyridoxal phosphate. The enzyme's transaminating activity with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates was approximately 55% of that observed with L-serine and glyoxylate, The lower Km value (1.25 Mm) for L-alanine, compared with that of other plant SGATs, and the kcat/Km(Ala) ratio being approximately 2-fold higher than kcat/Km(Ser) suggested that, during photorespiration, Ala and Ser are used by Arabidopsis SGAT with equal efficiency as amino group donors for glyoxylate. The equilibrium constant (Keq), derived from the Haldane relation, for the transamination reaction between L-serine and glyoxylate with the formation of hydroxypyruvate and glycine was 79.1, strongly favoring glycine synthesis. However, it was accompanied by a low Km value of 2.83 Mm for glycine. A comparison of some kinetic properties of the studied enzymes with the recombinant Arabidopsis SGATs previously obtained revealed substantial differences. The ratio of the velocity of the transamination reaction with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates versus that with L-serine and glyoxylate was 1:1.8 for the native enzyme, whereas it was 1: 7 for the recombinant SGAT

  17. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...

  18. Relationship Between Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Metabolic Disorders in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jq Niu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing evidence suggests an association between ele­vated serum aminotransferase levels and metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome, hyperlipemia and diabetes mellitus. However, the significance of relatively low levels of aminotransferases in relation to metabolic disorders has not been fully investigated in the general population. We inves­tigated the association between serum amiontransferase levels and metabolic disorders using data from a survey in Jilin province, China.Methods: In 2007, a survey was conducted throughout Jilin, China, covering both urban and rural areas. A total of 3835 people, 18 to 79 years old including 1761 men and 2074 women, underwent real-time ultrasonography, blood tests including aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and had interviews with a structured questionnaire.Results: Serum aminotransferase levels within the normal range were asso­ciated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, occupation, cultural and educational level, income, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol intake. Compared with the lowest level (50 IU/L were 1.92, 2.50, 2.97, and 3.52 in men, and 1.38 , 1.54, 3.06, and 2.62 in women, respectively. Near-normal serum aminotransferase levels asso­ciated with hyperlipemia, NAFLD, DM were also found in the study.Conclusions: Normal to near-normal serum aminotransferase levels are associated with metabolic disorders. Serum ALT levels of 21-25 IU/L for men, and 17-22 IU/L for women are suggested as cutoff levels that detect metabolic disorders affecting the liver.

  19. Effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of white pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Tang, Jing; Wen, Zhiguo; Huang, Wei; Hou, Shuisheng

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 28 d of age. At 28 d of age, the weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and the aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and homocysteine in plasma of ducks from each pen were all measured. In our study, the pyridoxine deficiency of ducks was characterized by growth depression, decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. The ducks fed vitamin B6-deficient basal diets had the worst weight gain and feed/gain among all birds and this growth depression was alleviated (pducks. The ducks fed basal diets had much lower aspartate aminotransferase activity and higher homocysteine level in plasma compared with other birds fed pyridoxine-supplemented diets (pducks from hatch to 28 days of age was 2.44 mg/kg for feed/gain and 2.08 mg/kg for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and the corresponding total requirements of this vitamin for these two criteria were 4.37 and 4.01 mg/kg when the pyridoxine concentration of basal diets was included, respectively. All data suggested that pyridoxine deficiency could cause growth retardation in ducks and the deficiency of this vitamin could be indicated by decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine.

  20. Biochemical properties and crystal structure of a β-phenylalanine aminotransferase from Variovorax paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismaru, Ciprian G; Wybenga, Gjalt G; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wijma, Hein J; Wu, Bian; Bartsch, Sebastian; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Feringa, Ben L; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Janssen, Dick B

    2013-01-01

    By selective enrichment, we isolated a bacterium that can use β-phenylalanine as a sole nitrogen source. It was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. Enzyme assays revealed an aminotransferase activity. Partial genome sequencing and screening of a cosmid DNA library resulted in the identification of a 1,302-bp aminotransferase gene, which encodes a 46,416-Da protein. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified and showed a specific activity of 17.5 U mg(-1) for (S)-β-phenylalanine at 30°C and 33 U mg(-1) at the optimum temperature of 55°C. The β-specific aminotransferase exhibits a broad substrate range, accepting ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted β-phenylalanine derivatives as amino donors and 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate as amino acceptors. The enzyme is highly enantioselective toward (S)-β-phenylalanine (enantioselectivity [E], >100) and derivatives thereof with different substituents on the phenyl ring, allowing the kinetic resolution of various racemic β-amino acids to yield (R)-β-amino acids with >95% enantiomeric excess (ee). The crystal structures of the holoenzyme and of the enzyme in complex with the inhibitor 2-aminooxyacetate revealed structural similarity to the β-phenylalanine aminotransferase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK. The crystal structure was used to rationalize the stereo- and regioselectivity of V. paradoxus aminotransferase and to define a sequence motif with which new aromatic β-amino acid-converting aminotransferases may be identified.

  1. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  2. Identification and Partial Characterization of an L-Tyrosine Aminotransferase (TAT from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav R. Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminotransferase gene family in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana consists of 44 genes. Twenty six of these enzymes are classified as characterized meaning that the reaction(s that the enzyme catalyzes are documented using experimental means. The remaining 18 enzymes are uncharacterized and are therefore deemed putative. Our laboratory is interested in elucidating the function(s of the remaining putative aminotransferase enzymes. To this end, we have identified and partially characterized an aminotransferase (TAT enzyme from Arabidopsis annotated by the locus tag At5g36160. The full-length cDNA was cloned and the purified recombinant enzyme was characterized using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro analysis showed that the enzyme is capable of interconverting L-Tyrosine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, and L-Phenylalanine and phenylpyruvate. In vivo analysis by functional complementation showed that the gene was able to complement an E. coli with a background of aminotransferase mutations that confers auxotrophy for L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine.

  3. Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase-2 Metabolizes Endogenous Methylarginines, Regulates NO, and Controls Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplin, Ben; Wang, Zhen; Slaviero, Anna; Tomlinson, James; Dowsett, Laura; Delahaye, Mathew; Salama, Alan; Wheeler, David C.; Leiper, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-Asymmetric dimethylarginine is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis that may mediate cardiovascular disease. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 (AGXT2) has been proposed to degrade asymmetric dimethylarginine. We investigated the significance of AGXT2 in methylarginine metabolism in

  4. Structural Determinants of the beta-Selectivity of a Bacterial Aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybenga, Gjalt G.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2012-01-01

    Chiral beta-amino acids occur as constituents of various natural and synthetic compounds with potentially useful bioactivities. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent S-selective transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (MesAT) is a fold type I aminotransferase that can be used for the pre

  5. Biochemical Properties and Crystal Structure of a β-Phenylalanine Aminotransferase from Variovorax paradoxus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Wybenga, Gjalt G.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wijma, Hein J.; Wu, Bian; Bartsch, Sebastian; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Dijkstra, Bauke; Janssen, Dick B.

    2013-01-01

    By selective enrichment, we isolated a bacterium that can use beta-phenylalanine as a sole nitrogen source. It was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. Enzyme assays revealed an aminotransferase activity. Partial genome sequencing and screening of a cosmid DNA

  6. Parvovirus B19-Induced Constellation of Acute Renal Failure, Elevated Aminotransferases and Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W McAuley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report details a case of acute renal failure and elevated aminotransferases with subsequent development of congestive heart failure in a patient with history of exposure to parvovirus B19 and serological evidence of acute infection with this agent. This constellation of organ involvement has not been previously reported in the literature.

  7. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  8. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  9. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  10. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean (Chanhassen, MN); Liao, Hans H. (Eden Prairie, MN); Gort, Steven John (Apple Valley, MN); Selifonova, Olga V. (Plymouth, MN)

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  11. The narrow substrate specificity of human tyrosine aminotransferase--the enzyme deficient in tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Sharada; Kirsch, Jack F

    2006-05-01

    Human tyrosine aminotransferase (hTATase) is the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transamination of tyrosine to p-hydrophenylpyruvate, an important step in tyrosine metabolism. hTATase deficiency is implicated in the rare metabolic disorder, tyrosinemia type II. This enzyme is a member of the poorly characterized Igamma subfamily of the family I aminotransferases. The full length and truncated forms of recombinant hTATase were expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. The pH-dependent titration of wild-type reveals a spectrum characteristic of family I aminotransferases with an aldimine pK(a) of 7.22. I249A mutant hTATase exhibits an unusual spectrum with a similar aldimine pK(a) (6.85). hTATase has very narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the Tyr/alpha-ketoglutarate substrate pair, which gives a steady state k(cat) value of 83 s(-1). In contrast there is no detectable transamination of aspartate or other cosubstrates. The present findings show that hTATase is the only known aminotransferase that discriminates significantly between Tyr and Phe: the k(cat)/K(m) value for Tyr is about four orders of magnitude greater than that for Phe. A comparison of substrate specificities of representative Ialpha and Igamma aminotransferases is described along with the physiological significance of the discrimination between Tyr and Phe by hTATase as applied to the understanding of the molecular basis of phenylketonuria.

  12. Induction of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA by glucocorticoids and cAMP in fetal rat liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Bravo, N; Ernest, M J

    1982-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.5) enzyme and mRNA activity were not detectable in day 20 fetal rat liver. Precocious induction of catalytic activity by in utero injection of dibutyryl cAMP was a direct consequence of the de novo appearance of translatable tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. In contrast, in utero injection of hydrocortisone acetate failed to elicit fetal liver enzyme activity. This failure was due to the inability of the steroid hor...

  13. Characterization of the different spectral forms of glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, S; Andersen, Jens S.; Kannangara, C G;

    1995-01-01

    Glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase produces delta-aminolevulinate for the synthesis of chlorophyll, heme, and other tetrapyrrole pigments. The native enzyme from Synechococcus is pale yellow and has absorption maxima at 338 and 418 nm from vitamin B6. Yellow, colorless, and pink forms of t...... reduction. Acetylenic GABA attached covalently to the enzyme produced an additional mass peak, 123-126 mass units higher, in the electrospray ionization spectrum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. Strain relief at the active site of phosphoserine aminotransferase induced by radiation damage

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnovitsky, Anatoly P.; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Popov, Alexander N.; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray susceptibility of the lysine-pyridoxal-5′-phosphate Schiff base in Bacillus alcalophilus phosphoserine aminotransferase has been investigated using crystallographic data collected at 100 K to 1.3 Å resolution, complemented by on-line spectroscopic studies. X-rays induce deprotonation of the internal aldimine, changes in the Schiff base conformation, displacement of the cofactor molecule, and disruption of the Schiff base linkage between pyridoxal-5′-phosphate and the Lys residue. An...

  15. Weaning Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Aminotransferases through MAPK Signaling Pathways in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Luo, Wenli; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Weina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning on the hepatic redox status, apoptosis, function, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways during the first week after weaning in piglets. A total of 12 litters of piglets were weaned at d 21 and divided into the weaning group (WG) and the control group (CG). Six piglets from each group were slaughtered at d 0 (d 20, referred to weaning), d 1, d 4, and d 7 after weaning. Results showed that weaning significantly increased the concentrations of hepatic free radicals H2O2 and NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while significantly decreasing the inhibitory hydroxyl ability (IHA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and altered the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The apoptosis results showed that weaning increased the concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in liver homogenates increased after weaning. The phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 increased, while the activated p38 initially decreased and then increased. Our results suggested that weaning increased the hepatic oxidative stress and aminotransferases and initiated apoptosis, which may be related to the activated MAPK pathways in postweaning piglets.

  16. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Pey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis.

  17. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase as markers of alcohol consumption in out-patient alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Andersen, I; Dietrichson, O;

    1981-01-01

    Serum activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 316 patients attending an out-patients clinic for treatment of alcoholism. The activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase was raised in 34% and that of aspartate aminotransferase...... and alkaline phosphatase in 18% and 7%. Neither the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase nor alkaline phosphatase showed any significant (P greater than 0.05) correlation with the history of alcohol consumption. The activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase and aspartate...... aminotransferase were raised significantly more often in patients with recent alcohol consumption than in patients who had abstained for more than 9 days. The concentration of alkaline phosphatase was not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different in these groups. The predictive value of raised and normal...

  18. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.;

    2004-01-01

    Purification and characterization of an aminotransferase (AT) specific for the degradation of branched-chain amino acids from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHCC 2115. Methods and Results: The purification protocol consisted of anion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography...

  19. Thermal stability, pH dependence and inhibition of four murine kynurenine aminotransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagle Danilo A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT catalyzes the transamination of kynunrenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA. KYNA is a neuroactive compound and functions as an antagonist of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is the only known endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Four KAT enzymes, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, have been reported in mammalian brains. Because of the substrate overlap of the four KAT enzymes, it is difficult to assay the specific activity of each KAT in animal brains. Results This study concerns the functional expression and comparative characterization of KAT I, II, III, and IV from mice. At the applied test conditions, equimolar tryptophan with kynurenine significantly inhibited only mouse KAT I and IV, equimolar methionine inhibited only mouse KAT III and equimolar aspartate inhibited only mouse KAT IV. The activity of mouse KAT II was not significantly inhibited by any proteinogenic amino acids at equimolar concentrations. pH optima, temperature preferences of four KATs were also tested in this study. Midpoint temperatures of the protein melting, half life values at 65°C, and pKa values of mouse KAT I, II, III, and IV were 69.8, 65.9, 64.8 and 66.5°C; 69.7, 27.4, 3.9 and 6.5 min; pH 7.6, 5.7, 8.7 and 6.9, respectively. Conclusion The characteristics reported here could be used to develop specific assay methods for each of the four murine KATs. These specific assays could be used to identify which KAT is affected in mouse models for research and to develop small molecule drugs for prevention and treatment of KAT-involved human diseases.

  20. Value of two noninvasive methods to detect progression of fibrosis among HCV carriers with normal aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletta, Cosimo; Smirne, Carlo; Fabris, Carlo; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Rapetti, Rachele; Minisini, Rosalba; Pirisi, Mario

    2005-10-01

    The course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection carriers with normal/near-normal aminotransferases (NALT) is usually mild; however, in a few, fibrosis progression occurs. We aimed to verify whether monitoring by liver biopsy might be replaced by noninvasive methods and to identify factors associated with fibrosis progression in patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferases. We studied 40 untreated HCV-RNA-positive subjects (22 male; median age, 44 years), who underwent two liver biopsies, with a median interval of 78.5 months, during which alanine aminotransferase concentrations (median number of determinations: 12) never exceeded 1.2 times the upper normal limit. Within 9 months from the second biopsy, they were tested by the shear elasticity probe (Fibroscan) and the artificial intelligence algorithm FibroTest. METAVIR fibrosis scores were analyzed in relationship to demographic, clinical, and viral parameters. Weighted kappa analysis was used to verify whether the results of noninvasive methods agreed with histology. Significant fibrosis (> or = F2), present at the first biopsy in only one patient (2.5%), was observed at the second biopsy in 14 patients (35%). At multivariate analysis, excess alcohol consumption in the past (>20 g/d; P = .017) and viral load (>8.0 x 10(6) copies/mL; P = .021) were independent predictors of progression. In identifying patients with significant fibrosis, inter-rater agreement was excellent for Fibroscan (weighted kappa = 1.0), and poor for FibroTest (weighted kappa = -0.041). In conclusion, among HCV carriers with NALT, Fibroscan is superior to the FibroTest in the noninvasive identification of fibrosis, for which excess alcohol consumption in the past and high viral load represent risk factors.

  1. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and severe dengue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67 and between dengue fever (DF and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61. There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. CONCLUSIONS: Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  2. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A.; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to t...

  3. Propylthiouracyl-induced severe liver toxicity: An indication for alanine aminotransferase monitoring?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Benyounes; C Sempoux; C Daumerie; J Rahier; AP Geubel

    2006-01-01

    Propylthiouracyl (PTU)-related liver toxicity is likely to occur in about 1% of treated patients. In case of acute or subacute hepatitis, liver failure may occur in about one third. We report two further cases of PTU-induced subacute hepatitis, in whom the delay between occurrence of liver damage after the initiation of treatment, the underestimation of its severity and the delayed withdrawal of the drug were all likely responsible for liver failure.The high incidence of liver toxicity related to PTU, its potential severity and delayed occurrence after initiation of treatment are in favor of monthly alanine aminotransferase monitoring, at least during the first six months of therapy.

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Aromatic Substrates and Competitive Inhibitors of GABA Aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Michael D.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inhibitors and inactivators can lead to the discovery of new GABA-related therapeutics. To this end, a series of aromatic amino acid compounds was synthesized to aid in the design of new inhibitors and inactivators of GABA-AT. All compounds were tested as competitive inhibitors of GABA-AT. The amino acids with benzylic amines were also tested as substrates for GABA-AT. It was found that these compoun...

  5. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Aminotransferase CrmG in Caerulomycin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiguang; Xu, Jinxin; Mei, Xiangui; Feng, Zhan; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Weiming; Liu, Jinsong; Zhang, Changsheng

    2016-04-15

    Caerulomycin A (CRM A 1) belongs to a family of natural products containing a 2,2'-bipyridyl ring core structure and is currently under development as a potent novel immunosuppressive agent. Herein, we report the functional characterization, kinetic analysis, substrate specificity, and structure insights of an aminotransferase CrmG in 1 biosynthesis. The aminotransferase CrmG was confirmed to catalyze a key transamination reaction to convert an aldehyde group to an amino group in the 1 biosynthetic pathway, preferring l-glutamate and l-glutamine as the amino donor substrates. The crystal structures of CrmG in complex with the cofactor 5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) or 5'-pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) or the acceptor substrate were determined to adopt a canonical fold-type I of PLP-dependent enzymes with a unique small additional domain. The structure guided site-directed mutagenesis identified key amino acid residues for substrate binding and catalytic activities, thus providing insights into the transamination mechanism of CrmG. PMID:26714051

  6. Structural Insight into the Mechanism of Substrate Specificity of Aedes Kynurenine Aminotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han,Q.; Gao, Y.; Robinson, H.; Li, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes aegypti kynurenine aminotransferase (AeKAT) is a multifunctional aminotransferase. It catalyzes the transamination of a number of amino acids and uses many biologically relevant a-keto acids as amino group acceptors. AeKAT also is a cysteine S-conjugate {beta}-lyase. The most important function of AeKAT is the biosynthesis of kynurenic acid, a natural antagonist of NMDA and {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we report the crystal structures of AeKAT in complex with its best amino acid substrates, glutamine and cysteine. Glutamine is found in both subunits of the biological dimer, and cysteine is found in one of the two subunits. Both substrates form external aldemines with pyridoxal 5-phosphate in the structures. This is the first instance in which one pyridoxal 5-phosphate enzyme has been crystallized with cysteine or glutamine forming external aldimine complexes, cysteinyl aldimine and glutaminyl aldimine. All the units with substrate are in the closed conformation form, and the unit without substrate is in the open form, which suggests that the binding of substrate induces the conformation change of AeKAT. By comparing the active site residues of the AeKAT-cysteine structure with those of the human KAT I-phenylalanine structure, we determined that Tyr286 in AeKAT is changed to Phe278 in human KAT I, which may explain why AeKAT transaminates hydrophilic amino acids more efficiently than human KAT I does.

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Liver Aminotransferases Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Patients with Nonviral Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qi Cai; XIAO Juan; ZHANG Peng Peng; CHEN Li Li; CHEN Xiao Xiao; WANG Shu Mei

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study exploredthe correlation of longitudinal changes in serumalanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)levels with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets)based on a dynamic health examination cohort. MethodsA Mets-free dynamic cohortinvolving 4541 participants who underwent at leastthree health examinations from 2006 to 2011 was included in the study. Mets was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association Diabetes Branch definitionthat included hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to analyze multivariate relative risk (RR) of repeated observations ofALT and AST in quartiles for Mets or its components according to gender. ResultsIn all, 826Mets cases were reported. Adjustmentof relevant parameters indicated that time-varyingchanges in ALT and ASTlevels were positively associated with the incidenceof Mets in a dose-response manner. Positive association between high ALT levels and fatty liver was much stronger than that between high AST levels and fatty liver, particularly in maleparticipants. These associations were consistently observed in the following subgroups: participants with ALT and ASTlevels of ConclusionThese results suggested that elevated serum ALT and AST levels wereearly biomarkers of Mets or its components.

  8. Point mutations in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene in tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natt, E; Kida, K; Odievre, M; Di Rocco, M; Scherer, G

    1992-10-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome, RHS) is a disease of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by keratitis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, mental retardation, and elevated blood tyrosine levels. The disease results from deficiency in hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.5), a 454-amino acid protein encoded by a gene with 12 exons. To identify the causative mutations in five TAT alleles cloned from three RHS patients, chimeric genes constructed from normal and mutant TAT alleles were tested in directing TAT activity in a transient expression assay. DNA sequence analysis of the regions identified as nonfunctional revealed six different point mutations. Three RHS alleles have nonsense mutations at codons 57, 223, and 417, respectively. One "complex" RHS allele carries a GT----GG splice donor mutation in intron 8 together with a Gly----Val substitution at amino acid 362. A new splice acceptor site in intron 2 of the fifth RHS allele leads to a shift in reading frame.

  9. A better parameter in predicting insulin resistance: Obesity plus elevated alanine aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Hao Chen; Jong-Dar Chen; Yu-Cheng Lin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of obesity and elevated alanine aminotransferase with insulin resistance and compare these factors with metabolic syndrome.METHODS: We enrolled a total of 1308 male workers aged from 22 to 63 years. Data was extracted from the workers’ periodic health check-ups in hospitals. All cases were from the community of northern Taiwan.This was a cross-sectional observational study from July to September in 2004. We grouped all cases into four groups, based on the quartile of homeostasis model assessment. The top fourth quartile group was defined as the group with insulin resistance. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for the odds ratio of the risk factors for insulin resistance.RESULTS: Compared with metabolic syndrome, the coexistence of both factors had a 4.3-fold (95% CI: 2.7-6.8) increased risk, which was more than metabolic syndrome with a 3.6-fold (95% CI: 2.6-5.0) increased risk. The two factors had a synergistic effect. The synergistic index of obesity and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.01-4.3).CONCLUSION: Obesity and elevated ALT are associatedwith insulin resistance. The effects are synergistic.Coexistence of them is better than metabolic syndrome in predicting insulin resistance.

  10. Isolation and characterization of cytosolic alanine aminotransferase isoforms from starved rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedavathi, M; Girish, K S; Kumar, M Karuna

    2004-12-01

    Alanine is the most effective precursor for gluconeogenesis among amino acids and the initial reaction is catalyzed by alanine aminotransferases (AlaATs). It is a less extensively studied enzyme under starvation and known to that the enzyme activity increases in liver under starvation. The present study describes the purification and characterization of two isoforms of alanine aminotransferases from starved male rat liver under starvation. The molecular mass of isoforms was found to be 17.7 and 112.2 kDa with isoelectric points of 4.2 and 5.3 respectively for AlaAT I and AlaAT II. Both the enzymes showed narrow substrate specificity for L-alanine with different Km for alanine and 2-oxoglutarate. Both the enzymes were glycoprotein in nature. Inhibition, modification and spectroscopic studies showed that both PLP and free-SH groups are directly involved in the enzymatic catalysis. PLP activated both the enzymes with a Km 0.057 mM and 0.2 mM for AlaAT I and II respectively. PMID:15663181

  11. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomrit, Juntratip [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand); Summpunn, Pijug [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Meevootisom, Vithaya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand); Wiyakrutta, Suthep, E-mail: scsvy@mahidol.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Stereochemical mechanism of PLP enzymes is important but difficult to determine. {yields} This new method is significantly less complicated than the previous ones. {yields} This assay is as sensitive as the radioactive based method. {yields} LC-MS/MS positively identify the analyte coenzyme. {yields} The method can be used with enzyme whose apo form is unstable. -- Abstract: A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in {sup 2}H{sub 2}O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-{sup 2}H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The {sup 2}H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the {sup 2}H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of {sup 2}H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2 mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay.

  12. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  13. A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Azaz, Jorge; Cánovas, Francisco M.; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids. Fernando de la Torre, Jorge El-Azaz, Concepción Ávila, Francisco M. Cánovas Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica. Universidad de Málaga. Bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferases (AAT/PAT) are plastid-located enzymes encoded by a single locus in all reported plants, which develop two different enzymatic activities: aspartate aminotransferas...

  14. Activation of tyrosine aminotransferase expression in fetal liver by 5-azacytidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, R.; Perry, S.T.; Isham, K.R.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    1983-06-15

    Rat fetuses of 20 days gestational age were treated in utero with the inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-azacytidine. The liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase, normally expressed at very low levels until several hours after birth, was increased by the drug in the fetal livers after a lag period of about 9 hours, reaching a level 70-fold above control levels 18 hours after treatment. The high levels attained after 5-azacytidine treatment are comparable to those of glucocorticoid-treated adult livers, and were not further increased by administration of hydrocortisone to dams carrying treated fetuses. Cytidine and two other analogs, cytosine arabinoside and 6-azacytidine, were essentially without effect. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Differential redox potential between the human cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven J. Coles; John T. Hancock; Myra E. Conway

    2012-01-01

    The human branched-chain aminotransferase (hBCAT) isoenzymes are CXXC motif redox sensitive homodimers central to glutamate metabolism in the central nervous system.These proteins respond differently to oxidation by H2O2,NO,and S-glutathionylation,suggesting that the redox potential is distinct between isoenzymes.Using various reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH:GSSG) to alter the redox environment,we demonstrate that hBCATc (cytosolic) has an overall redox potential that is 30 mV lower than hBCATm (mitochondrial).Furthermore,the CXXC motif of hBCATc was estimated to be 80 mV lower,suggesting that hBCATm is more oxidizing in nature.Western blot analysis revealed close correlations between hBCAT S-glutathionylation and the redox status of the assay environment,offering the hBCAT isoenzymes as novel biomarkers for cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  16. Multiple adaptive losses of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase mitochondrial targeting in fruit-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Huihui; Yuan, Xinpu; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT) functions to detoxify glyoxylate before it is converted into harmful oxalate. In mammals, mitochondrial targeting of AGT in carnivorous species versus peroxisomal targeting in herbivores is controlled by two signal peptides that correspond to these respective organelles. Differential expression of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is considered an adaptation to diet-specific subcellular localization of glyoxylate precursors. Bats are an excellent group in which to study adaptive changes in dietary enzymes; they show unparalleled mammalian dietary diversification as well as independent origins of carnivory, frugivory, and nectarivory. We studied the AGT gene in bats and other mammals with diverse diets and found that the MTS has been lost in unrelated lineages of frugivorous bats. Conversely, species exhibiting piscivory, carnivory, insectivory, and sanguinivory possessed intact MTSs. Detected positive selection in the AGT of ancestral fruit bats further supports adaptations related to evolutionary changes in diet.

  17. Multiple adaptive losses of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase mitochondrial targeting in fruit-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Huihui; Yuan, Xinpu; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT) functions to detoxify glyoxylate before it is converted into harmful oxalate. In mammals, mitochondrial targeting of AGT in carnivorous species versus peroxisomal targeting in herbivores is controlled by two signal peptides that correspond to these respective organelles. Differential expression of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is considered an adaptation to diet-specific subcellular localization of glyoxylate precursors. Bats are an excellent group in which to study adaptive changes in dietary enzymes; they show unparalleled mammalian dietary diversification as well as independent origins of carnivory, frugivory, and nectarivory. We studied the AGT gene in bats and other mammals with diverse diets and found that the MTS has been lost in unrelated lineages of frugivorous bats. Conversely, species exhibiting piscivory, carnivory, insectivory, and sanguinivory possessed intact MTSs. Detected positive selection in the AGT of ancestral fruit bats further supports adaptations related to evolutionary changes in diet. PMID:22319153

  18. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  19. A novel low molecular weight alanine aminotransferase from fasted rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedavathi, M; Girish, K S; Kumar, M Karuna

    2006-01-01

    Alanine is the most effective precursor for gluconeogenesis among amino acids, and the initial reaction is catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). Although the enzyme activity increases during fasting, this effect has not been studied extensively. The present study describes the purification and characterization of an isoform of AlaAT from rat liver under fasting. The molecular mass of the enzyme is 17.7 kD with an isoelectric point of 4.2; glutamine is the N-terminal residue. The enzyme showed narrow substrate specificity for L-alanine with Km values for alanine of 0.51 mM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 0.12 mM. The enzyme is a glycoprotein. Spectroscopic and inhibition studies showed that pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and free -SH groups are involved in the enzymatic catalysis. PLP activated the enzyme with a Km of 0.057 mM. PMID:16487061

  20. An alternative pathway contributes to phenylalanine biosynthesis in plants via a cytosolic tyrosine:phenylpyruvate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Heejin; Widhalm, Joshua R; Qian, Yichun; Maeda, Hiroshi; Cooper, Bruce R; Jannasch, Amber S; Gonda, Itay; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine is a vital component of proteins in all living organisms, and in plants is a precursor for thousands of additional metabolites. Animals are incapable of synthesizing phenylalanine and must primarily obtain it directly or indirectly from plants. Although plants can synthesize phenylalanine in plastids through arogenate, the contribution of an alternative pathway via phenylpyruvate, as occurs in most microbes, has not been demonstrated. Here we show that plants also utilize a microbial-like phenylpyruvate pathway to produce phenylalanine, and flux through this route is increased when the entry point to the arogenate pathway is limiting. Unexpectedly, we find the plant phenylpyruvate pathway utilizes a cytosolic aminotransferase that links the coordinated catabolism of tyrosine to serve as the amino donor, thus interconnecting the extra-plastidial metabolism of these amino acids. This discovery uncovers another level of complexity in the plant aromatic amino acid regulatory network, unveiling new targets for metabolic engineering.

  1. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and glutamine-cycling pathway: Their roles in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Sookoian; Carlos J Pirola

    2012-01-01

    Although new research technologies are constantly used to look either for genes or biomarkers in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MS),the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this complex disease remains a major challenge.Interestingly,Cheng et al recently investigated possible pathways underlying MS by high-throughput metabolite profiling in two large and well characterized community-based cohorts.The authors explored by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry the plasma concentrations of 45distinct metabolites and examined their relation to cardiometabolic risk,and observed that metabolic risk factors such as obesity,insulin resistance (IR),high blood pressure,and dyslipidemia were associated with several metabolites,including branched-chain amino acids,other hydrophobic amino acids,tryptophan breakdown products,and nucleotide metabolites.In addition,the authors found a significant association of IR traits with glutamine,glutamate and the glutamineto-glutamate ratio.These data provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MS-associated phenotypes and introduce a crucial role of glutamine-cycling pathway as prominently involved in the development of metabolic risk.We consider that the hypothesis about the role of abnormal glutamate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the MS is certainly challenging and suggests the critical role of the liver in the global metabolic modulation as glutamate metabolism is linked with aminotransferase reactions.We discuss here the critical role of the "liver metabolism" in the pathogenesis of the MS and IR,and postulate that before fatty liver develops,abnormal levels of liver enzymes,such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases might reflect high levels of hepatic transamination of amino acids in the liver.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, André O.; Girón, Irma; Dobson, Renwick C. J.

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate/lysine pathway has recently been defined following the discovery of the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL). The cloning of the cDNA, recombinant expression, purification and preliminary diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga C. reinhardtii are presented.

  3. The effect of portacaval anastomosis on the expression of glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase in perivenous hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin; Levillain, Oliver; Brosnan, John T; Araneda, Silvia; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2013-05-01

    There is functional zonation of metabolism across the liver acinus, with glutamine synthetase restricted to a narrow band of cells around the terminal hepatic venules. Portacaval anastomosis, where there is a major rerouting of portal blood flow from the portal vein directly to the vena cava bypassing the liver, has been reported to result in a marked decrease in the activity of glutamine synthetase. It is not known whether this represents a loss of perivenous hepatocytes or whether there is a specific loss of glutamine synthetase. To answer this question, we have determined the activity of glutamine synthetase and another enzyme from the perivenous compartment, ornithine aminotransferase, as well as the immunochemical localization of both glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase in rats with a portacaval shunt. The portacaval shunt caused a marked decrease in glutamine synthetase activity and an increase in ornithine aminotransferase activity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase proteins maintained their location in the perivenous cells. These results indicate that there is no generalized loss of perivenous hepatocytes, but rather, there is a significant alteration in the expression of these proteins and hence metabolism in this cell population.

  4. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Kasper J.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly...

  5. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-1–Monoinfected Adults With Elevated Aminotransferase Levels on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Caryn G.; McLaughlin, Mary; Matthews, Lindsay; Proschan, Michael; Thomas, Francine; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Orenstein, Abigail; Engle, Ronald E.; Hu, Xiaojun; Lempicki, Richard; Hadigan, Colleen; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Persistent aminotransferase elevations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those without hepatitis B or C coinfection, but their clinical significance is unknown. Methods. HIV-infected adults with aminotransferase levels elevated above the upper limit of normal for ≥6 months while receiving ART, and without chronic viral hepatitis or other known causes of chronic liver disease, underwent a detailed metabolic assessment and liver biopsy. Results. Sixty-two HIV-infected subjects completed the study. Forty (65%) had clinically significant liver pathology, including 34 (55%) with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 11 (18%) with bridging fibrosis, 10 of whom also had NASH. Nonspecific abnormalities alone were seen in 22 (35%) subjects, including mild steatosis, mild to moderate inflammation, and evidence of drug adaptation. Insulin resistance, obesity, and the presence of either of 2 minor alleles in the PNPLA3 gene were significantly associated with increased risk of NASH and fibrosis. NASH and/or fibrosis were not associated with duration of HIV infection or ART, specific antiretroviral drugs, history of opportunistic infection, immune status, or duration of aminotransferase elevation. Conclusions. HIV-infected adults with chronic aminotransferase elevations while receiving ART have a high rate of liver disease. Noninvasive testing can help identify liver disease in such patients, but liver biopsy is necessary to definitively identify those at risk for liver disease progression and complications. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will better characterize the natural history of aminotransferase elevations in this population and identify noninvasive biomarkers of liver disease progression. PMID:25681381

  6. Bicyclic γ-amino acids as inhibitors of γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia; Pennacchietti, Eugenia; Coluccia, Antonio; Silvestri, Romano; Cullia, Gregorio; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola; De Biase, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-degradative enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is regarded as an attractive target to control GABA levels in the central nervous system: this has important implications in the treatment of several neurological disorders and drug dependencies. We have investigated the ability of newly synthesized compounds to act as GABA-AT inhibitors. These compounds have a unique bicyclic structure: the carbocyclic ring bears the GABA skeleton, while the fused 3-Br-isoxazoline ring contains an electrophilic warhead susceptible of nucleophilic attack by an active site residue of the target enzyme. Out of the four compounds tested, only the one named (+)-3 was found to significantly inhibit mammalian GABA-AT in vitro. Docking studies, performed on the available structures of GABA-AT, support the experimental findings: out of the four tested compounds, only (+)-3 suitably orients the electrophilic 3-Br-isoxazoline warhead towards the active site nucleophilic residue Lys329, thereby explaining the irreversible inhibition of GABA-AT observed experimentally. PMID:25807299

  7. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nguyen Thanh Thuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy and Nafion® modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA, respectively. The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2 (N = 10, respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C. The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L and reasonable recoveries (70%~107% were obtained.

  8. Strain relief at the active site of phosphoserine aminotransferase induced by radiation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnovitsky, Anatoly P; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Popov, Alexander N; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C

    2005-06-01

    The X-ray susceptibility of the lysine-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate Schiff base in Bacillus alcalophilus phosphoserine aminotransferase has been investigated using crystallographic data collected at 100 K to 1.3 A resolution, complemented by on-line spectroscopic studies. X-rays induce deprotonation of the internal aldimine, changes in the Schiff base conformation, displacement of the cofactor molecule, and disruption of the Schiff base linkage between pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and the Lys residue. Analysis of the "undamaged" structure reveals a significant chemical strain on the internal aldimine bond that leads to a pronounced geometrical distortion of the cofactor. However, upon crystal exposure to the X-rays, the strain and distortion are relaxed and eventually diminished when the total absorbed dose has exceeded 4.7 x 10(6) Ggamma. Our data provide new insights into the enzymatic activation of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and suggest that special care should be taken while using macromolecular crystallography to study details in strained active sites.

  9. Jasmonate is involved in the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and tocopherol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandorf, Iris; Holländer-Czytko, Heike

    2002-11-01

    Coronatine-inducible tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), which catalyses the transamination from tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, is the first enzyme of a pathway leading via homogentisic acid to plastoquinone and tocopherols, the latter of which are known to be radical scavengers in plants. TAT can be also induced by the octadecanoids methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl-12-oxophytodienoic acid (MeOPDA), as well as by wounding, high light, UV light and the herbicide oxyfluorfen. In order to elucidate the role of octadecanoids in the process of TAT induction in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the jasmonate-deficient mutant delayed dehiscence (dde1) was used, in which the gene for 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3 is disrupted. The amount of immunodetectable TAT was low. The enzyme was still fully induced by coronatine as well as by MeJA although induction by the latter was to a lesser extent and later than in the wild type. Treatment with MeOPDA, wounding and UV light, however, had hardly any effects. Tocopherol levels that showed considerable increases in the wild type after some treatments were much less affected in the mutant. However, starting levels of tocopherol were higher in non-induced dde1 than in the wild type. We conclude that jasmonate plays an important role in the signal transduction pathway regulating TAT activity and the biosynthesis of its product tocopherol. PMID:12430028

  10. Healthy ranges of serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Tranian blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Mohamadnejad; Akram Pourshams; Reza Malekzadeh; Ashraf Mohamadkhani; Afsaneh Rajabiani; Ali Ali Asgari; Seyed Meysam Alimohamadi; Hadi Razjooyan; Mamar-Abadi

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are less well studied. The aim of this study was to define the upper limit of normal (ULN) for serum ALT levels, and to assess factors associated with serum ALT activity in apparently healthy blood donors.METHODS: A total of 1 939 blood donors were included.ALT measurements were performed for all cases using the same laboratory method. Healthy ranges for ALT levels were computed from the population at the lowest risk for liver disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between clinical factors and ALT levels.RESULTS: Serum ALT activity was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and male gender, but not associated with age. Association of ALT with BMI was more prominent in males than in females. Upper limit of normal for non-overweight women (BMI of less than 25) was 34 U/L,and for non-overweight men was 40 U/L.CONCLUSION: Serum ALT is strongly associated with sex and BMI. The normal range of ALT should be defined for male and female separately.

