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Sample records for aminotransferases

  1. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [14C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  2. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

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    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  3. Studies on aminotransferase enzymes in fish and shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Chhatbar, S.K.; Velankar, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activities in the skeletal muscle of several fish species is reported. AAT activity is found higher than ALAT activity and that the red muscle has higher aminotransferase activity than the white muscle. It is observed that 2-oxoglutaric acid has a wider scope as an amino group acceptor than pyruvic acid in the skeletal muscle of fish. The significance of transamination& in fish is discussed.

  4. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  5. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  6. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor. PMID:27266631

  7. Substrate Specificity and Structure of Human aminoadipate aminotransferase/kynurenine aminotransferase II

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    Han, Q.; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Robinson, H; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) II is a primary enzyme in the brain for catalysing the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA (kynurenic acid). KYNA is the only known endogenous antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The enzyme also catalyses the transamination of aminoadipate to alpha-oxoadipate; therefore it was initially named AADAT (aminoadipate aminotransferase). As an endotoxin, aminoadipate influences various elements of glutamatergic neurotransmission and kills primary astrocytes in the brain. A number of studies dealing with the biochemical and functional characteristics of this enzyme exist in the literature, but a systematic assessment of KAT II addressing its substrate profile and kinetic properties has not been performed. The present study examines the biochemical and structural characterization of a human KAT II/AADAT. Substrate screening of human KAT II revealed that the enzyme has a very broad substrate specificity, is capable of catalysing the transamination of 16 out of 24 tested amino acids and could utilize all 16 tested alpha-oxo acids as amino-group acceptors. Kinetic analysis of human KAT II demonstrated its catalytic efficiency for individual amino-group donors and acceptors, providing information as to its preferred substrate affinity. Structural analysis of the human KAT II complex with alpha-oxoglutaric acid revealed a conformational change of an N-terminal fraction, residues 15-33, that is able to adapt to different substrate sizes, which provides a structural basis for its broad substrate specificity.

  8. Substrate Specificity and Structure of Human Aminoadipate Aminotransferase/kynurenine Aminotransferase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han,Q.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D.; Robinson, H.; Li, J.

    2008-01-01

    KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) II is a primary enzyme in the brain for catalysing the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA (kynurenic acid). KYNA is the only known endogenous antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The enzyme also catalyses the transamination of aminoadipate to a-oxoadipate; therefore it was initially named AADAT (aminoadipate aminotransferase). As an endotoxin, aminoadipate influences various elements of glutamatergic neurotransmission and kills primary astrocytes in the brain. A number of studies dealing with the biochemical and functional characteristics of this enzyme exist in the literature, but a systematic assessment of KAT II addressing its substrate profile and kinetic properties has not been performed. The present study examines the biochemical and structural characterization of a human KAT II/AADAT. Substrate screening of human KAT II revealed that the enzyme has a very broad substrate specificity, is capable of catalysing the transamination of 16 out of 24 tested amino acids and could utilize all 16 tested a-oxo acids as amino-group acceptors. Kinetic analysis of human KAT II demonstrated its catalytic efficiency for individual amino-group donors and acceptors, providing information as to its preferred substrate affinity. Structural analysis of the human KAT II complex with a-oxoglutaric acid revealed a conformational change of an N-terminal fraction, residues 15-33, that is able to adapt to different substrate sizes, which provides a structural basis for its broad substrate specificity.

  9. Elevated Serum Aminotransferases Secondary to Rippling Muscle Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nalankilli, Kumanan; Lubel, John

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was referred by his general practitioner to the hepatology clinic with deranged serum aminotransferases, discovered as part of routine blood tests. The objective was to identify the cause of elevated serum aminotransferases in this patient in a systematic manner. Thorough history and physical examination revealed a background history of rippling muscle disease secondary to caveolin-3 protein deficiency, with typical clinical signs. There was a positive family history of musc...

  10. Purification and characterization of cysteine aminotransferase from rat liver cytosol.

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    Akagi,Reiko

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine aminotransferase (L-cysteine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.3 was purified over 400-fold from the high-speed supernatant fraction of rat liver. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by gel filtration, isoelectric focusing and disc electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was about 74,000 by gel filtration and the isoelectric point was 6.2 (4 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed transamination between L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate and the reverse reaction. The optimum pH was 9.7. The Km value for L-cysteine was 22.2 mM, and that for 2-oxoglutaric acid was 0.06 mM. L-Aspartate was a potent inhibitor of the cysteine aminotransferase reaction. The enzyme was very active toward L-alanine 3-sulfinic acid at pH 8.0, and was also very active toward L-aspartic acid (Km = 1.6 mM. Ratios of activities for L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine were essentially constant during the purification of the enzyme. Evidence based on substrate specificity, enzyme inhibition, and physicochemical properties indicates that cytosolic cysteine aminotransferase is identical with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1.

  11. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Khedmat; Nasrin Zarei; Farahnaz Fallahian; Hassan Abolghasemi; Bashir Hajibeigi; Zohre Attarchi; Farshid Alaeddini; Mohammad Taghi Holisaz; Masoumeh Pourali; Shahin Sharifi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles.RESULTS: Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 ± 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 ± 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 ± 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P < 0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B = 6.988, P = 0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B = 15.763, P < 0.001), (B = 32.345, P < 0.001), (B =24.415, P < 0.001), respectively.CONCLUSION: Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  12. Evaluation of aminotransferase abnormality in dengue patients: A meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Shi-Chen; He, Cheng; Xu, Xiu-Juan; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus is a type of flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of infection by this virus range from asymptomatic or mild symptomatic dengue fever (DF) to dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Significant abnormality in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has been shown in a large number of dengue infection cases and to be indicator for liver injury provided that there are no other combined infections or liver injury. This study aims to assess the abnormal levels of liver aminotransferase in dengue patients. The related literature was searched in multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The literature was selected through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quantitative synthesis of the liver aminotransferase abnormality was performed with R software. The fixed or random effects model was employed based on the results of the statistical test for homogeneity. In total, 15 studies were included. The proportion of AST abnormality with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.56-0.92) in DHF patients and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.84) in DF patients; the proportion of ALT abnormality was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.73) in DHF patients and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41-0.63) in DF patients. Serum ALT and AST levels may be indicators for evaluating liver injury in dengue infection and for diagnosis and treatment effect. PMID:26739659

  13. Serum Aminotransferases in Thai Children With Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Olarn Prommalikit; Usa Thisyakorn; Chule Thisyakorn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatic manifestations are one of the unusual manifestations of dengue infection. Objectives: We conducted this study in order to study the pattern of serum aminotransferases and sequential changes before and after shock in Thai children with dengue infection. Patients and Methods: Children who were clinically and serologically diagnosed as dengue infection and were adm...

  14. FibroScan, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index based on the 4 factor (FIB-4), and their combinations in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Deping; Li, Hongbing; Liu, Ping; Chen, Lingli; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Yinhua; Ma, Deqiang; Chen, Yue; Luo, Jie; Meng, Zhongji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of FibroScan, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index based on the 4 factor (FIB-4) and their combinations on liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B. Methods: 406 hospitalized patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and cirrhosis in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively and collected patients clinical indicators, including...

  15. Alanine Aminotransferase, γ-Glutamyltransferase, and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Abigail; Harris, Ross; Sattar, Naveed; Ebrahim, Shah; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate and compare associations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ALT and GGT were studied as determinants of diabetes in the British Women's Heart and Health Study, a cohort of 4,286 women 60–79 years old (median follow-up 7.3 years). A systematic review and a meta-analysis of 21 prospective, population-based studies of ultrasonography, which diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), ...

  16. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Nora; Ismail, Abdelrahman; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Carlquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified rec...

  17. Directed evolution of an aspartate aminotransferase with new substrate specificities

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Takato; Oue, Shinya; Kagamiyama, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase was successfully modified by directed molecular evolution using a combination of DNA shuffling and selection in an auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain. After five rounds of selection, one of the evolved mutants showed a 105-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for β-branched amino and 2-oxo acids and a 30-fold decrease in that for the native substrates compared with the wild-type enzyme. The mutant had 13 amino acid substi...

  18. STUDY OF SERUM AMINOTRANSFERASE LEVELS IN DENGUE FEVER

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    Jnaneshwari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The involvement of liver in dengue fever is not uncommon as reported in literature since 1970. Liver and nervous system involvement simultaneously predicts poor outcome in dengue fever. Atypical manifestations include liver involvement with elevation of enzymes, central nervous involvement (encephalopathy and cardiac alterations (myocarditis. Liver involvement in dengue fever is manifested by the elevation of transaminases representing reactive hepatitis, due to direct attack of virus itself or the use of hepatotoxic drugs. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Study of serum aminotransferase levels in dengue fever. METHODOLOGY: In this descriptive, cross sectional study, all patients who presented to the Department of medicine with dengue IgM positive were included. Study period of 24 months from July 2010-June 2012, patients attending to M.S. Ramaiah medical college were included (n=166. RESULTS: 166 patients reactive for dengue virus specific IgM antibody were studied. As per WHO classification, 137 (82.5% patients were classified as dengue fever, 20 (12% as dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 9 (5.4% as dengue shock syndrome. Mean age of dengue infection patients was 35.71 ±12.9 (SD years, with male to female ratio nearly equal. Hepatic dysfunction is very common in all forms of dengue infection, with AST rising significantly more than ALT. Serum aminotransferase levels appear to have a directly proportional correlation with grading of dengue infection. Hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and deranged coagulation profile were seen in higher frequency in DHF and DSS group as compared to classical DF group. AST and ALT were significantly higher in patients with secondary infection (IgM & IgG positive as compared to primary infection (IgM positive. CONCLUSION: Serum aminotransferase levels are significantly raised in all forms of dengue infection and it directly correlates with severity of infection. Serum

  19. Design and Mechanism of Tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA Aminotransferase Inactivators

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hoang V.; Hawker, Dustin D.; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GA...

  20. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

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    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  1. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from α-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional 1H–13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  2. Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase Detection on Paper-Based Analytical Devices with Inkjet Printer-Sprayed Reagents

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    Hsiang-Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General biochemistry detection on paper-based microanalytical devices (PADs uses pipette titration. However, such an approach is extremely time-consuming for large-scale detection processes. Furthermore, while automated methods are available for increasing the efficiency of large-scale PAD production, the related equipment is very expensive. Accordingly, this study proposes a low-cost method for PAD manufacture, in which the reagent is applied using a modified inkjet printer. The optimal reaction times for the detection of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT are shown to be 6 and 7 min, respectively, given AST and ALT concentrations in the range of 5.4 to 91.2 U/L (R2 = 0.9932 and 5.38 to 86.1 U/L (R2 = 0.9944. The experimental results obtained using the proposed PADs for the concentration detection of AST and ALT in real human blood serum samples are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a traditional spectrophotometric detection method by National Cheng Kung University hospital.

  3. Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase

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    Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

  4. Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

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    Kawamoto Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how liver markers are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 587 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20–89 years and 755 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21–88 years. The study sample consisted of 998 (74.4% non-obese [body mass index (BMI 2] and 344 (25.6% overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5, and HOMA-IR and potential confounders were compared between the groups. Areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was alanine aminotransferase (ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.63-0.77. In overweight subjects, AUC values for the ALT/AST ratio and ALT were 0.66 (0.59-0.72 and 0.66 (0.59-0.72, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses for HOMA-IR showed that ALT/AST ratios were independently and significantly associated with HOMA-IR as well as other confounding factors in both non-obese and overweight subjects. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: ALT/AST ratio of ≥0.82 in non-obese subjects and ≥1.02 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for ALT/AST ratio. Conclusions In non-obese Japanese adults, ALT/AST ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  5. Comparative aspects of aminotransferases in the rat, pigeon and rainbow trout.

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    Cornish, E C; Cussen, C M; Hird, F J; Todd, P E

    1978-01-01

    1. The activities of aminotransferases catalysing the transfer of amino groups from aspartate, alanine and leucine to 2-oxoglutarate in different tissues of the rat, pigeon and trout have been determined. 2. Alanine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase was high in the liver of the rat and trout and low in that of the pigeon. 3. Aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase was usually the dominant aminotransferase in all tissues and was highest in oxidative tissues where the TCA cycle is active. Its activity in the various livers is not correlated with the function of aspartate in nitrogen excretion. 4. The activity of aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in oxidative tissues argues that aspartate in conjunction with this enzyme serves as a buffer of oxaloacetate to keep the TCA cycle running and/or to mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents across mitochondrial membranes. PMID:318383

  6. Aminotransferase changes and acute hepatitis in patients with dengue fever: analysis of 1,585 cases

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    Luiz José de Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Type 3 dengue virus caused an extensive epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro in summer 2002. In some of the patients, it was found in an atypical form with increased aminotransferase levels and acute hepatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis was made of 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases at the Dengue Reference Center in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state. The grade of hepatic aggression was established according to the alterations in the aminotransferase levels: grade A - normal levels of aminotransferase; grade B - elevated aminotransferase, with increased levels of at least one of the enzymes; grade C - elevated aminotransferase, with the levels of at least one of the enzymes increased to more than three times the reference values; grade D - acute hepatitis, with aminotransferase levels increased to at least 10 times their normal values. RESULTS: Among the 1,585 serologically confirmed dengue cases, 44.5% presented alterations in the aminotransferase levels (grade B, 16.9% presented grade C liver involvement and 3.8% of the patients had progressed to acute hepatitis (grade D. The average values for the rise in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were 93.3 U/L and 86.0 U/L. The greatest alterations were observed among females (p<0.001, cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (p<0.001, and cases with sequential infections (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Liver damage with elevation of aminotransferases and reactive hepatitis was a common complication of dengue virus infection in these patients.

  7. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

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    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  8. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  9. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  10. Normal serum alanine aminotransferase activity in uncomplicated obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Iacobellis; Antonio Moschetta; Maria Cristina Ribaudo; Alessandra Zappaterreno; Concetta Valeria Iannucci; Frida Leonetti

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)activity in a well-characterized group of uncomplicated obese subjects and its correlation with insulin resistance,plasma adiponectin, and leptin concentrations.METHODS: One hundred and five uncomplicatedobese subjects (87 women, 18 men, age 34.3±9.6 years,BMI 39.9±8.3 kg/m2)were studied. Serum ALT activity was evaluated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M index) and fasting insulin. Plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were also measured.RESULTS: Serum ALT concentration in the whole group of uncomplicated obese subjects was 17.73±6.33 U/L with none of the subjects presenting ALT levels greater than 43 U/L and only 9 (11%) women and 3 (19%) men showed ALT levels >19 and >30 U/L for women and men,respectively. No significant difference was detected in serum ALT levels between severe obese subjects (BMI >40 kg/m2) and those with BMI <40 kg/m2 (18.63±6.25 vs 17.26±6.02 U/L). ALT was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.485, P = 0.02) and triglycerides (r= 0.358, P= 0.03).CONCLUSION: Serum ALT activity is practically normal in uncomplicated obese subjects, independently of their obesity degree. These findings suggest the role of obesityrelated comorbidities and not of BMI as main risk factors for elevated ALT levels in obese subjects.