  11. Characteristic features of kynurenine aminotransferase allosterically regulated by (alpha-ketoglutarate in cooperation with kynurenine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Okada

    Full Text Available Kynurenine aminotransferase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhKAT, which is a homodimeric protein, catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN to kynurenic acid (KYNA. We analyzed the transaminase reaction mechanisms of this protein with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, KYN and α-ketoglutaric acid (2OG or oxaloacetic acid (OXA. 2OG significantly inhibited KAT activities in kinetic analyses, suggesting that a KYNA biosynthesis is allosterically regulated by 2OG. Its inhibitions evidently were unlocked by KYN. 2OG and KYN functioned as an inhibitor and activator in response to changes in the concentrations of KYN and 2OG, respectively. The affinities of one subunit for PLP or 2OG were different from that of the other subunit, as confirmed by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry, suggesting that the difference of affinities between subunits might play a role in regulations of the KAT reaction. Moreover, we identified two active and allosteric sites in the crystal structure of PhKAT-2OG complexes. The crystal structure of PhKAT in complex with four 2OGs demonstrates that two 2OGs in allosteric sites are effector molecules which inhibit the KYNA productions. Thus, the combined data lead to the conclusion that PhKAT probably is regulated by allosteric control machineries, with 2OG as the allosteric inhibitor.

  12. Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity after Gargling with Green Tea and Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Suryanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment are susceptible to dental plaque accumulation. Plaque can cause inflammation in gingiva. It could be assessed by aspartat aminotransferase (AST in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Mouth rinse could be useful to reduce dental plaque accumulation during orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate is often used as mouth rinse in dental practice. On the other hand, green tea is one of natural ingredient that can be used for mouth rinse which is assumed could reduce plaque accumulation. Objectives: To compare the effect between green tea and chlorhexidine gluconate on AST activity in GCF in patient undergoing orthodontic treatment with molar band. Methods: An experimental study was conducted included forty adult subjects. They were randomized into two groups: green tea (n=20 and chlorhexidine gluconate (n=20. AST activity was measured before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion. One way and two-ways ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed significant difference of AST levels between before, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the green tea groups (p<0.05. In contrast, there was no significant differences of AST levels between before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the chlorhexidine gluconate groups (p=0.049. There were no difference between each groups with two way ANOVA (p<0.05. Conclusions: Gargle effect of green tea was as effective as chlorhexidine gluconate in reducing AST levels related to banded first molars in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment.

  13. Cellular and subcellular localization of hexokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase in the honeybee drone retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuthey, A L; Tsacopoulos, M; Millan de Ruiz, L; Perrottet, P

    1994-05-01

    Subcellular localization of hexokinase in the honeybee drone retina was examined following fractionation of cell homogenate using differential centrifugation. Nearly all hexokinase activity was found in the cytosolic fraction, following a similar distribution as the cytosolic enzymatic marker, phosphoglycerate kinase. The distribution of enzymatic markers of mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, rotenone-insensitive cytochrome c reductase, and adenylate kinase) indicated that the outer mitochondrial membrane was partly damaged, but their distributions were different from that of hexokinase. The activity of hexokinase in purified suspensions of cells was fivefold higher in glial cells than in photoreceptors. This result is consistent with the hypothesis based on quantitative 2-deoxy[3H]glucose autoradiography that only glial cells phosphorylate significant amounts of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. The activities of alanine aminotransferase and to a lesser extent of glutamate dehydrogenase were higher in the cytosolic than in the mitochondrial fraction. This important cytosolic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase was consistent with the higher activity found in mitochondria-poor glial cells. In conclusion, this distribution of enzymes is consistent with the model of metabolic interactions between glial and photoreceptor cells in the intact bee retina. PMID:8158142

  14. Properties of human liver cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase mRNAs generated by alternative polyadenylation site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (cAspAT) cDNA clones have been isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library. Among the clones, two cDNAs of 1,550 and 1,950 base pairs, respectively, have been characterized. These two cDNAs differ only in the lengths of their 3' noncoding regions and by the presence of one or two putative polyadenylation signals AATAAA. Northern blot analysis revealed two different mRNAs of 2.1 and 1.8 kbp in several human tissues, whereas Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a single gene for the human cAspAT. The two mRNA species result from the alternative use of two polyadenylation signals. In the liver, the relative ratio of these mRNAs varies among different species and, in humans at least, during development. The properties of the two mRNAs were compared. The half-lives of the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp mRNAs, in the HepG2 cell line, are 8 and 12 h, respectively. The two mRNAs have similar and rather short poly(A) tracts of 20-50 nucleotides. Both mRNAs are capable of directing the in vitro synthesis of the cAspAT protein. The authors conclude that both the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp cAspAT mRNAs are functional and exhibit similar properties

  15. Associations of functional alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 gene variants with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Ilkka; Kleber, Marcus E; Bevan, Steve; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Oksala, Niku; Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Dichgans, Martin; Mononen, Nina; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Sinisalo, Juha; Delgado, Graciela E; Laaksonen, Reijo; Koskinen, Tuomas; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kähönen, Mika; Markus, Hugh S; März, Winfried; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) impair nitric oxide bioavailability and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) is the only enzyme capable of metabolizing both of the dimethylarginines. We hypothesized that two functional AGXT2 missense variants (rs37369, V140I; rs16899974, V498L) are associated with AF and its cardioembolic complications. Association analyses were conducted using 1,834 individulas with AF and 7,159 unaffected individuals from two coronary angiography cohorts and a cohort comprising patients undergoing clinical exercise testing. In coronary angiography patients without structural heart disease, the minor A allele of rs16899974 was associated with any AF (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.59-2.68), and with paroxysmal AF (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.74) and chronic AF (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.06) separately. We could not replicate the association with AF in the other two cohorts. However, the A allele of rs16899974 was nominally associated with ischemic stroke risk in the meta-analysis of WTCCC2 ischemic stroke cohorts (3,548 cases, 5,972 controls) and with earlier onset of first-ever ischemic stroke (360 cases) in the cohort of clinical exercise test patients. In conclusion, AGXT2 variations may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF and its age-related thromboembolic complications. PMID:26984639

  16. Novel protein-protein interactions between Entamoeba histolyticad-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vibhor; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Zhang, Kam Y J; Bhakuni, Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Physical interactions between d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EhPGDH) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (EhPSAT) from an enteric human parasite Entamoeba histolytica was observed by pull-down assay, gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking, emission anisotropy, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations. The protein-protein complex had a 1:1 stochiometry with a dissociation constant of 3.453 × 10(-7) M. Ionic interactions play a significant role in complex formation and stability. Analysis of the energy minimized average simulated model of the protein complex show that the nucleotide binding domain of EhPGDH specifically interacts with EhPSAT. Denaturation studies suggest that the nucleotide binding domain (Nbd) and substrate binding domain (Sbd) of EhPGDH are independent folding/unfolding units. Thus the Nbd-EhPGDH was separately cloned over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Fluorescence anisotropy study show that the purified Nbd interacts with EhPSAT. Forward enzyme catalyzed reaction for the EhPGDH-PSAT complex showed efficient Km values for 3-phosphoglyceric acid as compared to only EhPGDH suggesting a possibility of substrate channelling in the protein complex. PMID:22386871

  17. Effects of self-association of ornithine aminotransferase on its physicochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boernke, W.E.; Stevens, F.J.; Peraino, C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has shown that the molecular weight of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) is concentration dependent. In the present study this property of OAT was further characterized by using sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation to determine the molecular weight of OAT in a range of enzyme concentrations. It was shown that OAT aggregates in a two-stage process as its concentration increases. The first stage involves the association of enzymatically active monomers into trimers, with association of the trimmers into higher order aggregates occurring in the second stage. Decreasing the pH or raising the ionic strength enhanced aggregation, while raising the pH inhibits aggregation; however, the two-stage nature of the aggregation process was not affected by changes in pH and ionic strength. Kinetic analyses of purified enzyme showed that aggregatio results in an increase in the K/sub m/ for both substrates with the V/sub max/ remaining constant, indicating that aggregation of monomers sterically hinders substrate binding. Increased K/sub m/ values were also obtained for OAT sequestered in mitochondia from rats fed a high-protein diet to increase mitochondrial OAT levels. The higher K/sub m/ values suggest that the elevation of OAT in vivo is accompanied by aggregation of the enzyme within the mitochondrion. We propose that the aggregation-dependent increase of K/sub m/ in vivo has adaptive value in that it spares ornithine for use in the urea cycle.

  18. Clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase and lifestyle intervention in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Chun, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD. Methods The clinical data of 86 children diagnosed with NAFLD were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-six patients belonged to the elevated ALT group and 40 to the normal ALT group. The clinical parameters of patients with NAFLD were also compared based on the status of ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Results Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) scores than those with normal ALT (P<0.05). Of all the patients with elevated ALT, 89% exhibited moderate or severe degree of fatty change in the liver on ultrasonographic examination, whereas most patients with normal ALT exhibited mild or moderate degree changes. Liver biopsy was performed in 15 children with elevated ALT and all showed mild histological changes. Of all patients with elevated ALT, 49% achieved normal ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Those with more severe histological changes tended to have continuously increasing ALT levels. There was no correlation between the normalization of posttreatment ALT level and BMI, as well as ultrasonographic findings at diagnosis. Conclusion ALT elevation in NAFLD is highly associated with higher BMI scores and more severe degree of fatty changes on ultrasonographic examination. Lifestyle intervention can significantly improve ALT in children with NAFLD. The degree of histologic changes appears to be a predictor of the treatment response to NAFLD.

  19. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo Evangelista Santana; Paula Alessandra Di Filippo

    2008-01-01

    Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines), and G2 (50 equines with colic). Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05) than the values...

  20. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether elevated hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], or gamma -glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT]) are associated...... with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion and whether these elevated enzymes predict the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. We measured ALT, AST, and GGT in 451 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (aged 30 +/- 6 years, body fat......-sectionally associated with obesity and whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance and prospectively associated with a decline in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that high ALT is a marker of risk for type 2 diabetes and suggest a potential role of the liver...

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of branched-chain aminotransferase from Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chung-Der; Huang, Tien-Feng [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China); Lin, Chih-Hao [Institute of Biological Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 110,Taiwan (China); Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Hung; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Yih [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chang, E-mail: wchang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biological Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 110,Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: wchang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China); Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-01

    The crystallization of branched-chain aminotransferase from D. radiodurans is described. The branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase (BCAT), which requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor, is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the hydrophobic amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. DrBCAT from Deinococcus radiodurans, which has a molecular weight of 40.9 kDa, was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to X-ray diffraction data to 2.50 Å resolution from a DrBCAT crystal, the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.37, b = 90.70, c = 155.47 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of two DrBCAT molecules in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 47.52%.

  2. Impact of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase on metabolic syndrome and its components among adult people living in Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-Peng He; Chuan Zhao; Yan Qiang; He-Rong Liu; Nan Chen; Xiu-Juan Tao; Li-Li Chen; Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. It suggests an association between an elevated serum aminotransferase level and MS. Little data show the relationship between the levels of serum aminotransferase and the incidence of MS in Ningxia, China. Methods: A total of 5415 subjects who received medical health checkups from 2007 to 2009 were enrolled in the study. The participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire. MS was defined according to the modified ATPIII criteria for Asian Americans by the American Heart Association (AHA-ATP III). Results: The prevalence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT (>40 U/L) were 7.1%and 22.2%in males, and 2.1%and 4.8%in females respectively. The prevalence of MS was 32.1%in males and 15.4%in females. The components of MS were significantly more in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the group with normal amino-transferase levels. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.90 (1.49, 2.42), 2.59 (2.01, 3.39), 1.68 (1.32, 2.15), and 1.81 (1.36, 2.42) in the adults with abdominal obesity, high serum triglycerides levels, high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. After adjustment for age, the odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated ALT were 3.08 (2.63, 3.61), 4.30 (3.64, 5.08), 1.26 (1.08, 1.48), 2.16 (1.93, 2.65) and 2.38 (1.96, 2.87) in adults with abdominal obesity, high serum tri-glycerides levels, low serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C), high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.67 (1.06, 2.63), 2.28 (1.46, 3.63), 2.59 (1.59, 4.21) and for elevated ALT 2.02 (1.50, 2.73), 2.68 (1.96, 3.65), 3.94 (2.86, 5.43) for the subjects with 1, 2, and ?3 risk factors after adjustment for age, gender, and BMI. Conclusion: The serum aminotransferase levels were

  3. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  4. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  5. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen;

    Objectives: Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) have been linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We examined ALAT levels in newly diagnosed T2D...... between groups. Patients in the highest ALAT quartile had more alcohol overuse (10.4% vs. 2.2% with >14/21 weekly drinks in women/men, p

  6. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of lysine ∊-aminotransferase (Rv3290c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Sarvind Mani; Ramachandran, Ravishankar, E-mail: ravi-anitha@yahoo.com [Molecular and Structural Biology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, PO Box 173, Chattar Manzil, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2006-06-01

    Lysine ∊-aminotransferase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Lysine ∊-aminotransferase (LAT) is a protein involved in lysine catabolism; it belongs to the aminotransferase family of enzymes, which use pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. LAT probably plays a significant role during the persistent/latent phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as observed by its up-regulation by ∼40-fold during this stage. Crystals of recombinant LAT have been grown in 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate solution containing 0.2 M ammonium acetate and 25% PEG 4000 in the pH range 5.4–6.0. Diffraction data extending to 1.98 Å were collected at room temperature from a single crystal. Crystals are trigonal in shape and belong to space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.26, b = 103.26, c = 98.22 Å. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 3.1 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  8. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  9. Alanine aminotransferase and risk of the metabolic syndrome: a linear dose-response relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setor K Kunutsor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated baseline circulating alanine aminotransferase (ALT level has been demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, but the nature of the dose-response relationship is uncertain. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies to characterize in detail the nature of the dose-response relationship between baseline ALT level and risk of incident MetS in the general population. Relevant studies were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to December 2013. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks (RRs of MetS for 3 or more categories of ALT levels were eligible. A potential nonlinear relationship between ALT levels and MetS was examined using restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: Of the 489 studies reviewed, relevant data were available on 29,815 non-overlapping participants comprising 2,125 incident MetS events from five prospective cohort studies. There was evidence of a linear association (P for nonlinearity=0.38 between ALT level and risk of MetS, characterised by a graded increase in MetS risk at ALT levels 6-40 U/L. The risk of MetS increased by 14% for every 5 U/L increment in circulating ALT level (95% CI: 12-17%. Evidence was lacking of heterogeneity and publication bias among the contributing studies. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline ALT level is associated with risk of the MetS in a linear dose-response manner. Studies are needed to determine whether the association represents a causal relationship.

  10. Novel and recurrent tyrosine aminotransferase gene mutations in tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühn, R; Stoermer, H; Klingele, B; Bausch, E; Fois, A; Farnetani, M; Di Rocco, M; Boué, J; Kirk, J M; Coleman, R; Scherer, G

    1998-03-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome, RHS) is a disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by keratitis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, mental retardation, and elevated blood tyrosine levels. The disease results from deficiency in hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). We have previously described one deletion and six different point mutations in four RHS patients. We have now analyzed the TAT genes in a further seven unrelated RHS families from Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We have established PCR conditions for the amplification of all twelve TAT exons and have screened the products for mutations by direct sequence analysis or by first performing single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. We have thus identified the presumably pathological mutations in eight RHS alleles, including two nonsense mutations (R57X, E411X) and four amino acid substitutions (R119W, L201R, R433Q, R433W). Only the R57X mutation, which was found in one Scottish and two Italian families, has been previously reported in another Italian family. Haplotype analysis indicates that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, has a common origin in the three Italian families but arose independently in the Scottish family. Two polymorphisms have also been detected, viz., a protein polymorphism, P15S, and a silent substitution S103S (TCG-->TCA). Expression of R433Q and R433W demonstrate reduced activity of the mutant proteins. In all, twelve different TAT gene mutations have now been identified in tyrosinemia type II.

  11. A community-based epidemiological study of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Tao-Hsin Tung; Jorn-Hon Liu; Victor Tze-Kai Chen; Ching-Heng Lin; Chung-Te Hsu; Pesus Chou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore any gender-related differences in prevalence of and condition-associated factors related to an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level amongst residents of Kinmen, Taiwan.METHODS: A total of 11 898 of a potential 20 112 regional residents aged 30 years or more completed a related questionnaire that was carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade between 1991 and 1994 inclusively, with blood samples being collected by public nurses. The overall questionnaire response rate was 59.3% (52.4% for males and 66.0% for females).RESULTS: The prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level for this sub-population was found to be 7,2%, the prevalence revealing a statistically significant decrease with increasing population age (P<0.0001). Males exhibited a greater prevalence of elevated serum ALT level than did females (9.4% vs 5.3%, P<0.0001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, in addition to male gender, a younger age, greater waist circumference,presence of type-2 diabetes and hyperuricemia were the significant factors associated with an elevated serum ALT level for both males and females. Gender-related differences as regards associated factors were also revealed. For males, obesity was significantly related to an elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.00-1.66)but this was not so for females (OR = 1.09, 95%CI:0.84-1.42). Hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.36-2.39) and hyperuricemia (OR = 1.61, 95%CI:1.03-2.52) were significantly related to elevated serum ALT levels only for females.CONCLUSION: Several gender-related differences were noted pertaining to the prevalence of and relationship between obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and elevated serum ALT level in the present study.(c)2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Ihc. All rights reserved.

  12. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick C J Dobson

    Full Text Available In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL (E.C. 2.6.1.83 is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP, in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL. The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  13. Liver fibrosis progression in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients with normal aminotransferases levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Heleno de Lima Pace

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of hepatitis C virus (HCV monoinfected patients present persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. Most of these patients have a slow progression of liver fibrosis. Studies have demonstrated the rate of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HCV-HIV coinfected patients is faster than in patients infected only by HCV. Few studies have evaluated the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients with normal ALT levels. METHODS: HCV-HIV coinfected patients (HCV-RNA and anti-HIV positive with known time of HCV infection (intravenous drugs users were selected. Patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive or hepatitis C treatment before liver biopsy were excluded. Patients were considered to have a normal ALT levels if they had at least 3 normal determinations in the previous 6 months prior to liver biopsy. All patients were submitted to liver biopsy and METAVIR scale was used. RESULTS: Of 50 studied patients 40 (80% were males. All patients were treated with antiretroviral therapy. The ALT levels were normal in 13 (26% patients. HCV-HIV co-infected patients with normal ALT levels had presented means of the liver fibrosis stages (0.77±0.44 versus 1.86±1.38; p<0.001 periportal inflammatory activity (0.62±0.77 versus 2.24±1.35; p<0.001 and liver fibrosis progression rate (0.058±0.043 fibrosis unit/year versus 0.118±0.102 fibrosis unit/year significantly lower as compared to those with elevated ALT. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-HIV coinfected patients with persistently normal ALTs showed slower progression of liver fibrosis. In these patients the development of liver cirrhosis is improbable.

  14. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  15. Persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation among the general Iranian population: Prevalence and causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raika Jamali; Mohammad Reza Deyhim; Houri Rezvan; Akram Pourshams; Mahmoodreza Khonsari; Shahin Merat; Masoud Khoshnia; Elham Jafari; Alireza Bahram Kalhori; Hassan Abolghasemi; Sedighe Amini; Mahtab Maghsoudlu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and causes of persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT)levels among the general population in northern Iran.METHODS: A total of 2292 (1376 female, aged 18-75year), were selected by systematic clustered random sampling from the cities and villages of Gonbad and Kalaleh in Golestan Province and invited to participate in the study. A comprehensive history regarding alcohol drinking and medication was taken. Body mass index (BMI), viral markers and ALT levels were measured. If ALT level was ≥ 40 U/L, it was rechecked twice within 6 mo. Those with ≥ 2 times elevation of ALT were considered as having persistently elevated ALT level.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was diagnosed based on evidence of fatty liver upon sonography and excluding other etiology.RESULTS: A total of 2049 (1351 female) patients participated in the study, 162 (7.9%) had elevated ALT level at the first measurement. Persistently elevated ALT level was detected in 64 (3.1%) participants, with 51 (79.6%) with no obvious etiology, six (9.3%) with Hepatitis B, four (6.2%) with Hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection and three (4.6%) with alcoholic hepatitis.The prevalence of NAFLD and alcoholic hepatitis was 2.04% (42 patients) and 0.1% (three), respectively.There was correlation between NAFLD and male gender,overweight, diabetes and living in an urban area [odds ratio = 3.03 (95% CI: 1.6-5.72), 4.21 (95% CI:1.83-9.68), 2.86 (95% CI: 1.05-7.79) and 2.04 (95% CI:1.00-4.16) respectively].CONCLUSION: NAFLD is the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT level among the general population of Iran.

  16. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  17. Inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II reduces activity of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Klas R; Alm, Maximilian Tufvesson; Larsson, Markus K; Olsson, Sara K; Goiny, Michel; Hajos, Mihaly; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2016-03-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan, is elevated in the brain of patients with psychotic disorders. Therefore, lowering brain KYNA levels might be a novel approach in the treatment of psychotic disorders. The present in vivo electrophysiological study aimed to investigate the effect of an inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) II, the primary enzyme for KYNA synthesis, on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Acute administration of the KAT II inhibitor PF-04859989 (5 or 10 mg/kg) was associated with a short-onset, time-dependent decrease in firing rate and burst activity of DA neurons, both parameters reaching a 50% reduction within 45 min. Furthermore, PF-04859989 reduced the number of spontaneously active DA cells as measured 4-6 after administration. Pretreatment with d-cycloserine (30 mg/kg) or CGP-52432 (10 mg/kg) prevented the inhibitory action of PF-04859989 (5 mg/kg) on firing rate and burst firing activity. In contrast, pretreatment with methyllycaconitine (MLA, 4 mg/kg) did not change the response, whereas picrotoxin (4.5 mg/kg) partially prevented the inhibitory effects of PF-04859989 (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Our results show that a specific inhibition of KAT II is associated with a marked reduction in VTA DA firing activity. This effect appears to be specifically executed by NMDA-receptors and mediated indirectly via a GABA(B)-receptor-induced disinhibition of DA neurons. Our findings are in line with the view that endogenous KYNA, by modulation of the NMDA-receptor, exerts important physiological roles in the brain.

  18. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Salezze Vieira; Vanessa Beijamini; Ana Carolina Melchiors

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special d...

  19. Relationship between alanine aminotransferase levels and metabolic syndrome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-wen CHEN; Li-ying CHEN; Hong-lei DAI; Jian-hua CHEN; Li-zheng FANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT)levels and metabolic syndrome (MS)in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).Methods:A total of 26527 subjects who received medical health checkup in our hospital from January 2005 to July 2007 were enrolled in the study.The diagnosis of fatty liver was based on ultrasound imaging.MS Was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ.ALT,triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c),fasting plasma glucose(FPG),height,weight,waist circumference(WC),systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure(DBP)were measured in each subject to analyze the relationship between MS and ALT activity.Results:(1)The prevalence of NAFLD in men(30.94%)was significantly higher than that in women(15.65%);(2)The incidence of MS in NAFLD(33.83%)was significantly greater than that in non-NAFLD(10.62%);(3)Of the 6470 subjects with NAFLD,in the age-adjusted partial correlation analysis,there were statistically significant correlations between the ALT levels and most metabolic risk factors in each sex(P<0.01),except that ALT levels had no correlation with HDL-c in women.Moreover,in the multiple stepwise regression analysis,SBP lost its significance,and WC,body mass index(BMI),age,DBP,TG and FPG were independently associated with ALT levels in both sexes (P<0.05).HDL-c remained significant and was independently related to ALT leveis in men;(4)ALT levels were significantly higher in subjects with MS compared to those without MS(P<0.001).Mean ALT levels increased with the number of MS cornponents in each sex (P.<0.05 for trend).Conelusion:We found a strong relationship between ALT leveIs and MS in NAFLD and revealed that the cluster of MS components might be the predictor for ALT elevations.

  20. Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Houssein; Limami, Anis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of climatic change, more heavy precipitation and more frequent flooding and waterlogging events threaten the productivity of arable farmland. Furthermore, crops were not selected to cope with flooding- and waterlogging-induced oxygen limitation. In general, low oxygen stress, unlike other abiotic stresses (e.g., cold, high temperature, drought and saline stress), received little interest from the scientific community and less financial support from stakeholders. Accordingly, breeding programs should be developed and agronomical practices should be adapted in order to save plants’ growth and yield—even under conditions of low oxygen availability (e.g., submergence and waterlogging). The prerequisite to the success of such breeding programs and changes in agronomical practices is a good knowledge of how plants adapt to low oxygen stress at the cellular and the whole plant level. In the present paper, we summarized the recent knowledge on metabolic adjustment in general under low oxygen stress and highlighted thereafter the major changes pertaining to the reconfiguration of amino acids syntheses. We propose a model showing (i) how pyruvate derived from active glycolysis upon hypoxia is competitively used by the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate synthase cycle, leading to alanine accumulation and NAD+ regeneration. Carbon is then saved in a nitrogen store instead of being lost through ethanol fermentative pathway. (ii) During the post-hypoxia recovery period, the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate dehydrogenase cycle mobilizes this carbon from alanine store. Pyruvate produced by the reverse reaction of alanine aminotransferase is funneled to the TCA cycle, while deaminating glutamate dehydrogenase regenerates, reducing equivalent (NADH) and 2-oxoglutarate to maintain the cycle function. PMID:27258319

  1. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  2. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Campus Univ. Rio S. Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}), Pb (350-700 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}) and Cu (10-20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}, 7 days) and copper (20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}, 5 days) were observed significant differences (P<0.05) in foot and gills, respectively, with respect to control. In the case of alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), significant differences were observed for cadmium and lead in treated animals with respect to control. With regard to copper, a decrease in ALT was observed in gills and foot exposed to 20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssein Diab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climatic change, more heavy precipitation and more frequent flooding and waterlogging events threaten the productivity of arable farmland. Furthermore, crops were not selected to cope with flooding- and waterlogging-induced oxygen limitation. In general, low oxygen stress, unlike other abiotic stresses (e.g., cold, high temperature, drought and saline stress, received little interest from the scientific community and less financial support from stakeholders. Accordingly, breeding programs should be developed and agronomical practices should be adapted in order to save plants’ growth and yield—even under conditions of low oxygen availability (e.g., submergence and waterlogging. The prerequisite to the success of such breeding programs and changes in agronomical practices is a good knowledge of how plants adapt to low oxygen stress at the cellular and the whole plant level. In the present paper, we summarized the recent knowledge on metabolic adjustment in general under low oxygen stress and highlighted thereafter the major changes pertaining to the reconfiguration of amino acids syntheses. We propose a model showing (i how pyruvate derived from active glycolysis upon hypoxia is competitively used by the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate synthase cycle, leading to alanine accumulation and NAD+ regeneration. Carbon is then saved in a nitrogen store instead of being lost through ethanol fermentative pathway. (ii During the post-hypoxia recovery period, the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate dehydrogenase cycle mobilizes this carbon from alanine store. Pyruvate produced by the reverse reaction of alanine aminotransferase is funneled to the TCA cycle, while deaminating glutamate dehydrogenase regenerates, reducing equivalent (NADH and 2-oxoglutarate to maintain the cycle function.

  4. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K.E.; Allison, K.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Harvey, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate amino-transferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 ??mol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variant of the diaminopimelate/lysine pathway has recently been defined following the discovery of the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL). The cloning of the cDNA, recombinant expression, purification and preliminary diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga C. reinhardtii are presented. In the anabolic synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine in plants and in some bacteria, the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL; EC 2.6.1.83) catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDPA) to l,l-diaminopimelate, bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic steps in the bacterial acyl pathways. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions containing 25%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 200 mM lithium sulfate and initially diffracted to ∼1.35 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 91.8, c = 162.9 Å. The data were processed to 1.55 Å resolution with an Rmerge of 0.081, an Rp.i.m. of 0.044, an Rr.i.m of 0.093 and a VM of 2.28 Å3 Da−1

  6. Comparison of the tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of normal mink and mink affected with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, S R; McGuire, T C; Prieur, D J

    2005-01-01

    Type II tyrosinemia, designated Richner-Hanhart syndrome in humans, is a hereditary metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by a deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Mutations occur in the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene, resulting in high levels of tyrosine and disease. Type II tyrosinemia occurs in mink, and our hypothesis was that it would also be associated with mutation(s) in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Therefore, the transcribed cDNA and the genomic tyrosine aminotransferase gene were sequenced from normal and affected mink. The gene extended over 11.9 kb and had 12 exons coding for a predicted 454-amino-acid protein with 93% homology with human tyrosine aminotransferase. FISH analysis mapped the gene to chromosome 8 using the Mandahl and Fredga (1975) nomenclature and chromosome 5 using the Christensen et al. (1996) nomenclature. The hypothesis was rejected because sequence analysis disclosed no mutations in either cDNA or introns that were associated with affected mink. This suggests that an unlinked gene regulatory mutation may be the cause of tyrosinemia in mink.

  7. Splice-mediated insertion of an Alu sequence inactivates ornithine δ-aminotransferase: A role for Alu elements in human mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of mutations causing deficiency of ornithine δ-aminotransferase the authors found an allele whose mature mRNA has a 142-nucleotide insertion at the junction of sequences from exons 3 and 4. The insert derives from an Alu element in ornithine δ-aminotransferase intron 3 oriented in the direction opposite to transcription (an antisense Alu). A guanine → cytosine transversion creates a donor splice site in this Alu, activating a cryptic acceptor splice site at its 5' end and causing splice-mediated insertion of an Alu fragment into the mature ornithine-δ-aminotransferase mRNA. The authors note that the complement of the Alu consensus sequence has at least two cryptic acceptor sites and several potential donor sequences and predict that similar mutations will be found in other genes

  8. Enhancement of solubility in Escherichia coli and purification of an aminotransferase from Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartinger Doris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisin B1 is a cancerogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other fungi. Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 can degrade fumonisin B1, and a key enzyme in the catabolic pathway is an aminotransferase which removes the C2-amino group from hydrolyzed fumonisin B1. In order to study this aminotransferase with respect to a possible future application in enzymatic fumonisin detoxification, we attempted expression of the corresponding fumI gene in E. coli and purification of the enzyme. Since the aminotransferase initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, we compared the effects of induction level, host strain, expression temperature, solubility enhancers and a fusion partner on enzyme solubility and activity. Results When expressed from a T7 promoter at 30°C, the aminotransferase accumulated invariably in inclusion bodies in DE3 lysogens of the E. coli strains BL21, HMS174, Rosetta 2, Origami 2, or Rosetta-gami. Omission of the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction caused a reduction of expression level, but no enhancement of solubility. Likewise, protein production but not solubility correlated with the IPTG concentration in E. coli Tuner(DE3. Addition of the solubility enhancers betaine and sorbitol or the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate showed no effect. Maltose-binding protein, used as an N-terminal fusion partner, promoted solubility at 30°C or less, but not at 37°C. Low enzyme activity and subsequent aggregation in the course of purification and cleavage indicated that the soluble fusion protein contained incorrectly folded aminotransferase. Expression in E. coli ArcticExpress(DE3, which co-expresses two cold-adapted chaperonins, at 11°C finally resulted in production of appreciable amounts of active enzyme. Since His tag-mediated affinity purification from this strain was hindered by co-elution of chaperonin, two steps of chromatography with optimized imidazole concentration in the

  9. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketa,Kazuhisa

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relatively small and was seen more often in patients given blood transfusions. It was interpreted as retardation and suppression of ALT rise and as being related to the induction of interferon or to immunopotentiation. Other antihepatotoxic effects of Picibanil, due to its antioxidant activity, for example, may also account for the prevention of the early postoperative rise in ALT activity.

  10. Functional characterization of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase involved in 2-phenylethanol biosynthesis in isolated rose petal protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Haruka; Tomida, Kensuke; Sakai, Miwa; Hara, Masakazu; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2012-03-15

    In rose flowers, 2-phenylethanol (2PE) is biosynthesized from l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) via phenylacetaldehyde (PAld) by the actions of two enzymes, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR). We here report that Rosa 'Yves Piaget' aromatic amino acid aminotransferase produced phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) from l-Phe in isolated petal protoplasts. We have cloned three full length cDNAs (RyAAAT1-3) of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase families based on rose EST database and homology regions. The RyAAATs enzymes were heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized biochemically. The recombinant RyAAAT3 showed the highest activity toward l-Phe in comparison with l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, d-Phe, glycine, and l-alanine, and showed 9.7-fold higher activity with l-Phe rather than PPA as a substrate. RyAAAT3 had an optimal activity at pH 9 and at 45-55°C with α-ketoglutaric acid, and was found to be a PLP dependent enzyme based on the inhibition test using Carbidopa, an inhibitor of PLP-dependent enzymes. The transcript of RyAAAT3 was expressed in flowers as well as other organs of R. 'Yves Piaget'. RNAi suppression of RyAAAT3 decreased 2PE production, revealing the involvement of RyAAAT3 in 2PE biosynthesis in rose protoplasts and indicating that rose protoplasts have potentially two different 2PE biosynthetic pathways, the AADC route and the new route via PPA from l-Phe.

  11. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  12. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target...

  13. Lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT are key enzymes for the formation of aroma compounds from amino acids in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, L.; Yvon, M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Courtin, P.; Verheul, A.; Chambellon, E.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid catabolism plays a major role in cheese aroma development. Previously, we showed that the lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT initiate the conversion of aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids and methionine to aroma compounds. In this study, we evaluated the importance o

  14. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  15. Hubungan Kadar Trigliserida dan Kolesterol-HDL Terhadap Kadar Alanine Aminotransferase pada Pasien Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Gemilang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTrigliserida dan Kolesterol HDL (c-HDL merupakan beberapa dari komponen Sindroma Metabolik (SM. SM dipercaya merupakan faktor utama penyebab Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. NAFLD merupakan penyakit hati kronik yang nantinya dapat menyebabkan fibrosis sel-sel hepar dan juga keganasan. NAFLD tidak menunjukkan manifestasi klinis yang khas, sehingga diperlukan pemeriksaan penunjang seperti pemeriksaan enzim hati untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT menjadi pilihan sebagai marker pada penyakit NAFLD. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara trigliserida dan c-HDL dengan ALT pada penderita NAFLD. Ini merupakan penelitian analitik deskriptif dengan desain retrospektif menggunakan data pasien NAFLD di instalasi rekam medik RSUP dr.M.Djamil Padang. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 51 pasien NAFLD. Hasil penelitian didapatkan dari uji korelasi pearson terdapat derajat hubungan yang kuat (r=0,512 dan hubungan yang bermakna (p<0,001 antara kadar trigliserida dengan kadar ALT serum dan derajat hubungan yang sedang (r=0,26 dan hubungan yang tidak bermakna (p=0,065 antara c-HDL dengan ALT serum. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah kadar ALT berhubungan dengan kadar trigliserida pada penderita NAFLD, namun tidak dengan c-HDLKata kunci: NAFLD, trigliserida, HDL, ALT, sindroma metabolik AbstractTriglyceride and HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C are some of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS components. MS is believed as the main factor for the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. NAFLD is a chronic liver disease, which later can cause hepatocyte fibrosis and also malignancy. NAFLD does not show a typical clinical appearance, so it is important to do workups such as liver enzyme test to make the diagnosis. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT is considered as the marker of NAFLD.The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C to ALT level in NAFLD patients.This  was a descriptive analytical

  16. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  17. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2 and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1 play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01 from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita.

  18. The effect of pyridoxal-5-phosphate on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in dogs suffering from canine babesiosis

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    E.C. Myburgh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of serum aminotransferase (ALT activity in dogs relies on the endogenous pro-enzyme pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exclusion of P5P from the analytical method causes an underestimation of serum ALT activity in dogs suffering from babesiosis and in those manifesting evidence of hepatocellular damage, and to determine if anorexia causes sufficient P5P depletion to affect in vitro serum ALT activity. One-hundred-and-twenty healthy control dogs and 105 Babesia-infected dogs were included in the study. Two methods for ALT measurement were used: Method 1 included P5P, and Method 2 excluded P5P from the reaction mixture. Higher serum ALT activity was measured with Method 1 in the Babesia-infected dogs (P < 0.001, as well as in 14 dogs with suspected hepatocellular damage (P = 0.03. Duration of anorexia had no effect, irrespective of the method used. Although inclusion of P5P to the reaction mixture consistently resulted in higher measured serum ALT activity, the differences were too small to have led to incorrect diagnoses in the Babesia-infected dogs suspected of liver disease.

  19. Characteristics, tissue-specific expression, and hormonal regulation of expression of tyrosine aminotransferase in the avian female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Song, G

    2016-10-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Accumulation of tyrosine in the body due to a genetic mutation in the TAT gene causes tyrosomia type II in humans. The TAT gene is regarded as a model for studying steroid-inducible factors regulating a variety of biological functions of TAT. However, little is known of the effects of estrogen on the expression of the TAT gene in chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we identified expression of the avian TAT gene in various organs. The results showed the TAT was detected predominantly in the liver and reproductive organs including testis, oviduct, and ovary. Specifically, TAT mRNA was expressed abundantly in the glandular and luminal epithelia of the oviducts in response to endogenous and exogenous estrogens which also induce dramatic morphological changes in the oviduct of chickens. In addition, target microRNAs of TAT (miR-1460, miR-1626-3p, miR-1690-5p, and miR-7442-3p) were found to modulate expression of the TAT gene. Especially, miR-1690-5p influenced TAT gene transcription by binding directly to its 3'-UTR region. Moreover, the expression of TAT was abundant in glandular epithelia of cancerous but not normal ovaries from laying hens. Taken together, our findings suggest that TAT plays an important role in the cytodifferentiation of oviducts in response to estrogen and in the progression of ovarian cancer in chickens. PMID:27295280

  20. Assessment of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in cow's milk as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, H; Mansouri-Najand, L; Molaei, M M; Kheradmand, A; Sharifan, M

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those which were classified as positive by California mastitis test (CMT) were deemed to have subclinical mastitis. All the milk samples were skimmed by centrifugation at 10 000g at 0 degrees C and were used for enzyme activities estimations. The mean activities of LDH and ALP were higher in the milk from udders with SCM than in the milk from healthy udders (p CMT results and LDH and ALP values were seen at thresholds of > 180 IU/L and > 40 IU/L respectively (kappa values 0.65 and 0.79, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the tests for identifying SCM at these thresholds was higher for ALP (96.4%) than for LDH (68.5%). In this study, LDH and ALP tests were standardized for cow's milk and results showed that only the ALP test was reliable in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. PMID:17268916

  1. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  2. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis with combined serum aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To construct a noninvasive assessment model consisting of routine laboratory data to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 137 consecutive patients with CHB who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to their aminotransferase (ALl-) level. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), the likelihood ratio (LR) of aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥ 1.5 or 300 ng/mL could detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients. The PPV was 93.7%, the specificity was 98.9%. The APRI 300 ng/mL can detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients.

  3. Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-11-01

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) and L-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites.

  4. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis ...

  5. Crystal structures of the PLP- and PMP-bound forms of BtrR, a dual functional aminotransferase involved in butirosin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Bojana; Tang, Xiao; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Huang, Fanglu; Blundell, Tom L; Spencer, Jonathan B

    2006-10-01

    The aminotransferase (BtrR), which is involved in the biosynthesis of butirosin, a 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS)-containing aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Bacillus circulans, catalyses the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transamination reaction both of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose to 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine and of amino-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose to 2-DOS. The high-resolution crystal structures of the PLP- and PMP-bound forms of BtrR aminotransferase from B. circulans were solved at resolutions of 2.1 A and 1.7 A with R(factor)/R(free) values of 17.4/20.6 and 19.9/21.9, respectively. BtrR has a fold characteristic of the aspartate aminotransferase family, and sequence and structure analysis categorises it as a member of SMAT (secondary metabolite aminotransferases) subfamily. It exists as a homodimer with two active sites per dimer. The active site of the BtrR protomer is located in a cleft between an alpha helical N-terminus, a central alphabetaalpha sandwich domain and an alphabeta C-terminal domain. The structures of the PLP- and PMP-bound enzymes are very similar; however BtrR-PMP lacks the covalent bond to Lys192. Furthermore, the two forms differ in the side-chain conformations of Trp92, Asp163, and Tyr342 that are likely to be important in substrate selectivity and substrate binding. This is the first three-dimensional structure of an enzyme from the butirosin biosynthesis gene cluster.

  6. Efficient, Antibiotic Marker-Free Transformation of a Dicot and a Monocot Crop with Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase Selectable Marker Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giancaspro, Angelica; Nicolia, Alessandro; Gadaleta, Agata; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-free, efficient in vitro selection in plant genetic engineering can improve risk perception and speed up pre-market scrutiny of genetically modified crops. We provide a protocol for genetic transformation of two important crops, durum wheat and alfalfa, using a bacterial and a plant-derived selectable marker gene encoding mutated, gabaculine-insensitive glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA) enzymes. These methods can potentially be applied, with minor adaptations, to many other monocot and dicot crop plants. PMID:26614283

  7. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the biosynthetic N-acetylornithine aminotransferases from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylornithine aminotransferases, members of the type I subgroup II family of PLP-dependent enzymes, from S. typhimurium and E. coli have been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Acetylornithine aminotransferase (AcOAT) is a type I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde to N-acetylornithine in the presence of α-ketoglutarate, a step involved in arginine metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the biosynthetic AcOAT also catalyzes the conversion of N-succinyl-l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate to N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelate, one of the steps in lysine biosynthesis. It is closely related to ornithine aminotransferase. AcOAT was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli, overexpressed in E. coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. The enzymes crystallized in the presence of gabaculine. Crystals of E. coli AcOAT (eAcOAT) only diffracted X-rays to 3.5 Å and were twinned. The crystals of S. typhimurium AcOAT (sAcOAT) diffracted to 1.9 Å and had a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of sAcOAT was solved by the molecular-replacement method

  8. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the biosynthetic N-acetylornithine aminotransferases from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, V.; Prasad, K.; Ratna Prasuna, P.; Ramachandra, N.; Bharath, S. R. [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Savithri, H. S. [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Murthy, M. R. N., E-mail: mrn@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2006-10-01

    Acetylornithine aminotransferases, members of the type I subgroup II family of PLP-dependent enzymes, from S. typhimurium and E. coli have been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Acetylornithine aminotransferase (AcOAT) is a type I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde to N-acetylornithine in the presence of α-ketoglutarate, a step involved in arginine metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the biosynthetic AcOAT also catalyzes the conversion of N-succinyl-l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate to N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelate, one of the steps in lysine biosynthesis. It is closely related to ornithine aminotransferase. AcOAT was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli, overexpressed in E. coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. The enzymes crystallized in the presence of gabaculine. Crystals of E. coli AcOAT (eAcOAT) only diffracted X-rays to 3.5 Å and were twinned. The crystals of S. typhimurium AcOAT (sAcOAT) diffracted to 1.9 Å and had a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of sAcOAT was solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  9. Cloning of a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene from a Triticum aestivum-Elytrigia elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daoyi; WANG Honggang

    2005-01-01

    Shannong 551, a T. aestivum-E. elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew, was inoculated with pathogenic spores of powdery mildew. The leaf samples were prepared 48 h after inoculation for scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that germination of spores and growth of young mycelia on leaves of Shannong 551 were suppressed at the early stage of infection. At the same time, RNAs were prepared from the leaves for the cloning of WRP1 and RPW2 by cDNA RDA and RACE technology. BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated that both WRP1 and RPW2 were novel genes. WRP1 contains no complete ORF. RPW2 contains the conserved structure domain of aminotransferase, and its DNA sequence shares high homology with genes of phosphateserine aminotransferase in many organisms. Therefore, it is speculated as a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene. The results of Northern blot suggested that expression of RPW2 occurred at the early stage of infection by powdery mildew. Southern blot using the probe of RPW2, in which there was strong hybridizing signals in both genome of Shannong 551 and E. elongatum, but not in those of Jinan 13 and Lumai No.5, indicated that RPW2 derived from the genome of E. elongatum.

  10. Diet and the frequency of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase Pro11Leu polymorphism in different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth F; Mayor, Lianne R; Thomas, Mark G; Danpure, Christopher J

    2004-11-01

    The intermediary metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) contains a Pro11Leu polymorphism that decreases its catalytic activity by a factor of three and causes a small proportion to be mistargeted from its normal intracellular location in the peroxisomes to the mitochondria. These changes are predicted to have significant effects on the synthesis and excretion of the metabolic end-product oxalate and the deposition of insoluble calcium oxalate in the kidney and urinary tract. Based on the evolution of AGT targeting in mammals, we have previously hypothesised that this polymorphism would be advantageous for individuals who have a meat-rich diet, but disadvantageous for those who do not. If true, the frequency distribution of Pro11Leu in different extant human populations should have been shaped by their dietary history so that it should be more common in populations with predominantly meat-eating ancestral diets than it is in populations in which the ancestral diets were predominantly vegetarian. In the present study, we have determined frequency of Pro11Leu in 11 different human populations with divergent ancestral dietary lifestyles. We show that the Pro11Leu allelic frequency varies widely from 27.9% in the Saami, a population with a very meat-rich ancestral diet, to 2.3% in Chinese, who are likely to have had a more mixed ancestral diet. FST analysis shows that the differences in Pro11Leu frequency between some populations (particularly Saami vs Chinese) was very high when compared with neutral loci, suggesting that its frequency might have been shaped by dietary selection pressure.

  11. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  12. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL: A putative target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Triassi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP/lysine (lys anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2,771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1Δ bat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  14. Characterization of five putative aspartate aminotransferase genes in the N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinyi; Gu, Liping; He, Ping; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2015-06-01

    Aspartate and glutamate are two key amino acids used in biosynthesis of many amino acids that play vital role in cellular metabolism. Aspartate aminotransferases (AspATs) are required for channelling nitrogen (N(2)) between Glu and Asp in all life forms. Biochemical and genetic characterization of AspATs have been lacking in N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria. In this report, five putative AspAT genes (alr1039, all2340, alr2765, all4327 and alr4853) were identified in the N(2)-fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Five recombinant C-terminal hexahistidine-tagged AspATs (AspAT-H(6)) were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that these five putative AspATs have authentic AspAT activity in vitro using aspartate as an amino donor. However, the enzymic activities of the five AspATs differed in vitro. Alr4853-H(6) showed the highest AspAT activity, while the enzymic activity for the other four AspATs ranged from 6.5 to 53.7 % activity compared to Alr4853 (100 %). Genetic characterization of the five AspAT genes was also performed by inactivating each individual gene. All of the five AspAT knockout mutants exhibited reduced diazotrophic growth, and alr4853 was further identified to be a Fox gene (requiring fixed N(2) for growth in the presence of oxygen). Four out of five P(aspAT)-gfp transcriptional fusions were constitutively expressed in both diazotrophic and nitrate-dependent growth conditions. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that alr4853 expression was increased by 2.3-fold after 24 h of N(2) deprivation. Taken together, these findings add to our understanding of the role of AspATs in N(2)-fixing within heterocystous cyanobacteria.

  15. Association of Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine the prevalence of increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT, defined by a gender-specific cutoff value, among normal weight and overweight children; and to assess the relationship of increasing ALT levels with cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among school students, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. Based on the body mass index (BMI percentiles, a group of normal-weight was compared with a group of overweight and obese students. Gender differences were considered for increased levels of ALT, i.e. 19U/L and 30U/L for girls and boys respectively. Findings:The study participants consisted of 1172 students (56.2% girls, with a mean (SD age of 12.57 (3.3 years. Among overweight/obese students the mean triglycerides (TG and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those with increased ALT than in those with normal ALT levels. The logistic regression analysis showed that among overweight/obese boys, for each 1 unit increase in ALT, the odds ratio (OR of TG, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased significantly. After adjusting for age, these associations remained significant, and the OR of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c decreased significantly. In the model adjusting for age and BMI, the ORs of TG and HDL-c remained significant. After adjusting for age and waist circumference, HDL-c was the only parameter with significant OR. Among overweight/obese girls, in all models applied, the OR was significant for TG and total cholesterol. A significant independent association was documented for waist circumference and increase in ALT after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion:This study documented significant relationship of increased ALT levels, defined by a gender-specific cutoff point, with cardiometabolic risk factors and hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype in Iranian children and adolescents.

  16. Effect of mammals’ excretory function on aspartate aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis of research of Cd impact on the activity of the enzyme of aspartate aminotransferase (AST nitrogen metabolism and the content of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, which dominated in the research area (in natural floodplain oak forest with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts of Cd(NO32 in the range of concentrations of: 0.25, 1.25, 2.5 g/m2, equivalent to the inclusion of Cd in 1, 5, 10 doses of MAC. Increase (P < 0.05 in the activity of AST 2.6–3.0 times (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС and albumin content by 37% (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС compared to control (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals was shown. Using of excreta of some representatives of mammals (for example, Capreolus capreolus L. contributed to reduction of Cd toxic effects and restoring of the functional metabolic activity of AST by 23% (with Cd 1 МAС and by 34% (Cd 5 МAС. It is the evidence of protective function of mammals and their normalization effect at the above concentrations of Cd. Whereas the adding of Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС led to 3 times’ inhibition of AST activity, the toxic effect of metal by excretory function of mammals was not reduced. Observations revealed the albumin content normalization by 22% in the presence of Cd 1MAC respectively (with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta and to the control level (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals with the excreta of Sus scrofa L. in the setting of Cd 10 MAC. It proves the need to use the different mammal species for integrated and comprehensive normalization of ecosystems under conditions of uncontrolled anthropogenic pollution.

  17. Mechanism of Substrate Recognition And PLP-Induced Conformational Changes in II-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase From Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, N.; Clay, M.D.; Belkum, M.J.van; Cherney, M.M.; Vederas, J.C.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-26

    LL-Diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL-DAP-AT), a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathways of plants and Chlamydia, is a potential target for the development of herbicides or antibiotics. This homodimeric enzyme converts L-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDP) directly to LL-DAP using L-glutamate as the source of the amino group. Earlier, we described the 3D structures of native and malate-bound LL-DAP-AT from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDAP-AT). Seven additional crystal structures of AtDAP-AT and its variants are reported here as part of an investigation into the mechanism of substrate recognition and catalysis. Two structures are of AtDAP-AT with reduced external aldimine analogues: N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-glutamate (PLP-Glu) and N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)- LL-Diaminopimelate (PLP-DAP) bound in the active site. Surprisingly, they reveal that both L-glutamate and LL-DAP are recognized in a very similar fashion by the same sets of amino acid residues; both molecules adopt twisted V-shaped conformations. With both substrates, the {alpha}-carboxylates are bound in a salt bridge with Arg404, whereas the distal carboxylates are recognized via hydrogen bonds to the well-conserved side chains of Tyr37, Tyr125 and Lys129. The distal C{sup {var_epsilon}} amino group of LL-DAP is specifically recognized by several non-covalent interactions with residues from the other subunit (Asn309*, Tyr94*, Gly95*, and Glu97* (Amino acid designators followed by an asterisk (*) indicate that the residues originate in the other subunit of the dimer)) and by three bound water molecules. Two catalytically inactive variants of AtDAP-AT were created via site-directed mutagenesis of the active site lysine (K270N and K270Q). The structures of these variants permitted the observation of the unreduced external aldimines of PLP with L-glutamate and with LL-DAP in the active site, and revealed differences in the torsion angle about the PLP-substrate bond

  18. Structural and Functional Characterization of PseC, an Aminotransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Pseudaminic Acid, an Essential Flagellar Modification in Helicobacter Pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhofen,I.; Lunin, V.; Julien, J.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.; Brisson, J.; Aubry, A.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori flagellin is heavily glycosylated with the novel sialic acid-like nonulosonate, pseudaminic acid (Pse). The glycosylation process is essential for assembly of functional flagellar filaments and consequent bacterial motility. As motility is a key virulence factor for this and other important pathogens, the Pse biosynthetic pathway offers potential for novel therapeutic targets. From recent NMR analyses, we determined that the conversion of UDP-a-D-GlcNAc to the central intermediate in the pathway, UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-AltNAc, proceeds by formation of UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-arabino-4-hexulose by the dehydratase/epimerase PseB (HP0840) followed with amino transfer by the aminotransferase, PseC (HP0366). The central role of PseC in the H. pylori Pse biosynthetic pathway prompted us to determine crystal structures of the native protein, its complexes with pyridoxal phosphate alone and in combination with the UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-AltNAc product, the latter being converted to the external aldimine form in the enzyme's active site. In the binding site, the AltNAc sugar ring adopts a 4C1 chair conformation which is different from the predominant 1C4 form found in solution. The enzyme forms a homodimer where each monomer contributes to the active site, and these structures have permitted the identification of key residues involved in stabilization, and possibly catalysis, of the {beta}-L-arabino intermediate during the amino transfer reaction. The essential role of Lys183 in the catalytic event was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. This work presents for the first time a nucleotide-sugar aminotransferase co-crystallized with its natural ligand, and in conjunction with the recent functional characterization of this enzyme, will assist in elucidating the aminotransferase reaction mechanism within the Pse biosynthetic pathway.

  19. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. II. The influence on aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AiAt) activities in the liver of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Tokarz, A.; Stanosek, J.; Ludyga, K.; Kochanski, L.

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) an alanine aminotransferase (AIAT) in the whole homogenate and subcellular liver fractions of guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the neutralization products of these gases is presented in this paper. In the liver of animals exposed to the chronic action of combustion exhaust gases a decrease of both enzyme activities in the whole homogenate as well as in the subcellular fractions could be noted. Statistically significant changes are shown by AspAT. In the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products an increase of AIAT activity was observed. The activity of AspAT still shows a decrease, but less distinct in comparison with group I.

  20. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. II. The influence on aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AiAt) activities in the liver of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Stanosek, J; Ludyga, K; Kochanski, L

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) an alanine aminotransferase (AIAT) in the whole homogenate and subcellular liver fractions of guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the neutralization products of these gases is presented in this paper. In the liver of animals exposed to the chronic action of combustion exhaust gases a decrease of both enzyme activities in the whole homogenate as well as in the subcellular fractions could be noted. Statistically significant changes are shown by AspAT. In the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products an increase of AIAT activity was observed. The activity of AspAT still shows a decrease, but less distinct in comparison with group I. An exception here is the mitochondrial fraction in which the AspAT activity is distinctly increased.

  1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid plasma concentrations during foie gras production in male mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos × Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, A; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Marlier, D

    2012-01-01

    1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid (UA) plasma concentration were measured at 8 (7 days after group housing), 12 (after 7 days of force feeding) and 13 weeks of age (at slaughter after 12 days of force feeding), and 45 min after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test at 8 weeks of age in 12 male mule ducks in an on-farm experiment. 2. No significant increase of corticosterone was found during the force-feeding period compared with the concentration after housing. 3. Comparison of corticosterone and cortisol values indicates that cortisol can be considered as a reliable acute stress indicator in future routine examinations. 4. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase increased progressively from pre-force feeding period to slaughtering. 5. Plasma concentrations of uric acid increased from the start at 8 weeks of age to the mid-force feeding period but no difference was noticed between the mid-force feeding period and slaughtering. 6. It is concluded that acute stress induced by force-feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.

  2. root uv-b sensitive Mutants Are Suppressed by Specific Mutations in ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 and by Exogenous Vitamin B6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin D. Leasure; Hong-Yun Tong; Xue-Wen Hou; Amy Shelton; Mike Minton; Raymond Esquerra; Sanja Roje; Hanjo Hellmann; Zheng-Hui He

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (vitB6)serves as an essential cofactor for more than 140 enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP),active cofactor form of vitB6, can be photolytically destroyed by trace amounts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B). How sun-exposed organisms cope with PLP photosensitivity and modulate vitB6 homeostasis is currently unknown. We previously reported on two Arabidopsis mutants, rusl and rus2, that are hypersensitive to trace amounts of UV-B light. We performed mu-tagenesis screens for second-site suppressors of the rus mutant phenotype and identified mutations in the ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE2 (ASP2)gene. ASP2 encodes for cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), a PLP-dependent en-zyme that plays a key role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Genetic analyses have shown that specific amino acid substitutions in ASP2 override the phenotypes of rusl and rus2 single mutants as well as rusl rus2 double mutant. These substitutions, all shown to reside at specific positions in the PLP-binding pocket, resulted in no PLP binding. Additional asp2 mutants that abolish AAT enzymatic activity, but which alter amino acids outside of the PLP-binding pocket, fail to suppress the rus phenotype. Furthermore, exogenously adding vitB6 in growth media can rescue both rusl and rus2. Our data suggest that AAT plays a role in vitB6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  3. Comparison of measurements of canine plasma creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase obtained with Spotchem SP 4430 and Vitros 250 analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumel, C; Diquélou, A; Germain, C; Palanché, F; Braun, J P

    2005-12-01

    The suitability of the Spotchem 4430 benchtop biochemistry analyzer for canine blood samples was tested for creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alkaline phosphatases and alanine aminotransferase. Results obtained from whole blood and corresponding heparin plasma were identical except for proteins which were higher in plasma (n=10). Between series imprecision (n=10) was 0.93). The slopes of the Passing-Bablock's regression ranged from 0.90 to 1.20 and intercepts were low. The mean biases were low, except for creatinine for which the results obtained by Spotchem (Jaffe reaction) were about 20 micromol/L higher than with the Vitros (enzymatic reaction). The results of this study show that the Spotchem analyzer is suitable for use in canine whole blood or plasma when small numbers of tests are to be performed and large analyzers are not available. PMID:16054888

  4. The human tyrosine aminotransferase gene: characterization of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in a family with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, E M; Natt, E; Grimm, T; Odievre, M; Scherer, G

    1988-07-01

    Deficiency in hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) causes tyrosinemia type II, an autosomal recessively inherited disorder. Using a TAT cosmid clone, we have identified an MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 5' to the TAT gene, with allele frequencies of 0.63 and 0.37. Analysis of the cloned maternal and paternal TAT alleles from a patient with tyrosinemia type II led to the identification of a HaeIII RFLP at the 3' end of the TAT gene, with allele frequencies of 0.94 and 0.06. The two RFLPs are 27 kb apart and in no allelic association. From haplotype frequencies, a polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.44 was obtained. The two RFLPs have allowed the unambiguous identification of the mutant TAT alleles in the patient's pedigree by haplotype analysis.

  5. Structure of the PLP-Form of the Human Kynurenine Aminotransferase II in a Novel Spacegroup at 1.83 Å Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nematollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT-II is a 47 kDa pyridoxal phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme, active as a homodimer, which catalyses the transamination of the amino acids kynurenine (KYN and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK in the tryptophan pathway, and is responsible for producing metabolites that lead to kynurenic acid (KYNA, which is implicated in several neurological diseases such as schizophrenia. In order to fully describe the role of KAT-II in the pathobiology of schizophrenia and other brain disorders, the crystal structure of full-length PLP-form hKAT-II was determined at 1.83 Å resolution, the highest available. The electron density of the active site reveals an aldimine linkage between PLP and Lys263, as well as the active site residues, which characterize the fold-type I PLP-dependent enzymes.

  6. Aspartate aminotransferase catalyzed oxygen exchange with solvent from oxygen-18-enriched alpha-ketoglutarate: Evidence for slow exchange of enzyme-bound water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeish, M.J.; Julin, D.A.; Kirsch, J.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1989-05-02

    Partitioning of the ketimine (or ketimine + quinonoid) intermediate(s) in the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase reactions was investigated by following the rates of loss of {sup 18}O from carbonyl-{sup 18}O-enriched alpha-ketoglutarate together with the rate of L-glutamate formation. The ratio of these rate constants was found to equal 1 at 10{degree}C, implying that the above intermediate(s) face(s) equal barriers with respect to the forward and reverse reactions. This partition ratio of 1 together with that measured from the alpha-amino acid side of the reaction suggests that the rate constant for exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate-derived H{sub 2}(18)O from the ketimine (or ketimine + quinonoid) form(s) of the enzyme with solvent is comparable with that for kcat.

  7. Structural implications of a G170R mutation of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase that is associated with peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the G170R mutant form of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution. This mutation is associated with enzyme mistargeting in the hereditary kidney-stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1. In a subset of patients with the hereditary kidney-stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is mistargeted from peroxisomes to mitochondria. This is a consequence of the combined presence of the common P11L polymorphism and a disease-specific G170R mutation. In this paper, the crystal structure of mutant human AGT containing the G170R replacement determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å is reported. The crystal structure of AGT consists of an intimate dimer in which an extended N-terminal segment of 21 amino acids from one subunit wraps as an elongated irregular coil around the outside of the crystallographic symmetry-related subunit. In addition to the N-terminal segment, the monomer structure contains a large domain of 261 amino acids and a small C-terminal domain of 110 amino acids. Comparison of the mutant AGT structure and that of wild-type normal AGT shows that the two structures are almost identical, with a backbone-atom r.m.s. deviation of 0.34 Å. However, evidence of significant local structural changes in the vicinity of the G170R mutation might be linked to the apparent decrease in protein stability

  8. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  9. Structural Analysis of WbpE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: A Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in O-Antigen Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, A.; Olivier, N; Imperiali, B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major source of hospital-acquired infections. Effective treatment has proven increasingly difficult due to the spread of multidrug resistant strains and thus requires a deeper understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenicity. The central carbohydrate of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 (O5) B-band O-antigen, ManNAc(3NAc)A, has been shown to be critical for virulence and is produced in a stepwise manner by five enzymes in the Wbp pathway (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD, and WbpI). Herein, we present the crystal structure of the aminotransferase WbpE from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in complex with the cofactor pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP) and product UDP-GlcNAc(3NH{sub 2})A as the external aldimine at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. We also report the structures of WbpE in complex with PMP alone as well as the PLP internal aldimine and show that the dimeric structure of WbpE observed in the crystal structure is confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Analysis of these structures reveals that the active site of the enzyme is composed of residues from both subunits. In particular, we show that a key residue (Arg229), which has previously been implicated in direct interactions with the {alpha}-carboxylate moiety of {alpha}-ketoglutarate, is also uniquely positioned to bestow specificity for the 6{double_prime}-carboxyl group of GlcNAc(3NH2)A through a salt bridge. This finding is intriguing because while an analogous basic residue is present in WbpE homologues that do not process 6{double_prime}-carboxyl-modified saccharides, recent structural studies reveal that this side chain is retracted to accommodate a neutral C6{double_prime} atom. This work represents the first structural analysis of a nucleotide sugar aminotransferase with a bound product modified at the C2{double_prime}, C3{double_prime}, and C6{double_prime} positions and provides insight into a novel target for treatment of P

  10. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pbenchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  11. Inherited and de novo deletion of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene locus at 16q22.1----q22.3 in a patient with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natt, E; Westphal, E M; Toth-Fejel, S E; Magenis, R E; Buist, N R; Rettenmeier, R; Scherer, G

    1987-12-01

    Tyrosinemia II is an autosomal-recessively inherited condition caused by deficiency in the liver-specific enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; EC 2.6.1.5). We have restudied a patient with typical symptoms of tyrosinemia II who in addition suffers from multiple congenital anomalies including severe mental retardation. Southern blot analysis using a human TAT cDNA probe revealed a complete deletion of both TAT alleles in the patient. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the patient and his family showed one deletion to be maternally inherited, extending over at least 27 kb and including the complete TAT structural gene, whereas loss of the second TAT allele results from a small de novo interstitial deletion, del 16 (pter----q22.1::q22.3----qter), in the paternally inherited chromosome 16. Three additional loci previously assigned to 16q22 were studied in our patient: haptoglobin (HP), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and the metallothionein gene cluster MT1,MT2. Of these three markers, only the HP locus was found to be codeleted with the TAT locus on the del(16) chromosome.

  12. The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with within-reference range alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Oh, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Park, Seok Won; Cho, Yong-Wook; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasound provides additional benefit in assessing carotid atherosclerotic burden in subjects with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations within the reference range. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 769 healthy individuals (326 men and 443 women) with an ALT concentration ≤ 40 IU/L and alcohol consumption range, the prevalence of NAFLD increased with increasing quartiles of ALT concentration (27.1%, 40.0%, 54.7%, 75.3% in men, P for trend 4th quartiles of ALT concentration, women with NAFLD had a significantly higher C-IMT than those without NAFLD (0.671±0.019 mm vs. 0.742±0.025 mm, P=0.023 in Q3; 0.651±0.023 mm vs. 0.737±0.021 mm, P=0.005 in Q4). These differences remained significant even after adjusting for a broad spectrum of potential confounders. In contrast, although men with NAFLD tended to have a higher C-IMT than those without NAFLD in each quartile, these differences were not statistically significant. Women with an upper normal range ALT concentration showed increased C-IMT only when they had NAFLD. Therefore, in women with an elevated ALT level within the reference range, further evaluation for NAFLD, such as liver ultrasound, could potentially identify those patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index and systemic immune-inflammation index predict overall survival in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongguo; Zhang, Jianliang; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Tang, Bozong; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wensi; Chen, Shishi; Lu, Lingqing; Chen, Xiaorong

    2015-12-15

    It has been suggested that lymphocytes play central roles in host antitumor immune responses and control cancer outcome. We reviewed the clinical parameters of 189 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and investigated the prognostic significance of lymphocyte-related scores in HCC patients following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Survival analysis revealed that an elevated aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index (ALRI) > 57 and a systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) > 300 were negatively associated with overall survival in HBV-related HCC (HR = 2.181, P = 0.003 and HR = 2.453, P = 0.003; respectively). Spearman chi-square analysis showed that ALRI had a specificity of 82.4% and that SII index had a sensitivity of 71.9% for HCC overall survival. ALRI and SII had negative predictive values of 74.6% and 80%, respectively for HCC overall survival. Additionally, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C patients had significantly higher ALRI and SII scores (both P SII scores (P SII should be used as negative predictive factors for overall survival in HBV-related HCC in clinical practice.

  14. Prediction of the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients after Sustained Virological Response by Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keol; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Cho, Hyun Chin; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Following sustained virological response (SVR) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, patients with advanced fibrosis require regular monitoring for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) is a simple noninvasive surrogate marker known to reflect fibrosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 598 patients who achieved SVR with interferon-based therapy for CHC. Results Over a median of 5.1 years of follow-up, there were eight patients diagnosed with HCC and a 5-year cumulative incidence rate of 1.3%. The median pretreatment APRI was 0.83, which decreased to 0.29 after achieving SVR (p<0.001). Both the pre- and posttreatment indices were associated with HCC development. The 5-year cumulative HCC incidence rates were 0% and 2.8% for patients with pretreatment APRI <1.0 and ≥1.0, respectively (p=0.001) and 0.8% and 12.8% for patients with posttreatment APRI <1.0 and ≥1.0, respectively (p<0.001). Pretreatment APRI at a cutoff of 1.0 had a 100% negative predictive value until 10 years after SVR. Conclusions HCC development was observed among CHC patients who achieved SVR. The pre- and post-treatment APRI could stratify HCC risk, indicating that the APRI could be a useful marker to classify HCC risk in CHC patients who achieved SVR. However, given the small number of HCC patients, this finding warrants further validation. PMID:27114418

  15. Intrahepatic and peripheral T-cell responses in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus-infected patients with persistently normal and elevated aminotransferase levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz Akyüz; Nuray Polat; Sabahattin Kaymakoglu; Nevzat Aksoy; Kadir Demir; Fatih Be(s)i(s)ik; Selim Badur; Yilmaz (C)akaloglu; Atilla (O)kten

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the cytokine responses in liver and serum differ in chronic hepatitis C patients with normal and high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.METHODS: Thirty-three (16 with normal ALT level as group 1 and 17 with elevated ALT level as group 2) patients infected with genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) were examined. Liver infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells (LILMCs) were isolated from liver biopsy by collagenase type 1 and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2 (IL-2). IL-10, IL-12,interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in serum and LILMCs by ELISA.RESULTS: Serum cytokine levels were similar in both groups (P>0.05). Stimulated IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in LILMCs were increased in both groups. IL-12 and IL-10levels stimulated with IL-2 were higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.023). Histological activity index (HAI)and stage had a negative correlation with TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in group 2.CONCLUSION: Increased T-helper type 2 (Th2)cytokine response may regress inflammatory and biochemical activity. Progression of histological abnormalities in persons with elevated ALT probably depends on insufficient Th2 cytokine response, which does not balance Th1 cytokine response.

  16. A stereo-inverting D-phenylglycine aminotransferase from Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201: purification, characterization and application for D-phenylglycine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyakrutta, S; Meevootisom, V

    1997-07-01

    D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT) from a newly isolated soil bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight (M(r)) of the native enzyme was estimated to be 92,000. It is composed of two subunits identical in molecular weight (M(r)) = 47,500). The isoelectric point (pI) of the native enzyme was 5.0. The enzyme catalyzed reversible transamination specific for D-phenylglycine or D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine in which 2-oxoglutarate was an exclusive amino group acceptor and was converted into L-glutamic acid. Neither the D- nor L-isomer of phenylalanine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine or serine could serve as a substrate. The enzyme was most active at alkaline pH with maximum activity at pH 9-10. The temperature for maximum activity was 35-45 degrees C. The apparent K(m) values for D-phenylglycine and for 2-oxoglutarate at 35 degrees C, pH 9.5 were 1.1 and 2.4 mM, respectively. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by typical inhibitors of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. Possible application of this enzyme for synthesis of enantiomerically pure D-phenylglycine was demonstrated. PMID:9249994

  17. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; De Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as fol...

  18. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABAA receptor antagonist NP260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABAA receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity

  19. A large increase in IAA during development of rice grains correlates with the expression of tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 and a grain-specific YUCCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaitoon, Yousef M; Bennett, Karina; Normanly, Jennifer; Nonhebel, Heather M

    2012-12-01

    The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content of developing grains of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica was measured by combined liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The increase from 50 ng g(-1) fresh weight to 2.9 µg g(-1) fresh weight from 1 to 14 days after pollination was much larger than that previously reported by enzyme-linked immunoassay methods. The largest increase in IAA content coincided with the start of the major starch deposition phase of grain-fill. The increase in IAA content was strongly correlated with the expression of putative IAA biosynthesis genes, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and OsTAR1, measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system. All three genes were expressed in endosperm; expression of OsYUC11 appeared to be confined to endosperm tissue. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OsYUC11 and AtYUC10 belong to a separate clade of YUCCAs, which do not have orthologues outside the Angiosperms. This clade may have evolved with a specific role in endosperm. Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels, indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system. In light of these observations, we hypothesize that IAA production in developing rice grains is controlled via expression of OsTAR1, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and that IAA may be important during starch deposition in addition to its previously suggested role early in grain development. PMID:22582989

  20. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  1. Peginterferon alfa-2a is associated with elevations in alanine aminotransferase at the end of treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virologic response.

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    Chih-Wei Tseng

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and demographic/clinical factors of alanine aminotransferase (ALT abnormalities at the end of treatment (EOT in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with sustained virologic response (SVR.Seven hundred naïve CHC patients who underwent combination treatment between January 2003 and December 2010 were included in the study. The patients with SVR and serum ALT>upper limit of normal (ULN at the EOT were further analyzed. The effects of clinical characteristics, treatment regimen, and virologic variables were evaluated by logistic regression. Of the 700 included patients, 488 (69.7% achieved an SVR after treatment, and 235 (33.6% had serum ALT levels>ULN at the EOT. Of those 488 patients, 137 (28.1% had abnormal ALT values at the EOT. A multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of ALT abnormalities at the EOT was significantly associated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN alfa-2a (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.45; P<0.001, baseline fatty liver (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.16-2.76; P = 0.007, and baseline liver cirrhosis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.35-4.09; P = 0.002.Use of PEG-IFN-alfa-2a, fatty liver, and cirrhosis are important factors associated with EOT-ALT abnormality in CHC patients receiving combination therapy that achieve an SVR. PEG-IFN-alfa-2a-related EOT-ALT elevation will become normal at the end of follow-up, but fatty liver and cirrhosis-related ALT elevation will not be resolved.

  2. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P CXCL-11 (P = 0.032) than the group without significant fibrosis. In addition, 31.8% and 29.1% of 151 patients with ALT CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, and TGF-α and IL-2R independently correlated with significant fibrosis in patients with ALT CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, whereas IL-2R and TGF-α were independent indicators of significant fibrosis in both, total CHB patients and patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. An IL-2R and TGF-α based score (fib-index) was superior to APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. PMID:26559292

  3. Estimation of free energy barriers in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase reactions probed by hydrogen-exchange kinetics of C alpha-labeled amino acids with solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julin, D.A.; Wiesinger, H.; Toney, M.D.; Kirsch, J.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1989-05-02

    The existence of the postulated quinonoid intermediate in the cytoplasmic aspartate amino-transferase catalyzed transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate was probed by determining the extent of transfer of tritium from the C alpha position of tritiated L-aspartate to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate in single turnover experiments in which washout from the back-reaction was obviated by product trapping. The maximum amount of transferred tritium observed was 0.7%, consistent either with a mechanism in which a fraction of the net transamination reaction proceeds through a quinonoid intermediate or with a mechanism in which this intermediate is formed off the main reaction pathway. It is shown that transfer of labeled hydrogen from the amino acid to cofactor cannot be used to differentiate a stepwise from a concerted transamination mechanism. The amount of tritium transferred is a function of the rate constant for torsional equilibration about the epsilon-amino group of Lys-258, the presumptive abstractor of the C alpha proton; the relative rate constants for hydrogen exchange with solvent versus cofactor protonation; and the tritium isotope effect on this ratio. The free energy barriers facing the covalent intermediate between aldimine and keto acid product (i.e., ketimine and possibly quinonoid) were evaluated relatively by comparing the rates of C alpha-hydrogen exchange in starting amino acid with the rates of keto acid formation. The value of theta (= kexge/kprod) was found to be 2.6 for the reaction of cytoplasmic isozyme with aspartate and ca. 0.5 for that of the mitochondrial form with glutamate.

  4. Biochemical and functional characterization of phosphoserine aminotransferase from Entamoeba histolytica, which possesses both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated serine metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular eukaryote that possesses both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated serine metabolic pathways. In the present study, we described enzymological and functional characterization of phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT) from E. histolytica. E. histolytica PSAT (EhPSAT) showed maximum activity for the forward reaction at basic pH, dissimilar to mammalian PSAT, which showed sharp neutral optimum pH. EhPSAT activity was significantly inhibited by substrate analogs, O-phospho-d-serine, O-phospho-l-threonine, and O-acetylserine, suggesting possible regulation of the amoebic PSAT by these metabolic intermediates. Fractionation of the whole parasite lysate and rEhPSAT by anion exchange chromatography verified that EhPSAT represents a dominant PSAT activity. EhPSAT showed a close kinship to PSAT from bacteroides based on amino acid alignment and phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that E. histolytica gained this gene from bacteroides by lateral gene transfer. Comparisons of kinetic properties of recombinant PSAT from E. histolytica and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that EhPSAT possesses significantly higher affinity toward glutamate than the A. thaliana counterpart, which may be explained by significant differences in the isoelectric point and the substitution of arginine, which is involved the binding to the gamma-carboxylate moiety of glutamate, in Escherichia coli PSAT, to serine or threonine in E. histolytica or A. thaliana PSAT, respectively. Heterologous expression of EhPSAT successfully rescued growth defect of a serine-auxotrophic E. coli strain KL282, where serC was deleted, confirming its in vivo role in serine biosynthesis. Together with our previous demonstration of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, the present study reinforces physiological significance of the phosphorylated pathway in amoeba.

  5. Aminooxy-naphthylpropionic acid and its derivatives are inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis targeting l-tryptophan aminotransferase: structure-activity relationships.