  11. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  12. The investigation of the alanin-aminotransferase and aspartat-aminotransferase activity in the white rats organs on the total γ-irradiation and the physical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe investigations of enzyme activity such as aspartat aminotransferase (AST, KE 2.6.1.1.) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, KE 2.6.1.2.) playing an important role in proteins metabolism were carried out in cell fraction of rat liver, miocard and sceleton muscle after the influence of ionizing radiation (6 Gy) and the maximum physical loading. It was shown that physical loading furthered the increases of ALT-activity in all fractions except liver cytosol. And it was noted a strongly pronounced tendency of AST-activity to lowering, except muscle cell fractions. It was shown that the physical tiredness made worse penetrated radiation action on the investigated anzymes

  13. AMINOTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN THE LIVER OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS UNDER VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dragan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of the use of indirect (express- method for the detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of trout by investigating aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in fish liver, as the most sensitive enzymes for the diagnostics of many pathological conditions of human and animal organisms associated with liver diseases. Methodology. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in trout liver was performed by Reitman-Frankel method. The functional status of liver was also evaluated using De Ritis coefficient (AST/ALT ratio, which serves as an integral index of the changes related to the degree of the damage of this organ. Findings. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss found out a considerable increase in the activity of these enzymes under the effect of the virus of infectious pancreatic necrosis. It is set that direction of aspartate aminotransferase reactions in the conditions of viral infection takes place mainly in the side of formation of keto-acids, providing the synthesis of glucose which is needed above all things for energetic supply of synthetic processes. The increase of activity of AsAT plays an important role in synchronization of energetic and nitrous exchange which is carried out at the level of mitochondrias. Increase of DeRitisa (DRr coefficient in the conditions of our experiment characteristic for viral hepatitis and can specify on activating of synthesis of glucose which is needed for support of adequate level in the conditions of viral intoxication and determines the orientation of metabolic streams toward predominance of catabolytic reactions. According to the results of the performed tests, the most informative was the test of the determination of alanine aminotransferase activity. Originality. Evaluation of the effect of

  14. Structural studies of the catalytic reaction pathway of a hyperthermophilic histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, F.J. (Francisco J.); Vega, M C; Lehmann, F; Sandmeier, E; Gehring, H; Christen, P; Wilmanns, M.

    2004-01-01

    In histidine biosynthesis, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group from glutamate to imidazole acetol-phosphate producing 2-oxoglutarate and histidinol phosphate. In some organisms such as the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima, specific tyrosine and aromatic amino acid transaminases have not been identified to date, suggesting an additional role for histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase in other transamination reactions generating aromatic amino acid...

  15. Association of Alanine Aminotransferase and Periodontitis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis—NHANES 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    R. Constance Wiener; Usha Sambamoorthi; Jurevic, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme associated with not only liver diseases, liver conditions, and metabolic syndrome, but also inflammation. Periodontitis is associated with increased cytokines and other markers of inflammation. The purpose of this study is to determine if an independent association between Alanine Aminotransferase and periodontitis exists. Methods. Data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) were combined. Data concernin...

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectiona...

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF ALANIN-AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a comparative study on the activity of one aminotransferase - alaninaminotransferase, in the digestive tube of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp and Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp. The enzymatic activity has been determined colorimetrically, with 2, 4 - dinitrophenyl hydrazine, the results obtained being expressed as UE / g / min. It was observed that, comparatively with the alanin-aminotransferase activity recorded in silver carp, in the case of bighead carp, the values recorded are much lower.

  18. Involvement of a Branched-Chain Aminotransferase in Production of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat Bondar, Daniela; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of l-methionine and the subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are essential for the development of the typical flavor in cheese. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the degradation of l-methionine was accompanied by the formation of the transamination product 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid. A branched-chain aminotransferase gene (YlBCA1) of Y. lipolytica was amplified, and the l-methionine-degrading activity and the aminotransferase activity were mea...

  19. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT≥1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reactio...

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  1. Properties of serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Kendziorek; Andrzej Paszkowski

    2008-01-01

    The photorespiratory enzyme L-serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT; EC 2.6.1.45) was purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The final enzyme was approximately 80% pure as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. The identity of the enzyme was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis.The molecular mass estimated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150 under non-denaturing conditions, mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization/time of flight technique) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 82.4 kDa,42.0 kDa, and 39.8 kDa, respectively, indicating dimer as the active form. The optimum Ph value was 9.2. The enzyme activity was inhibited by aminooxyacetate and β-chloro-L-alanine both compounds reacting with the carbonyl group of pyridoxal phosphate. The enzyme's transaminating activity with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates was approximately 55% of that observed with L-serine and glyoxylate, The lower Km value (1.25 Mm) for L-alanine, compared with that of other plant SGATs, and the kcat/Km(Ala) ratio being approximately 2-fold higher than kcat/Km(Ser) suggested that, during photorespiration, Ala and Ser are used by Arabidopsis SGAT with equal efficiency as amino group donors for glyoxylate. The equilibrium constant (Keq), derived from the Haldane relation, for the transamination reaction between L-serine and glyoxylate with the formation of hydroxypyruvate and glycine was 79.1, strongly favoring glycine synthesis. However, it was accompanied by a low Km value of 2.83 Mm for glycine. A comparison of some kinetic properties of the studied enzymes with the recombinant Arabidopsis SGATs previously obtained revealed substantial differences. The ratio of the velocity of the transamination reaction with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates versus that with L-serine and glyoxylate was 1:1.8 for the native enzyme, whereas it was 1: 7 for the recombinant SGAT

  2. The impact of dengue on liver function as evaluated by aminotransferase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dengue virus infection on liver function by measuring aminotransferase in blood samples from patients serologically diagnosed by according to two MAC-ELISA protocols. Degrees of liver damage were classified according to aminotransferase levels: grade A - normal enzyme levels; grade B - increased levels of at least one of the enzymes; grade C - increased, with at least one of the enzymes being at levels higher than three times the upper reference values; grade D - acute hepatitis, with aminotransferase levels at least ten times their normal values. Of the 169 serologically confirmed cases of dengue at the dengue referral center in Campos dos Goytacazes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 65.1% had abnormal aminotransferase levels: 81 cases being classified as grade B, 25 as grade C and 3 as grade D. A further 34.9% of cases had normal enzyme levels and were classified as grade A. Liver damage is a common complication of dengue infection and aminotransferase levels are a valuable marker for monitoring these cases.

  3. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase ...