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    Narukawa-Nara, Megumi; Nakamura, Ayako; Kikuzato, Ko; Kakei, Yusuke; Sato, Akiko; Mitani, Yuka; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Ishii, Takahiro; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Asami, Tadao; Ogura, Takehiko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Fujioka, Shozo; Kamakura, Takashi; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported l-α-aminooxy-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) to be an inhibitor of auxin biosynthesis, but its precise molecular target was not identified. In this study we found that AOPP targets TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE of ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1). We then synthesized 14 novel compounds derived from AOPP to study the structure-activity relationships of TAA1 inhibitors in vitro. The aminooxy and carboxy groups of the compounds were essential for inhibition of TAA1 in vitro. Docking simulation analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of the compounds was correlated with their binding energy with TAA1. These active compounds reduced the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content upon application to Arabidopsis seedlings. Among the compounds, we selected 2-(aminooxy)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid (KOK1169/AONP) and analyzed its activities in vitro and in vivo. Arabidopsis seedlings treated with KOK1169 showed typical auxin-deficient phenotypes, which were reversed by exogenous IAA. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that KOK1169 is more specific for TAA1 than other enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. We further tested 41 novel compounds with aminooxy and carboxy groups to which we added protection groups to increase their calculated hydrophobicity. Most of these compounds decreased the endogenous auxin level to a greater degree than the original compounds, and resulted in a maximum reduction of about 90% in the endogenous IAA level in Arabidopsis seedlings. We conclude that the newly developed compounds constitute a class of inhibitors of TAA1. We designated them 'pyruvamine'. PMID:27147230

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the prediction of hepatitis B-related fibrosis: a leading meta-analysis

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    Jin Wenwen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, a tool with limited expense and widespread availability, is a promising noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for detecting hepatic fibrosis. The objective of this study was to systematically review the performance of the APRI in predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis B-related fibrosis. Methods Areas under summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC, sensitivity and specificity were used to examine the accuracy of the APRI for the diagnosis of hepatitis B-related significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression. Results Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis (n = 1,798. Prevalence of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 53.1% and 13.5%, respectively. The summary AUCs of the APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. For significant fibrosis, an APRI threshold of 0.5 was 84% sensitive and 41% specific. At the cutoff of 1.5, the summary sensitivity and specificity were 49% and 84%, respectively. For cirrhosis, an APRI threshold of 1.0-1.5 was 54% sensitive and 78% specific. At the cutoff of 2.0, the summary sensitivity and specificity were 28% and 87%, respectively. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the APRI accuracy for both significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was affected by histological classification systems, but not influenced by the interval between Biopsy & APRI or blind biopsy. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that APRI show limited value in identifying hepatitis B-related significant fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  7. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  8. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  9. Effective enhancement of Pseudomonas stutzeri D-phenylglycine aminotransferase functional expression in Pichia pastoris by co-expressing Escherichia coli GroEL-GroES

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    Jariyachawalid Kanidtha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT of Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201 catalyzes the reversible stereo-inverting transamination potentially useful in the application for synthesis of D-phenylglycine and D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine using L-glutamate as a low cost amino donor substrate in one single step. The enzyme is a relatively hydrophobic homodimeric intracellular protein difficult to express in the soluble functionally active form. Over-expression of the dpgA gene in E. coli resulted in the majority of the D-PhgAT aggregated into insoluble inclusion bodies that failed to be re-natured. Expression in Pichia pastoris was explored as an alternative route for high level production of the D-PhgAT. Results Intracellular expression of the codon-optimized synthetic dpgA gene under the PAOX1 promoter in P. pastoris resulted in inactive D-PhgAT associated with insoluble cellular fraction and very low level of D-PhgAT activity in the soluble fraction. Manipulation of culture conditions such as addition of sorbitol to induce intracellular accumulation of osmolytes, addition of benzyl alcohol to induce chaperone expression, or lowering incubation temperature to slow down protein expression and folding rates all failed to increase the active D-PhgAT yield. Co-expression of E. coli chaperonins GroEL-GroES with the D-PhgAT dramatically improved the soluble active enzyme production. Increasing gene dosage of both the dpgA and those of the chaperones further increased functional D-PhgAT yield up to 14400-fold higher than when the dpgA was expressed alone. Optimization of cultivation condition further increased D-PhgAT activity yield from the best co-expressing strain by 1.2-fold. Conclusions This is the first report on the use of bacterial chaperones co-expressions to enhance functional intracellular expression of bacterial enzyme in P. pastoris. Only two bacterial chaperone genes groEL and groES were sufficient for dramatic enhancement of

  10. Complex association between alanine aminotransferase activity and mortality in general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

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    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists in using alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity for predicting long-term survival. Therefore, this research study investigated the association between ALT activity and mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective studies. METHODS: Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, were searched for relevant prospective observational studies (published before Dec 30, 2013 on the association between baseline ALT activity and ensuing all-cause/disease-specific mortality. Information on nationality, sample size, participant characteristics, follow-up duration, comparison, outcome assessment, hazard ratios (HRs and adjusted covariates was extracted. Pooled HRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were separately calculated for categorical risk estimates (highest vs. lowest ALT categories and continuous risk estimates (per 5 U/l of ALT increment in subgroups separated by age (<70/≥ 70 years. RESULTS: A total of twelve prospective cohort studies, totaling 206,678 participants and 16,249 deaths, were identified and analyzed. In the younger age group, the pooled HR for mortality related to liver-disease was about 1.24 (95% CI: 1.23-1.25 per 5 U/l of ALT increment. The dose-response HRs of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV disease-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality were 0.91 (0.88-0.94, 0.91 (0.85-0.96, 0.92 (0.86-0.98 respectively per 5 U/l of ALT elevation, with insignificant heterogeneity in the older population. There was an approximate decrease of 4‰ observed on HRs of all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality followed with one year's increment through meta-regression (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The ALT-mortality association was inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age after synthesizing the previous prospective studies. In terms of the age, ALT activity was more valuable

  11. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples.

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    Sidhartha Jain

    Full Text Available A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time.96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi; subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis.For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L. Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L; a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L.The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired serum samples, and can be

  12. From Genotype to Phenotype: Nonsense Variants in SLC13A1 Are Associated with Decreased Serum Sulfate and Increased Serum Aminotransferases

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    Christina G. Tise

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using genomic applications to glean insights into human biology, we systematically searched for nonsense single nucleotide variants (SNVs that are rare in the general population but enriched in the Old Order Amish (Amish due to founder effect. We identified two nonlinked, nonsense SNVs (R12X and W48X in SLC13A1 (allele frequencies 0.29% and 0.74% in the Amish; enriched 1.2-fold and 3.7-fold, compared to the outbred Caucasian population, respectively. SLC13A1 encodes the apical sodium-sulfate cotransporter (NaS1 responsible for sulfate (reabsorption in the kidneys and intestine. SLC13A1 R12X and W48X were independently associated with a 27.6% (P = 2.7 × 10−8 and 27.3% (P = 6.9 × 10−14 decrease in serum sulfate, respectively (P = 8.8 × 10-20 for carriers of either SLC13A1 nonsense SNV. We further performed the first exome- and genome-wide association study (ExWAS/GWAS of serum sulfate and identified a missense variant (L348P in SLC26A1, which encodes the basolateral sulfate-anion transporter (Sat1, that was associated with decreased serum sulfate (P = 4.4 × 10−12. Consistent with sulfate’s role in xenobiotic detoxification and protection against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, SLC13A1 nonsense SNV carriers had higher aminotransferase levels compared to noncarriers. Furthermore, SLC26A1 L348P was associated with lower whole-body bone mineral density (BMD and higher serum calcium, consistent with the osteochondrodysplasia exhibited by dogs and sheep with naturally occurring, homozygous, loss-of-function mutations in Slc13a1. This study demonstrates the power and translational potential of systematic identification and characterization of rare, loss-of-function variants and warrants additional studies to better understand the importance of sulfate in human physiology, disease, and drug toxicity.

  13. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) polymorphisms have considerable impact on methylarginine and β-aminoisobutyrate metabolism in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Anja; Müller, Fabian; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Sticht, Heinrich; Zolk, Oliver; Kralj, Ana; Heinrich, Markus R; Fromm, Martin F; Maas, Renke

    2014-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2). It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB), a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile) and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu). Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002) as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001). ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile) AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [²H₆]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05). In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper

  14. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2 polymorphisms have considerable impact on methylarginine and β-aminoisobutyrate metabolism in healthy volunteers.

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    Anja Kittel

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA and symmetric (SDMA dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2. It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB, a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu. Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002 as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001. ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [²H₆]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05. In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper

  15. BALANÇO ELETROLÍTICO E PROTÉICO DIETÉTICOS SOBRE AS AMINOTRANSFERASES HEPÁTICAS, RENAIS E SÉRICAS E TEORES SÉRICOS DE MAGNÉSIO E CLORO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE ELETROLÍCTIC AND PROTEIN DIET BALANCE ON AMINOTRANSFERASES ON LIVER, KIDNEY AND SERUM AND SERIC MAGNESIUM AND CHOLRIDE LEVELS IN BROILERS

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    Cíntia Silva Minafra Rezende

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se um experimento com pintos de corte machos para o estudo dos efeitos dos níveis de 20% e 23% de proteína bruta (PB combinados com 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 e 350 mEq/kg de balanço eletrolítico (BE sobre o perfil da atividade das aminotransferases (AST e ALT no tecido hepático, tecido renal e no soro, além dos níveis séricos do cloro (Cl e magnésio (Mg de frangos de corte de sete, quatorze e vinte e um dias de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial 2x8. Forneceram-se dietas e água ad libitum. Coletou-se o sangue, de quatro aves de cada tratamento, por punção cardíaca para separação do soro, o qual foi congelado a -200C. Após, sacrificaram-se as aves por deslocamento cervical, para remoção do tecido hepático e renal, material esse pesado e congelado em nitrogênio líquido e posteriormente homogeneizado. Centrifugou-se uma alíquota de cada amostra homogeneizada a 7.000rpm por três minutos a 4oC, para determinação das atividades das aminotransferases no sobrenadante. Níveis de PB e BE na dieta afetaram a atividade enzimática da AST no tecido renal aos sete e vinte e um dias de idade, e no soro aos sete e quatorze dias. A atividade da ALT foi alterada, aos quatorze dias no tecido renal, e aos sete e quatorze dias no soro. A concentração do íon cloro, no soro, aos quatorze dias de idade sofreu alteração pela interação dos níveis de BE e PB. A concentração do íon magnésio não foi alterada pelos níveis de PB e BE. Mostra-se, neste trabalho, um perfil dos resultados, uma vez que não há dados disponíveis na literatura. Com os resultados obtidos não se pôde correlacionar as modificações dos níveis de PB e BE com as alterações nas concentrações das enzimas ALT e AST no tecido hepático e renal, consequentemente, com as alterações metabólicas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Balanço eletrolítico, fígado, frangos, proteína dietética, frangos, soro, rim.

    An experiment was

  16. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

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    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  17. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

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    Andreia Salezze Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e

  18. 某高校转氨酶升高新生相关知识健康教育效果评价%Effect evaluation on health education among freshmen with aminotransferase elevation in a college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳清

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To evaluate the intervention effect of health education among college freshmen with aminotransferase elevation, provide the evidence for developing the intervention measures in the future. [Methods]336 freshmen with aminotransferase elevation in Grade 2011 of Yulin Teachers College were randomly divided into the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group was given the intervention program, while the control group received the general health guidance. The two groups were tested by the same questionnaire before and after intervention. [ Results ] The correct answer rate of viral hepatitis was low. The correct answer rates of symptoms and harms of aminotransferase elevation were less than 50% , and the correct answer rate of staying up late, unhealthy diet habit and tiredness may cause the aminotransferase elevation was only 15. 50% , 19.00% and 31. 50%, respectively. After intervention, the correct answer rate of causes of aminotransferase elevation in the intervention group increased, and the differences were significant (all P<0. 01 ). There was no significant difference in the control group (all P>0. 05 ). [ Conclusion] Health education can effectively increase the cognitive level of factors related to aminotransferase elevation of students, improve healthy life, style, and enhance health level.%目的 评价健康教育对高校新生转氨酶升高人群的干预效果,为进一步制定相应的干预措施提供依据.方法 选取玉林师范学院2011级336例转氨酶升高的新生为对象,随机分为干预组和对照组.干预组接受该模式的干预方案,对照组只作一般健康指导.干预前与干预后干预组和对照组均采用相同问卷进行测评.结果 学生对病毒性肝炎知识答对率较低,对转氨酶升高的症状答对率和转氨酶升高对身体的危害答对率都不足50%,尤其对熬夜、不良饮食习惯、劳累会引起转氨酶升高答对率只有15.50%、19.00

  19. Genomic and biochemical analysis of the diaminopimelate and lysine biosynthesis pathway in Verrucomicrobium spinosum: Identification and partial characterization of L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase and UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamyl-2,6-meso-diaminopimelate ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria R. Nachar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum has attracted interest in recent years following the sequencing and annotation of its genome. Comparative genomic analysis of V. spinosum using diaminopimelate/lysine metabolic genes from Chlamydia trachomatis suggests that V. spinosum employs the L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL pathway for diaminopimelate/lysine biosynthesis. The open reading frame corresponding to the putative dapL ortholog was cloned and the recombinant enzyme was shown to possess L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase activity in vitro. In vivo analysis using functional complementation confirmed that the dapL ortholog was able to functionally complement an E. coli mutant that confers auxotrophy for diaminopimelate and lysine. In addition to its role in lysine biosynthesis, the intermediate diaminopimelate has an integral role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. To this end, the UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamyl-2, 6-meso-diaminopimelate ligase ortholog was also identified, cloned and was shown to possess meso-diaminopimelate ligase activity in vivo. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase pathway has been experimentally confirmed in several bacteria, some of which are deemed pathogenic to animals. Since animals, and particularly humans, lack the genetic machinery for the synthesis of diaminopimelate/lysine de novo, the enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for development of antibiotics. Whether dapL is an essential gene in any bacteria is currently not known. V. spinosum is an excellent candidate to investigate the essentiality of dapL, since the bacterium employs the DapL pathway for lysine and cell wall biosynthesis, is non-pathogenic to humans, facile to grow and can be genetically manipulated.

  20. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gerhard; Bonora, Roberto; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Weidemann, Gerhard; Siekmann, Lothar

    2002-07-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Procedures for the Measurement of Catalytic Activity Concentrations of Enzymes; Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of Four Reference Materials for the Determination of Enzymatic Activity of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Creatine Kinase at 37 degrees C. A document describing the determination of preliminary upper reference limits is also in preparation. The procedure described here is deduced from the previously described 30 degrees C IFCC reference method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 2.

  1. Etiological analysis of college freshmen with elevated alanine aminotransferase%某高校新生丙氨酸氨基转移酶升高病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康荣芹; 朱立新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨某高校新生ALT升高原因。方法选取某高校2010年至2014年297例ALT升高者新生为观察组,随机抽取200例同期体检ALT正常新生为对照组,比较两组脂肪肝及超重或肥胖发病率,并进行统计学分析。结果 ALT升高新生中脂肪肝、肥胖发病率明显高于对照组(P =0.000)。结论肥胖引发的脂肪肝是引起高校新生ALT升高的主要原因。%Objective To investigate the reasons of elevated alanine aminotransferase in college freshmen. Methods Total of 494 freshmen admitted from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled and divided into two groups, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) group (297 cases) and normal ALT group (200 cases). The incidence of fatty liver, overweight and obesity rate were analyzed between the two groups. Results The freshmen with elevated ALT exhibited a significant increase in the incidence of fatty liver and obesity when compared to the freshmen with normal ALT. Conclusions Fatty liver induced by obesity may be the main cause of elevated ALT in the college freshmen.

  2. 缬氨酸转氨酶工程菌的构建及表达条件的优化%Construction and Optimization of Engineering Bacteria to Express Valine Aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪铁鹏; 王海峰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]构建缬氨酸转氨酶基因(avtA)的大肠杆菌工程菌,并优化其表达条件.[方法]将avtA基因插入到载体pET32a中,构建表达质粒pET32a-avtA,通过纸层析检测酶活性,SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳检测目的蛋白,并通过考察培养基中蛋白胨浓度、IPTG诱导浓度和诱导时间来优化其表达条件.[结果]成功构建了缬氧酸转氨酶基因的大肠杆菌工程菌,其最佳表达条件为:培养基中蛋白胨浓度为12g/L,IPTG浓度为0.4 mmol/L,诱导时间为8h.[结论]缬氨酸转氨酶工程菌具有良好的应用前景.%[Objective] To construct E. Coli engineering bacteria expressing valine aminotransferase and optimize the expression conditions. [ Method] The avtA gene was inserted into expression vector pET32a and the expression plasmid pET32a-avtA was constructed. Valine aminotransferase of enzyme activity was detected by paper chromatography. The expression product of avtA gene was identified by SDS-PAGE, and the expression condition was optimized through inspecting the peptone concentration, IPTG concentration and induction time. [Result] An E. Coli engineering bacteria to express valine aminotransferase was successfully established. The optimum expression conditions were established as follows : 12 g/L of peptone, 0.4 mmol/L of IPTG and 8 h induction time. [Conclusion] Valine transaminase engineered bacteria had a good prospect.

  3. Cloning of Partial Fragment of Aspartate Aminotransferase Gene in Foxtail Millet%谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶基因部分片段的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小平; 董志平; 董普辉; 郁飞燕

    2015-01-01

    The genomic DNA extracted from young,no-lesion leaves of foxtail millet cultivar Yugu 1 was as template,and a pair of specific primers was designed according to the reported corn aspartate aminotransferase gene sequence to clone aspartate transaminase partial gene sequence of foxtail millet,so as to provide foundation for alte-ring composition and content of amino acids by genetic engineering,further altering nutritional quality of foxtail mil-let.The results showed that:PCR amplification obtained a 750 bp target fragment.After cloning and sequencing,a 742 bp fragment was obtained.After Blast search through public database,a specific conserved domain belonging to aspartate aminotransferase supergene family was found in cloned sequence,which proved that the cloned fragment was aspartate aminotransferase gene.Then a phylogenetic tree based on the gene sequences was constructed,which indicated that part of monocots and dicots could cluster respectively,but foxtail millet,maize and sugar cane,three C4 plants,could not cluster together.This study provided foundation for further revealing the function of aspartate aminotransferase gene of foxtail millet.%为了利用基因工程手段改变谷子中氨基酸组成和含量,进而改善谷子营养品质,以谷子栽培品种豫谷1号幼嫩、无病斑的叶片基因组 DNA 为模板,根据已报道的玉米天冬氨酸转氨酶基因序列,设计1对特异性引物扩增克隆谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶基因部分序列。结果表明,PCR 扩增获得约750 bp 的目标片段,对该片段进行克隆测序得到一条742 bp 的片段,经公共数据库同源搜索发现该序列含有天冬氨酸转氨酶超基因家族特有的保守域,证明所克隆片段为天冬氨酸转氨酶基因。对该基因进行系统进化树分析发现,部分单子叶植物和双子叶植物分别聚类,但是谷子与玉米、甘蔗3个 C4作物并没有聚为一类。为进一步揭示谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶的功能奠定了基础。

  4. Butachlor impact on protein, free amino acid and glutamine contents, and on activity levels of aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in the fresh water snail, Pila globosa (Swainson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajyalakshmi, T; Srinivas, T; Swamy, K V; Mohan, P M

    1996-08-01

    Biochemical changes followed in the freshwater snail Pila globosa (Swainson) during exposure to sublethal concentrations of the herbicide butachlor (26.6 ppm) in the ambient medium, at 3,6,12,24 and 48 h intervals, were marked by a significant decrease in total and soluble proteins, and an increase in free amino acids in foot and hepatopancreas up to 12 h before gradually recovering. Aminotransferase activities and glutamine content decreased during the early periods of exposure, while glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased. After an initial elevation, glutamate synthetase activity decreased at later intervals. Maximum effect of butachlor on the enzymes was seen after 12 h exposure. The extent of increase or decrease in different parameters examined varied between the two tissues studied. These changes are discussed in relation to the toxic stress of butachlor.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P212121. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pavate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State (India); Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van [Scottish Structural Facility and School of Life Sciences Research, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH,Scotland (United Kingdom); Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F. [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Barton, Geoffrey J. [Scottish Structural Facility and School of Life Sciences Research, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH,Scotland (United Kingdom); Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H., E-mail: naismith@st-andrews.ac.uk [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  7. Níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a admininstração de óleo de copaíba em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Aki

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de copaíba é um óleo-resina empregado como fitoterápico na região Amazônica. Sua utilização se faz de forma empírica e pouco se conhece à respeito de seus efeitos sobre os sistemas orgânicos. Objetivo: Verificar os níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a administração do óleo. Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, distribuídos em 2 grupos: Grupo Cop (n=10 submetidos diariamente à gavagem com administração de 0,63ml/kg do óleo, por 5 dias; Grupo P (n=10, animais nos quais nenhuma substância foi administrada. Ao sexto dia, em ambos os grupos, procedeu-se anestesia inalatória e obtenção de 3ml de sangue da VCI para dosagem dos níveis séricos de ALT, AST, bilirrubinas e GGT. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos com o GCop foram comparados com os do GP e analisados estatisticamente pelo teste t -Student. O GCop apresentou níveis de ALT, AST e GGT significantemente mais baixos que o GP (p<0,01, enquanto os níveis de BT elevaram-se às custas da fração direta. Conclusão: O óleo de copaíba altera os níveis das aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e GGT, sem alterar os níveis da fração indireta.

  8. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  9. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; de Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as follows: no exposure and ongoing short- and long-term exposure (2 years RR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.13-1.41); stavudine (2 years RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.05-1.32), but only short-term exposure to nevirapine (abacavir, and other protease inhibitors. Mortality did not differ between participants with and without cLEE. Conclusions.  Although didanosine, stavudine, nevirapine, and efavirenz have been described to be hepatotoxic, we additionally observed a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated. PMID:26925429

  10. Cloning of Phosphoserine Aminotransferase (SerB) Gene of Escherichia coli and Expression in Brevibacterium flavum%大肠杆菌SerB基因的克隆及其在黄色短杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽霞; 崔春生; 简子健; 谭慧林; 包慧芳

    2006-01-01

    磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶(Phosphoserine aminotransferase,SerB)是L-丝氨酸生物合成中的关键酶,应用PCR技术从大肠杆菌JM109(E.Coli JM109)中扩增出磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶基因,将其与表达载体pEC 7连接.通过电转化方法,将重组质粒转入黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum C-11,BfC-11)中,经酶活检测和摇瓶发酵培养,含有重组表达质粒的BfC-11B的磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶的活力和L-丝氨酸产率均比原宿主菌BfC-11有所提高,为构建L-丝氨酸高产基因工程菌的研究奠定了基础.

  11. Levamlodipine Besylate Induced Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase:Report of 1 Cases%1例苯磺酸左旋氨氯地平致谷丙转氨酶升高报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠英; 张志辉; 康岩; 时新超

    2015-01-01

    Levamlodipine besylate two dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a kind of high curative ef ect, high safety, high compliance, less adverse reaction of the ideal anti hypertension drugs, can be used as the first choice of antihypertensive drugs. But considering the many old people have the function of liver and kidney and heart dysfunction, and associated with other diseases and cor esponding drug treatment, general lower bounds using initial drug dose range. Prevent elevated alanine aminotransferase.%苯磺酸左旋氨氯地平是二氢吡啶类钙拮抗剂,是一种疗效高,安全性高,依从性高,不良反应少的理想抗高血压药物,可以作为抗高血压的首选药物。但考虑到老年人多有肝肾功能和心功能减退,并伴有其它疾病和相应的药物治疗,一般起始用药采用剂量范围的下限。防止谷丙转氨酶升高。

  12. Development of dry chemistry method for alanine aminotransferase%丙氨酸氨基转移酶干化学检测方法的建立及试纸条的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田漪; 陈汉艳; 王缦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a dry chemistry method for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) based on pyruvate oxidase method and prepare the test strip. Methods The test strip consisted of a sample spreading layer,a substrate layer and a color de-velopment layer,which was coated with reaction agent for determination of ALT activity by reflectance photometer. The prepared test strip was verified. Results The intra-CV of the test strip for low (48. 7 U/L) and high (127 U/L) level quality controls were 7. 4% and 4. 9% respectively. The linear range of the test strip was 10 ~ 1 000 U/L No significant difference was observed between the determination results of heparinized blood and plasma by the test strip (P > 0. 05). The determination results of ALT were uninfluenced when the bilirubin content in sample was not more than 257 μmol / L,the ascorbic acid content was not more than 50 mg / L,and the pyruvate content was not more than 0. 5 mmol / L. The developed dry chemistry method showed good relationship to the method recommended by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC)(r = 0. 988 9). The reference range of 95% confidence interval of the test strip was 0 ~ 40 U / L. Conclusion The developed dry chemistry method was rapid,accurate and simple,which was suitable for immediate determination of ALT.%目的 建立一种以丙酮酸氧化酶法为反应原理的丙氨酸氨基转移酶( Alanine aminotransferase,ALT)干化学检测方法,并制备试纸条.方法 试纸条由扩散层、底物层和显色层组成,包被有反应试剂,用反射式光度计测定ALT活性.对制备的试纸条进行各项验证.结果 试纸条测定罗氏低、高值质控品的批内变异系数分别为7.4%和4.9%;线性范围为10~1000U/L;试纸条测定肝素锂抗凝全血及其血浆的结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);标本中胆红素≤257 mol/L,抗坏血酸≤50 mg/L,丙酮酸≤0.5 mmol/L时,ALT测定结果不受影响;建立的干化学法与国际临床化学

  13. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Alison H., E-mail: ahharrill@uams.edu [College of Public Health, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Eaddy, John S. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rose, Kelly [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cullen, John M. [College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Ramanathan, Lakshmi [QPS, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu [NeuroTherapeutics Pharma, Inc., Chicago, IL 60631 (United States); Watkins, Paul B. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  14. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; de Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods. Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as follows: no exposure and ongoing short- and long-term exposure (2 years RR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.13–1.41); stavudine (2 years RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03–1.32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.05–1.32), but only short-term exposure to nevirapine (<2 years RR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.29–1.61), efavirenz (<2 years RR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03–1.26), emtricitabine (<2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.04–1.33), and atazanavir (<2 years RR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.04–1.38). Chronic liver enzyme elevation was not associated with use of lamivudine, abacavir, and other protease inhibitors. Mortality did not differ between participants with and without cLEE. Conclusions. Although didanosine, stavudine, nevirapine, and efavirenz have been described to be hepatotoxic, we additionally observed a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated. PMID:26925429

  15. Porcine cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase reconstituted with (4 prime - sup 13 C)pyridoxal phosphate. pH- and ligand-induced changes of the coenzyme observed by sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tsuyoshi (Kumamoto Univ. College of Medical Science (Japan) Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Tanase, Sumio; Nagashima, Fujio; Morino, Yoshimasa (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Scott, A.I.; Williams, H.J.; Stolowich, N.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-03-05

    Apoenzyme samples of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) purified from the cytosolic fraction of pig heart were reconstituted with (4{prime}-{sup 13}C)pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (pyridoxal-P). The {sup 13}C NMR spectra of AspAT samples thus generated established the chemical shift of 165.3 ppm for C4{prime} of the coenzyme bound as an internal aldimine with lysine 258 of the enzyme at pH 5. In the absence of ligands the chemical shift of C4{prime} was shown to be pH dependent, shifting 5 ppm upfield to a constant value of 160.2 ppm above pH 8, the resulting pK{sub a} of 6.3 in agreement with spectrophotometric titrations. The addition of the competitive inhibitor succinate to the internal aldimine raises the pK{sub a} of the imine to 7.8, consistent with the theory of charge neutralization in the active site. In the presence of saturating concentrations of 2-methylaspartic acid the C4{prime} signal of the coenzyme was shown to be invariant with pH and located at 162.7 ppm, midway between the observed chemical shifts of the protonated and unprotonated forms of the internal aldimine. Finally, the line widths of the C4{prime} resonance under the various conditions were measured and qualitatively compared. The results are discussed in terms of the current mechanism and molecular models of the active site of AspAT.

  16. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  17. Targeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thornburg, Joshua Marshall; Nelson, Kristin K; Clem, Brian F.; Lane, Andrew N.; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Simmons, Allan; Eaton, John W.; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Glycolysis is increased in breast adenocarcinoma cells relative to adjacent normal cells in order to produce the ATP and anabolic precursors required for survival, growth and invasion. Glycolysis also serves as a key source of the reduced form of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary for the shuttling of electrons into mitochondria for electron transport. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) regulates glycolytic flux by converting pyruvate to lactate and has been ...

  18. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  19. Kinetic isotope effect studies on aspartate aminotransferase: Evidence for a concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism for the cytoplasmic isozyme and L-aspartate and dichotomy in mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julin, D.A.; Kirsch, J.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1989-05-02

    The C alpha primary hydrogen kinetic isotope effects (C alpha-KIEs) for the reaction of the cytoplasmic isozyme of aspartate aminotransferase (cAATase) with (alpha-2H)-L-aspartate are small and only slightly affected by deuterium oxide solvent (DV = 1.43 +/- 0.03 and DV/KAsp = 1.36 +/- 0.04 in H{sub 2}O; DV = 1.44 +/- 0.01 and DV/KAsp = 1.61 +/- 0.06 in D{sub 2}O). The D{sub 2}O solvent KIEs (SKIEs) are somewhat larger and are essentially independent of deuterium at C alpha (D{sub 2}OV = 2.21 +/- 0.07 and D{sub 2}OV/KAsp = 1.70 +/- 0.03 with ({alpha}-1H)-L-aspartate; D{sub 2}OV = 2.34 +/- 0.12 and D{sub 2}OV/KAsp = 1.82 +/- 0.06 with ({alpha}-2H)-L- aspartate). The C alpha-KIEs on V and on V/KAsp are independent of pH from pH 5.0 to pH 10.0. These results support a rate-determining concerted 1,3 prototropic shift mechanism by the multiple KIE criteria. The large C alpha-KIEs for the reaction of mitochondrial AATase (mAATase) with L-glutamate (DV = 1.88 +/- 0.13 and DV/KGlu = 3.80 +/- 0.43 in H{sub 2}O; DV = 1.57 +/- 0.05 and DV/KGlu = 4.21 +/- 0.19 in D{sub 2}O) coupled with the relatively small SKIEs (D{sub 2}OV = 1.58 +/- 0.04 and D{sub 2}OV/KGlu = 1.25 +/- 0.05 with ({alpha}-1H)-L-glutamate; D{sub 2}OV = 1.46 +/- 0.06 and D{sub 2}OV/KGlu = 1.16 +/- 0.05 with (alpha-2H)-L-glutamate) are most consistent with a two-step mechanism for the 1,3 prototropic shift for this isozyme-substrate pair.

  20. Association of response to combined interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in patients of chronic hepatitis C with serum alanine aminotransferase levels and severity of the disease on liver biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raised serum alanine aminotransferase (serum ALT) levels indicate active liver disease while liver biopsy has been considered the 'gold standard' for assessing the severity of disease in patients of chronic Hepatitis C. The response of these patients to standard treatment regimen of interferon (INF)-alpha- 2b and ribavirin for 24 weeks have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of response to combined INF alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in patients of chronic hepatitis C with serum ALT levels and severity of the disease on liver biopsy. This quasi experimental study was conducted in Department of Physiology at Army Medical College and Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2006 to February 2007. One hundred and even diagnosed non cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C patients were studied. Prior to the commencement of treatment, qualitative assay of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) was done by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Knodell Histopathological Index (HPI) was determined on liver biopsy. The standard treatment of INF-alpha-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week subcutaneous, and Ribavirin 800-1200 mg per day was given for 24 weeks. Serum ALT levels were determined before the start of treatment and later at weeks 12 and 24. Qualitative assay of HCV RNA was done by PCR at the end of treatment to determine the response to treatment. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS 15. Out of 107 patients of chronic hepatitis C, 92 (69 males, 23 females) patients (84%) responded to INF-alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy and revealed negative qualitative assay of HCV RNA by PCR at the end of 24 weeks of treatment while serum ALT levels were normal in 88% of patients at 12 weeks and in 97% at the end of 24 weeks of treatment. Knodell HPI revealed mild, moderate and severe disease in 47.7%, 39.9% and 13.1% of patients respectively. No association was established between response to treatment and severity of the disease on liver biopsy (p<0

  1. 肝脏丙氨酸氨基转移酶活性变化与生活习惯的相关性%CORRELATION OF LIVER ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE WITH LIFESTYLE HABITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丽芬; 赵海燕; 王响

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT )活性与生活习惯的联系,保证优良的生活质量。方法对10280例体检者进行身高、体重、饮酒、吸烟、饮食、运动、熬夜、服用药物等各种影响因素的实地调查,数据进行Epidata3.0双录入,导入SPSS 13.0进行统计分析;单因素分析采用χ2检验,多因素分析采用非条件Logistic回归分析。结果异常率为9.76%,ALT升高标本有1003例,体重质量指数、饮酒、运动及体力劳动、熬夜、服用药物是ALT升高的影响因素;清淡饮食是ALT升高的保护因素;吸烟对ALT的影响不大。单因素分析与多因素Logistic回归分析结果基本一致。结论本研究对人们养成良好的生活习惯有积极的指导意义,提醒人们健康的体质来源于良好的生活习惯。%Objective To explore the relationship of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT ) with lifestyle habits for promising the best life quality .Methods A questionnaire was established ,the relative factors of 10280 subjects were surveyed included height ,weight ,drinking ,smoking ,diet ,exercise ,stay up late , taking drugs ,et al .The database was established by Epidata 3 .0 and SPSS 13 .0 package was used statistic analysis .Results Among 10280 subjects ,the ALT level of 1003 samples were increased ,and the abnor-mal rate reached to 9 .76 percent .The results showed that BMI ,alcohol consumption ,exercise and physi-cal labor ,stay up late and taking drugs were risk factors ;Light diet was a protection factor;but smoking was almost no impact on ALT .Conclusion The research results remind people the healthy constitution come from the good life styles .

  2. Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and sustained virologic response are associated with progression from hepatitis C associated liver cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma after treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khai-Jing; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Tzeng, Shinn-Jia; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Huang, Hsiang-Ting; Wu, Shu-Fen; Tseng, Kuo-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinically significant predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development among hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhotic patients receiving combination therapy. Patients and methods One hundred and five compensated cirrhosis patients who received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin between January 2005 and December 2011 were enrolled. All the patients were examined with abdominal sonography and liver biochemistry at baseline, end of treatment, and every 3–6 months posttreatment. The occurrence of HCC was evaluated every 3–6 months posttreatment. Results A total of 105 patients were enrolled (mean age 58.3±10.4 years). The average follow-up time for each patient was 4.38 years (standard deviation 1.73 years; range 1.13–9.27 years). Fifteen (14.3%) patients developed HCC during follow-up period. Thirteen of them had high baseline aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) (ie, an APRI >2.0). Multivariate analysis showed that those without sustained virologic response (SVR) (hazard ratio [HR] 5.795; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.370–24.5; P=0.017) and high APRI (HR 5.548; 95% CI 1.191–25.86; P=0.029) had a significantly higher risk of HCC occurrence. The cumulative incidence of HCC was significantly higher (P=0.009) in patients without SVR (3-year cumulative incidence 21.4%; 95% CI 7.4%–35.5%; 5-year cumulative incidence 31.1%; 95% CI 11.2%–51.1%) compared to those with SVR (3- and 5-year cumulative incidence 6.2%; 95% CI 0%–1.3%). Further, the cumulative incidence of HCC was significantly higher (P=0.006) in patients with high APRI (3-year cumulative incidence 21.8%; 95% CI 8.2%–35.3%; 5-year cumulative incidence 30.5%, 95% CI 11.8%–49.3%) compared to those with low APRI (3- and 5-year cumulative incidence 4.2%, 95% CI 0%–1.0%). Conclusion In HCV-infected cirrhotic patients who received combination therapy, APRI and SVR are the two major predictors of HCC development. PMID

  3. Expression and Bioinformatic Analysis of Ornithine Aminotransferase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer%OAT在非小细胞肺癌中的表达及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丹菲; 程西安; 杨拴盈; 明宗娟; 李维; 张秋红; 张玉萍

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective It has been proven that ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) might play an important role in the oncogenesis and progression of numerous malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to detect the mRNA and protein expression of OAT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as to analyze the bioinformatic features and binary interactions. Methods OAT mRNA expression was detected in A549 and 16HBE cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. OAT protein expression was determined in 55 cases of NSCLC and 17 cases of adjacent non-tumor lung tissues by immunohistochemical staining. The bioinformatic features and binary interactions of OAT were analyzed. Gene ontology annotation and signal pathway analysis were performed. Results OAT mRNA expression in A549 cells was 2.85-fold lower than that in 16HBE cells. OAT protein expression was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than that in adjacent non-tumor lung tissues. A significant difference of OAT protein expression was existed between squamous cell lung cancer and adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), but was not correlated with the gender, age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and TNM stages. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that OAT was a highly homologous and stable protein located in the mitochondria. An aminotran-3 domain and several sites of phosphorylation, which may function in signal transduction, gene transcription, and molecular transit, were found. In the 54 selected binary interactions of OAT, TNF and TRAF6 play roles in the NF-kB pathway. Conclusion OAT may play an important role in the oncogenesis and progression of NSCLC. Thus, OAT may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLC or a new target for its treatment.%背景与目的 已有的研究表明,鸟氨酸氨基转移酶( ornithine aminotransferase,OAT)可能参与多种恶性肿瘤的发生和发展,本研究旨在检测非小细胞肺癌( non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC) 中OAT mRNA和蛋白质的表达,并对

  4. Application of reference method in the standardization for the determination of alanine aminotransferase%参考方法在丙氨酸氨基转移酶测定标准化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑松柏; 王建兵; 黄宪章; 马艳; 庄俊华; 徐宁; 周华友; 陈茶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy and comparability of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) measurement results in human serum samples and commercial materials before and after calibration with frozen human serum calibrator assigned by reference method. Methods Five frozen human-pooled serum samples were assigned values by the reference method without pyridoxal 5-phosphate for ALT in four candidate reference laboratories, which were used to evaluate the results of ALT catalytic activity detected by ten testing systems in Guangzhou. One of the serum sample was used as the common calibrator. The results of serum samples and commercial materials from different systems before and after calibration were analyzed for biases and intersystem variations. Results After calibration,the variance of the systems for the results of serum samples decreased from between 11. 90% and 8. 60% to between 6. 78% and 2. 30% ,and the bias decreased dramatically from between - 12. 52% and - 8. 44 % to between - 3. 36% and -0. 08%. Slopes of the regression lines of ALT results of serum samples between reference systems and routine systems after calibration were closer to 1 and intercepts closer to 0 than those obtained before calibration. Conclusion Accuracy and comparability of ALT measurements could be improved by using a common human serum calibrator. But commercial materials might not be commutable for human serum in ALT measurements.%目的 调查不同检测系统使用经参考方法赋值的冰冻人血清样本作为校准品进行校准后,不同来源样本丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)测定结果的可比性与准确性的改变程度.方法 5份经4家候选参考实验室应用不含磷酸吡哆醛的ALT参考方法定值的冰冻人混合血清样本用于评价广州地区10个不同检测系统ALT催化活性结果的可比性与准确性.其中一个样本用作校准品校准各系统.比较校准前后各系统间新鲜血清样本与商品制备物测定

  5. 血清谷丙转氨酶与儿童超重、肥胖的关系%Relationship between alanine aminotransferase and overweight or obesity in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范歆; 陈少科; 唐晴; 罗静思; 冯莹