  4. Subcellular localization of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase C4 in rat and mouse spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montamat, E E; Vermouth, N T; Blanco, A

    1988-11-01

    Spermatozoa isolated from rat and mouse epididymes show a relatively high branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (leucine aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.6) activity. There is a significant reduction of leucine aminotransferase and of the isoenzyme C4 of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) in the gametes during their epididymal transit. Studies of patterns of liberation of the leucine aminotransferase and of the lactate dehydrogenase C4 from intact spermatozoa, treated with increasing concentrations of digitonin, indicate that both enzymes have the same dual subcellular location, i.e. in the cytosol and in the mitochondria. PMID:3214422

  5. Effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of white pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Tang, Jing; Wen, Zhiguo; Huang, Wei; Hou, Shuisheng

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 28 d of age. At 28 d of age, the weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and the aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and homocysteine in plasma of ducks from each pen were all measured. In our study, the pyridoxine deficiency of ducks was characterized by growth depression, decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. The ducks fed vitamin B6-deficient basal diets had the worst weight gain and feed/gain among all birds and this growth depression was alleviated (pPekin ducks from hatch to 28 days of age was 2.44 mg/kg for feed/gain and 2.08 mg/kg for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and the corresponding total requirements of this vitamin for these two criteria were 4.37 and 4.01 mg/kg when the pyridoxine concentration of basal diets was included, respectively. All data suggested that pyridoxine deficiency could cause growth retardation in ducks and the deficiency of this vitamin could be indicated by decreasing plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and increasing plasma homocysteine. PMID:25358368

  6. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  7. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  8. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  9. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  10. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean (Chanhassen, MN); Liao, Hans H. (Eden Prairie, MN); Gort, Steven John (Apple Valley, MN); Selifonova, Olga V. (Plymouth, MN)

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  11. Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase-2 Metabolizes Endogenous Methylarginines, Regulates NO, and Controls Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplin, Ben; Wang, Zhen; Slaviero, Anna; Tomlinson, James; Dowsett, Laura; Delahaye, Mathew; Salama, Alan; Wheeler, David C.; Leiper, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-Asymmetric dimethylarginine is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis that may mediate cardiovascular disease. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 (AGXT2) has been proposed to degrade asymmetric dimethylarginine. We investigated the significance of AGXT2 in methylarginine metabolism in

  12. Induction of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA by glucocorticoids and cAMP in fetal rat liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Bravo, N; Ernest, M J

    1982-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.5) enzyme and mRNA activity were not detectable in day 20 fetal rat liver. Precocious induction of catalytic activity by in utero injection of dibutyryl cAMP was a direct consequence of the de novo appearance of translatable tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. In contrast, in utero injection of hydrocortisone acetate failed to elicit fetal liver enzyme activity. This failure was due to the inability of the steroid hor...

  13. Ontogenic changes of kynurenine aminotransferase I activity and its expression in the chicken retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejdak, Robert; Zielinska, Elzbieta; Shenk, Yana; Turski, Waldemar A; Okuno, Etsuo; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Zagorski, Zbigniew; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kohler, Konrad

    2003-06-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferases are key enzymes for the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist. The study described here examined ontogenic changes of kynurenine aminotransferase I (KAT I) activity and its expression in the chicken retina. KAT I activity measured on embryonic day 16 (E16) was significantly higher than at all other stages (E12, P0 and P7). Double labeling with antibodies against glutamine synthetase showed that on P7 KAT I was expressed in Müller cell endfeet and their processes in the inner retina. Since KAT I activity is high in the late embryonic stages, it is conceivable that it plays a neuromodulatory role in the retina during the late phase of embryogenesis. PMID:12782065

  14. CPP-115, a Potent γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inactivator for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R.; Kvist, Trine; Wellendorph, Petrine; Madsen, Karsten K.; Pera, Elena; Lee, Hyunbeom; Schousboe, Arne; Chebib, Mary; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Craft, Cheryl M.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen L; Miller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibi...

  15. Directed evolution relieves product inhibition and confers in vivo function to a rationally designed tyrosine aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Steven C.; Voorhies, Mark; Kirsch, Jack F.

    2004-01-01

    The Escherichia coli aspartate (AATase) and tyrosine (TATase) aminotransferases share 43% sequence identity and 72% similarity, but AATase has only 0.08% and 0.01% of the TATase activities (kcat/Km) for tyrosine and phenylalanine, respectively. Approximately 5% of TATase activity was introduced into the AATase framework earlier both by rational design (six mutations, termed HEX) and by directed evolution (9–17 mutations). The enzymes realized from the latter procedure complement tyrosine auxo...

  16. Photorespiration mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, C. R.; Ogren, W L

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Linnaeus) Heynhold were isolated that are completely lacking in activity catalyzed by serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.45), a peroxisomal enzyme involved in photorespiratory carbon metabolism. These mutants were viable and exhibited normal photosynthesis under conditions that suppressed photorespiration, but they were inviable and photosynthesized at greatly reduced rates under conditions that promoted photorespiration. Serine an...

  17. Expression, detection of candidate function and homology modeling for Vicia villosa ornithine δ-aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed M K; Abd-Elhalim, Haytham M; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Abou-Ali, Rania M I; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of compatible solutes during stress in plant cell is well documented. Proline is one of these solutes which accumulate in the cytosol in response to drought or salinity stress in plants. Proline has several functions during stress just like osmotic adjustment, osmoprotection, free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Ornithine δ-aminotransferase (δ-OAT) is an important enzyme in proline biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the transamination of ornithine to pyrroline-5-carboxylate which can be reduced into proline. Expression of ornithine δ-aminotransferase gene isolated from Vicia villosa (VvOAT) showed protein with a molecular mass of 63 KDa which is compatible with the predicted mass and after VvOAT gene delivery into E. coli host HB101, VvOAT gene enhanced its salt tolerance. Homology modeling of VvOAT was performed based on the crystal structure of the ornithine δ-aminotransferase from humans (PDB code 2OATA). With this model, a flexible docking study with the substrate and inhibitors was performed. The results indicated that PHE170 and ASN171 in VvOAT are the important determinant residues in binding as they have strong hydrogen bonding contacts with the substrate and inhibitors. All the obtained results indicated the efficiency of utilizing this gene in conferring salt tolerance. PMID:21844680

  18. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase as markers of alcohol consumption in out-patient alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Andersen, I; Dietrichson, O;

    1981-01-01

    Serum activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 316 patients attending an out-patients clinic for treatment of alcoholism. The activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase was raised in 34% and that of aspartate aminotransferase and...... alkaline phosphatase in 18% and 7%. Neither the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase nor alkaline phosphatase showed any significant (P greater than 0.05) correlation with the history of alcohol consumption. The activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase and aspartate...... aminotransferase were raised significantly more often in patients with recent alcohol consumption than in patients who had abstained for more than 9 days. The concentration of alkaline phosphatase was not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different in these groups. The predictive value of raised and normal...

  19. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...... variation as well as fetal and early life exposure, whether environmental or genetic. Methods: We studied the associations of ALT and GGT with all-cause mortality using data for 686 twins (73-94 years old) included in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Results: An increase in 1 logged U/L of GGT...... population was treated as individuals, with similarities between twins accounted for by using robust standard errors. However, an intrapair analysis in which the proportion of twin pairs in which the twin with the higher level of ALT or GGT died first was compared with 50% (expected under the null hypothesis...

  20. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the course of aminotransferase elevation during prolonged acetaminophen administration

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, Kennon; Green, Jody L; Anderson, Victoria; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in subjects administered 4 g/day of acetaminophen for at least 16 days. Methods A randomized, placebo controlled trial of acetaminophen (4 g/day) vs placebo. Subjects were healthy volunteers with normal liver enzymes. The primary outcome was the course of...