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)与儿童超重、肥胖的关系.方法 对年龄7~18岁的2889例正常儿童及702例超重、肥胖儿童的资料进行分析,测量身高、体重、腰围、血压,检测空腹血糖、血脂、ALT、胰岛素等生化指标,计算胰岛素抵抗指数.结果 男童ALT水平高于女童.随着体重指数(BMI)的增加,男女童正常组、超重组、肥胖组ALT水平均逐渐增加.ALT与BMI、腰围、甘油三酯、胰岛素抵抗指数等相关.在超重、肥胖儿童中,男童ALT升高组BMI、腰围、血压、甘油三酯、低密度脂蛋白、胰岛素抵抗指数均较ALT正常组高(P<0.05);女童ALT升高组腰围、血压、胰岛素抵抗指数高于ALT正常组,而高密度脂蛋白降低(P<0.05).结论 ALT与儿童超重、肥胖及其引起代谢异常如血脂异常、胰岛素抵抗相关.%Objective To study the association of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) with overweight or obesity in children. Methods A total of 2889 healthy children and 702 overweight or obese children aged from 7 to 18 years who had received a physical examination were enrolled. Height, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured, and the biochemical indicators including blood glucose, blood lipids, ALT, and insulin were detected. The insulin resistance index were calculated. Results The ALT level was significantly higher in boys than in girls. Along with the increase of BMI, the ALT level increased in the normal, overweight, and obese groups in both boys and girls. ALT was correlated with BMI, waist circumference, triglyceride, and insulin resistance index. Among the overweight or obese children, the boys with the increased ALT level had higher BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and insulin resistance index than the boys with normal ALT level (P < 0. 05 ) ; the girls with the increased ALT level had higher waist circumference, blood pressure and

  6. Association between Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Level and Coronary Heart Disease%血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶水平与冠心病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余慧珍; 杨万松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the serum alanine aminotransferase ( ALT ) level and coronary heart disease ( CHD ). Methods A total of 426 inpatients from the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University in 2011 were enrolled in this study and their serum ALT levels were determined and the coronary artery angiography was performed. Based on the results of coronary artery angiography, these patients were divided in the CHD group ( n = 294 ) and control group ( n = 132 ). The CHD group was further divided into three subgroups: single - branch subgroup ( n = 89 ), double - branch subgroup ( n = 91 ), and multiple - branch subgroup ( n = 114 ). The levels of serum ALT were compared among these groups. Results The serum ALT level was significantly higher in the CHD group than in the control group [ ( 23. 4 ± 18. 7 ) U/L vs. ( 17. 8 ± 13.2) U/L, P < 0. 01 ]. The three subgroups also showed significantly different ALT level when compared with the control group ( F = 5. 137, P =0. 002 ). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed the higher serum ALT level was associated with the occurrence of CHD [ 0R= 0.966, 95%CI (0.944, 0.988), P<0.0l]. Conclusion CHD patients have higher serum ALT level than non - CHD patients. Serum ALT level can be used for predicting the severity of CHD.%目的 探讨血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)与冠心病(CHD)的关系.方法 选择2011年在天津医科大学第二医院心脏科住院的426例患者,均检测血清ALT水平,并行冠状动脉造影评价冠状动脉病变程度.根据冠状动脉造影结果分为冠心病组(294例)和对照组(132例).冠心病组再根据病变支数分为单支病变组(89例)、双支病变组(91例)和多支病变组(114例);分析血清ALT水平与冠状动脉病变严重程度的相关性.结果 冠心病组血清ALT水平明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义[(23.4±18.7)U/L和(17.8±13.2)U/L,P<0.01];冠心病3个亚组及对照组ALT水平

  7. 丙氨酸转氨酶升高患者代谢异常情况及危险因素分析%Combined dysmetabolism and risk factors of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安楠; 朱玲; 赵艳燕; 宋悦华; 高建萍

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) and ALT-related dysmetabolism and risk factors. Methods A total of 12 789 adult participated,with no hepatitis B virus infection or alcohol over-intake, received health check-up, including blood pressure measurement, blood glucose and lipid profile test, liver function evaluation and ultrasonography. The subjects were then assigned into two groups according to the serum level of ALT. Metabolic composition was compared between the two groups. Results The prevalence of elevated ALT activity was 8.69%. The waist circumstance,body mass index (BMI) ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) , urine acid (UA) , fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,HbAlc,total bilirubin (TBIL) ,-y-glutamyltransferase (GGT) ,alkaline phos-phatase ( ALP) of the elevated ALT group were significantly higher than those of the normal ALT group. However,age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) in the elevated ALT group were lower than those in the normal ALT group ( P 40 U/L)分为两组,比较两组间各代谢组分的差异.结果 ALT升高的检出率为8.69%.ALT升高组的腰围、体质指数、收缩压、舒张压、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、尿酸、空腹血糖、血红蛋白、总胆红素、谷氨酰转移酶、碱性磷酸酶水平均高于ALT正常组,而年龄、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平低于ALT正常组(P<0.05).ALT升高组超重、肥胖、各型高脂血症、空腹血糖受损、糖尿病、舒张压高、高尿酸血症、脂肪肝检出率高于ALT正常组(P<0.05).logistic回归分析显示:患脂肪肝、舒张压、体质指数、总胆固醇、血红蛋白是ALT升高的危险因素,年龄、HDL-C是保护因素.结论 非酒精性脂肪性肝病、脂代谢紊乱、肥胖是丙氨酸转氨酶升高的重要危险因素.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Tyrosine Aminotransferase Gene Fragment in Perilla frutescens%紫苏酪氨酸氨基转移酶基因片段的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓玲; 郝磊; 王芳; 黄晨

    2012-01-01

    为获得紫苏迷迭香酸合成途径中的酪氨酸氨基转移酶基因,本研究采用同源克隆的方法,根据已报道的其他物种的TAT基因序列设计并合成简并引物,成功克隆得到了紫苏TAT基因片段(GenBank登录号:JN032113.1),该片段长为579 bp,共编码193个氨基酸残基,并命名为PfTAT.氨基酸序列比对分析发现其与彩叶草、丹参、拟南芥和罂粟的一致性分别为97%、94%、69%和58%,系统进化树分析表明PfTAT与唇形科植物的亲缘关系最近.采用半定量RT-PCR法分析PfTAT在紫苏的根、茎、叶中均有表达,且叶中的表达量较高,内源性植物激素信号分子对PfTAT表达量影响的实验表明,脱落酸、水杨酸处理均能够不同程度得上调PfTAT转录水平的表达.%The purposes of this paper was to obtain tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene involved in rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis pathway from Perilla frutescens. According to a parallel analysis of the amino acid sequence of TAT genes from other species,degenerate primers were designed and the fragment of TAT gene in Perilla frutescens was successfully cloned by homology cloning method (GenBank accession No. JN032113.1),and gene fragment was 579 bp encoding 193 amino acid protein. Sequence alignment revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PFTT was 97%,94%,69% and 58% identical to Coleus-blumei,Salvia miltiorrhiza,Arabidopsis thaliana and Papaver somniferum,respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PfTAT had the closest relationship with Lamiaceae plants. The PfTA T expressed in all the tested tissues but at different levels with higher expression in leaf using the semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Further expression analysis revealsed that the signaling components such as abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) up-regulated the PfTAT transcript levels in different degree.

  9. Correlations of serum alanine aminotransferase and insulin resistance, pancreatic B-cell function%丙氨酸转氨酶水平与胰岛素抵抗及胰岛β细胞功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永慧; 黎明; 高珊; 张秀娟; 李连霞; 张葵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function.Methods A total of 351 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus received a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at our outpatient clinic.All subjects were analyzed for the parameters of body mass index ( BMI),waist-hip ratio,blood pressure ( BP),serum lipids,ALT,aspartate aminotransferase (AST),plasma glucose (PG),true-insulin and proinsulin.Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was applied to assess the status of insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function. They were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles of ALT:ALT1 group (<12.9 U/L),ALT2 group (12.9- 17.3 U/L),ALT3 group (17.4-24.2 U/L) and ALT4 group ( ≥24.2 U/L).The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the definition of Chinese Diabetic Society.Results With the rising serum ALT levels (ALT4 vs ALT1 ),the levels of BMI [ (26.3 ± 2.9) kg/m2 vs (23.2±3.7) kg/m2,P<0.01],HOMA-IR [1.93(1.21 -3.26) vs 1.06(0.65 -1.54),P<0.01] and LnHOMA-beta (2.00 ±0.32 vs 1.87 ±0.28,P<0.05) were elevated; BP,serum lipids,PG,true-insulin and proinsulin also increased ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).The levels of serum ALT [ 23.3(16.3-37.6) vs 14.3 (10.3-18.5) U/L,P<0.01] and AST [21.5 (18.3-32.8) U/L vs 17.9( 15.5 -22.1 ) U/L,P <0.01 ] increased with the rising number of metabolic disorders (0 vs 3 -4 metabolic disorders).After adjustments for gender,age,BMI and waist-hip ratio,serum ALT were still positively correlated with BP,serum lipids,PG,fasting true-insulin,2 h proinsulin,2 h proinsulin/true-insulin,HOMA-IR and the numbers of metabolic disorder (r=0.117 -0.236,P<0.05 or P<0.01).After adjustments for gender,age,BMI,waist-hip ratio and HOMA-IR,the serum ALT level remained positively correlated with the numbers of metabolic disorders (r =0.120,P < 0.05).Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that triglyceride

  10. 茶树丙氨酸氨基转移酶基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Alanine Aminotransferase Gene in Camellia sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白培贤; 王丽鸳; 韦康; 阮丽; 成浩; 张芬; 张成才

    2016-01-01

    丙氨酸氨基转移酶(Alanine Aminotransferase,AlaAT)是与碳氮代谢相关的一种重要酶类。采用反转录PCR 的方法克隆了茶树 CsAlaAT1的 cDNA 序列,该序列全长1747 bp,包含一个完整的 ORF(1626 bp),编码541个氨基酸,推导的蛋白质分子量为59.4 kD,理论等电点(pI)为5.82。同源比对结果表明,CsAlaAT1含有丙氨酸氨基转移酶亚家族保守的辅酶磷酸吡哆醛结合位点,其氨基酸序列与拟南芥 AtAlaAT1蛋白的相似性为84%。二级结构预测显示该蛋白由α-螺旋(40.67%)、无规则卷曲(29.57%)、β-折叠(13.68%)和延伸链(16.08%)组成,定位于线粒体,不含信号肽与跨膜结构。实时荧光定量 PCR(RT-PCR)检测发现 CsAlaAT1在茶树各组织中均有表达,在根中的表达量最高;CsAlaAT1基因表达对氮素的响应研究表明,成熟叶中CsAlaAT1受氮素诱导上调表达,高浓度(1 mmol·L-1 NH4NO3)氮素的诱导效应比低浓度(0.1 mmol·L-1 NH4NO3)氮素诱导效应更强烈;在根中,处理24 h 后,高氮诱导 CsAlaAT1上调表达,低氮诱导 CsAlaAT1下调表达。%Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) is a critical enzyme involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolisms. In this study, a cDNA (1 747 bp) with a complete ORF (1 626 bp) of AlaAT1 was isolated from tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The cDNA encodes a protein with 541 amino acids, which has a molecular mass of 59.4 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.82. The deduced sequence of protein CsAlaAT1 shared 84% similarity with AlaAT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, which contains a highly-conserved pyridoxal 5′-phosphate binding site. Secondary structure prediction showed that the CsAlaAT1 was comprised of alpha helix (40.67%), random coil (29.57%), beta turn (13.68%) and extended strand (16.08%), localized in mitochondrion and had no signal peptide or transmembrane structure. The expression levels of CsAlaAT1 in

  11. 发酵豆制品中高产转氨酶菌株筛选及固态菌剂制备%Screening and Identification of Aminotransferase-producing Strain from Fermented Soybean Products and Preparation of Its Solid Starter Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玲; 秦礼康

    2012-01-01

    为缩短传统大豆发酵制品后熟期,基于转氨反应这一主要风味形成途径,现从贵州各地采集风味良好的豆豉、腐乳等发酵样品,经稀释涂布平板法分离得到150株细菌。通过支链氨基酸转氨酶活力测定,从中筛选出WDH-8菌株具有最高酶活力,菌种鉴定后确定其为地衣芽孢杆菌,属安全益酵菌株,其支链氨基酸转氨酶活力达36.53U/mL。为便于生产应用,对该菌株进行固态菌剂培养基配方实验,以转氨酶活力为指标,培养基最佳配方为:黄豆粉25g、水料比1:1(V/m)、氯化钠添加量5%、葡萄糖添加量3%,其酶活力达到37.965U/mL。%In order to shorten the fermentation period of fermented soybean products,a total of 150 strains were isolated from top-quality fermented foods in Guizhou.Among these strains,strain WDH-8 was found to have the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity.The strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis that was a safe prebiotic yeast strain with a branched-chain aminotransferase activity of 36.53 U/mL.In order to facilitate practical applications,the preparation of its solid starter culture was investigated,and the optimal culture medium for achieving the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity,37.965 U/mL,was determined to be composed of soybean power 25 g,material-to-water ratio 1:1,sodium chloride 5% and glucose 3%.

  12. 家蚕吡哆醛激酶基因干扰降低转氨酶基因的转录表达%RNA interference of pyridoxal kinase gene decreases the expression of aminotransferase gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丽丽; 杨欢欢; 张剑韵; 黄龙全

    2015-01-01

    [目的]维生素B6在氨基酸代谢中是多种酶的辅酶,维持氨基酸代谢的正常运行.磷酸吡哆醛(pyridoxal-5'-phosphate,PLP)是维生素B6的主要辅酶形式,吡哆醛激酶(pyridoxal kinase, PLK)是PLP的重要生成酶,本研究试图明确PLK基因与PLP依赖酶之间转录水平的调节关系.[方法]本研究采用RNA干扰(RNA interference,RNAi)方法对家蚕Bombyx mori的PLK基因进行干扰,通过体外合成PLK基因的3个干扰片段(siRNA1,siRNA2和siRNA3),将siRNA从体腔注入5龄第3天的家蚕幼虫体内诱导RNAi.利用荧光定量PCR测定不同干扰片段、不同时间点及不同组织中PLK基因表达量的变化;并测定家蚕体内磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶(phosphoserine aminotransferase,SerB)和天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(asparate aminotransferase, AST)基因的表达量.[结果]注射干扰片段后48 h干扰效果达到最佳.3个干扰片段干扰效果从高到低依次为siRNA1,siRNA2和siRNA3.RNAi效果最好的是中肠组织,其PLK基因的相对表达量下降了55%.RNA干扰PLK基因后,后部丝腺中SerB和AST基因相对表达量分别下降了90%和29%.[结论]本研究通过RNAi实现了家蚕PLK基因干扰,并进一步证明了家蚕PLK基因和SerB基因及AST基因存在联动调节关系.

  13. Efeito da adição de cloreto de cálcio sobre a qualidade espermática e atividade da aspartato amino transferase no sêmen resfriado de suíno Effect of adding calcium chloride on the spermatic quality and aminotransferase aspartate in cool swine semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinheiro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar dois processos de resfriamento de sêmen suíno, analisar o efeito da adição de CaCl2 ao diluidor BTS e testar o método de avaliação do perfil enzimático da Aspartato Aminotransferase (AAT sobre a qualidade espermática. Foram utilizados 12 ejaculados suínos de animais procedentes do setor de Suinocultura - DZO/UFLA. Estes ejaculados foram diluídos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CaCl2 (A: 0,0; B: 2,5; C: 5,0 e D: 7,5 mM. As amostras dos ejaculados foram submetidas a três processos de resfriamento (1: convencional - 15º C ; 2: lento - 15º C/5º C; 3: rápido - 5º C, sendo que cada ejaculado ficou armazenado por um período de 72 horas para avaliações da qualidade espermática, constituindo os tratamentos experimentais. Os parâmetros seminais avaliados foram motilidade e vigor espermáticos e perfil enzimático da AAT. Houve diferença significativa (P0,05. Conclui-se que a adição de CaCl2 melhora a motilidade espermática das amostras dos ejaculados suínos e que o processo de resfriamento lento substitui o processo convencional sem afetar a qualidade espermática do sêmen submetido à refrigeração. A avaliação da AAT não é válida para sêmen resfriado.The study was carried out with objective to test two swine semen cooling processes and verify the effects of adding chloride of calcium (CaCl2 on semen dilutor BTS and also to test the evaluation method of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT enzymatic profile on the cooled swine semen spermatic quality. Were used twelve samples of ejaculation of breeders supplied by the Swine Breeding section at the DZO/UFLA. The samples were diluted and received different concentrations of CaCl2 (A: 0.0; B: 2.5; C 5.0; D 7.5mM. The samples of ejaculation were submitted to three processes of cooling: 1 - standard cooling (15º C; 2 - slow cooling (15º C/ 5º C; 3 - fast cooling (5º C, and each sample of ejaculation was stored for

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of novel heteroaromatic substrates of GABA aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, Dustin D.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Two principal neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of mammalian neuronal activity, namely, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and L-glutamic acid, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Low GABA levels in the brain have been implicated in epilepsy and several other neurological diseases. Because of GABA’s poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a successful strategy to raise brain GABA concentrations is the use of a compound that does cross the BBB a...

  15. Aspartate aminotransferase level in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic therapy with self-ligating appliance%自锁托槽矫治器对正畸牙龈沟液天冬氨酸转氨酶水平变化影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫翔; 苏寒; 王天丛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the aspartate aminotransferase(AST) level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during early stage of orthodontics therapy with self - ligating appliance. Methods: 20 teenager patients (aged 11 - 16 years) were enrolled in this study, and each dentition was divided into two groups. The teeth in experimental group (one side of the dentition) were treated with self-ligating appliance, the teeth in control group(on the contralateral side of the dentition) were treated with straight wire appliance. GCF samples were collected before treatment, 1, 24, 48, 72, 168 h and 2 weeks after treatment. AST level was determined by automatic biochemical analysis. Results: The level of AST in experimental group was increased 24 h after treatment, but lower than that in the control group 48 and 72 hs after treatment(P <0. 05). Conclusion: Self-ligating appliance makes smaller change of AST level than straight wire appliance during orthodontics therapy and may induce less injury of periodontal tissue.%目的:分析自锁托槽矫治器在错(牙合)畸形矫治早期龈沟液天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)水平的变化.方法:选择20例青少年患者,年龄11~16岁,每例患者随机选取同颌同名牙列分别作为实验组和对照组,实验组牙列佩戴自锁托槽矫治器;同颌对侧牙列佩戴普通直丝弓托槽,设为对照组.利用全自动生化分析仪检测矫治前、矫治后1、24、48、72、168 h及2周龈沟液中AST含量水平的变化.结果:实验组的龈沟液AST含量在加力24 h开始升高,但升高的幅度、速率明显小于对照组牙列.结论:使用自锁托槽矫治器,龈沟液AST含量水平改变较小,对牙周组织的损伤可能较小.

  16. Valores de referência da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase e da gama-glutamiltransferase em bovinos da raça Jersey. Influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estabelecer os valores de referência de parâmetros bioquímicos que avaliem a função hepática, por meio da determinação da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase (AST e da gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, de bovinos da raça Jersey, criados no Estado de São Paulo, bem como avaliar a influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos sobre os referidos parâmetros bioquímicos, foram colhidas e examinadas amostras de soro sangüíneo de 170 animais, sendo 106 fêmeas e 17 machos, considerados clinicamente sadios e não reagentes ao antígeno glicoprotéico (gp51 da cápsula do vírus da leucose dos bovinos e 47 fêmeas soro-reagentes ao mencionado vírus. Os valores de referência obtidos para a AST foram iguais a 33,91±10,99U/l enquanto para a GGT obtiveram-se valores médios de 13,21±12,72U/l. A avaliação dos resultados demonstrou que as transaminases sofreram influência dos fatores etários, pois comprovou-se que os teores séricos da AST aumentaram significativamente com o evoluir da idade, sendo o valor mínimo observado nas bezerras com até 3 meses de idade (26,39±22,17U/l e valor máximo em vacas com idade entre 48 e 72 meses de idade (38,60±11,24U/l. Para os níveis séricos da GGT observou-se que nas bezerras com até 3 meses de idade os níveis séricos (31,15±38,70U/l foram maiores do que os observados nos animais mais velhos (entre 8,70±2,40U/l e 14,24±10,37U/l. Nesta pesquisa não foram observadas influências dos fatores sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos sobre a atividade enzimática das transaminases.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of aspartate aminotransferase cDNA in Fenneropenaeus chinensis following ambient ammonia stresses%中国明对虾天门冬氨酸转氨酶基因的克隆及氨氮胁迫对其时空表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少飞; 何玉英; 李吉涛; 李健; 刘萍; 葛倩倩

    2014-01-01

    利用 RACE 技术克隆获得中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)天门冬氨酸转氨酶 GOT 基因(FcGOT)。FcGOT 基因cDNA全长为1910 bp,其中,开放阅读框1284 bp,编码427个氨基酸。同源性分析表明,中国明对虾天门冬氨酸转氨酶 GOT氨基酸序列与其他节肢动物高度保守,与克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clarkii)和桔粉蚧壳虫(Planococcus citri)的同源性分别为78%和73%。系统进化分析表明, FcGOT基因氨基酸序列与克氏原螯虾GOT聚为一支。组织表达分析发现FcGOT基因在肝胰腺、鳃、血细胞、肌肉、心脏、淋巴中均有表达,其中肝胰腺中表达量最高。氨氮胁迫后,荧光定量PCR分析结果表明, FcGOT基因在肝胰腺和鳃组织中的表达与对照组相比具有显著差异(P<0.05),表明 FcGOT 基因在氨氮代谢方面具有重要的作用,参与了中国明对虾机体的急性氨氮胁迫应答反应。%Fenneropenaeus chinensis is an important mariculture species in China. In aquaculture environments ammo-nia is a common toxic substance. In recent years, higher frequencies of ammonia nitrogen toxicity in shrimps have been reported. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate ammonia metabolism by F. chinensis. As an important member of the AAT-like family, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) is involved in many aspects of ammonia metabolism including participating in inosine monophosphate transdeamination, and the urea and citric acid cycles. Therefore, de-tailed understanding of the regulation of GOT is of great significance. In this study, we successfully cloned the aspartate aminotransferase cDNA of F. chinensis (FcGOT). The FcGOT cDNA, which was 1 910 bp in length, contained a 5′-untranslated region(UTR) of 83 bp, a 3′UTR of 543 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 284 bp, encoded a 427 amino-acid polypeptide. FcGOT protein exhibited typical AAT-like family features, including a Lys catalytic residue and 10 pyridoxal-5

  18. 自锁托槽矫治中龈沟液天冬氨酸转氨酶水平的变化及其生物学意义%Changes of the aspartate aminotransferase level in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic therapy with self-ligating appliance and their biological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫翔; 陈文静

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the changes of the aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ) level in gingival crev-icular fluid ( GCF ) during the early stage of orthodontic therapy with self-ligating appliance, and discuss the relationship between AST and periodontal tissue remodeling for this therapy. Methods We enrolled in this study 20 patients aged 11 to 16 years, and divided each dentition into an experimental and a control group, the former treated with self-ligating appliance and the latter with straight wire appliance for the contralateral dentition. We collected GCF samples before and at 1 h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 168h and 2wk after the treatment, and observed the changes of the AST level by automatic biochemical analysis. Results The AST level in the experimental group began to increase at 24 h, but at a significantly lower rate than that of the control group. Conclusion The AST level in GCF changes under the mechanical force during orthodontic therapy. Self-ligating appliance causes less change in the AST level than straight wire appliance, and therefore inflicts less damage to the periodontal tissue during orthodontic therapy.%目的 分析应用自锁托槽矫治器在错颌畸形矫治早期龈沟液天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)水平的变化,探讨自锁托槽矫治对早期牙周组织改建的影响.方法 选择20例青少年患者,年龄11~16岁,每例患者随机选取同颌同名牙列分别作为实验组和对照组,实验组牙列佩戴自锁托槽矫治器;同颌对侧牙列佩戴普通直丝弓托槽,设为对照组.利用全自动生化分析仪检测矫治前、矫治后1h、24h、48h、72h、168h及2周龈沟液中AST含量水平的变化.结果 佩戴自锁托槽矫治器牙列的龈沟液AST含量水平在加力24h开始升高,但升高的幅度、速率明显小于佩戴普通直丝弓托槽矫治器的对照组牙列.结论 牙齿正畸过程中受机械力的作用龈沟液AST水平发生动态变化.使用自锁托槽矫治器,龈

  19. Clinical characteristics of elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver%丙氨酸氨基转移酶升高的老年人的临床特征与超声诊断脂肪肝的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健生; 徐惠明; 陈小芳; 薛骏明; 周明霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical characteristics associated withof elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver. Methods The physical examination data of 1 054 elders were cross - sectionally analyzed from May. 2010 to Jun. 2012. There were 154 persons with elevated ALT, in which 54 cases were caused by hepatitis B and alcohol abuse. 100 subjects were included into the present study. Subjects were divided into NAFLD group (50 cases) and control group (50 cases). BMI, lipid metabolism, ALT, diabetes mellitus and so on were analyzed. Results In 100 cases of included individuals, 50% were diagnosed as NAFLD using ultrasonography. Patients with NAFLD showed higher (BMI) (P =0.013) , diabetes prevalence (P =0.019) and tri-glycerides (P =0.022) compared with individuals without NAFLD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI (OR = 1.454; 95% CI: 1.139 -1.856; P= 0.003) and diabetes mellitus (OR =3. 378; 95% CI: 1.343 -8.494, P = 0.01) were independent risk factor associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Clinical features such as history of diabetes and high BMI may predict the presence of NAFLD on ultrasonography inpatients with elevated ALT but negative hepatitis.%目的 评估丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)升高的老年人的临床特征与脂肪肝的相关性.方法 通过对2010年5月-2010年6月来我院行健康体检的1 054例老年体检者进行横断面研究,发现154例ALT升高,其中54例有乙型肝炎或者酒精摄入过量,最终100例入选本组研究.被分为非酒精性脂肪肝组(NAFLD)50例和对照组50例.分别进行体格检查计算体质量指数(BMI)、脂质代谢、ALT及糖尿病等调查.结果 在100例患者中,超声诊断50%有非酒精性脂肪肝,与无脂肪肝的患者相比,非酒精性脂肪肝患者有糖尿病史(P=0.019),并有较高的BMI (P=0.013)和甘油三脂(P=0.022).多变量回归分析显示BMI和糖尿病为脂肪

  20. Application of ratio index of aspartate aminotransferase and platelet ratio on liver fibrosis classification of patients with chronic hepatitis B%慢性乙型肝炎患者肝纤维化分级中AST/PLT比值指数的临床研究1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗功贤; 王志鹏

    2013-01-01

      目的评价天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)与血小板(PLT)比值在预测慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)肝纤维化分级中的作用。方法将178例CHB合并肝纤维化患者肝组织纤维化程度进行Ishak分期,同时检测患者AST和PLT,计算AST与PLT比值指数(APRI)。比较患者不同肝纤维化分期与APRI间的关系,通过APRI的受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积,分析其预测显著肝纤维化及肝硬化的准确率,并对CHB肝纤维化患者抗病毒治疗前后肝组织纤维化分期和APRI的变化进行对比分析。结果APRI与肝纤维化程度呈正比(P =0.001),APRI预测CHB进展为显著肝纤维化ROC曲线下面积为0.795,而预测肝硬化的ROC曲线下面积为0.714(P =0.003),APRI >1.5和>2分别为显著肝纤维化和肝硬化的截断点,其阳性预测值分别为96%和75%,阴性预测值分别为44%和74%。CHB患者经抗病毒药物治疗后,肝组织学检查结果显示其纤维化程度比治疗前明显减轻,而APRI也明显降低。结论 APRI可作为预测CHB患者发生显著肝纤维化及肝硬化的指标之一。%Objective To evaluate the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and platelet (PLT) ratio in predicting classification of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) based on liver fibrosis. Methods Ishak staging of liver fibrosis of 178 cases with CHB was carried out, and AST, PLT levels were detected simutaneously and the ratio of AST and PLT (APRI) was calculated. By anaysis of APRI receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve, the accuracy of prediction of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis and changes of liver fibrosis and APRI before and after antiviral treatment were analyzed. Results APRI was positively related to the degree of liver fibrosis (P = 0.001). The area under the ROC curve of APRI prediction of CHB progression to significant fibrosis was 0.795, while was 0.714 for prediction of progression to cirrhosis (P = 0

  1. [Evaluation of the analytic performance of blood collection tubes (BD Vacutainer SST) for the screening of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-CMV antibodies, and of HBs, P24 HIV antigens, and of alanine aminotransferase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, E; Desruelle, J M; Vigier, J P

    2001-02-01

    The Laboratory of Viral Diseases Immunology (Laboratoire d'Immunologie des Maladies Virales) of the Northern Region Blood Bank (Etablissement Français du Sang Nord de France) performs between 180.000 and 200.000 viral blood qualifications per year. The use of a serum gel separator evacuated tube should contribute to improve the quality of the pre-analytical phase. However, it must not impact negatively the analytical performances. We evaluated such tube within our specific environment and with the various reagents used in routine. The open study compared the BD Vacutainer plain tube (7 mL, non siliconised) with the BD Vacutainer SST tube (6 mL siliconised with serum gel separator) against the anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-CMV antibodies, the HBs, HIV P24 antigen and the alanine aminotransferase. The study objectives were to find potential gel interference; to verify the diagnostic sensitivity, reagents specificity, and reproducibility. The results analysis show: equivalent performances with the anti-HIV Ab (Anti HIV 1/2 recombinant--Biotest et Genscreen HIV 1/2--Sanofi), anti HIV WB Ab (New Lav Blot 1--Sanofi), anti-HBs Ab (Enzygnost anti-HBs micro--Behring), anti-HBc Ab (HBc Elisa Test System--Ortho), anti-CMV Ab (Enzygnost anti-CMV IgG + M--Behring) kits; lower performances with: The Vironostika HIV Uni Form II plus 0--Organon kit with a -3.5% signal decrease around the ratio R = 2.7 for positive anti-HIV Ab. The Elisa test System 3 Ag HBs-Ortho kit with an increase of the mean ratio of the negative Ag HBs samples; better performances with: the Vironostika HIV 1 Antigen--Organon kit with a +10% signal increase around the threshold ratio R = 1 for positive Ag HIV samples. This deserves further study to verify that the specificity is maintained. The HTLV Type 1 et 2 EIA--Ortho kit with +8% signal increase around the ratio R = 2 for positive anti-HTLV Ab samples without change of the specificity. The Ortho HCV 3.0 Elisa Test System and

  2. 丙氨酸转氨酶正常的慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染者的肝脏病理学分析%Pathological analysis of liver tissues from chronic hepatitis B patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭友文; 史正全; 於学军; 杨丽君; 陈丽; 孙丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解ALT正常的慢性HBV感染者的肝脏病理学改变及其影响因素.方法 观察632例ALT正常的慢性HBV感染者,采用超声定位穿刺取肝组织,行HE染色、纤维Masson染色,HBsAg和HBcAg免疫组织化学染色,观察Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分,并分析它们与年龄、ALT水平、血清HBV DNA载量、HBsAg和HBcAg肝组织表达的关系.两均数比较采用t检验,多均数比较采用单因素方差分析及q检验,计数资料采用x2检验.结果 632例ALT正常的HBV感染者中,中度炎症坏死167例,占26.4%,重度炎症坏死26例,占4.1%,中度纤维化217例,占34.3%,重度纤维化(肝硬化)52例,占8.2%.Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分在高ALT层次组比低ALT层次组高,在女性高ALT层次组比男性高ALT层次组高,在年龄>40岁组比年龄≤20岁组高(q=19.63,P<0.05).肝组织损伤程度在HBV DNA载量≤5×105拷贝/L组明显轻于HBV DNA 5×105~1×107拷贝/L、1×107~1×109拷贝/L和>1×109拷贝/L组(Knodell评分,q=3.87、2.87、6.34;Ishak评分,q=2.64、2.64、5.54;均P<0.05),在不同HBV DNA载量复制组之间差异无统计学意义(F=1.35,P>0.05).HBsAg(F=1.65、0.73,均P>0.05)和HBcAg(F=0.17、1.29,均P>0.05)肝组织表达与Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分差异均无统计学意义.结论 可检测到HBV DNA的ALT持续正常的慢性HBV感染患者应考虑进行肝组织活检,特别是年龄>40岁且ALT在(0.75~1.00)×正常值上限者.%Objective To study the liver histological changes in chronic hepaitits B (CHB) patients with normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the related factors. Methods Six hundred and thirty-two CHB patients with normal ALT levels had undergone ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsies. All specimen were examined by HE staining, collagen fiber Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core

  3. 4073对夫妻孕前优生健康检查传染病感染指标及丙氨酸氨基转移酶检测结果分析%Analysis of Detection Results of Communicable Disease Infectious Indicators and Alanine Aminotransferase of 4 073 Couples After Pre-pregnancy Eugenics Health Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆伟; 马书军; 张凌薇; 刘云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the infectious situation of hepatitis B virus( HBV),treponema pallidum (TP),human immunodeficiency virus( HIV)and abnormal rate of alanine aminotransferase( ALT)of the pre - pregnancy couples,so as to take effective measures to prevent the mutual diffusion between couples and the vertical transmission from mother to child and ensure their health. Methods 4 073 couples,who met the inclusion criteria and had taken the pre - pregnancy physical examination in Hebei Women and Children's Health Center from 2012 to 2014,were selected as the research objects retrospectively. The detection results of HBV,TP,HIV,and ALT were collected and analyzed. Results Among 4 073 coupes,the positive rate of hepatitis B virus surface antigen(HBsAg)was 3. 44% (280 / 8 146),the positive rate of TP rapid plasma reagin(RPR)and TP particle agglutination(TPPA)test was 0. 34% (28 / 8 146),the positive rate of anti - HIV1 / 2 was 0, and the abnormal rate of ALT was 4. 82% (393 / 8 146). The positive - HBsAg rate and the ALT abnormal rate of male were higher than those of the female(P ﹤ 0. 05). Among 168 males with positive - HBsAg,115 were all positive HBsAg,hepatitis B virus e antibody(HBeAb)and hepatitis B virus core antibody(HBcAb),23 all positive HBsAg,hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg)and HBcAb,and 30 with other conditions;among the spouses of 115 males,34 were all negative HBsAg,hepatitis B virus surface antibody( HBsAb),HBeAg、HBeAb、HBcAb. Among the 112 females with positive - HBsAg,75 were all positive HBsAg,HBeAb and HBcAb,16 all positive HBsAg,HBeAg,and HBcAb,21 with other conditions;among the spouses of 112 females,13 were all negative HBsAg,HBsAb,HBeAg,HBeAb,and HBcAb. Among 28 participants with RPR and TPPA of positive attributes,9 couples were all positive RPR and TPPA. Among 236 males with abnormal ALT,14 were all positive HBsAg,HBeAg and HBcAb;among 157 females with abnormal ALT,7 were all positive HBsAg,HBeAg and HBcAb. The positive rate of HBsAg in

  4. Application of microfluidics for the development of intensified aminotransferase (ATA) processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren

    Development of biocatalytic processes is greatly dominated by well-established batch process based screening technologies, e.g. glass vials (mL) and microtiter plates (μL). However, there is still a need for improvement of currently available technologies and for new technologies enabling...... in the development of biocatalytic processes, most attention is given to developing and modifying the biocatalyst to reach required process targets. However, it is important to consider the downstream processing (DSP) early in the process development as well, i.e. the downstream costs and limitations...... significantly. In recent years, many microfluidic applications have proven useful for process and synthesis development within the area of organic synthesis, i.e. flow chemistry. For example, the unique characteristics of the small scale enable safer and efficient handling and production of explosive and...

  5. Identification of Bilophila wadsworthia by specific PCR which targets the taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laue, H.; Smits, T.H.M.; Schumacher, U.K.; Claros, M.C.; Hartemink, R.; Cook, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The bile-resistant, strictly anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia is found in human faecal flora, in human infections and in environmental samples. A specific PCR primer set for the gene encoding the first metabolic enzyme in the degradative pathway for taurine in B. wadsworthia, taurine:pyruva

  6. A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Birgit; Dobritzsch, D.;

    2007-01-01

    to characterize the substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of the four enzymes. It was found that the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is needed for enzymatic activity and alpha-ketoglutarate, and not pyruvate, as the amino group acceptor. SkPyd4p preferentially uses BAL as the amino group donor (V...

  7. Post-operative aspartate aminotransferase levels independently predict mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kai Ming Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Increase in AST levels within 48 hours of CABG was a strong independent predictor of 30 day mortality. Although AST increase is not specific to myocardial necrosis, it remains useful for prognosis in cardiac surgery.

  8. HCV carriers with normal aminotransferase levels: “normal” does not always mean “healthy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Puoti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Approximately 30% of patients with chronic HCV infection show persistently normal ALT levels (PNALT, and another 40% have minimally raised ALT values. Although formerly referred to as “healthy” or “asymptomatic” HCV carriers, it has now become clear that the majority of these patients have some degree of histological liver damage. Controversies still exist regarding the definition of “persistent” ALT normality, the virological and histological features of these subjects, and the natural history and optimal management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC with normal ALT. Most patients with normal ALT have histologically proven liver damage that may be significant (> F2 in up to 20% of patients, and might progress toward more severe degree of liver fibrosis. A significant proportion of patients (≥ 20% experiences periods of increased serum ALT (flare associated with disease progression. AIM OF THE STUDY The introduction of the new combination therapy of PEG-IFN plus ribavirin allowed response rates higher than 50%, with a favourable risk-benefit ratio also in patients with benign or slow progressive disease. Given the efficacy of the new treatments, which soon became the standard of care for CHC, it has been suggested that the issue of whether or not to treat subjects with PNALT should be re-evaluated. ALT levels may have less importance in deciding who should be treated. Many other factors might influence the decision to treat, such as the age of the patient, HCV genotype, liver histology, patient’s motivation, symptoms, extrahepatic manifestations, comorbid illness. The role of non-invasive tools for the assessment of liver fibrosis (transient hepatic elastography remains to be further validated.

  9. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  10. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Natasha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for hepatitis C virus infection in healthy asymptomatic blood donors who were serologically negative. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year from November 2006 to October 2007. All donors were screened serologically for hepatitis B, C and HIV I and II, syphilis and malaria and those tested positive were excluded from further evaluation. Gender-wise reference ranges and minimal and markedly raised results for ALT (described respectively as one and two folds increase above reference range were defined and, accordingly, donors were grouped into three. Two hundred seronegative blood donors were randomly selected from all three groups of ALT results and tested for hepatitis C nucleic acid through Amplicor; HCV RNA test. The cost of discarding an ALT -only elevated blood unit was also assessed. During the study period, 25117 subjects donated blood. Eight hundred and Results: seventy two donors (3.4% were positive for one or more serological tests. ALT of all donors ranged from 0-1501 U/L (Mean ± SD; 33.4 ± 25.45U/L. The donors seronegative for all disease markers were 24245 (96.6%. Of these, 21164 (87.2% donors had their ALT within reference range while 2874 (11.8% and 207 (0.8% of donors had minimal and markedly elevated results. Thus, 621 blood bags (red cells, platelets and plasma costing $ 39200.0 were discarded based on ALT results alone. Of 200 seronegative donors evaluated for hepatitis C nucleic acid, only one within markedly elevated ALT levels was found to be positive. The present work did not support a positive association between hepatitis C virus nucleic acid and elevated ALT in healthy serologically negative blood donors. Conclusion: We did not find serum ALT testing in donors as cost effective strategy for detection of hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. As the number of samples tested by us was small we suggest further work to evaluate the value of ALT levels in serologically negative donors in association with hepatitis C antigen and NAT testing to elucidate the true burden of disease in geographical regions where hepatitis C is endemic and voluntary blood donation is sparse.

  11. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine, and required the short branched chain acids 2-methylbutanoic acid or 2-methylpropanoic acid for growth in a defined medium. The isoleucine related metabolites, alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid and 2-methylbutanal also served as growth factors. Growth...... was observed. Despite the deficiency in IlvE activity, the mutant strain was still able to produce the short chain carboxylic acids, 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylpropanoic acid when cultivated in rich medium. Supplementation experiments employing deuterated glucose induced the valine biosynthetic pathway...

  12. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without...... a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated....

  13. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Natasha; Moiz Bushra; Moatter Tariq; Ahmed Shiraz; Adil Salman; Khurshid Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for...

  14. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine....../>21 drinks per week for women/men) (aPR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50), and in those with no regular physical activity (aPR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.93). Obesity and metabolic syndrome per se showed no association with elevated ALT when adjusted for other markers, whereas we found positive associations of ALT...

  15. Soluble Serum CD81 Is Elevated in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Correlates with Alanine Aminotransferase Serum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Martin-Walter; Reichert, David; Susser, Simone; Sarrazin, Christoph; Martinez, Yolanda; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Piiper, Albrecht; Kronenberger, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Aim Cellular CD81 is a well characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry factor, while the relevance of soluble exosomal CD81 in HCV pathogenesis is poorly defined. We performed a case-control study to investigate whether soluble CD81 in the exosomal serum fraction is associated with HCV replication and inflammatory activity. Patients and Methods Four cohorts were investigated, patients with chronic hepatitis C (n = 37), patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal ALT levels (n = 24), patients with long term sustained virologic response (SVR, n = 7), and healthy volunteers (n = 23). Concentration of soluble CD81 was assessed semi-quantitatively after differential centrifugation ranging from 200 g to 100,000 g in the fifth centrifugation fraction by immunoblotting and densitometry. Results Soluble CD81 was increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C compared to healthy subjects (p = 0.03) and cured patients (p = 0.017). Patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal ALT levels and patients with long term SVR had similar soluble CD81 levels as healthy controls (p>0.2). Overall, soluble CD81 levels were associated with ALT levels (r = 0.334, p = 0.016) and severe liver fibrosis (p = 0.027). Conclusion CD81 is increased in the exosomal serum fraction in patients with chronic hepatitis C and appears to be associated with inflammatory activity and severity of fibrosis. PMID:22355327

  16. Late-onset primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in a Chinese individual with absent alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黃炳南; 唐美華; 麥肇嘉; 盧建宜; 黃煜; 黃矩民

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical problem, and its cause is often classified as idiopathic. Primary hyperoxaluria, mostly type 1, constitutes one of the rare causes of recurrent nephrolithiasis, but its diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The exact prevalence of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), therefore, has been unclear. The reported prevalence varies in different countries. No Chinese PH1 has ever been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of late-onset primary hyperoxaluria, which was diagnosed only after the development of end-stage renal failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first confirmed Chinese PH1.

  17. Development of an Electrochemical-Based Aspartate Aminotransferase Nanoparticle Ir-C Biosensor for Screening of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chiun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST is a hepatocelluar enzyme released into the bloodstream when hepatic cells are damaged, resulting in elevated blood levels of AST. A single use, disposable biosensor prototype, composed of catalytic iridium nano-particles dispersed on carbon paste, was developed to detect enzymatically-produced H2O2 in AST-mediated reactions. This biosensor is capable of measuring AST levels in a phosphate buffer and undiluted human serum over the concentration range of 0 to 0.89 μg/mL AST concentration (corresponding to 0–250 UL−1 specific activity. The biosensor operates at relatively low oxidation potential (+0.3 volt (V versus the printed Ag/AgCl, minimizing any potential chemical interference in human serum. The measurements of AST in human serum using the biosensor compared well with those measured by standard hospital spectrophotometric assays. This Ir-C biosensor may be useful for AST measurements in the clinical environment.

  18. Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren M; Beck, Hans Christian; Ravn, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    the transamination of isoleucine, valine, leucine, and, to some extent, methionine using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. The ilvE mutant degraded less than 5% of the BCAAs, while the wild-type strain degraded 75 to 95%. Furthermore, the mutant strain produced approximately 100-fold less of the methyl...

  19. Serum alanine aminotransferase level and response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the difference in sustained virological response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy between patients with normal ALT and those with raised ALT in chronic hepatitis C. Patients with positive HCV RNA by PCR and compensated liver disease were included and divided in two groups. One group with ALT below upper normal limit (UNL= 65U/L) and second group with raised ALT (> 1x UNL). After treatment with standard interferon alpha 2a and ribavirin, both groups were checked for sustained viral response (SVR) six months after end of treatment and compared for response to therapy with Chi square test. Of the 70 patients included, 25 had normal ALT ( 1 x UNL). Of these, 63 patients completed treatment. Sustained viral response (SVR) was seen in 13 of 22 patients with normal ALT who completed therapy and 22 of 41 patients with raised ALT who completed treatment. Difference in SVR in two groups was not significant (p 0.679). When patients with raised ALT were sub-classified, significantly better response was seen in patients with ALT Z 2 times the upper normal limit (p 0.021). Patients with normal baseline ALT respond equally well to combination therapy as is seen in patients with raised ALT. (author)

  20. [A young boy with elevated aminotransferases in physical examination--Two novel missense mutations associated with Wilson's disease were found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Deng, Si-Yan; Wan, Chao-Min

    2015-07-01

    A 3-year-old boy had abnormal liver function, which was found in physical examination, for 5 months before admission. He had no symptoms such as anorexia, poor appetite, and jaundice, had normal growth and development, and showed no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examination revealed significantly reduced ceruloplasmin (35 mg/L), as well as negative hepatotropic virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. There were normal muscle enzymes, blood glucose, and blood ammonia and negative liver-specific autoantibodies. The boy had negative K-F ring and normal 24-hour urine copper (0.56 μmol/L). The ATP7B gene testing for the boy, his sister, and their parents detected two novel missense mutations in the boy and his sister, i.e., compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.2075T>C, p.L692P) and exon 13 (c.3044T>C, p.L1015P), which were inherited from their father and mother, respectively. Wilson's disease was confirmed by genetic diagnosis in the boy and his sister. The boy and his sister were given a low-copper diet. The boy was administered with penicillamine for decoppering and zinc supplement against copper uptake. His sister received zinc supplement alone because no clinical symptoms were observed. The boy showed normal liver function in the reexamination after 3 months of treatment.

  1. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-1–Monoinfected Adults With Elevated Aminotransferase Levels on Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Caryn G.; McLaughlin, Mary; Matthews, Lindsay; Proschan, Michael; Thomas, Francine; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Orenstein, Abigail; Engle, Ronald E.; Hu, Xiaojun; Lempicki, Richard; Hadigan, Colleen; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    In a cohort of HIV-infected adults with chronically elevated liver-associated enzymes on antiretroviral therapy in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse, liver biopsy identified clinically significant liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis, in 65% of participants.

  2. Elevated alanine aminotransferase activity is not associated with dyslipidemias, but related to insulin resistance and higher disease grades in non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Ghamar-Chehreh

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that the associations of increased ALT serum levels in NAFLD patients are different from what are supposed before. By excluding diabetic patients from our population, we find that increased ALT levels are not associated with dyslipidemias but are independently associated with insulin resistance and NAFLD grading on ultrasonographic evaluations. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

  3. Absolute quantification of serum microRNA-122 and its correlation with liver inflammation grade and serum alanine aminotransferase in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that serum microRNA-122 was elevated in acute and chronic hepatitis patients. However, this biomarker for acute liver injury did not reflect the liver inflammation activity in CHC patients.

  4. Comparison of effect of cafetière and filtered coffee on serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and lipids: six months randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Meyboom, S.; Kuilman, M.; Rexwinkel, H.; Vissers, M.N.; Klerk, M.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association of plasma caffeine concentrations during pregnancy with fetal growth and to compare this with relations with reported caffeine intake. Design: Prospective population based study. Setting: District general hospital, inner London. Subjects: Women booking for deli

  5. ELEVATED ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT IN BLOOD DONORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MAIN ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes GONÇALES Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of aminotranferases levels is very useful in the diagnosis of hepatopathies. In recent years, an elevated serum ALT level in blood donors has been associated with an increased risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH. The purpose of the study was to research the factors associated with elevated ALT levels in a cohort of voluntary blood donors and to evaluate the relationship between increased ALT levels and the development of hepatitis C (HCV infection. 166 volunteer blood donors with elevated ALT at the time of their first donation were studied. All of the donors were questioned about previous hepatopathies, exposure to hepatitis, exposure to chemicals, use of medication or drugs, sexual behaviour, contact with blood or secretions and their intake of alcohol. Every three months, the serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia are assessed over a two year follow-up. The serum thyroid hormone levels as well as the presence of auto-antibodies were also measured. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients with persistently elevated ALT or AST levels. A needle biopsy of liver was performed in 9 donors without definite diagnostic after medical investigation. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in 116 donors were assayed again the first clinical evaluation. At the end of follow-up period (2 years later 71 donors were tested again for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. None of donors resulted positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C markers during the follow-up. Of the 116 donors, 101 (87% had persistently elevated ALT serum levels during the follow-up. Obesity and alcoholism were the principal conditions related to elevated ALT serum levels in 91/101 (90.1% donors. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus also were associated with increased ALT levels. Only 1/101 (0.9% had mild chronic active non A-G viral hepatitis and 3/101 (2.9% had liver biopsy with non-specific reactive hepatitis. The determination of ALT levels was not useful to detect donors infected with HCV at donation in Brazil, including the initial seronegative anti-HCV phase.A determinação dos níveis de alanina aminostransferase (ALT tem sido útil para o diagnóstico de hepatopatias. Ultimamente, a elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em doadores de sangue, tem sido associada a um maior risco de hepatites pós-transfusionais. Este estudo busca identificar os fatores associados com elevados níveis de ALT entre doadores voluntários de sangue e avaliar as relações entre estes aumentos de ALT e o desenvolvimento de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C. Assim, 116 doadores voluntários de sangue com níveis de ALT elevados, quando da primeira doação, foram estudados. Todos foram questionados sobre hepatopatias prévias, exposição a hepatites, exposição a produtos químicos, uso de drogas ou medicamentos, comportamento sexual, contacto com sangue ou secreções e consumo de álcool. A cada 3 meses foram medidos os níveis de AST, ALT, fosfatase alcalina, gama-glutamil transferase, colesterol, triglicérides e glicemia durante o período de 1-2 anos. Os níveis séricos de hormônios tireoidianos e a presença de auto-anticorpos também foram mensurados. Ultrassonografia abdominal foi realizada em todos os pacientes com elevação persistente dos níveis de AST ou ALT. Foi realizada biópsia hepática em 9 doadores sem diagnóstico definido após investigação clínica. A presença de anticorpos anti-HCV foi novamente pesquisada em 116 doadores no momento da primeira avaliação clínica. Ao final do follow-up (2 anos 71 doadores foram re-testados para a presença do anti-HCV. Nenhum doador se tornou reagente para os marcadores dos virus da hepatite B ou hepatite C, durante o seguimento. Dos 116 doadores, 101 (87% mantiveram níveis séricos de ALT persistentemente aumentados. Obesidade e alcoolismo foram as principais condições associadas à elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em 91/101 (90,1% doadores. Hipertrigliceridemia, hipercolesterolemia, hipotireoidismo e diabetes mellitus também se associaram a níveis aumentados de ALT. Somente 1/101 (0,9% apresentou hepatite crônica ativa não A-G e 3/101 (2,9% apresentaram biópsia hepática com diagnóstico de hepatite reacional. A determinação rotineira dos níveis de ALT, em bancos de sangue não foi útil para detectar doadores infectados com o vírus da hepatite C no Brasil no período que antecede a soroconversão para anti-vhc.

  6. Untersuchungen zum Einbau des Stickstoffes in der Acarviose-Einheit der Acarbose bei [Actinoplanes] sp. 50/110: die Aminotransferase Acb

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guardamino Uribe, Paz Marta

    2001-01-01

    Diese Arbeit befasste sich mit dem Stickstoffstoffwechsel bei Actinoplanes sp. unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Frage, wie der Stickstoff in den alpha-Glucosidaseinhibitor Acarbose während der Biogenese eingeführt wird. Zu klären galt es welches der postulierten Intermediate der Biosynthese transaminiert und durch welches Enzym diese Reaktion katalysiert wird. Heterologe PCR führte zur Identifizierung der Glutaminsynthetasen kodierenden Gene glnA und glnII auf dem Genom von Actinopla...

  7. Sequence Classification: 521362 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aminotransferase.; Glutamic--aspartic transaminase.; Glutamic--oxaloacetic transaminase.; Transaminase A.; aspartate aminotransferase || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/51473258 ...

  8. The cross-sectional association between insulin resistance and circulating complement C3 is partly explained by plasma alanine aminotransferase, independent of central obesity and general inflammation (the CODAM study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Jacobs, M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Vermeulen, V.M.M.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background Complement C3, a central component of the innate immune system is increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the strong association between insulin resistance and circulating amounts of C3 may be

  9. Clinical Observation of Alanine Aminotransferase Abnormality of A Radiologist%一例放射医师丙氨酸氨基转移酶异常的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长军; 李丹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 一放射医师患非酒精性脂肪性肝炎(NASH),血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)异常,治疗效果欠佳,后从事非X线放射工作并自行停止药物治疗,观察2 a,血清ALT基本恢复正常,现予以报道.

  10. Untersuchungen zur genetischen Regulation des Tryptophan-abhängigen Pigmentstoffwechsels von Malassezia furfur und Aufklärung der genetischen Sequenz des Schlüsselenzyms Mf_Tam1, einer Tryptophan-Aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Sarah Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Die Pityriasis versicolor (PV) gilt als eine der häufigsten erregerbedingten Dermatosen weltweit. Sie geht mit einem weiten Spektrum verschiedener Charakteristika einher, wie dem Auftreten von hyperpigmentierten aber auch depigmentierten Läsionen, einer relativen Unempfindlichkeit der Depigmentierungen gegenüber UV-Licht, Fluoreszenz der Läsionen im Woodlicht (311nm) und einem in Relation zur Pilzlast nur gering ausgeprägtem entzündlichem Infiltrat. Bislang ist die Pathogenese der Erkrankung ...

  11. 西安地区高ALT值献血者HEV亚临床感染情况调查%Study on Hepatitis E Virus Subclinical Infection in High Alanine Aminotransferase Donors in Xi'an area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红; 陈海珊; 穆士杰; 张献清

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨西安地区无偿献血者中戊型肝炎病毒的亚临床感染情况及其与ALT水平的相关性.方法 收集西安地区2009年1月~2010年12月ALT水平升高的1 874名无偿献血者血样,根据ALT检测结果分组后进行抗-HEVIgM和IgG、HEV RNA检测,比较各项指标间的相关性,并对HEV RNA阳性标本进行测序和基因分型.结果 1 874名无偿献血者中有7例抗-HEV IgM阳性,占0.37%;21例抗-HEV IgG阳性,占1.12%;8例HEV RNA阳性,占0.43%.其中7例抗-HEV IgM阳性者其RNA均为阳性.抗-HEV IgG的阳性率随年龄升高而增加.扩增8例HEV RNA阳性血样的保守序列ORF2分析发现5例基因型为Ⅰ型,另外3例基因型为Ⅳ型.结论 西安地区戊型肝炎病毒的亚临床感染率为0.37%,HEV流行株主要为Ⅰ型和Ⅳ型病毒株.%Objective To study the subciinical infection of hepatitis E virus of blood donors in Xi'an area, and its correlation with ALT levels. Methods To collect 1 874 blood donors samples with high ALT levels in Xi'an area from January 2009 to December 2010 and to test ALT. They were grouped according to the level of ALT. And they were detected on anti-HEV IgM and IgG, HEV RNA,then the relationships were analyzed among different indicators. The age of the donors, sequence and genotype were analyzed on the positive samples with HEV RNA. Results Among 1 874 blood donors, 7 were positive with HEV-IgM, accounting for 0. 37%, all of the seven were positive with HEV RNA. 21 were positive with HEV-IgG, accounting for 1.12%. Anti-HEV IgG positive rate increased with the age of the dolors. 8 were positive with HEV RNA, accounting for 0. 43%. HEV RNA ORF2 was amplified in 8 samples, 5 belonged to genotype I and the other 3 belonged to genotype IV. Conclusion The rate of subclinical infection of hepatitis E virus in Xi'an was 0. 37%, the genotypes of hepatitis E belonged to genotype 1 and 4.

  12. Effection of Pyridoxal- 5 '- phosphate on Determination of Alanine Aminotransferase activities%5'-磷酸吡哆醛对血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶活性测定的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱柏林

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究丙氨酸氨基转移酶(Alanine Aminotraasferase,ALT) 检测试剂中 5'- 磷酸吡哆醛(Pyrldoxal - 5'-phosphate,PLP )的添加对血清ALT活性测定的影响.方法 以山东潍坊康华生物技术有限公司生产的丙氨酸氨基转移酶试剂(按照IFCC推荐方法配制,不含PLP)和在该品牌试剂中加入5'-磷酸吡哆醛溶液,分别用这两种试剂测定相同的新鲜临床标本280例,并对检测结果进行统计学比较.结果 使用含PLP的IFCC配方试剂较不含 PLP试剂的检测结果明显增高.结论 康华公司生产的丙氨酸氨基转移酶试剂添加PLP比较不添加PLP ALT活性增加近5%-40%,且两种试剂的ALT检测结果不能通过简单系数实现转换.

  13. Variation of surum aminotransferases activities in aminotr-  ansferase reagent with pyridoxal phosphate supplementa-  tion%添加磷酸吡哆醛对血清转氨酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻鼎广; 伏春明; 陈敏

    2001-01-01

    目的观察添加磷酸吡哆醛对血清转氨酶活力的影响。方法用添加磷酸吡哆醛的DADE试剂和不添加磷酸吡哆醛的长征试剂对同一组血清作测定,以二者活力比表示。结果添加磷酸吡哆醛试剂的转氨酶活力肯定大于不含磷酸吡哆醛试剂的结果,丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)平均高64%。对作血透析后病人血清中的转氨酶活力影响更大,不含磷酸吡哆醛的ALT活力平均增高24%;添加的ALT平均增高达57%。结论只有使用添加磷酸吡哆醛的试剂才能准确反映病人血清中转氨酶活力以及肝损害程度。但各病人添加和不含磷酸吡哆醛试剂的转氨酶活力比值相差较大,不可采用校正系数换算。

  14. 5'-磷酸吡哆醛影响血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶测定的研究%Effection of Pyridoxal -5'-phosphate on Determination of Alanine Aminotransferase activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗彬; 鲍杰; 陈龙泉; 李传胜; 马洪波

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究丙氨酸氨基转移酶(Alanine Aminotraasferase,ALT)检测试剂中5'-磷酸吡哆醛(Pyrldoxal-5'-phos-phate,PLP)的添加对血清ALT活力测定的影响.方法 按IFCC推荐方法,自配ALT检测试剂(含PLP)和相应不添加PLP的检测试剂,分别用这两种试剂测定相同的新鲜临床标本,并对检测结果进行统计学比较.结果 使用含PLP的IFCC配方试剂较不含PLP试剂的检测结果明显增高.结论 健康人群和不同疾病人群由于个体差异,体内PLP含量不一,各组数据表明不含PLP配方试剂较IFCC配方检测结果明显偏低,因此两种配方的检测结果不能通过简单系数实现转换.

  15. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase Gene Csδ-OAT in Camellia sinensis%茶树鸟氨酸转氨酶基因Csδ-OAT的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟东; 疏再发; 杜昱林; 黎星辉; 王玉花

    2014-01-01

    根据已知鸟氨酸转氨酶(δ-OAT)的保守序列设计简并引物,并利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从‘迎霜’茶树中克隆获得鸟氨酸转氨酶基因,命名为Csδ-OAT,其GenBank登录号为KJ641844.该基因cDNA全长为1 865 bp,编码473个氨基酸,理论等电点为7.19,推测分子量为52.3 kD.序列比对分析结果表明,Csδ-OAT主要功能域保守性较高,存在典型的PLP结合位点;系统进化树分析显示,Csδ-OAT的进化符合传统的生物学分类,与其他双子叶植物具有同一起源.qRT-PCR分析结果表明,Csδ-OAT基因的表达存在明显的组织特异性,在花中表达最高,其次是叶片,而在其他组织器官中表达较低.此外,Csδ-OAT基因受高盐、低温、干旱、ABA和氧化胁迫处理的诱导,表明其参与了茶树体内各种非生物胁迫响应的过程.

  16. 受试者工作特征曲线评价OCT/ALT在肝细胞癌诊断中的价值%Diagnostic Value of Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase/Alanine Aminotransferase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 秦浩歌; 李彦姝

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶(OCT/ALT)对肝细胞癌的诊断价值.方法 测定87例肝细胞癌、75例慢性肝炎、66例肝硬化和72例健康对照者血清OCT和ALT水平,计算OCT/ALT值.并用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)进行评价.结果 肝细胞癌组、肝炎组、肝硬化组OCT/ALT与对照组比较,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05);肝炎组和肝硬化组OCT/ALT与肝细胞癌组比较,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清OCT/ALT的ROC下面积为0.855,OCT/ALT的最优截断点约为3.32,灵敏度和特异度分别为79.3%和87.3%.结论 通过ROC评价,血清OCT/ALT可作为鉴别诊断肝细胞癌的指标.

  17. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula;

    1999-01-01

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  18. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton0416 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton0416 ornithine aminotransferase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 438 TATC...CAGTTTGCCGAGTATATCACCCGTTATTT fb20049 1 PREDICTED: probable ornithine aminotransferase-like [Glycine max] XP_003531161 4.30167E-26 GO:0008483 ...

  19. Prospective association of liver function biomarkers with development of hepatobiliary cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Fedirko, Veronika; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Trepo, Elisabeth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J. Ramón; Nápoles, Osmel Companioni; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Nystrom, Hanna; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum liver biomarkers (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; total bilirubin) are used as indicators of liver disease, but there is currently little data on their prospective association with risk of

  20. AcEST: BP915528 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available late aminotransferase OS=Par... 78 2e-14 sp|A5UN82|DAPAT_METS3 LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase OS=Met....T_METST LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase OS=Met... 75 8e-14 sp|Q0ID68|DAPAT_SY

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-03-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0025 ref|YP_450021.1| aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ...MAFF 311018] ref|YP_199733.6| aspartate aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10331] dbj|BAE67...747.1| aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF 311018] YP_450021.1 5.5 30% ...

  2. Degradation of pyrimidines in Saccharomyces kluyveri: transamination of beta-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnackerz, K D; Andersen, G; Dobritzsch, D;

    2008-01-01

    (GABA-AT). S. kluyveri has two aminotransferases, GABA aminotransferase ((Sk)Uga1p) with 80% and (Sk)Pyd4p with 55% identity to S. cerevisiae GABA-AT. (Sk)Pyd4p is a typical pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferase, specific for alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG), beta-alanine (BAL) and gamma...

  3. Gclust Server: 91919 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (C-terminus part) ROCD2 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOTRANSFERASE) 1 1.00e-10 0.0 0.0 0.0 ...sentative annotation PROBABLE ORNITHINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (C-terminus part) ROCD2 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOT

  4. Gclust Server: 93109 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (N-terminus part) ROCD1 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOTRANSFERASE) 1 1.00e-12 0.0 0.0 0.0 ...sentative annotation PROBABLE ORNITHINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (N-terminus part) ROCD1 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOT

  5. Relationship of semiquantitative detection of HBeAg/anti-Hbe, capacity of HVB DNA and alanine aminotransferase(ALT)%HBeAg/抗-HBe半定量与HBV DNA载量和丙氨酸氨基转移酶的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坚敏; 张翊; 严爱芬

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨乙型肝炎患者HBeAg/抗-HBe与HBV DNA载量和丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)的关系.方法 用实时荧光定量PCR法连续检测法检测578例HBeAg或抗-HBe阳性的乙型肝炎患者血清HBV DNA含量和ALT水平.结果 HBeAg(+)/抗-HBe(-)模式组HBV DNA拷贝数、阳性率明显高于HBeAg(-)/抗-HBe(+)模式组和HBeAg(+)/抗-HBe(+)模式组(P均<0.01).HBeAg含量随HBVDNA升高而不断增加(P<0.01);抗-HBe含量随HBV DNA升高反而降低(P<0.01).HBeAg(+)/抗-HBe(-)模式组ALT异常率28.7%,明显高于HBeAg(-)/抗-HBe(+)模式组的17.5%(P<0.01);HBV DNA阳性各组ALT异常率均高于阴性组(P<0.01),HBV DNA不同载量组比较ALT异常率差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).结论 定量检测HBeAg/抗-HBe可粗略判断病毒感染及复制水平,而且与肝脏功能有一定的相关性.ALT升高与HBV DNA的阳性有关,与其载量大小无关.

  6. 2006年-2009年新邵县食品、公共场所从业人员乙肝五项和ALT检测结果分析%Analysis of the five Hepatitis B test and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among personnel of food industry and public place in Xinshao county from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳友宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study is to understand the distribution of HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb and the abnormity of ALT among personnel of food industry and public place to provide scientific evidence for Prevention and cure of Hepatitis B.Methods: The five test for Hepatitis B were detected by ELISA and ALT with Reitman - Frankel test.Results:There were 8271 personnel tested in 2006 - 2009 ,From 2006 to 2009, ratio of infection decreased from 9.47% to 6.03%.In age group from 17 to 25 、26 to 40、41 to 55 ,ratio of infection was 5.21% ,6.91%, 10.60% respectively.Ratio of abnormal ALT is 5.45% among the combined positives of HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAb, is 4.32% among the combined positives of HBsAg, HBeAb,HBcAb.There is not significant statistical difference with P -value( > 0.05).Conclusion: Ratio of infection of Hepatitis B had a tendency for decreasing but keep on a higher proportion in personnel of food industry and public place, the measure of epidemic prevention should be taken in further.%目的:了解食品、公共场所从业人员乙肝五项及丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)异常情况,为乙肝防治提供科学依据.方法:用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)进行乙肝五项标志物检测,用赖氏法测定ALT,并进行分析比较.结果:在2006年-2009年共检测8217人,乙肝感染率从2006年9.47%下降至2009年6.03%,在17岁~25岁、26岁~40岁、41岁~55岁三年龄段感染率分别为:5.21%、6.91%、10.60%.在大三阳(HBsAg、HBeAg和HBcAb均阳性)中,ALT异常率为5.45%,在小三阳(HBsAg、HBeAb、HBcAb均阳性)为4.32%,没有显著性差异,x2=0.37,P>0.05.结论:从业人员乙肝感染率呈下降趋势,但仍维持在较高水平,需进一步预防控制.

  7. 2006年青岛市崂山区饮食从业人员乙肝五项及ALT检测结果分析%Analysis of the Five Hepatitis B Tests and Alanine Aminotransferase(ALT) Levels among Food Service Personnel in Lao shan District of Qingdao City in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红岩; 宫相令; 王永先; 刘新红; 张宏

    2009-01-01

    [目的]了解饮食从业人员乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)、E抗原(HBeAg)等五项以及丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)异常情况,防止乙型肝炎在人群中传播.[方法]对崂山区2006年饮食从业人员和从事与食品相关的其他人员包括服务员、行政管理人员共8 067人,采用乳胶法进行乙肝五项检测,用赖氏法测定ALT,并进行比较分析.[结果]2006年共检测8 067人,HBsAg阳性者218例,阳性率2.70%.其中,小三阳(HBsAg、HBeAb、HBcAb均阳性)115例,阳性率为1.43%;大三阳(HBsAg、HBeAg、HBcAb均阳性)89例,阳性率为1.10%;HBsAg、HBcAb阳性者4例,单纯HBsAg阳性者6例,HBsAg、HBeAg阳性者4例,HBsAg阳性者ALT异常18例,异常率为8.25%,明显高于HBsAg阴性者异常率0.20%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]崂山区饮食从业人员HBsAg阳性率低于一般人员,由于工种的关系,加强监测十分必要.另外对ALT异常者应进一步明确诊断,以防止传染病传播.

  8. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de Knodell (IK > 7, e indicativa de tratamiento la inflamación lobulillar ≥ 2 o fibrosis ≥ 2 según la clasificación de Scheuer. Resultados: existió un IK > 7 y lesión indicativa de tratamiento en 47,8 y 60,7%, respectivamente. La edad, sexo varón, ALT y carga viral se relacionaron con lesión avanzada (p USN (69,1 vs. 47,1%, p = 0,04. La frecuencia de lesión avanzada no fue significativamente mayor cuando se consideraron como puntos de corte la edad de 40 años o DNA-VHB > 2 x 10³ UI/mL o positividad de HBeAg. Se observó menor actividad histológica en pacientes con genotipo D respecto a aquellos infectados con otros genotipos (p < 0,05. Conclusión: una mayor frecuencia de lesión avanzada en pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT hacen recomendable la biopsia hepática independientemente de la carga viral y positividad de HBeAg. Factores como la edad, sexo o genotipo pueden ayudar de forma individual a dicha indicación.

  9. The correlation among HBV DNA load, HBeAg/Anti-HBe and Alanine Aminotransferase in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection%慢性HBV感染者血清HBV DNA载量与HBeAg/抗-HBe、ALT之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军; 王芳; 杨帆

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性HBV感染者血清HBV DNA载量与HBeAg/抗-Hbe以及丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)水平之间的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测134例慢性HBV感染者HBV血清标志物,根据HBeAg/抗-Hbe检测结果将患者分为Ⅰ组(HBeAg+/抗-Hbe-,43例);Ⅱ组(HBeAg-/抗-Hbe+,69例);Ⅲ组(HBeAg-/抗-Hbe-,22例).同时应用实时荧光定量PCR方法以及连续监测法检HBV DNA载量以及ALT水平.结果 Ⅰ组HBV DNA阳性率和HBV DNA载量明显高于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P<0.01).HBV DNA阳性患者ALT异常率高于HBV DNA阴性患者(P<0.01).HBV DNA阳性患者HBV DNA载量与ALT水平之间无相关性(r=0.174,P=0.156).结论 血清HBV DNA载量与HBeAg/抗-Hbe以及ALT之间存在一定的关系,但不能单纯依靠HBeAg/抗-Hbe以及ALT来判断HBV在体内的复制情况,三项指标联合检测对HBV慢性感染者的病情检测、治疗具有重要意义.%Objective To explore the relationship among HBV DNA load, HBeAg/Anti-HBe and ALT in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Methods HBV markers in 134 patients with chronic HBV infection were detected by ELISA,and patients were divided into group Ⅰ (HBeAg +/Anti-HBe-,43 patients) ,group Ⅱ (HBeAg-/Anti-HBe + ,69 patients)and group Ⅲ (HBeAg-/Anti-Hbe-,22 patients)according to the results of presence of HBeAg/Anti-HBe. HBV DNA load and ALT were tested respectively by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology and successive monitor reaction. Results Both the positive rate and the HBV DNA load quantification in group Ⅰ were higher than in group Ⅱ and Ⅲ (P<0.01). Abnormality rate of ALT in HBV DNA positive patients was higher than the patients with HBV DNA negitive(P<0.01). There was no relationship between HBV DNA load and ALT in HBV DNA positive patients. Conclusion There was a certain corelation among HBV DNA load, HBeAg/Anti-HBe and ALT,but the active degree of HBV replication could not to be assessed by HBeAg/Anti-HBe or ALT alone. It was necessary for the padient with chronic HBV infection to examine them together.

  10. 速率法检测加5'-磷酸吡哆醛血清丙氨酸氨基转移正常参考范围的研究%Detection serum alanine aminotransferase normal range which plus 5-pyridoxal phosphate by performance rate method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭群华

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)正常参考范围.方法 正常人群360例,男、女各180例,仪器选用BT224半自动生化分析仪.结果 37℃时,男性ALT参考值为31±24U/L,女性ALT参考值为36±24U/L.结论 加磷酸吡哆醛的ALT试剂做出的正常参考值是理想的.

  11. 速率法检测加5'-磷酸吡哆醛血清丙氨酸氨基转移正常参考范围的研究%Detection serum alanine aminotransferase normal range which plus 5-pyridoxal phosphate by performance rate method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭群华

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)正常参考范围.方法 正常人群360例,男、女各180例,仪器选用BT224半自动生化分析仪.结果 37℃时,男性ALT参考值为31±24U/L,女性ALT参考值为36±24 U/L.结论 加磷酸吡哆醛的ALT试剂做出的正常参考值是理想的.

  12. 线粒体天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的测定在心、肝疾病诊治中的意义%Value On Determination of Mitochondrial Aspartate Aminotransferase for Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart or Liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永栋

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨线粒体天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(m-AST)测定在心、肝疾病诊治中的作用.方法 选取100例心肝疾病患者,分急性心肌梗死、病毒性心肌炎、肝硬化、肝炎4组测定AST和m-AST值,与正常组进行对比.结果 各观察组的AST和m-AST的测定值与正常组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 m-AST同工酶测定对心、肝疾病的诊治具有较高的临床价值.

  13. 钴铬合金、纯钛及全瓷冠种植体周围龈沟液中ALP、AST的表达%Expression of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in gingival crevicular fluid around implants with cobalt-chromium alloy, titanium and all-ceramic crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪羽; 杨慧; 李佳; 于蕴之

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨3种不同材料的全冠修复体在种植体周围组织龈沟液(GCF)、牙龈指数(gingival index,GI)、牙龈龈沟探诊深度(gingival crevice depth,GCD)变化及GCF中天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)水平,以评价不同烤瓷内冠材料对种植体周围牙周组织的影响.方法:经患者知情同意,随机选择临床病例90颗,平均分为3组,分别采用钴铬合金烤瓷冠,纯钛烤瓷冠,全瓷冠作为种植体上部修复材料,每组30颗.在修复前,后1个月、3个月,分别进行CGF量、GI、GCD、AST和ALP水平的测定和分析.结果:钴铬合金组、纯钛组、全瓷冠组术前龈沟液中各指标间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),钴铬合金组,纯钛组,全瓷冠组修复术前、后1个月,3个月龈沟液中GCF量、GI、GCD、AST、ALP各指标间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).术后1个月ALP、AST在钴铬合金组、全瓷组及纯钛组间差异均有统计学意义差别(P<0.05),而GCF、GI、GCD组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);术后3个月,钴铬合金组、全瓷组、纯钛组各指标间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).GCF、GI、GCD、AST、ALP分别进行三组间两两比较,GCF、GCD、AST、ALP各对比组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),但GI三组间两两比较全瓷组与钴铬合金组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与其他对比组差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:钴铬合金烤瓷冠可导致修复患牙的GCF量及其中酶的变化,对牙周组织有不利影响,纯钛烤瓷冠和全瓷冠对牙周组织的影响相对较小.

  14. Diagnostic value of ornithine carbamoyltransferase/alanine aminotransferase and alpha fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma%鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶和甲胎蛋白联合检测在肝细胞癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彬; 程大也; 孔虹; 解芳

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶(OCT/ALT)比值和甲胎蛋白(AFP)联合检测对肝细胞癌的诊断价值.方法:测定61例肝细胞癌、49例慢性肝炎、45例肝硬化和51名健康体检者血清OCT/ALT比值和AFP水平,应用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)进行评价.结果:肝细胞癌组血清OCT/ALT和AFP水平高于对照组、肝炎组和肝硬化组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清OCT/ALT和AFP的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.808和0.758.OCT/ALT的最优截断点约为3.2,灵敏度和特异度为68.3%和90.3%.AFP的最优截断点约为400ng/ml,灵敏度和特异度分别为60.7%和80.0%.结论:通过ROC曲线评价,在肝细胞癌的诊断中,血清0CT/ALT和AFP联合检测优于两项指标的单独检测.

  15. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients with normal serum alanine aminotransferase by peg-IFN alpha-2a and ribavirin%聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何纲

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价聚乙二醇(PEG)干扰素联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎的临床疗效.方法 使用聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a联合利巴韦林治疗20例ALT正常和25例ALT升高的慢性丙型肝炎患者.分别于治疗 12周、48周及治疗结束后24周评价疗效,并观察药物副反应.结果 ALT正常组所有患者均完成治疗,在治疗12周时的早期应答率为45%(9/20),治疗结束时的应答率为55%(11/20),在治疗结束后随访24周,持续应答率为45%(9/20).2例患者在随访24周内出现ALT升高,血清HCV RNA阳转,复发率为18.2%(2/11),所有疗效指标与ALT升高组对比均无显著差异.结论 PEG干扰素联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎同样具有较好的临床疗效,且副反应较轻.