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Aromatic Substrates and Competitive Inhibitors of GABA Aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Michael D.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inhibitors and inactivators can lead to the discovery of new GABA-related therapeutics. To this end, a series of aromatic amino acid compounds was synthesized to aid in the design of new inhibitors and inactivators of GABA-AT. All compounds were tested as competitive inhibitors of GABA-AT. The amino acids with benzylic amines were also tested as substrates for GABA-AT. It was found that these compoun...

  2. Characterization of the different spectral forms of glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, S; Andersen, Jens S.; Kannangara, C G;

    1995-01-01

    Glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase produces delta-aminolevulinate for the synthesis of chlorophyll, heme, and other tetrapyrrole pigments. The native enzyme from Synechococcus is pale yellow and has absorption maxima at 338 and 418 nm from vitamin B6. Yellow, colorless, and pink forms of the...... cofactor dissociated from the protein and gave a molecular weight of 46,401-46,418. Acetylenic GABA and NaBH4 were used for protein modification, and they reacted with the native and yellow enzymes but had no effect on the colorless enzyme. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate bound covalently to the protein after NaBH4...

  3. Propylthiouracyl-induced severe liver toxicity: An indication for alanine aminotransferase monitoring?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Benyounes; C Sempoux; C Daumerie; J Rahier; AP Geubel

    2006-01-01

    Propylthiouracyl (PTU)-related liver toxicity is likely to occur in about 1% of treated patients. In case of acute or subacute hepatitis, liver failure may occur in about one third. We report two further cases of PTU-induced subacute hepatitis, in whom the delay between occurrence of liver damage after the initiation of treatment, the underestimation of its severity and the delayed withdrawal of the drug were all likely responsible for liver failure.The high incidence of liver toxicity related to PTU, its potential severity and delayed occurrence after initiation of treatment are in favor of monthly alanine aminotransferase monitoring, at least during the first six months of therapy.

  4. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A.; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to t...

  5. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Aminotransferase CrmG in Caerulomycin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiguang; Xu, Jinxin; Mei, Xiangui; Feng, Zhan; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhu, Weiming; Liu, Jinsong; Zhang, Changsheng

    2016-04-15

    Caerulomycin A (CRM A 1) belongs to a family of natural products containing a 2,2'-bipyridyl ring core structure and is currently under development as a potent novel immunosuppressive agent. Herein, we report the functional characterization, kinetic analysis, substrate specificity, and structure insights of an aminotransferase CrmG in 1 biosynthesis. The aminotransferase CrmG was confirmed to catalyze a key transamination reaction to convert an aldehyde group to an amino group in the 1 biosynthetic pathway, preferring l-glutamate and l-glutamine as the amino donor substrates. The crystal structures of CrmG in complex with the cofactor 5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) or 5'-pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) or the acceptor substrate were determined to adopt a canonical fold-type I of PLP-dependent enzymes with a unique small additional domain. The structure guided site-directed mutagenesis identified key amino acid residues for substrate binding and catalytic activities, thus providing insights into the transamination mechanism of CrmG. PMID:26714051

  6. Prodynorphine opioid peptides and aspartate aminotransferase studied in spinal cord and sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An objective of this research was to obtain evidence for the synthesis and release of newly discovered opioid peptides, such as dynorphin, in spinal cord and sensory neurons. Several specific antisera were used to visualize dynorphin and related peptides in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in dissociated cell culture. Antisera specific for the midportion of the dynorphin molecule revealed a subpopulation of spinal cord neurons with dense immunoreactive dynorphin in cell perikarya, but none in their associated neurites. Antisera specific for either the amino or carboxy terminal sequences of the molecule produced intense immunoreactivity in both cell perikarya and neurites of spinal neurons. These data suggest the cleavage products of dynorphin and not the complete molecule are possible neurotransmitters in the spinal cord. Additional evidence in support of this hypothesis was derived from radioimmunoassays of these cells and their culture medium following depolarization induced by elevated extracellular potassium. Antisera against aspartate aminotransferase revealed no differentially elevated immunoreactive aspartate aminotransferase in tissue sections of spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of human kynurenine aminotransferase 2 exploiting a highly optimized codon set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanchen; Nematollahi, Alireza; Nadvi, Naveed A; Kwan, Ann H; Jeffries, Cy M; Church, W Bret

    2016-05-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyses kynurenine (KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive product in the tryptophan metabolic pathway. Evidence suggests that abnormal levels of KYNA are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Reducing KYNA production through inhibiting kynurenine aminotransferase 2 (KAT2) would be a promising approach to understanding and treating the related neurological and mental disorders. In this study we used an optimized codon sequence to overexpress histidine-tagged human KAT2 (hKAT2) using an Escherichia coli expression system. After a single step of Ni-NTA based purification the purified protein (>95%) was confirmed to be active by an HPLC based activity assay and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. The crystal system represents a novel space group, and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.83 Å resolution, and higher resolution data than for any reported native human KAT2 structure. The optimised method of protein production provides a fast and reliable technique to generate large quantities of active human KAT2 suitable for future small-molecule lead compound screening and structural design work. PMID:26773745

  8. Isolation and characterization of cytosolic alanine aminotransferase isoforms from starved rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedavathi, M; Girish, K S; Kumar, M Karuna

    2004-12-01

    Alanine is the most effective precursor for gluconeogenesis among amino acids and the initial reaction is catalyzed by alanine aminotransferases (AlaATs). It is a less extensively studied enzyme under starvation and known to that the enzyme activity increases in liver under starvation. The present study describes the purification and characterization of two isoforms of alanine aminotransferases from starved male rat liver under starvation. The molecular mass of isoforms was found to be 17.7 and 112.2 kDa with isoelectric points of 4.2 and 5.3 respectively for AlaAT I and AlaAT II. Both the enzymes showed narrow substrate specificity for L-alanine with different Km for alanine and 2-oxoglutarate. Both the enzymes were glycoprotein in nature. Inhibition, modification and spectroscopic studies showed that both PLP and free-SH groups are directly involved in the enzymatic catalysis. PLP activated both the enzymes with a Km 0.057 mM and 0.2 mM for AlaAT I and II respectively. PMID:15663181

  9. A better parameter in predicting insulin resistance: Obesity plus elevated alanine aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Hao Chen; Jong-Dar Chen; Yu-Cheng Lin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of obesity and elevated alanine aminotransferase with insulin resistance and compare these factors with metabolic syndrome.METHODS: We enrolled a total of 1308 male workers aged from 22 to 63 years. Data was extracted from the workers’ periodic health check-ups in hospitals. All cases were from the community of northern Taiwan.This was a cross-sectional observational study from July to September in 2004. We grouped all cases into four groups, based on the quartile of homeostasis model assessment. The top fourth quartile group was defined as the group with insulin resistance. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for the odds ratio of the risk factors for insulin resistance.RESULTS: Compared with metabolic syndrome, the coexistence of both factors had a 4.3-fold (95% CI: 2.7-6.8) increased risk, which was more than metabolic syndrome with a 3.6-fold (95% CI: 2.6-5.0) increased risk. The two factors had a synergistic effect. The synergistic index of obesity and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.01-4.3).CONCLUSION: Obesity and elevated ALT are associatedwith insulin resistance. The effects are synergistic.Coexistence of them is better than metabolic syndrome in predicting insulin resistance.