  16. A young boy with elevated aminotransferases in physical examination -Two novel missense mutations associated with Wilson's disease were found%男性幼儿体检发现转氨酶升高--发现肝豆状核变性两处新的错义突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱渝; 邓思燕; 万朝敏

    2015-01-01

    1例3岁男性患儿因体检发现肝功能异常5个月入院。患儿无厌食、纳差、黄疸等症状,生长发育正常,肝脾无肿大,实验室检查常规筛查铜蓝蛋白水平(35 mg/L)明显降低,其余嗜肝病毒及巨细胞病毒、EB病毒均为阴性。肌酶正常,血糖、血氨及代谢筛查正常,自身免疫肝病抗体阴性。进一步行眼科检查示K-F环阴性,24 h尿铜水平0.56μmol/L(正常)。对患儿、患儿父母及其妹妹进行ATP7B基因检测,明确患儿和其妹妹具有两处新发现错义突变,为Exon7杂合突变c.2075T>C, p.L692P和Exon13杂合突变c.3044T>C, p.L1015P,各来自父母双方,符合复合杂合突变,基因诊断肝豆状核变性(Wilson)病成立。患儿及其妹妹确诊Wilson病后被嘱低铜饮食,患儿给予青霉胺驱铜治疗及锌剂拮抗铜吸收,其妹妹因尚无临床症状,故给予锌剂治疗。患儿经上述治疗3个月后复查肝功能完全正常。%A 3-year-old boy had abnormal liver function, which was found in physical examination, for 5 months before admission. He had no symptoms such as anorexia, poor appetite, and jaundice, had normal growth and development, and showed no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examination revealed signiifcantly reduced ceruloplasmin (35 mg/L), as well as negative hepatotropic virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. There were normal muscle enzymes, blood glucose, and blood ammonia and negative liver-speciifc autoantibodies. The boy had negative K-F ring and normal 24-hour urine copper (0.56 μmol/L). The ATP7B gene testing for the boy, his sister, and their parents detected two novel missense mutations in the boy and his sister, i.e., compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.2075T>C, p.L692P) and exon 13 (c.3044T>C, p.L1015P), which were inherited from their father and mother, respectively. Wilson's disease was conifrmed by genetic diagnosis in the boy and his sister. The boy and his sister were given a low-copper diet. The boy was administered with penicillamine for decoppering and zinc supplement against copper uptake. His sister received zinc supplement alone because no clinical symptoms were observed. The boy showed normal liver function in the reexamination after 3 months of treatment.

  17. Detection of human liver-specific F antigen in serum and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity are usually used as biochemical criteria for the evaluation of liver lesion. These enzymes will release into the blood when the integrity of hepatocyte is compromised. Although the aminotransferase has been used as a criterion of liver function for decades, it can not show the accurate hepatohistological characteristics when it is abnormal in patients with chronic liver disease[1].

  18. TRANSAMINASES ACTIVITY IN THE SAND LIZARD’S SERUM UNDER INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  19. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  20. Prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction in a regional group of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Gluud, C; Schlichting, P;

    1991-01-01

    -22%) had at least 1 abnormal laboratory value. Serum bilirubin was elevated in 5%, alkaline phosphatases in 8%, aspartate aminotransferases in 4%, and alanine aminotransferases in 8% of the patients. Two per cent had decreased plasma coagulation factors (2.7 and 10) and serum albumin. Further diagnositc...... laboratory value. Serum bilirubin was elevated in 2%, alkaline phosphatases in 18%, asparetate aminotransferases in 3%, and alanine aminotransferases in 10% of the patients. One per cent had decreased plasma coagulation factors (2.7 and 10) and serum albumin concentrations. Three patients (2%) fulfilled...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  2. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0303 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0303 ref|YP_001109469.1| valine-pyruvate aminotransferase [Saccharopol...yspora erythraea NRRL 2338] emb|CAM06544.1| valine-pyruvate aminotransferase [Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338] YP_001109469.1 5.0 33% ...

  4. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg-1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  5. Uracil and beta-alanine degradation in Saccharomyces Kluyveri - discovery of a novel catabolic pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    uracil nedbrudt via UMP og urea var et intermediat. Et nyt gen, kaldet PYD4, som er involveret i nedbrydningen af DHU, blev isoleret. PYD4 koder for en pyridoxal-5’-fosfat-afhængig aminotransferase, som har sammenlignelig aktivitet og substratspecificitet som BAL/gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (BAL...

  6. [The general practitioner and abnormal liver function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, R

    1997-09-01

    In case of abnormal liver function tests, it's necessary to distinguish different situations, starting from this first data. We will successively consider: the high and moderate acute increases of aminotransferase, the chronic increases of aminotransferase, the isolated cholestase picture and the isolated increases of gamma GT or of bilirubine. We will finish with a partial survey about drug-induced liver diseases.

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Grespan; Rafael Pazinatto Aguiar; Frederico Nunes Giubilei; Rafael Rocco Fuso; Marcio José Damião; Expedito Leite Silva; Jane Graton Mikcha; Luzmarina Hernandes; Ciomar Bersani Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ...

  8. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  9. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receivi...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (P44708) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_HAEIN 8e-56 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q5HE49) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STAAC 2e-51 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q577Y1) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BRUAB 4e-69 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q6AD32) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_LEIXX 3e-47 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8R841) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_THETN 3e-68 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK107595 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107595 002-131-A11 (Q6G322) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BARHE 2e-12 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O86781) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STRCO 2e-65 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (O83833) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_TREPA 2e-54 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O84823) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CHLTR 9e-83 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q5L3P0) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GEOKA 3e-50 ...

  20. Diversity among Leishmania isolates from the Sudan: isoenzyme homogeneity of L. donovani versus heterogeneity of L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M E; Evans, D A; Theander, T G;

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania isolates from patients in the Sudan suffering from either visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis were characterized using a battery of 12 enzymes. Aspartate aminotransferase separated the L. donovani isolates into 2 distinct zymodemes, but the overall results showed no significant...

  1. A study on biochemical differences among five different groups of rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zibaee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biodiversity in different rice striped stem borer (Chilo supprressalis populations is very important to adopt suitable integrated pest management procedures. Larvae were collected from five different regions in north of Iran including Gourabzarmikh (Go, Sheikhmahaleh (Sh, Rasht (Ra, Amol (Am and Babol (Ba. Activity levels of five enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase were evaluated in 4th instar larvae. In addition, five non-enzymatic compounds such as glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and urea were also measured. Amount of measured compounds showed significant differences in all groups except for alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model demonstrated that Ba population had the most genetic distance and was separated from other groups. In the second group, Go population had the most genetic distance from others and two groups of Ra and Sh had the least genetic distances.

  2. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB.

  3. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expres...

  4. Protective Effects of Kaempferol on Isoniazid- and Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Tung-Yuan; Young, Ton-Ho; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the first-line drugs for antituberculosis (anti-TB) chemotherapy. The levels of serum transaminases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] are abnormal in 27% of patients undergoing INH and RIF treatments and in 19% of patients undergoing treatment with INH alone. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes many toxic substrates, including ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and INH, which ultimately results in liver injury. The ...

  5. Elevated Alt and Ast in an Asymptomatic Person: What the primary care doctor should do?

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Loh Keng; Tong, Kew Siang

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal liver function test with raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are commonly seen in primary care setting.Chronic alcohol consumption, drugs, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and chronic viral hepatitis are common causes associated with raised ALT and AST.In chronic viral hepatitis, the elevation of liver enzyme may not correlate well with the degree of liver damage.Non-hepatic causes of raised ALT and AST include polymyositis, acute mus...

  6. Estimation of Specific Salivary Enzymatic Biomarkers in Individuals with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Roji; Khan, S Nubesh; Iqbal, P Safar; Soman, Rino Roopak; Chakkarayan, Jithesh; V. Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host response to periodontal disease includes the release of different enzymes from stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. The enzymes which are produced from these cells are associated with cell injury and cell death like: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Normal enzymatic activity of these enzymes is necessary for healthy functioning of gingiva and periodontium. The aim of the study is ...

  7. Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farkaad A. Kadir; Faizah Othman; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Farida Hussan; Pouya Hassandarvish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of the dried stems of Tinospora crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. Materials and Methods : The extract was gavaged daily to the rats, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg along with thioacetamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice weekly. To assess the effectivity of extract, against thioacetamide, the activity of aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartat...

  8. Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, V.; Pandey, D.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity. Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. The decreased level of tissue enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and a...

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation and zinc on changes of the activity of adaptive enzymes in the poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum of broiler chicks after single whole-body gamma irradiation in time gap 3., 7., 14. and 21 day. We applied zinc to organism of chicks after irradiation. Our observations showed that most of the changes in the enzyme activity were very different at irradiation groups and zinc groups of chickens compared to controls. (authors)

  10. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  11. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sadeghipour; Maryam Eidi; Ali Ilchizadeh Kavgani; Reza Ghahramani; Saleh Shahabzadeh; Ali Anissian

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in ...

  12. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki,Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita,Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  13. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović; Vesna Davidović

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT), in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartu...

  14. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max;

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma hepa...... and catalase) or plasma levels of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde) were found. Conclusion Supplementation with vitamin C, E and selenium increased the antioxidant status, but had no effects on alanine aminotransferase, viral load or oxidative markers....

  15. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758): Biochemical response

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nematdoust Haghi; Ahmed Th. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...

  16. Serum biochemical profile of laying hens in the region of Araçatuba, SP
    Perfil bioquímico das galinhas poedeiras na região de Araçatuba-SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Ciarlini; Elisa Helena Giglio Ponsano; Lorrayne Bernegossi Polônio; Carolina Kimie Mori; Tatiana de Sousa Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of reference values is extremely important for successful diagnosis and treatament. Considering that in most species the serum chemistry profile is influenced by race, climate and management, we decided to determine the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), phosphatase alkaline (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total protein (TP) and albumin of Dekalb hens in the region of Araçatuba - SP...

  17. Protective Effect of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshi Dong; Lianhong Yin; Yan Qi; Lina Xu; Jinyong Peng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS) against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin, which were confirmed using ...

  18. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  19. Effect of samh seeds supplementation (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) on liver enzymes and lipid profiles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Faris, Nora A.; Al-sawadi, Ali D.; Alokail, Majed S

    2009-01-01

    Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic of Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. The rat groups received different food (natural diet or high fat content diet) supplemented with 10% or 15% of samh seeds for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes have been measured in diabetic rats liver. In addition, liver lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), trigly...

  20. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome in Talca, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; PALOMO, I.; ORREGO, R.; Guzmán, L.; S. Núñez; MOORE-CARRASCO, R.; Icaza, G.; Díaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a core set of disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia that together predict the development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationship between liver enzyme levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in subjects with and without MS. Alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and hs-CRP were measured in 510...

  1. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  2. Serum biochemical values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot. Serum mean biochemical values from shot deer are presented for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus. Mean total protein and albumin increased with age. There was an age-associated increase of gamma globulins. Mean creatine kinase activity and creatinine, albumin and phosphorus concentrations were higher in stags than in hinds. Pregnant hinds had lower mean creatine kinase activity and phosphorus and higher mean alanine aminotransferase and total protein than non-pregnant hinds. Mean calcium concentration increased when deer were agitated before bleeding. PMID:1288472

  3. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages. PMID:26628609

  4. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  5. Estudo comparativo entre estibogluconato de sódio BP 88® e antimoniato de meglumina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea II. Toxicidade bioquímica e cardíaca Comparative study between sodium stibogluconate BP 88®and meglumine antimoniate in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. II. Biochemical and cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina R. Saldanha

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a toxicidade de dois antimoniais pentavalentes em 111 pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea. Quarenta e sete pacientes receberam antimoniato de meglumina (Grupo I e 64 pacientes, estibogluconato de sódio BP 88® (Grupo II, 20mg SbV/kg/dia por 20 dias. Realizou-se a avaliação de aminotransferases, fosfatase alcalina, amilase, creatinina, uréia, exame de urina e eletrocardiograma, antes do tratamento e no décimo e vigésimo dias. Observou-se maior freqüência de valores anormais de aminotransferases no décimo e vigésimo dias de tratamento no grupo II (p Toxicity of two antimonial pentavalents were evaluated in 111 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Forty seven patients received meglumine antimoniate (Group I and 64 patients, sodium stibogluconate BP 88® (Group II, 20mg SbV/kg/day for 20 days. Evaluation of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, amilase, creatinine, urea, urine analysis and electrocardiogram were performed at baseline, on the tenth and twentieth day of treatment. Greater frequency of aminotransferase abnormal levels were observed on the tenth and twentieth days in group II (p < 0,001 and a greater proportion of amilase abnormal levels at the tenth day in the same group (p < 0,001. There was a greater variation of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and amilase in the first ten days of treatment in group II (p < 0,01. On the twentieth day there was a greater variation of aminotransferase levels in group II (p = 0,02 and p = 0,03, respectively. Forty three percent of group I and 54% of group II showed electrocardiographic abnormalities (p = 0,30.

  6. Acompanhamento de um modelo de indução de cirrose em ratos mediante vídeolaparoscopia Accompanying of a cirrhosis induction model in rat through the videolaparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Enelruy Ávila Farias; Paulo Roberto Ott Fontes; Cláudia Ramos Rhoden; Márcio Luís Lucas; Márcio Luís Migliavacca Leal; Marcelo Sabedotti; Ernani Luis Rhoden

    2000-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um modelo de vídeolaparoscopia experimental para avaliar a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4) em ratos. Nódulos sobre a superfície hepática e aumento significativo das provas de função hepatobiliar (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, fosfatase alcalina e g -glutamiltranspeptidase) foram observados nos ratos tratados com CCl4. Além disso, cirrose hepática foi diagnosticada por estudo histopatológico em todos os ratos submetido...

  7. Aromatic hydrocarbon pathology in fish following a large spill into the Nemadji River, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    On June 30, 1992, a train accident resulted in a rail car releasing 114,000 L of a complex mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons into the Nemadji River, a tributary of Lake Superior near Superior, Wisconsin (Table 1). Although the majority of the spilled material evaporated, damage to aquatic life was extensive. Several thousand fishes were killed and an inestimable number were exposed to low concentrations (kidney were examined for histopathology. Blood was collected to determine the severity of liver damage reflected by the presence of the serum enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and d - glutamyl transferase).

  8. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  9. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  10. Naltrexone for the Management of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Raymond F

    2008-01-01

    A 44-year-old businessman with a history of hypertension presents for evaluation with a report of being under stress at work and home, which has led to “unsatisfactory” sleep. Although there is some despondency, screening for depression is negative. His blood pressure is 158/98 mm Hg. Laboratory results include a mean corpuscular volume of 102 fl (normal range, 80 to 100), an alanine aminotransferase level of 60 U per liter (normal range, 7 to 41), an aspartate aminotransferase level of 45 U ...

  11. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. PMID:17450508

  12. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    . We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis-plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)-in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1.......2 kg/m(2), >5% intrahepatic lipid (IHL) assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy]. Exercise consisted of treadmill walking for 60 min/day on 7 consecutive days at ∼85% of maximal heart rate. Additionally, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) test before...

  13. Heterotopic pancreatitis causing confusion in small bowel tumor.

    OpenAIRE

    Joskin, J; Bleus, N; Couvreur, T.; TSELIKAS, L; Milicevic, M.

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for acute epigastric pain with nausea and vomiting. Physical examination was suggestive for acute abdomen without peritoneal irritation findings. Blood tests results were as follow: alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 87 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 55 U/L, amylase: 135 U/L, lipase: 69 U/L, total bilirubin: 11,6 mg/l, creatinine: 9 mg/l, C-reactive protein (CRP): 108,4 mg/L, and white blood cells (WBC): 14640/mm3

  14. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutat...

  15. CONSUMO DE ÁLCOOL E A INFLUÊNCIA DO EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO NA ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE RATOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Righi; Camilo Amaro de Carvalho; Lucas Mota Ribeiro; Daise Nunes Queiroz da Cunha; Ana Carolina Silva Paiva; Antônio José Natali; Eveline Torres Pereira; Luciana Moreira Lima

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Introdução: Biomarcadores vem sendo utilizados para monitorar o uso do álcool e, atualmente, os mais sensíveis e específicos são enzimas hepáticas, por exemplo, gama glutamiltransferase (GGT), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP). Objetivo: Verificar, a partir da experimentação animal, as alterações provocadas pelo uso de álcool e pela prática de atividade física nas enzimas hepáticas e pancreáticas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro r...

  16. Histopathologic and biochemical liver test abnormalities in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: a review Alterações histopatológicas e testes bioquímicos hepáticos em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To review the medical literature regarding the histopathologic and biochemical liver test abnormalities in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics. METHODS: Review of articles in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases regarding serum levels and prevalence of alterations in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin, in relation to liver histopathology, with or without discrimination of types of histopathologic alteration. RESULTS: Global mean prevalence rates of aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase alterations were 86.3% and 51.1%; in cases with steatosis they were 79.1% and 38.5%; and in cases of hepatitis, 90.1% and 58%. In all studies, prevalence rates of aspartate-aminotransferase alterations were significantly higher with lower variability than those of alanine-aminotransferase. Mean aspartate-aminotransferase levels were higher than 2N (N is the upper normal limit of the method employed in all cases with hepatitis histopathology, while those of alanine-aminotransferase were 1.48N, in the same cases. Prevalence of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin abnormalities were 74.5% and 74.9% globally; in cases of steatosis, they were 70.9% and 67.9%; and in cases of hepatitis, 75.9% and 77.7%. Mean alkaline phosphatase levels were above the upper normal limit in all cases, but those of total bilirubin were above normal in 4 of 7 hepatitis studies. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of aspartate-aminotransferase alteration was consistently related to presence of histopathologic abnormalities; an enzyme level higher than 2N suggests the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis.OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura médica referente às relações entre alterações histopatológicas e testes bioquímicos hepáticos em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos. MÉTODOS: Levantamento, a partir das bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS e referências em publicações, das

  17. Effects on the hemostatic system and liver function in relation to Implanon and Norplant. A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberg, N; van Beek, A; Gunnervik, C; Hulkko, S; Hirvonen, E; Larsson-Cohn, U; Bennink, H C

    1998-08-01

    In this prospective randomized clinical trial, two long-term contraceptive implants were studied with respect to hemostasis and liver function in 86 healthy young women. The two implants used were Implanon, containing the progestagen etonogestrel (the biologically active metabolite of desogestrel) and Norplant, the implant containing the progestagen levonorgestrel. The results of the trial showed that both implants had similar small effects on the hemostatic system that are not suggestive of a tendency towards thrombosis. The effect on liver function was characterized by increases in total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase and decreases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:9773263

  18. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...

  19. The effects of moderate drinking and abstinence on serum and urinary beta-hexosaminidase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, P; Jokelainen, K; Roine, R; Suokas, A; Salaspuro, M

    1990-02-01

    The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected on SHEX, while UHEX levels did not change significantly during the study. Gramma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) decreased during the first abstinence period (P less than 0.05), but stayed thereafter at a constant level. It is concluded that SHEX may better reflect recent alcohol consumption than UHEX, GGT, ASAT or ALAT.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLB133 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) RecName: Full=Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial... 462 e-129 BC054684_1( BC054684 |pid:none) Danio rerio glutamic-oxaloacet...ic t... 310 3e-83 ( P00505 ) RecName: Full=Aspartate ami

  1. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALACHITE GREEN - A TRIPHENYLMETHANE DYE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleinmensen, Steen; Jensen, Jørn C.; Jensen, Niels J.;

    1984-01-01

    in serum urea and aspartate aminotransferase levels. The rats at the highest dose level showed decreased weight gain and appeared clinically to have elevated motor activity. No sex differences were observed in either acute or prolonged experiments. In accord with human experience malachite green...

  2. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  3. Dicty_cDB: VSC107 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence from clone 395P12 on chromosome 1q24-25. Contains the TXGP1 gene for tax-transcriptionally activated glycoprotein 1 (34kD) (OX4...0 ligand, OX40L) and a GOT2 (Aspartate Aminotransferase,

  4. Safety assessment of new antithrombotic agents: lessons from the EXTEND study on ximelagatran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnelli, G; Eriksson, B I; Cohen, A T;

    2009-01-01

    administration (35 days) of ximelagatran or enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after elective hip replacement and hip fracture surgery. A follow-up period, including assessment of liver enzymes (in particular alanine aminotransferase; ALAT), until post-operative day 180 was planned...

  5. Deferasirox in iron-overloaded patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes: Results from the large 1-year EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Finelli, Carlo; Porta, Matteo Della;

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year EPIC study enrolled 341 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); although baseline iron burden was >2500ng/mL, approximately 50% were chelation-naïve. Overall median serum ferritin decreased significantly at 1 year (p=0.002). Decreases occurred irrespective of whether....... Alanine aminotransferase levels decreased significantly; change correlated significantly with reduction in serum ferritin (p...

  6. Sequence Classification: 445208 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|37524309|ref|NP_927653.1| valine...--pyruvate aminotransferase (transaminase C) (alanine--valine transaminase) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/37524309 ...

  7. Metabolism of β-valine via a CoA-dependent ammonia lyase pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otzen, Marleen; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Postema, Christiaan P.; Wijma, Hein J.; Heberling, Matthew M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Janssen, Dick B.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas species strain SBV1 can rapidly grow on medium containing β-valine as a sole nitrogen source. The tertiary amine feature of β-valine prevents direct deamination reactions catalyzed by aminotransferases, amino acid dehydrogenases, and amino acid oxidases. However, lyase- or aminomutase-me

  8. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 1, 2007 (72 FR 42072) (FRL-8138- 1), EPA issued a notice... liver and kidney. Although liver effects were observed in all species tested (rat, dog, mouse), adverse... histopathology and increased blood alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities at high doses....

  9. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo.

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. A preliminary study in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C E; Taylor, P E; Pindyck, J; Choo, Q L; Bradley, D W; Kuo, G; Houghton, M

    1990-01-01

    In a survey carried out from 1985 through 1986, volunteer blood donors to The Greater New York Blood Program were tested for two surrogate markers for non-A, non-B hepatitis--elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. Stored serum samples from selected donors were also recently tested for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). Anti-HCV was detected in 0.9% to 1.4% of donors and was higher in black and Hispanic donors than in white donors. Anti-HCV prevalence increased with increasing age through the fourth decade of life, but decreased thereafter, possibly reflecting the disappearance of detectable antibody with time. Anti-HCV correlated with both alanine aminotransferase level and the presence or absence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. These associations suggest that donor screening for elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen was, as expected, at least partially effective in preventing transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. The detection of anti-HCV in donors who have neither an elevation of alanine aminotransferase level nor presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen suggests that donor screening for anti-HCV will further reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis. PMID:2104548

  11. Cloning and verification of the Lactococcus lactis pyrG gene and characterization of the gene product, CTP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Willemoës, M.; Martinussen, Jan;

    2001-01-01

    The pyrG gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, encoding CTP synthase, has been cloned and sequenced. It is flanked upstream by an open reading frame showing homology to several aminotransferases and downstream by an open reading frame of unknown function. L. lactis strains harboring disrupted...

  12. Cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract ofAnanas comosus against isoproterenol induced myocardial infraction in Wistar Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Saxena; Dharamveer Panjwani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of hydro alcoholic extract ofAnanas comosus (A. comosus)(HEAC), onIsoproterenol(ISO) induced myocardial infarction inAlbinoWistar rats. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced byIsoproterenol(85 mg/kg,s.c.) for two consecutive days at an interval of24 h.Rats were pretreated withHEAC(200-400 mg/kg/day, oral) for a period of30 days andIsoproterenol(ISO) was injected on31st and32nd day and after24 h blood was collected through retro-orbital plexus for the estimation of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies were also performed.Results:In the present study,ISO administration significantly elevated the cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it decreases high density lipoprotein and total protein in plasma and administration ofHEAC decreases the level of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it increases high density lipoprotein and total protein levels.Pretreatment with theHEAC protected the cardiotoxicity induced by Isoproterenol.The histopathological findings of theISO-induced myocardium showed infracted zone with inflammatory cells, lipid droplets, myocardial necrosis and vacuolization of myofibrils which were reduced by the pretreatment ofHEAC.Conclusion:It can be concluded thatHEAC possess cardioprotective activity againstIsoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  13. High and persistent excretion of hepatitis A virus in immunocompetent patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon, Grace M S; Coutinho, Roel A; Hoek, Anneke van den; Esman, Sylvia; Wijkmans, Clementine J; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Wolters, Bert; Swaan, Corien; Geskus, Ronald B; Dukers, Nicole H T M; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    The duration and level of virus excretion in blood and faeces of patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were studied in relation to levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), disease severity and HAV genotype. Clinical data, blood and faeces were collected from 27 patients with acute hepatit

  14. SwissProt search result: AK060423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 6e-11 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-18 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK103274 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-12 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 4e-13 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK060423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-12 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-13 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-18 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK102306 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 5e-11 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK105642 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 3e-14 ...

  3. 40 CFR 799.5055 - Hazardous waste constituents subject to testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... testing. A test of hydrolysis as a function of pH at 25 °C shall be conducted with the substances... appropriate to all studies are: Electrolyte balance, carbohydrate metabolism, and liver and kidney function... known as serum aspartate aminotransferase), ornithine decarboxylase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase,...

  4. 2-(hydroxymethyl)aspartic acid: synthesis, crystal structure, and reaction with a transaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Metzler, D.E.; Powell, D.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1980-11-05

    The synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of 2-(hydroxymethyl) aspartic acid and the preliminary evaluation of its interaction with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase of pig heart are described. A dissociation constant 1.4 mM for the L-2-(hydroxymethyl) aspartate complex with the enzyme was obtained. 2 figures. (DP)

  5. Enzyme tests in the evaluation of thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Zwaan (Chris); G.M. Willems (George); F.W.A. Verheugt (Freek); A. van der Laarse (Arnoud); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); W.T. Hermens (Wim); J. Lubsen (Jacob); J. Res (Jan); F. Vermeer (Frank)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe activity of alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase MB and aspartate aminotransferase was measured on serial plasma samples from patients with acute myocardial infarction. The study was part of a multicentre randomised trial of the effect of thrombolytic

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a series of 4-substituted glutamate analogues and pharmacological characterization at human glutamate transporters subtypes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaux, Sebastien; Kusk, Mie; Sagot, Emanuelle;

    2005-01-01

    A series of nine L-2,4-syn-4-alkylglutamic acid analogues (1a-i) were synthesized in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (>99% ee) from their corresponding 4-substituted ketoglutaric acids (2a-i), using the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) from pig heart or E. coli. The synthesized...

  7. Carvacrol partially reverses symptoms of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Senturk, Hakan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Colak, Suat; Ozmen, Ayse; Kolankaya, Durdane

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the protective effects of carvacrol on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Hence, this present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of the strong antioxidant, carvacrol, on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Carvacrol at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to diabetic rats for a period of 7 days after the onset of diabetes. Food-water intake and body weight changes were daily recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Although treatment of diabetic rats with oral administration of carvacrol resulted in a slight reduction in serum glucose level and significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in comparison with diabetic control rats, there were no significant differences in serum insulin levels, food-water intake values and body weight changes. Despite the inadequacy of carvacrol on diabetes treatments, it was determined to have at least a partially protective role on liver enzymes. PMID:23579248

  8. SwissProt search result: AK105642 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 4e-14 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 3e-19 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_RAT 5e-13 ...

  11. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  12. Protective effect of Tetracera scandens L.leaf extract against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tung; Bui; Thanh; Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Huong; Le-Thi-Thu; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Loi; Vu; Duc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective potential of ethanolic extracts of Tetracera scandens L.(T.scandens) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in liver tissues.Methods:Dried leaf powder of T.scandens was extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue.Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extracts orally once daily for one week.Animals were subsequently administered with a single dose of CCl4(I mL/kg body weight,intraperitoneal injection).Various assays,such as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,lipid peroxidation,protein oxidation(carbonyl protein group),tumor necrosis factor alpha,catalase,superoxide dismutase,and glutathione peroxidase,were used to assess damage caused by CCl4 and the protective effects of the ethanol extract on liver tissues.Results:Hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 was evidenced by a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level,lipid peroxidation,protein carbonyl group,and tumor necrosis factor alpha,as well as decreased activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes(catalase.superoxide dismutase.and glutathione peroxidase).Treatment with ethanolic T.scandens extracts prevented all of these typically observed changes in CCl4-treated rats.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that T.scandens has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat.which may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  13. Effect of ulinastatin on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Ma; Zhen-hua Ma; Xiao-lin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Totally 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated control group (SO group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group) and ulinastatin group (UTI group). Liver in I/R group underwent 1 h of reperfasion after 30 min of ischemia. In UTI group, UTI (2×104 U/kg) was administered to rats 30 min before modeling. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in serum were measured and the levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in liver were determined. The histological changes of liver were observed. Results The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and TNF-α in serum were significantly increased in I/R group compared with those in UTI group (P<0.05). The levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in liver were significantly higher in I/R group than in UTI group (P<0.05).Histological examination of liver indicated that the damages were more severe in I/R group than in UTI group.Conclusion UTI has the ability to inhibit the production of TNF-α and oxyradical, and ameliorate microcirculatory dysfunction in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfasion injury.

  14. Association between ALT level and the rate of cardio/cerebrovascular events in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Ryom, Lene; Kovari, Helen;

    2013-01-01

    An inverse association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in the general population. We investigated associations between ALT levels and the risk of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in a large cohort...

  15. Health effects of unfiltered coffee - diterpenes in coffee and their effects on blood lipids and liver enzymes in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.

    1997-01-01

    Boiled coffee raises blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in man. Cafestol and kahweol are responsible. These diterpenes also raise blood levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The objective of the present studies was to further specify the health effects of cafestol and kahweol.Unfilter

  16. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiyaporn Dondee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P. berghei Methods: For extraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera leaves, microwave with hot water method was used and acute toxicity study was then be done. Standard Peters’ test was carried out to test the efficacy of M. oleifera extract in vivo. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 red blood cells infected with P. berghei strain by intraperitoneal injection. They were subsequently given with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of this extract by intragastric route once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated using microscopy and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were also measured. Results: The M. oleifera leaf extract showed the protective activity on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei in a dose-dependent fashion. It can be indicated by normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin in mice treated with extract. The 1000 mg/kg of extract was observed to present the highest activity. Interestingly, the dosedependent antimalarial activity was also found in the mice treated with extract. Conclusions: The M. oleifera leaf extract presented protective effect on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei.

  17. Sequence Classification: 891219 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase) involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathwa...ys; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; Uga1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321456 ...

  18. The essential oil of Artemisia capillaris protects against CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghan Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the hepatoprotective effect of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Asteraceae, on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assayed. Administration of the essential oil of A. capillaris at 100 and 50 mg/kg to mice prior to CCl4 injection was shown to confer stronger in vivo protective effects and could observably antagonize the CCl4-induced increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and malondialdehyde levels as well as prevent CCl4-induced decrease in the antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.01. The oil mainly contained β-citronellol, 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, thymol and myrcene. This finding demonstrates that the essential oil of A. capillaris can protect hepatic function against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

  19. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn.) flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithianantham, Kuppan; Ping, Kwan Yuet; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Chew, Ai-Lan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea) flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40±2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21±0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (Pternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  20. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a Young Adult Presenting as Hepatitis and Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heincelman, Marc; Karakala, Nithin; Rockey, Don C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults is a relatively rare malignancy. The typical presentation includes signs and symptoms associated with bone marrow failure, including fevers, infections, fatigue, and excessive bruising. In this article, we report an unusual systemic presentation of ALL in a previously healthy 18-year-old man. He initially presented with several-day history of nausea and vomiting, 10-pound weight loss, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain with evidence of acute hepatocellular liver injury (elevations in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase) and elevation in serum creatinine. Further history revealed that he just joined the Marine Corp; in preparation, he had been lifting weights and taking protein and creatine supplements. A complete serological evaluation for liver disease was negative and creatine phosphokinase was normal. His aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase declined, and he was discharged with expected improvement. However, he returned one week later with continued symptoms and greater elevation of aminotransferases. Liver biopsy was nondiagnostic, revealing scattered portal and lobular inflammatory cells (primarily lymphocytes) felt to be consistent with drug-induced liver injury or viral hepatitis. Given his elevated creatinine, unresponsive to aggressive volume expansion, a kidney biopsy was performed, revealing normal histology. He subsequently developed an extensive left lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Given his deep venous thrombosis, his peripheral blood was sent for flow cytometry, which revealed lymphoblasts. Bone marrow biopsy revealed 78% blasts with markers consistent with acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. This report emphasizes that right upper quadrant abdominal pain with liver test abnormalities may be the initial presentation of a systemic illness such as ALL.

  1. Liver synthesis function in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with other liver tests A função de síntese hepática em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos. Correlações com outros testes hepáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver function and its correlation with bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were evaluated in 30 male chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics admitted into the psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Hypoalbuminemia, lowered prothrombin activity, hypotransferrinemia and hypofibrinogenemia were detected in 32 %, 32 %, 28 %, and 24 % of patients, respectively. Transferrin was elevated in 8 %. Greater prevalence of hyperbilirubinemia was found in patients with lowered prothrombin activity, hypofibrinogenemia, or hypotransferrinemia. No correlation was found between serum bilirubin or aminotransferase levels and normal or elevated albumin levels, time or activity of prothrombin, and fibrinogen levels. Serum alkaline phosphatase was elevated in normoalbuminemics and gamma-glutamyltransferase in patients with lowered prothrombin activity. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with hypofibrinogenemia, hypotransferrinemia with elevated aspartate aminotransferase or gamma-glutamyltransferase, and hypertransferrinemia with elevation of alanine aminotransferase. These data indicated the occurrence of hepatic dysfunction due to liver damage caused directly by alcohol or by alcoholism-associated nutritional deficiencies.A função hepática e suas correlações com a bilirrubina e as enzimas hepáticas foram avaliados em 30 alcoolistas crônicos do sexo masculino, assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos, internados em hospital psiquiátrico para desintoxicação e tratamento do alcoolismo. Hipoalbuminemia, hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogenemia e hipotransferrinemia ocorreram em 32%, 32%, 24% e 28% dos pacientes, respectivamente. A transferrina estava elevada em 8%. Maior prevalência de hiperbilirrubinemia foi encontrada em pacientes com hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogemia e hipotransferrinemia. Não observou-se correlações entre os níveis séricos da bilirrubina e das aminotransferases e os níveis normais

  2. Acute and Subacute Toxicity study of the Acetone Leaf extract of Centella asiatica in Experimental Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PK Chauhan; V Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of the acetone extract of Centella asiatica (Brahmi). Methods: Toxicity of Centella asiatica was evaluated in Swiss mice after ingestion of the extract during one day (acute model) and during 15 days (subacute model). The Biochemical parameters evaluated included creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorous, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed using commercial kits. Results: The results of the present investigation revealed that the LD50 of the extract is higher than 4000mg/kg and subacute treatment did not shows any change in corporal weight and hematological parameters. However, a change in liver weight but not in hepatic enzymes was observed. This suggested that the liver function is not altered by Centella asiatica. Some changes in the creatinine content were observed but could not be relative with the extract dose.Conclusions:The results suggest that the plant seems to be destitute of toxic effects in mice.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  4. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  5. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.......7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (... of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels...

  6. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  7. PROTECTIVE ABILITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingale Shirish S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Momordica charantia on the experimental hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Carbon tetrachloride was administered once and simultaneously suspension of dry fruit powder was prepared in aqueous medium and was daily administered at a dose level of 1mg/kg body weight for 4 days. Silymarin was used as a standard drug for this study. Administration of carbon tetrachloride showed significant changes in the levels of serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total proteins levels, however necrosis, collagen deposition and altered hepatic architecture were also observed. Markers of liver injury, altered aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin etc. and morphological changes such as necrosis and collagen deposition were significantly decreased in the rats treated with Momordica charantia fruit powder. These results suggest that the Momordica charantia showed hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage and may be a potential clinical application for treatment of liver diseases.

  8. Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Neven; Pangercic, Ana; Vargovic, Martina; Barsic, Bruno; Vince, Adriana; Kuzman, Ilija

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Papic et al. (2011) Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e2–e5. Elevation of liver transaminase levels is a frequent observation during systemic infections. The aim of our study was to investigate liver damage during pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 infection in comparison with seasonal influenza. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were significantly higher in patients with pandemic influenza compared to seasonal influenza, which was strongly correlated with hypoxia. Moreover, a positive correlation between C‐reactive protein and serum GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase was noticed. Our findings support the hypothesis that the pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 is an illness with a significant immune response to infection leading to hepatocellular injury. PMID:21951624

  9. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A Hassan, Sherif M El-Agmy, Rajiv L Gaur, Augusta Fernando, Madhwa HG Raj, Allal Ouhtit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  10. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa Hg; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  12. Suppressive Effect of Kampo Formula "Juzen-taiho-to" on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Miura, Nobuhiko; Onosaka, Satomi; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Nagatsu, Akito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pretreatment with the Japanese herbal medicine, "Juzen-taiho-to" (JTX), had an ameliorative effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity through anorexia prevention. Mice injected with CCl4 exhibited severe anorexia. Moreover, CCl4 increased the plasma levels of hepatic injury markers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), lipid peroxidation, and hepatic Ca(2+) levels. Pretreatment with JTX recovered the CCl4-induced anorexia. In addition, JTX pretreatment decreased CCl4-induced plasma levels of hepatic injury markers. Increased Ca(2+) is a known indicator of the final progression to hepatocyte death, and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity is mainly caused by oxidative stress. The present study indicated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic Ca(2+) content decreased with JTX pretreatment. Our results suggest that JTX has potential to protect of CCl4-induced anorexia, and the modulation of oxidative stress. PMID:27582337

  13. A study on interaspecific biodiversity of eight groups of silkworm (Bombyx mori) by biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAYVANETEBARI; S.Z.MIRHOSEINI; L.MATINDOOST

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of biodiversity in different races and lines of silkworm (Bombyx mori) is very useful for breeding programs and production of high efficiency hybrids. In this study eight groups of silkworm were selected including 103, 107, Xihang 1 and 2 of Japanese origin and 104, 110, Koming 1 and 2 of Chinese origin. The activity levels of three enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in haemolymph of fifth instar larva were measured. Moreover, the quantitative amount of total protein, cholesterol and glucose of haemolymph was evaluated.The data reveal that the activity level of measured macromolecules except for alkaline phosphatase were significantly different in all the groups. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model separated line 104 from other groups. Two groups of Koming 1 and Xihang 1 had the most intergroup similarities.

  14. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  15. Actinomyces naeslundii and Eikenella corrodens as rare causes of liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until catheter drainage of the abscesses was performed. He was eventually discharged in improved condition on amoxicillin-clavulanate. His aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin continued to improve and he remained afebrile and asymptomatic. A repeat CT 2 months after discharge demonstrated resolution of the abscesses. Actinomyces and Eikenella are rare causes of liver abscesses and treatment requires drainage and an extended course of antibiotics. The polymicrobial character typical of liver abscesses makes antibiotic therapy challenging when cultures reveal rare organisms such as Actinomyces and Eikenella. PMID:23867879

  16. Toxicological interactions of Cassia senna and Nerium oleander in the diet of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H; Adam, S E I

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of diet containing 10% of C. senna L. fruits or 10% of N. oleander L. leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) on male Wistar rats treated for 6 weeks were investigated. Diarrhea was a prominent sign of C. senna L. toxicosis. In both phytotoxicities, there were decreases in body weight gains, inefficiency of feed utilization, dullness and enterohepatonephropathy. These findings accompanied by leukopenia and anemia were correlated with alterations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea and other serum constituents. In both phytotoxicities, the ability of the liver to excrete bilirubin remained unchanged. Feeding the mixture of C. senna L. fruits and N. oleander L. leaves caused more serious effects and death of rats. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p cake by sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  18. Fenofibrate-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazufumi Dohmen; Hiromi Tshibashi; Chun Yang Wen; Shinya Nagaoka; Koji Yano; Seigo Abiru; Toshihito Ueki; Atsumasa Komori; Manabu Daikoku; Hiroshi Yatsuhashi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Fenofibrate is a member of such fibrate class agents as bezafibrate and it work as a ligand of PPARα, and also shows a potent triglyceride-lowering effect. The elevation of aminotransferase levels has been frequently observed after the administration of fenofibrate and this phenomenon is considered to be non-pathological because fenofibrate activates the gene expression of the aminotransferases. Recently, fenofibrate has been used not only for hypercholesterolemia but also for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)[1,2]. However, the occurrence of liver injury induced by fenofibrate has not yet been reported written in the English literature. We herein report a rare case of liver injury due to the oral use of this drug.