  10. A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Azaz, Jorge; Cánovas, Francisco M.; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids. Fernando de la Torre, Jorge El-Azaz, Concepción Ávila, Francisco M. Cánovas Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica. Universidad de Málaga. Bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferases (AAT/PAT) are plastid-located enzymes encoded by a single locus in all reported plants, which develop two different enzymatic activities: aspartate aminotransferas...

  11. Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in cucumber roots as depending upon the mineral composition of the medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransferase (GOT isoenzymes separated by means of electrophoresis on cellulose acetate gel were examined. Five GOT isoenzymes were discovered in cucumber roots after several days of their growth. The activity of these isoenzymes was dependent upon the mineral composition of the medium. If the medium did not contain nitrogen, isoenzymes 1, 3, and 4 showed only slight activity. Activity of all of the isoenzymes in the roots of seedlings assimilating NH4+ ions was higher than in the roots of seedlings assimilating N03- ions. Higher activity was observed in all of the isoemzymes in the nitrate or ammonium medium lacking calcium, while only some showed higher activity at the lack of potassium.

  12. Multiple adaptive losses of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase mitochondrial targeting in fruit-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Huihui; Yuan, Xinpu; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT) functions to detoxify glyoxylate before it is converted into harmful oxalate. In mammals, mitochondrial targeting of AGT in carnivorous species versus peroxisomal targeting in herbivores is controlled by two signal peptides that correspond to these respective organelles. Differential expression of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is considered an adaptation to diet-specific subcellular localization of glyoxylate precursors. Bats are an excellent group in which to study adaptive changes in dietary enzymes; they show unparalleled mammalian dietary diversification as well as independent origins of carnivory, frugivory, and nectarivory. We studied the AGT gene in bats and other mammals with diverse diets and found that the MTS has been lost in unrelated lineages of frugivorous bats. Conversely, species exhibiting piscivory, carnivory, insectivory, and sanguinivory possessed intact MTSs. Detected positive selection in the AGT of ancestral fruit bats further supports adaptations related to evolutionary changes in diet. PMID:22319153

  13. Activation of tyrosine aminotransferase expression in fetal liver by 5-azacytidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, R.; Perry, S.T.; Isham, K.R.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

    1983-06-15

    Rat fetuses of 20 days gestational age were treated in utero with the inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-azacytidine. The liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase, normally expressed at very low levels until several hours after birth, was increased by the drug in the fetal livers after a lag period of about 9 hours, reaching a level 70-fold above control levels 18 hours after treatment. The high levels attained after 5-azacytidine treatment are comparable to those of glucocorticoid-treated adult livers, and were not further increased by administration of hydrocortisone to dams carrying treated fetuses. Cytidine and two other analogs, cytosine arabinoside and 6-azacytidine, were essentially without effect. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. A novel low molecular weight alanine aminotransferase from fasted rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedavathi, M; Girish, K S; Kumar, M Karuna

    2006-01-01

    Alanine is the most effective precursor for gluconeogenesis among amino acids, and the initial reaction is catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). Although the enzyme activity increases during fasting, this effect has not been studied extensively. The present study describes the purification and characterization of an isoform of AlaAT from rat liver under fasting. The molecular mass of the enzyme is 17.7 kD with an isoelectric point of 4.2; glutamine is the N-terminal residue. The enzyme showed narrow substrate specificity for L-alanine with Km values for alanine of 0.51 mM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 0.12 mM. The enzyme is a glycoprotein. Spectroscopic and inhibition studies showed that pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and free -SH groups are involved in the enzymatic catalysis. PLP activated the enzyme with a Km of 0.057 mM. PMID:16487061

  15. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  16. Differential redox potential between the human cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven J. Coles; John T. Hancock; Myra E. Conway

    2012-01-01

    The human branched-chain aminotransferase (hBCAT) isoenzymes are CXXC motif redox sensitive homodimers central to glutamate metabolism in the central nervous system.These proteins respond differently to oxidation by H2O2,NO,and S-glutathionylation,suggesting that the redox potential is distinct between isoenzymes.Using various reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH:GSSG) to alter the redox environment,we demonstrate that hBCATc (cytosolic) has an overall redox potential that is 30 mV lower than hBCATm (mitochondrial).Furthermore,the CXXC motif of hBCATc was estimated to be 80 mV lower,suggesting that hBCATm is more oxidizing in nature.Western blot analysis revealed close correlations between hBCAT S-glutathionylation and the redox status of the assay environment,offering the hBCAT isoenzymes as novel biomarkers for cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  17. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and glutamine-cycling pathway: Their roles in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Sookoian; Carlos J Pirola

    2012-01-01

    Although new research technologies are constantly used to look either for genes or biomarkers in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MS),the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this complex disease remains a major challenge.Interestingly,Cheng et al recently investigated possible pathways underlying MS by high-throughput metabolite profiling in two large and well characterized community-based cohorts.The authors explored by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry the plasma concentrations of 45distinct metabolites and examined their relation to cardiometabolic risk,and observed that metabolic risk factors such as obesity,insulin resistance (IR),high blood pressure,and dyslipidemia were associated with several metabolites,including branched-chain amino acids,other hydrophobic amino acids,tryptophan breakdown products,and nucleotide metabolites.In addition,the authors found a significant association of IR traits with glutamine,glutamate and the glutamineto-glutamate ratio.These data provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MS-associated phenotypes and introduce a crucial role of glutamine-cycling pathway as prominently involved in the development of metabolic risk.We consider that the hypothesis about the role of abnormal glutamate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the MS is certainly challenging and suggests the critical role of the liver in the global metabolic modulation as glutamate metabolism is linked with aminotransferase reactions.We discuss here the critical role of the "liver metabolism" in the pathogenesis of the MS and IR,and postulate that before fatty liver develops,abnormal levels of liver enzymes,such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases might reflect high levels of hepatic transamination of amino acids in the liver.

  18. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Kasper J.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly...

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, André O.; Girón, Irma; Dobson, Renwick C. J.

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate/lysine pathway has recently been defined following the discovery of the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL). The cloning of the cDNA, recombinant expression, purification and preliminary diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga C. reinhardtii are presented.

  20. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  1. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-1–Monoinfected Adults With Elevated Aminotransferase Levels on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Caryn G.; McLaughlin, Mary; Matthews, Lindsay; Proschan, Michael; Thomas, Francine; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Orenstein, Abigail; Engle, Ronald E.; Hu, Xiaojun; Lempicki, Richard; Hadigan, Colleen; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Persistent aminotransferase elevations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those without hepatitis B or C coinfection, but their clinical significance is unknown. Methods. HIV-infected adults with aminotransferase levels elevated above the upper limit of normal for ≥6 months while receiving ART, and without chronic viral hepatitis or other known causes of chronic liver disease, underwent a detailed metabolic assessment and liver biopsy. Results. Sixty-two HIV-infected subjects completed the study. Forty (65%) had clinically significant liver pathology, including 34 (55%) with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 11 (18%) with bridging fibrosis, 10 of whom also had NASH. Nonspecific abnormalities alone were seen in 22 (35%) subjects, including mild steatosis, mild to moderate inflammation, and evidence of drug adaptation. Insulin resistance, obesity, and the presence of either of 2 minor alleles in the PNPLA3 gene were significantly associated with increased risk of NASH and fibrosis. NASH and/or fibrosis were not associated with duration of HIV infection or ART, specific antiretroviral drugs, history of opportunistic infection, immune status, or duration of aminotransferase elevation. Conclusions. HIV-infected adults with chronic aminotransferase elevations while receiving ART have a high rate of liver disease. Noninvasive testing can help identify liver disease in such patients, but liver biopsy is necessary to definitively identify those at risk for liver disease progression and complications. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will better characterize the natural history of aminotransferase elevations in this population and identify noninvasive biomarkers of liver disease progression. PMID:25681381

  2. Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity after Gargling with Green Tea and Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Suryanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment are susceptible to dental plaque accumulation. Plaque can cause inflammation in gingiva. It could be assessed by aspartat aminotransferase (AST in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Mouth rinse could be useful to reduce dental plaque accumulation during orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate is often used as mouth rinse in dental practice. On the other hand, green tea is one of natural ingredient that can be used for mouth rinse which is assumed could reduce plaque accumulation. Objectives: To compare the effect between green tea and chlorhexidine gluconate on AST activity in GCF in patient undergoing orthodontic treatment with molar band. Methods: An experimental study was conducted included forty adult subjects. They were randomized into two groups: green tea (n=20 and chlorhexidine gluconate (n=20. AST activity was measured before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion. One way and two-ways ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed significant difference of AST levels between before, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the green tea groups (p<0.05. In contrast, there was no significant differences of AST levels between before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the chlorhexidine gluconate groups (p=0.049. There were no difference between each groups with two way ANOVA (p<0.05. Conclusions: Gargle effect of green tea was as effective as chlorhexidine gluconate in reducing AST levels related to banded first molars in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment.

  3. Histological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Persistently Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakht Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT are generally described to have mild liver disease. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and histological features in HCV-infected patients with PNALT and elevated ALT. Patients presenting to the University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, who had biopsy proven HCV, an ALT measurement at the time of liver biopsy, at least one additional ALT measurement over the next 12 months, and liver biopsy slides available for review were identified. PNALT was defined as ALT ≤ 30 on at least 2 different occasions over 12 months. Of 1200 patients with HCV, 243 met the study criteria. 13% (32/243 of patients had PNALT while 87% (211/243 had elevated ALT. Significantly more patients with PNALT had advanced fibrosis (F3 and F4 compared to those with elevated ALT (P=0.007. There was no significant difference in the histology activity index score as well as mean inflammatory score between the two groups. In conclusion, in a well-characterized cohort of patients at a tertiary medical center, PNALT did not distinguish patients with mild liver disease.

  4. Associations of functional alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 gene variants with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Ilkka; Kleber, Marcus E; Bevan, Steve; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Oksala, Niku; Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Dichgans, Martin; Mononen, Nina; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Sinisalo, Juha; Delgado, Graciela E; Laaksonen, Reijo; Koskinen, Tuomas; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kähönen, Mika; Markus, Hugh S; März, Winfried; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) impair nitric oxide bioavailability and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) is the only enzyme capable of metabolizing both of the dimethylarginines. We hypothesized that two functional AGXT2 missense variants (rs37369, V140I; rs16899974, V498L) are associated with AF and its cardioembolic complications. Association analyses were conducted using 1,834 individulas with AF and 7,159 unaffected individuals from two coronary angiography cohorts and a cohort comprising patients undergoing clinical exercise testing. In coronary angiography patients without structural heart disease, the minor A allele of rs16899974 was associated with any AF (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.59-2.68), and with paroxysmal AF (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.74) and chronic AF (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.06) separately. We could not replicate the association with AF in the other two cohorts. However, the A allele of rs16899974 was nominally associated with ischemic stroke risk in the meta-analysis of WTCCC2 ischemic stroke cohorts (3,548 cases, 5,972 controls) and with earlier onset of first-ever ischemic stroke (360 cases) in the cohort of clinical exercise test patients. In conclusion, AGXT2 variations may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF and its age-related thromboembolic complications. PMID:26984639

  5. Comparison of Prothrombin Time and Aspartate Aminotransferase in Predicting Hepatotoxicity After Acetaminophen Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; O'Connor, Ayrn D; Padilla-Jones, Angela; Gerkin, Richard D

    2016-03-01

    Despite decades of experience with acetaminophen (APAP) overdoses, it remains unclear whether elevated hepatic transaminases or coagulopathy develop first. Furthermore, comparison of the predictive value of these two variables in determining hepatic toxicity following APAP overdoses has been poorly elucidated. The primary objective of this study is to determine the test characteristics of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the prothrombin time (PT) in patients with APAP toxicity. A retrospective chart review of APAP overdoses treated with IV N-acetylcysteine at a tertiary care referral center was performed. Of the 304 subjects included in the study, 246 with an initial AST less than 1000 were analyzed to determine predictors of hepatic injury, defined as an AST exceeding 1000 IU/L. The initial AST >50 was 79.5 % sensitive and 82.6 % specific for predicting hepatic injury. The corresponding negative and positive predictive values were 95.5 and 46.3 %, respectively. In contrast, an initial abnormal PT had a sensitivity of 82.1 % and a specificity of 63.6 %. The negative and positive predictive values for initial PT were 94.9 and 30.2 %, respectively. Although the two tests performed similarly for predicting a composite endpoint of death or liver transplant, neither was a useful predictor. Initial AST performed better than the initial PT for predicting hepatic injury in this series of patients with APAP overdose. PMID:26341088

  6. CPP-115, a Potent γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inactivator for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R.; Kvist, Trine; Wellendorph, Petrine; Madsen, Karsten K.; Pera, Elena; Lee, Hyunbeom; Schousboe, Arne; Chebib, Mary; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Craft, Cheryl M.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Miller, Steven R.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens at 1/300–1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20–40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, CPP-115 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction with a significantly reduced risk of visual field defects. PMID:22128851

  7. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  8. Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase is essential for Arginine Catabolism but not for Proline Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadelhofer Bettina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many other plant species, Arabidopsis uses arginine (Arg as a storage and transport form of nitrogen, and proline (Pro as a compatible solute in the defence against abiotic stresses causing water deprivation. Arg catabolism produces ornithine (Orn inside mitochondria, which was discussed controversially as a precursor for Pro biosynthesis, alternative to glutamate (Glu. Results We show here that ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (δOAT, At5g46180, the enzyme converting Orn to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C, is localised in mitochondria and is essential for Arg catabolism. Wildtype plants could readily catabolise supplied Arg and Orn and were able to use these amino acids as the only nitrogen source. Deletion mutants of δOAT, however, accumulated urea cycle intermediates when fed with Arg or Orn and were not able to utilize nitrogen provided as Arg or Orn. Utilisation of urea and stress induced Pro accumulation were not affected in T-DNA insertion mutants with a complete loss of δOAT expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate that δOAT feeds P5C exclusively into the catabolic branch of Pro metabolism, which yields Glu as an end product. Conversion of Orn to Glu is an essential route for recovery of nitrogen stored or transported as Arg. Pro biosynthesis occurs predominantly or exclusively via the Glu pathway in Arabidopsis and does not depend on Glu produced by Arg and Orn catabolism.