  19. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  20. [Data analysis of real world clinical changes in indexes of liver and kidney function to use of parenterally administered kudiezi at different doses and time periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    This is a retrospective study based on a 18 hospital information system data warehouse. Records of 1 982 patients who used Kudiezi intravenous infusion (KDZ) were extracted from the data warehouse. All the patients were divided into two groups, one group of 1 707 patients used KDZ, 14 days, off label use. Generalized boosted models (GBM) with propensity score were applied to compare the two groups on four indexes of liver and kidney functions, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Seventy one confounders were identified and balanced by GBM. And another two logistic analysis methods were used to confirm the results from GBM. The results indicated that there were no significant difference on the four indexes except the AST (P data analysis. More conclusive evidence should be collected by further prospective study.

  1. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  2. Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung-Keun; Kim, Guk-Nam; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Jeong, Hun; Mehta, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one. The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control). It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail. PMID:23997607

  3. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  4. Effect of methanol extract of Cuscuta reflexa aerial parts on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Balakrishnan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Cuscuta reflexa (Convolvulaceae on Isoniazid (INH and Rifambicin (RIF induced hepatotoxicity rats. Hepatotoxicity was observed by biochemical measurments: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities, ﻻ- GT the levels of total bilirubin were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in serum parameters in extract and standard drug treated groups. Histopathological changes were also observed in livers of animals that received extract and standard drug. Industrial relevance: The data generated in this study suggest that Cuscuta reflexa, could be very useful in the management of hepatoprotection on INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies will still be required at identifying the active hypoglycaemic phytoconstituents and their possible mechanism.

  5. 'Continuous muscle fibre activity' in six dogs with episodic myokymia, stiffness and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S; Polis, I; Fatzer, R; Braund, K; Thoonen, H

    2004-12-11

    Continuous muscle fibre activity was observed in a crossbred dog, a Yorkshire terrier, a border collie and three Jack Russell terriers. The clinical signs consisted of episodes of generalised myokymia which developed into muscle stiffness and delayed muscle relaxation and generally led to the dogs collapsing into lateral recumbency. These episodes were preceded by intense facial rubbing in three of the dogs, and were associated with severe hyperthermia in five of them. All three Jack Russell terriers showed continuous ataxia. The dogs had above normal activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase, but their cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Myokymic discharges were observed by electromyography in two of the dogs. Two of them were treated with membrane-stabilising agents, with variable results. PMID:15638001

  6. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  7. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi; Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu; Mubarak Labaran Liman; Dorothy Uju Iliemene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods:Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results:Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions:Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  9. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  10. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...... = .028). During follow-up, liver-related death occurred in 8 treated patients, caused by liver failure in 5 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 3; all 8 had continued to be HBeAg-positive with elevated ALT. None of the treated patients undergoing remission developed liver-related complications...

  11. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Chapman, B.J. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1983-10-31

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements.

  12. IFCC reference procedures for measurement of the catalytic concentrations of enzymes: corrigendum, notes and useful advice. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC)--IFCC Scientific Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gerhard; Canalias, Francesca; Joergensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Klauke, Rainer; Committee On Reference Systems For Enzymes C-Rse; International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Scientific Division

    2010-05-01

    The primary reference measurement procedures (PRMPs) for the international standardization of catalytic concentration measurements of alpha-amylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in reference laboratories for several years. The IFCC Committee on Reference Systems for Enzymes and two reference laboratories, with official accreditation for the PRMPs, have collected useful information on some of the steps of the reference procedures that require special attention. This document comprises errata corrige for minor mistakes in published PRMPs for AST and CK. Several notes on the PRMPs are emphasized. This includes details that are very important for improved standardization, and general suggestions for reducing measurement uncertainty.

  13. Diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis by Combined Detection of Atypical Lymphocytes and Transaminase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lihua; YANG Juhong; CUI Tianpen; XING Hui; CAI Pengcheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the value of combined detection of atypical lymphocytes (ATL) and transaminase (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; asparate aminotransferase, AST) in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM), The data of blood routine and liver function were collected from 54 IM patients, 34 acute hepatitis (AH) patients, 44 upper respiratory infection (URI) patients in Union Hospital during March 2002 to March 2005. Same data were also collected from 40 healthy children as normal control. These data were analyzed retrospectively. Both proportion of atypical lymphocytes and enzyme activity of transaminase were elevated simultaneously (ALT>40 IU/L,AST>45 IU/L) in 57.4% (31/54) IM patients. There was significant difference (P<0.01) between IM group and the other groups. Combined detection of atypical lymphocytes and transaminase can be regarded as a diagnostic marker of infectious mononucleosis.

  14. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PUNICA GRANATUM FLOWER ON BIOMARKERS AND ECG CHANGES IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib N.A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG against isoproterenol (ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Creatine kinase (CK-MB, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST in serum. Altered ECG pattern with ST segment elevation, which conforms the MI. Oral pretreatment with PG at 400mg/kg and Vitamin E (100mg/kg as a standard daily for a period of 28 days showed significant decrease in serum cardiac marker enzymes level and ECG alterations. Thus the result suggests that PG has cardioprotective effect in ISO induced myocardial infracted rats.

  15. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  16. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  17. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432 on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto,Ko

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432, attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the value of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum and hepatic tissue after hepatectomy were serially measured, and these values were significantly lower in Picibanil treated animals than in control animals. Free radical production in the regenerating liver was also measured by electron spin resonance spectrometry, and OK-432 injection significantly reduced free radical production. These results suggested that OK-432 reduced hepatocellular damage in regenerating liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  18. Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Joshaghani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a toxic material for mammalians. It is detoxificated and converted to urea in the urea cycle in liver. Each defect in the urea cycle cause increase in blood ammonia level. Ornithine transcarbamylase enzyme (OTC is the second enzyme in the urea cycle that exists in mitochondria. OTC deficiency is the most common hereditary disorder in the urea cycle. In this study, 45 hyper ammonia patients were selected (2-13 years old and assayed for serum OTC, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Four patients (n=45, 8.9% suffered from OTC deficiency. One patient was male (n=29, 3.4% and the others were female (n=16, 18.8%. About half of children (53.3 with hyper ammonia have liver disease. Further studies on OTC deficiency and OTC gene mutations in Iran are recommended.

  19. AcEST: DK949283 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.53 sp|A8EUE3|SECA_ARCB4 Protein translocase subunit secA OS=Arcobac... 34 0.53 sp|Q8CHG3|GCC2_MOUSE GRIP and coiled-coil...bjct: 96 MIIEDLRQQDVTLTYRKKKP 115 >sp|Q8PT12|SERC_METMA Phosphoserine aminotransferase OS=Methanosarcina maz...|Q23DH8|Q23DH8_TETTH DNA-directed RNA polymerase, omega subunit family protein OS=Tetra.... 35 0.40 sp|Q8PT12|SERC_METMA Phosphoserine aminotransferase OS=Methanosa... 34 ...... 33 0.90 sp|Q03281|YD458_YEAST Uncharacterized protein YDR458C OS=Sacchar... 33 1.5 sp|Q8TNI1|SERC_METAC Phosphoserine aminotra

  20. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%.

  1. Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A. and Edrees G. M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice against evoked cardiac disorders in rats fed on fried potato in oxidized frying cotton seed oil (20% w/w for 4-weeks was studied using lycopene at a daily dose of 1 mg/Kg body weight. Total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were estimated in different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT as well as serum calcium, potassium and magnesium were determined The obtained results revealed that, feeding on fried potato in deep oxidized frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profils and LDL-c associated with a marked elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CK, ALT and AST activities. These biochemical alterations ameliorated when lycopene was administered to rats fed fried potato in oxidized frying oil.

  2. Evaluation of commercial enzyme reagent kits by use of a semiautomated chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckala, H R; Agrell, J; Forsman, R W; Homburger, H A

    1979-08-01

    The overall performances of several enzyme reagent kits for alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were evaluated using an ABA-100 Bichromatic Analyzer. Interassay precision using this instrument with commercial reagents compared well with published data for similar analyses performed at university hospitals and referral laboratories. Significantly poorer precision with lower limits of linearity was observed when reagents recommended for use at 30 C were used at 37 C. Significant differences in measured levels of creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase due to different lots of expendable cuvettes were found for elevated levels of these enzymes. All kit reagents met manufacturers' claims for stability; however, different absolute levels of lactic dehydrogenase were observed with one kit reagent on successive days. Slight hemolysis affected creatine kinase levels measured with some reagent kits significantly more than others.

  3. Comparison of two dry chemistry analyzers and a wet chemistry analyzer using canine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanevschi, Anne; Kramer, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Canine serum was used to compare seven chemistry analytes on two tabletop clinical dry chemistry analyzers, Boehringer's Reflotron and Kodak's Ektachem. Results were compared to those obtained on a wet chemistry reference analyzer, Roche Diagnostic's Cobas Mira. Analytes measured were urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and bilirubin. Nine to 12 canine sera with values in the low, normal, and high range were evaluated. The correlations were acceptable for all comparisons with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 for all analytes. Regression analysis resulted in significant differences for both tabletop analyzers when compared to the reference analyzer for cholesterol and bilirubin, and for glucose and AST on the Kodak Ektachem. Differences appeared to result from proportional systematic error occurring at high analyte concentrations.

  4. Burkitt's lymphoma causing acute pancreatitis in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Akl; Avni Kaya; MSeluk Bekta; Fesih Aktar; Sinan Akbayram; Salim Bilici; Mehmet Beyazal

    2013-01-01

    A8-year-old boy admitted with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting for the previous10 days. Sensitivity was detected in the epigastric area.There was not defense and rebond.Aspartate aminotransferase was106U/L, alanine aminotransferase25U/L, alkaline phosphatase311U/L, blood amylase level748U/L, blood lipase level391U/L.In thoracicCT, soft tissue with smooth contours measuring32 mmí28 mm was identified in the posterior mediastinum.Bone marrow aspiration biopsy was normal.A mass specimen obtained from the duodenum endoscopic biopsy. This specimen was diffuse staining by leukocyte common antigen,CD10 andCD20.The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis associated with stage3 duodenalBurkitt's lymphoma. ModifiedLMB-98 was initiated.Burkitt's lymphoma may rarely cause acute pancreatitis.

  5. Serum chemistry of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

    1984-04-01

    Values of serum biochemistry were obtained for 33 adult (16 male and 17 female) and six juvenile (four male and two female) collared peccaries collected by trapping and drugging animals from southern Texas during the period July through September 1982. Only cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations differed significantly with respect to sex. Juvenile peccaries had significantly lower concentrations of total protein and globulins, but had higher concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium, and a higher albumin/globulin ratio than did adults. Effects of method of capture on biochemical attributes of serum from five gunshot and nine trapped adult peccaries collected from a single herd during March 1983 also were examined. Trapped peccaries had significantly higher levels of serum urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, glucose, and chloride concentrations. Levels of uric acid, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower among the trapped animals.

  6. Endocrine and metabolic responses of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) to immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Grant, W E

    1985-10-01

    Serial physiological responses were examined for 150 min from captive collared peccaries during immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during anesthesia. Serum concentrations of total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium declined significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 45 min post-immobilization before stabilizing. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in sera showed similar but nonsignificant (P greater than 0.05) trends. Inorganic phosphorus and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.05) throughout the trial. Concentrations of serum glucose and glucocorticoid during the immobilization period were highly variable between individuals. Serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, gammaglutamyl transferase and progesterone were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by immobilization. Elevations in serum testosterone were noted. Results indicated appropriate sampling times relative to immobilization for assay of particular serum biochemicals and steroid hormones during investigations of the physiology of the collared peccary.

  7. [Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Okhrimenko, S M

    2012-01-01

    Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys. PMID:22679761

  8. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  9. Effects of traditional homemade koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics in sedentary men exposed to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, N; Kısadere, İ; Balaban, C; Kadiralieva, N

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics of persons who exercise. Eighteen sedentary males were assigned to three equal groups: koumiss (K), koumiss + exercise (KE) and exercise alone (E). Leukocytes (WBC), differential leucocyte count, erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assessed In blood samples. By the end of the study, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels tended to decrease in all groups, but the decrease was significant only at day 15 for the KE group. HDL tended to be increased in all groups at day 15, but the increase was significant only in the KE group. We found that koumiss had beneficial effects on some hematological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:24893332

  10. Hemograma, bioquímica sérica e histologia da biópsia hepática de bovinos após administração de polpa cítrica Hemogram, serum biochemistry and hepatic histologic features in cattle after administration of citrus pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.F. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemogram and serum biochemistry (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamiltransferase, total protein, urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus were performed weekly in five crossbreed bovine after consumption of a diet containing citrus pulp pellets (40%, for 43 days. Percutaneous hepatic biopsy and histologic evaluation were performed in each animal before and after consumption of the citrus pulp diet. Hemogram, the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamiltransferase, urea and creatinine had normal levels at the end of the experiment. No histologic lesions were observed in liver samples before or after citrus pulp consumption. However, there was an increase of serum phosphorus and reduction of serum calcium (p<0.05, without hypercalcemia, after consumption of citrus pulp diet. There was also an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05, probably induced by bone isoenzyme.

  11. EFFECT OF CONSUMPTION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED FISH (TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN RABBITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolawa O.E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the biochemical effect of the consumption of heavy metals contaminated fish on metabolic parameters in rabbit. Total glucose, cholesterol, protein and levels of alkaline phosphate, alkaline aminotransferase (ALT together with aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the serum were measured. Compared with the control a significant decrease of total protein and total cholesterol (p was ascertained in the serum of the experimental groups. Total glucose level was level was significantly increased in the serum of the experimental (p . The values of alkaline phosphate, ALT and AST significantly increased in the serum of the groups. The above results on the biochemical consumption profile indicate the toxic effect of the consumption of these contaminated fishes in rabbits.

  12. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  13. Hematological, biochemical and anatomopathological aspects of the experimental infection with Trypanosoma evansi in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino L.P.C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of experimental T. evansi infection in four dogs was followed for 82 days and hematological, biochemical and anatomopathological findings were studied. Infected animals showed progressive decrease in red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration, leading to anemia which persisted from the third week post-infection until the end of the study. Leucopenia and neutropenia were observed between weeks 2 and 5 of the infection. The infected dogs developed hyperproteinemia and a decrease in the albumin:globulin ratio was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase and alamine aminotransferase levels increased significantly in infected dogs in comparison to control dogs. Histological changes observed in all infected animals consisted of lymphoid hyperplasia in spleens and lymph nodes and centrilobular degeneration and periportal mononuclear cell accumulation in the liver. A massive mononuclear cell infiltration of the myocardium was seen in three dogs and a nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was evidente in two infected animals.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, L; Salau, A K; Adewuyi, S O; Osineye, S O; Tijani, K O; Balogun, R O

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Male and female rats were exposed to Osun river water for three weeks and then sacrificed. The abundance of heavy metals in Osun river followed the trend Pb > Cd > Zn > Fe > Cr > Cu while VOCs followed the trend benzene water for three weeks had increased WBC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), serum proteins and serum aminotransferases. There were also significant decreases in HCT, PLT, liver aminotransferases and liver glutathione compared to the control. These results show that the pollutants in Osun river water are capable of inducing hematological imbalance and liver cell injury. The toxicity induced in blood was sex-dependent affecting female rats more than male rats. PMID:27506174

  15. Normal serum activities of liver enzymes in Swedish paint industry workers with heavy exposure to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, I.; Hakansson, M.

    1985-09-01

    The serum activities of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ornithine carbamyl transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were examined in 47 paint industry workers and unexposed age matched referents. The workers were exposed to a mixture of industrial solvents, of which xylene was the main component in most cases. The median total exposure was about 50% of Swedish 1981 threshold limit values according to measurements of individual solvent exposure performed at the same time. No differences in enzyme activities were shown either when the whole exposed and referent groups were compared or when the five workers with outstanding solvent exposures of five times the TLV or more were compared with their referents. It is concluded that in most workers the liver seems to remain largely undamaged from inhalation exposure to a commonly used mixture of non-chlorinated solvents. In many workers this seems to hold true even for high exposures for limited periods.

  16. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  17. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract. PMID:21959815

  18. HHH syndrome (hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, homocitrullinuria), with fulminant hepatitis-like presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecarotta, S; Parenti, G; Vajro, P; Zuppaldi, A; Della Casa, R; Carbone, M T; Correra, A; Torre, G; Riva, S; Dionisi-Vici, C; Santorelli, F M; Andria, G

    2006-02-01

    We report a 3-year-old Italian patient with the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome who presented with neurological deterioration after an intercurrent infection. Hyperammonaemia, coagulopathy and moderate hypertransaminasaemia were detected on hospital admission. Severe hepatocellular necrosis with hypertransaminasaemia (aspartate aminotransferase 20,000 UI/L, alanine aminotransferase 18,400 UI/L) and coagulopathy (PT HHH syndrome was based on the presence of the typical metabolic abnormalities. Molecular analysis of the SLC25A15 gene showed that the patient was heterozygous for two novel mutations (G113C and M273K). The diagnosis of HHH syndrome should be considered in patients with fulminant hepatitis-like presentations. Early identification and treatment of these patients can be life-saving and can avoid liver transplantation.

  19. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  20. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Yu Hsieh; Shui-Yi Tung; Kamfai Lee; Cheng-Shyong Wu; Kuo-Liang Wei; Chien-Heng Shen; Te-Sheng Chang; Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,compared with other noninvasive tests.METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment.FibroQ,aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR),AST to platelet ratio index,cirrhosis discriminant score,age-platelet index (API),Pohl score,FIB-4 index,and Lok's model were calculated and compared.RESULTS:FibroQ,FIB-4,AAR,API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test:P < 0.001).FibroQ trended to be superior in predicting significant fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests.CONCLUSION:FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  1. Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Heap, L C; Peters, T. J.; Wessely, S

    1999-01-01

    Some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome say they benefit from taking vitamin supplements. We assessed functional status for the B vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine in 12 vitamin-untreated CFS patients and in 18 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Vitamin-dependent activities--aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for pyridoxine, glutathione reductase (GTR) for riboflavin, transketolase (TK) for thiamine--were measured in erythrocyte haemolysates before and after in-vitro addit...

  2. The acute hepatic flare in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection receiving pegylated interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati Demiraslan; Zeynep Türe; Ayşegül Ulu Kılıç

    2012-01-01

    The pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin treatment is well established therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.During the treatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) flare may be observed rarely.A 51-year-old female receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for HCV infection, complained nausea, vomitingin seventh week of the therapy, and her ALT level was detected over 20 times above the normal level. Hepatitis B surfaceantigen, anti-nuclear antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti...

  3. Genetic determinants of haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Jacqueline N.; Rooks, Helen; Drasar, Emma; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Melista, Efi; Gordeuk, Victor R; Nouraie, Mehdi; Kato, Gregory R.; Minniti, Caterina; Taylor, James; Campbell, Andrew; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Rana, Sohail; Castro, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is variable among patients with sickle cell anaemia and can be estimated by reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Using principal component analysis of these measurements we computed a haemolytic score that we used as a subphenotype in a genome-wide association study. We identified in one cohort and replicated in two additional cohorts the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in NPRL3 (rs7203560; chr16p13·3) (...

  4. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Tušimová Eva; Kováčik Anton; Harangozo Ľuboš; Lukáč Norbert; Kolesárová Adriana; Vollmannová Alena; Kováčik Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotrans...

  5. [Acute hepatitis-associated pure red cell aplasia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Loggia, Paolo; Cremonini, Laura

    2002-12-01

    After a holiday in Egypt, a 57-year-old caucasian woman developed acute hepatitis A. The illness seemed initially to have a benign course, with a decreasing trend of hepatic enzymes and an apparent recovery. Three weeks later a relapse occurred. Recurrence of symptoms and aminotransferase elevation were associated with severe anemia; a hyporegenerative anemia was diagnosed and all laboratory findings were consistent with pure red cell aplasia. The haematologic disorder was successfully treated with red cell transfusion and glucocorticoids.

  6. Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection Increases the Risk of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nino Lomtadze; Lali Kupreishvili; Archil Salakaia; Sergo Vashakidze; Lali Sharvadze; Kempker, Russell R.; Matthew J Magee; Carlos del Rio; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The country of Georgia has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. PURPOSE: To determine whether HCV co-infection increases the risk of incident drug-induced hepatitis among patients on first-line anti-TB drug therapy. METHODS: Prospective cohort study; HCV serology was obtained on all study subjects at the time of TB diagnosis; hepatic enzyme tests (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity) were obtained at baseline and monthly during tr...

  7. Endogenously generated sulfur dioxide and its vasorelaxant effect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xu DU; Hong-fang JIN; Ding-fang BU; Xia ZHAO; Bin GENG; Chao-shu TANG; Jun-bao DU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to explore the endogenous production and localization of the sulfur dioxide (SO2)/aspartate aminotransferase pathway in vas- cular tissues of rats and to examine its vasorelaxant effect on isolated aortic rings, as well as the possible mechanisms. Methods: The content of SO2 in the samples was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography with fluores- cence detection. Aspartate aminotransferase activity and its gene expression were measured by an enzymatic method and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Aspar- tate aminotransferase mRNA location in aorta was detected by in situ hybridization. The vasorelaxant effect of SO2 on isolated aortic rings of the rats was investigated in vitro. L-type calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, and L-type calcium channel agonist, Bay K8644, were used to explore the mechanisms by which SO2 relaxed the aortic rings. Results: Aorta had the highest SO2 content among the vascular tissues tested (P<0.01). The aortic aspartate aminotransferase mRNA located in endothelia and vascular smooth muscle cells beneath the endothelial layer. Furthermore, a physiological dose of the SO2 derivatives (Na2SO3/NaHSO3) re- laxed isolated artery rings slightly, whereas higher doses (1-12 mmol/L) relaxed rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with nicardipine elimi- nated the vasorelaxant response of the norepinephrine-contracted rings to SO2 completely. Incubation with nicardipine or SO2 derivatives successfully prevented vasoconstriction induced by Bay K8644. Conclusion: Endogenous SO2 and its derivatives have a vasorelaxant function, the mechanisms of which might involve the inhibition of the L-type calcium channel.

  8. Activated farnesoid X receptor attenuates apoptosis and liver injury in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fan; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Youjun; Wu, Xiwen; Xu, Hanshi; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with interface hepatitis, the presence of autoantibodies, regulatory T‑cell dysfunction and raised plasma liver enzyme levels. The present study assessed the hepatoprotective and antiapoptotic role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in AIH. a mouse model of AIH was induced by treatment with concanavalin A (ConA). The FXR agonist, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), was administered to mice exhibiting ConA‑induced liver injury and a normal control. Blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines. Liver specimens were collected, and hematoxylin‑eosin staining was used for histopathological examination and detection. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The expression levels of apoptosis‑associated genes and proteins were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results demonstrated that FXR was downregulated at the mRNA and protein level in the liver specimens of mice induced with ConA‑induced hepatitis. Increased levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines, including interferon‑γ, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑4 and IL‑2, were detected in ConA‑treated mice. The mice pretreated with the FXR agonist, CDCA, were more resistant to ConA hepatitis, as indicated by reduced levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase and aminotransferases. The activation of FXR ameliorated hepatocyte apoptosis, as demonstrated by TUNEL analysis and downregulation of the Fas/Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand and caspase‑3. Taken together, FXR activation ameliorated liver injury and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in ConA‑induced hepatitis. FXR, therefore, exerts a protective role against ConA-induced apoptosis. PMID

  9. Dissimilation of cysteate via 3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase and a sulfate exporter in Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA

    OpenAIRE

    Rein, Ulrike; Gueta, Ronnie; Denger, Karin; Ruff, Jürgen; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2005-01-01

    Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA utilizes (R)-cysteate (2-amino-3-sulfopropionate) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth, with either nitrate or molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor, and the specific utilization rate of cysteate is about 2 mkat (kg protein)(-1). The initial degradative reaction is catalysed by an (R)-cysteate : 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, which yields 3-sulfopyruvate. The latter was reduced to 3-sulfolactate by an NAD-linked sulfolactate dehydrogenase...

  10. Cholestatic hepatitis with intravenous ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderpal Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury is a major health problem. Its predominant forms include acute hepatitis, cholestasis, and a mixed pattern. Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin and is widely used in the postoperative period due to its wider spectrum, longer half-life, and better tissue penetrability. Earlier cases of high aminotransferase levels and hepatitis have also been reported with the use of ceftriaxone. Here we report a case of cholestatic hepatitis with intravenous ceftriaxone.

  11. Serum ferritin concentration in sickle cell crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brownell, A; Lowson, S; Brozović, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) were studied during 21 vaso-occlusive crises in 12 adults with sickle cell disease (11 SS, 1 S beta degrees). The patients comprised three groups: those who had been untransfused (4), those who had received occasional exchange transfusion in crisis (3), and those who had been multiply transfused (5). Serum ferritin concentrations in crisis were compared with those of the steady state...

  12. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  13. Actinomyces naeslundii and Eikenella corrodens as rare causes of liver abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J.; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until ...

  14. Verification of chemistry reference ranges using a simple method in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irith De Baetselier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemistry safety assessments are interpreted by using chemistry reference ranges (CRRs. Verification of CRRs is time consuming and often requires a statistical background.Objectives: We report on an easy and cost-saving method to verify CRRs.Methods: Using a former method introduced by Sigma Diagnostics, three study sites in sub- Saharan Africa, Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria and Bloemfontein, South Africa, verified the CRRs for hepatic and renal biochemistry assays performed during a clinical trial of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. The aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and phosphorus results from 10 clinically-healthy participants at the screening visit were used. In the event the CRRs did not pass the verification, new CRRs had to be calculated based on 40 clinically-healthy participants.Results: Within a few weeks, the study sites accomplished verification of the CRRs without additional costs. The aspartate aminotransferase reference ranges for the Bondo, Kenya site and the alanine aminotransferase reference ranges for the Pretoria, South Africa site required adjustment. The phosphorus CRR passed verification and the creatinine CRR required adjustment at every site. The newly-established CRR intervals were narrower than the CRRs used previously at these study sites due to decreases in the upper limits of the reference ranges. As a result, more toxicities were detected.Conclusion: To ensure the safety of clinical trial participants, verification of CRRs should be standard practice in clinical trials conducted in settings where the CRR has not been validated for the local population. This verification method is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed by any medical laboratory.

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of a Semiautomated, Standardized Assay for Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Romanò, Luisa; Velati, Claudio; Baruffi, Lorella; Fomiatti, Laura; Colucci, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Alessandro R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the COBAS Ampliscreen hepatitis B virus (HBV) test using standards, seroconversion panels, consecutive donations, and samples from patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase and chronic hepatitis C. Specificity was 100% and sensitivity was 20 IU/ml. In seroconversion panels, HBV DNA was detected up to 4 to 18 days before HBsAg, suggesting that this assay is useful in shortening the infectious window phase.

  16. Painful keratoderma and photophobia: hallmarks of tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, L G; Williams, L R; Anderson, C E; Mazur, A; Kaplan, P

    1995-02-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome), which is caused by a deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase, results in elevated plasma and urinary tyrosine concentrations. We describe a young boy who was seen at 6 months of age with red eyes, photophobia, and eye pain that were not suspected to be caused by tyrosinemia II until painful plantar keratoderma developed at 2 1/2 years of age. Treatment with a diet low in tyrosine and phenylalanine reversed the manifestations of the disease.

  17. Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II). Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hemidan, A I; al-Hazzaa, S A

    1995-03-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome (Tyrosinemia Type II) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism characterized by ocular changes, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and mental retardation. Serum tyrosine increases due to tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency resulting in the deposition of tyrosine crystals in the cornea and in corneal inflammation. Patients are often misdiagnosed as having herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a child who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to Tyrosinemia Type II diagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.

  18. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  19. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase level...

  20. Space flight and radiaton effects on aminoacid metabolism in skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented on the investigation of aminoacid metabolism in the skeletal muscles of rats after the flight on the Cosmos-690 biosatellite. It is demonstrated that a combined effect of 20.5 - day space flight and gamma-irradiation at doses of 220, 670 and 955 rad has reduced the content of a number of biologically important aminoacids and inhileited the activity of aspartate aminotransferase of sarcoplasmatic proteins

  1. Minocycline and N-Methyl-4-Isoleucine Cyclosporin (NIM811) Mitigate Storage/Reperfusion Injury After Rat Liver Transplantation Through Suppression of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Theruvath, Tom P.; Zhong, Zhi; Pediaditakis, Peter; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Currin, Robert T.; Tikunov, Andrey; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Lemasters, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Graft failure after liver transplantation may involve mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined whether prevention of mitochondrial injury would improve graft function. Orthotopic rat liver transplantation was performed after 18 hours' cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution and treatment with vehicle, minocycline, tetracycline, or N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin (NIM811) of explants and recipients. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrosis, and apoptosis were assessed 6 hours af...

  2. Tissue repair response as a function of dose in thioacetamide hepatotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangipudy, R S; Chanda, S.; Mehendale, H M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a dose-response relationship for thioacetamide (TA), where tissue regeneration as well as liver injury were two simultaneous but opposing responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitioneally with a 12-fold dose range of TA, and both liver injury and tissue repair were measured. Liver injury was assessed by serum enzyme elevations. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation did not show any dose response over a 12-fold dose ...

  3. Suppression of Graft Regeneration, Not Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, Is the Primary Cause of Small-for-Size Syndrome after Partial Liver Transplantation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Pan; Xiangwei Lv; Rui Liang; Liming Wang; Qinlong Liu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly considered to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) after liver transplantation. Rapid regeneration is also considered essential for the survival of SFS grafts. METHODS: Mouse models of full-size orthotopic liver transplantation, 50% partial liver transplantation and 30% partial liver transplantation were established. Survival rate and serum alanine aminotransferase were observed. IRI was assessed by...

  4. Leversygdom hos børn kan forekomme uden forhøjelse af leverspecifikke enzymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caverius, Anna Ulrika; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Lausen, Birgitte;

    2015-01-01

    In children, liver diseases are rarely suspected without elevated levels of liver transaminases. We describe two cases of portal hypertension of children who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, splenomegaly and cytopenia. Both cases had normal levels of liver transaminases; thus...... haematological conditions initially were suspected. An elevated alanine aminotransferase level should always lead to further examination to detect liver diseases in early stages, in order to limit development of cirrhosis....

  5. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research in the following areas: use of liver for mechanistic studies of multistage hepatocarcinogenesis and for screening of environmental contaminants for tumor initiating and promoting activity; molecular properties of rat liver ornithine aminotransferase; regulation of gene expression in rat liver; methods of tumor detection; mechanisms of radiation and viral oncogenesis; biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes; and studies on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity

  7. Evaluation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice employing Tc- 99m Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections and endotoxemia continue to be the principal causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructions of the bile duct. The objective of the present work was the investigation of the phagocitary capacity of the mononuclear system in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice utilizing Tc-99m E.coli. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher in jaundiced rats than in the control animals (p Nos pacientes com obstrução do ducto biliar, as infecções e a endotoxemia continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar a capacidade fagocitária do sistema mononuclear, em um modelo experimental de icterícia obstrutiva, utilizando Tc-99m E.coli. Os níveis de aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT e fosfatase alcalina (PAL nos ratos com ligadura do ducto biliar comum (CBD encontram-se significativamente mais elevados do que nos ratos sham. (p < 0.001. O fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou uma significativa redução na captação da Tc-99m E.coli quando comparado com o controle. Os dados mostraram também, que houve um aumento significativo na captação da Tc-99m E.coli pelo pulmão dos ratos ictéricos (p < 0.01. O exame histológico dos cortes de fígado dos animais ictéricos apresentou proliferação intensa e difusa dos ductos biliares e uma acentuada poliploidia dos hepatócitos (volume médio: 843 µm³, Não foram observadas alterações significativas nos pulmões de nenhum grupo.

  8. Use of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamma, Safa; Eross, Balint; Mclaughlin, Simon

    2013-03-01

    A 62-year-old woman with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) failed to sustain remission when steroids were withdrawn from a regimen of steroids and azathioprine (AZA). Thiopurine metabolites revealed elevated 6-MMP (6-methyl mercaptopurine) and low 6-TGN (6-thioguanine nucleotide) consistent with AZA-induced hepatotoxicity. Introducing the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol led to rapid normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and discontinuation of steroids. PMID:23238820

  9. Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside Protects against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, So-Jin; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 μl/kg) injection. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher af...

  10. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary for optimal growth of Salmonella typhimurium in media of high osmolality but not induction of the proU operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Csonka, L N; Ikeda, T P; Fletcher, S A; Kustu, S

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of glutamate can be limited in bacterial strains carrying mutations to loss of function of glutamate synthase (2-oxoglutarate:glutamine aminotransferase) by using low concentrations of NH4+ in the growth medium. By using such gltB/D mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium, we demonstrated that: (i) a large glutamate pool, previously observed to correlate with growth at high external osmolality, is actually required for optimal growth under these conditions; (ii) the osmoprotectant ...

  11. A New Octadecenoic Acid Derivative from Caesalpinia gilliesii Flowers with Potent Hepatoprotective Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Samir M.; El-Haddad, Alaadin E.; El-Raey, Mohamed A.; Abd El-Khalik, Soad M.; Koheil, Mahmoud A.; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caesalpinia gilliesii Hook is an ornamental shrub with showy yellow flowers. It was used in folk medicine due to its contents of different classes of secondary metabolites. In our previous study, dichloromethane extract of C. gilliesii flowers showed a good antioxidant activity. Aim of the Study: Isolation and identification of bioactive hepatoprotective compounds from C. gilliesii flowers dichloromethane fraction. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated compounds were studied in CCl4-intoxicated rat liver slices by measuring liver injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione [GSH]). All compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of electron ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: A new 12,13,16-trihydroxy-14(Z)-octadecenoic acid was identified in addition to the known β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl, daucosterol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7,4’-dimethyl ether, genistein-5-methyl ether, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside, isovanillic acid, and p-methoxybenzoic acid. Dichloromethane fraction and isorhamnetin were able to significantly protect the liver against intoxication. Moreover, the dichloromethane fraction and the isolated phytosterols induced GSH above the normal level. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. gilliesii may be attributed to its high content of phytosterols and phenolic compounds. SUMMARY Bioactive Hepatoprotective phytosterols and phenolics from chloroform extract of Caesalpinia gilliesii Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: Glutathione; SC50: Scavenging Capacity 50 (SC 50); COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; CC: Column chromatography; EI-MS: Electron-impact mass spectrometry; HSQC: Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation. PMID:27563221

  12. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  13. 乙胺嗪对四氯化碳致急性肝损伤大鼠的保护作用%Hepatoprotective effects of diethylcarbamazine in acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzàlez R; Ancheta O; Màrquez M; Rodriguez S

    1994-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine a potential role of leukotrienes in the acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats. An inhibitor of leukotrienes biosynthesis,diethylcarbamazine (DEC, 25 and 50 mg creasing the activity of alanine aminotransferase in serum and the concentration of liver triglycerides. DEC reduced histological damage of liver evidenced by electron micr oscopy.The hepatoprotective effects of DEC were dose-dependent. The results favor the role of leukotrienes in CCl4 hepatotoxicity.

  14. Reproductive strategies and genetic variability in tropical freshwater fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dolores Peres Lassala; Erasmo Renesto

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the genetic variability of nine fish species from the Brazilian upper Paraná River floodplain (Astyanax altiparanae, Hoplias malabaricus, Leporinus lacustris, Loricariichthys platymetopon, Parauchenipterus galeatus, Pimelodus maculatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Roeboides paranensis and Serrasalmus marginatus) based on data for 36 putative allozyme loci obtained using corn starch gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymatic systems: aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), acid phosphatase (EC...

  15. Gene-enzyme relationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids have been isolated from Nicotiana silvestris. Isozymes of chlorismate mutase were isolated, partially purified and subjected to enzyme kinetic analysis. In addition, studies investigating the role of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthetase, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase, shikimate dehydrogenase, prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in regulation of aromatic amino acids levels in tobacco are reported

  16. Perfusion CT findings in liver of patients with tumor during chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the microcirculation changes in liver of patients with tumor during chemotherapy by perfusion computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Sixty patients with tumor and 20 controls were enrolled in this study. Perfusion CT parameters of patients and controls were compared, including hepatic perfusion index (HPI), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product (PS). Correlation between perfusion CT parameters, treatment cycle and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was studied. RES...

  17. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ružič Maja; Fabri Milotka; Pobor Marta; Jovelić Aleksandra; Lukač Damir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day...

  18. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M T; Ho, C.K.; Huang, S.L.; Yeh, Y. F.; C. L. Liu; Mao, I F; Christiani, D C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideove...

  19. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  20. Possible Ameliorative Effect of Chicory Extract (Cichorium Intybus) on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Chicorium intybus (Chicory) against radiation induced-oxidative stress and changes in the levels of 150-180 g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with chicory extract at a daily dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt/day for four weeks, group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with chicory extract two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid profile was measured.also concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and TBARS level was estimated in the cardiac tissue. The results showed decreased body weight and heart weight in irradiated animals. Compared to the control normal rats, irradiated rats had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine phosphokinase(CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, cardiac tissue TBARS was markedly increased while SOD, GSH and CAT were significantly decreased. Oral and heart weights, serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile. Cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased while TBARS was markedly reduced, membrane bound enzymes in rats' heart was investigated. Rats weighing about administration of chicory extract at doses of 250 mg/kg b.wt. improved the body compared to irradiated rats. These results may suggest a strong antioxidant effect of chicory, which was effective in mitigating adverse effect of γ irradiation on animals