  9. Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase is essential for Arginine Catabolism but not for Proline Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Dietmar; Stadelhofer, Bettina; Koch, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background Like many other plant species, Arabidopsis uses arginine (Arg) as a storage and transport form of nitrogen, and proline (Pro) as a compatible solute in the defence against abiotic stresses causing water deprivation. Arg catabolism produces ornithine (Orn) inside mitochondria, which was discussed controversially as a precursor for Pro biosynthesis, alternative to glutamate (Glu). Results We show here that ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (δOAT, At5g46180), the enzyme converting Orn to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), is localised in mitochondria and is essential for Arg catabolism. Wildtype plants could readily catabolise supplied Arg and Orn and were able to use these amino acids as the only nitrogen source. Deletion mutants of δOAT, however, accumulated urea cycle intermediates when fed with Arg or Orn and were not able to utilize nitrogen provided as Arg or Orn. Utilisation of urea and stress induced Pro accumulation were not affected in T-DNA insertion mutants with a complete loss of δOAT expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate that δOAT feeds P5C exclusively into the catabolic branch of Pro metabolism, which yields Glu as an end product. Conversion of Orn to Glu is an essential route for recovery of nitrogen stored or transported as Arg. Pro biosynthesis occurs predominantly or exclusively via the Glu pathway in Arabidopsis and does not depend on Glu produced by Arg and Orn catabolism. PMID:18419821

  10. Properties of human liver cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase mRNAs generated by alternative polyadenylation site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (cAspAT) cDNA clones have been isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library. Among the clones, two cDNAs of 1,550 and 1,950 base pairs, respectively, have been characterized. These two cDNAs differ only in the lengths of their 3' noncoding regions and by the presence of one or two putative polyadenylation signals AATAAA. Northern blot analysis revealed two different mRNAs of 2.1 and 1.8 kbp in several human tissues, whereas Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a single gene for the human cAspAT. The two mRNA species result from the alternative use of two polyadenylation signals. In the liver, the relative ratio of these mRNAs varies among different species and, in humans at least, during development. The properties of the two mRNAs were compared. The half-lives of the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp mRNAs, in the HepG2 cell line, are 8 and 12 h, respectively. The two mRNAs have similar and rather short poly(A) tracts of 20-50 nucleotides. Both mRNAs are capable of directing the in vitro synthesis of the cAspAT protein. The authors conclude that both the 2.1 and 1.8 kbp cAspAT mRNAs are functional and exhibit similar properties

  11. Jasmonate is involved in the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase and tocopherol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandorf, Iris; Holländer-Czytko, Heike

    2002-11-01

    Coronatine-inducible tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), which catalyses the transamination from tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, is the first enzyme of a pathway leading via homogentisic acid to plastoquinone and tocopherols, the latter of which are known to be radical scavengers in plants. TAT can be also induced by the octadecanoids methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl-12-oxophytodienoic acid (MeOPDA), as well as by wounding, high light, UV light and the herbicide oxyfluorfen. In order to elucidate the role of octadecanoids in the process of TAT induction in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the jasmonate-deficient mutant delayed dehiscence (dde1) was used, in which the gene for 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3 is disrupted. The amount of immunodetectable TAT was low. The enzyme was still fully induced by coronatine as well as by MeJA although induction by the latter was to a lesser extent and later than in the wild type. Treatment with MeOPDA, wounding and UV light, however, had hardly any effects. Tocopherol levels that showed considerable increases in the wild type after some treatments were much less affected in the mutant. However, starting levels of tocopherol were higher in non-induced dde1 than in the wild type. We conclude that jasmonate plays an important role in the signal transduction pathway regulating TAT activity and the biosynthesis of its product tocopherol. PMID:12430028

  12. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nguyen Thanh Thuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy and Nafion® modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA, respectively. The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2 (N = 10, respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C. The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L and reasonable recoveries (70%~107% were obtained.

  13. Novel protein-protein interactions between Entamoeba histolyticad-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vibhor; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Zhang, Kam Y J; Bhakuni, Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Physical interactions between d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EhPGDH) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (EhPSAT) from an enteric human parasite Entamoeba histolytica was observed by pull-down assay, gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking, emission anisotropy, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations. The protein-protein complex had a 1:1 stochiometry with a dissociation constant of 3.453 × 10(-7) M. Ionic interactions play a significant role in complex formation and stability. Analysis of the energy minimized average simulated model of the protein complex show that the nucleotide binding domain of EhPGDH specifically interacts with EhPSAT. Denaturation studies suggest that the nucleotide binding domain (Nbd) and substrate binding domain (Sbd) of EhPGDH are independent folding/unfolding units. Thus the Nbd-EhPGDH was separately cloned over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Fluorescence anisotropy study show that the purified Nbd interacts with EhPSAT. Forward enzyme catalyzed reaction for the EhPGDH-PSAT complex showed efficient Km values for 3-phosphoglyceric acid as compared to only EhPGDH suggesting a possibility of substrate channelling in the protein complex. PMID:22386871

  14. Structural Basis for the Stereochemical Control of Amine Installation in Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengbin; Singh, Shanteri; Xu, Weijun; Helmich, Kate E; Miller, Mitchell D; Cao, Hongnan; Bingman, Craig A; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2015-09-18

    Sugar aminotransferases (SATs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes that catalyze the 5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent stereo- and regiospecific installation of an amino group from an amino acid donor (typically L-Glu or L-Gln) to a corresponding ketosugar nucleotide acceptor. Herein we report the strategic structural study of two homologous C4 SATs (Micromonospora echinospora CalS13 and Escherichia coli WecE) that utilize identical substrates but differ in their stereochemistry of aminotransfer. This study reveals for the first time a new mode of SAT sugar nucleotide binding and, in conjunction with previously reported SAT structural studies, provides the basis from which to propose a universal model for SAT stereo- and regiochemical control of amine installation. Specifically, the universal model put forth highlights catalytic divergence to derive solely from distinctions within nucleotide sugar orientation upon binding within a relatively fixed SAT active site where the available ligand bound structures of the three out of four representative C3 and C4 SAT examples provide a basis for the overall model. Importantly, this study presents a new predictive model to support SAT functional annotation, biochemical study and rational engineering. PMID:26023720

  15. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo Evangelista Santana; Paula Alessandra Di Filippo

    2008-01-01

    Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines), and G2 (50 equines with colic). Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05) than the values...

  16. Impact of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase on metabolic syndrome and its components among adult people living in Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-Peng He; Chuan Zhao; Yan Qiang; He-Rong Liu; Nan Chen; Xiu-Juan Tao; Li-Li Chen; Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. It suggests an association between an elevated serum aminotransferase level and MS. Little data show the relationship between the levels of serum aminotransferase and the incidence of MS in Ningxia, China. Methods: A total of 5415 subjects who received medical health checkups from 2007 to 2009 were enrolled in the study. The participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire. MS was defined according to the modified ATPIII criteria for Asian Americans by the American Heart Association (AHA-ATP III). Results: The prevalence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT (>40 U/L) were 7.1%and 22.2%in males, and 2.1%and 4.8%in females respectively. The prevalence of MS was 32.1%in males and 15.4%in females. The components of MS were significantly more in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the group with normal amino-transferase levels. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.90 (1.49, 2.42), 2.59 (2.01, 3.39), 1.68 (1.32, 2.15), and 1.81 (1.36, 2.42) in the adults with abdominal obesity, high serum triglycerides levels, high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. After adjustment for age, the odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated ALT were 3.08 (2.63, 3.61), 4.30 (3.64, 5.08), 1.26 (1.08, 1.48), 2.16 (1.93, 2.65) and 2.38 (1.96, 2.87) in adults with abdominal obesity, high serum tri-glycerides levels, low serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C), high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.67 (1.06, 2.63), 2.28 (1.46, 3.63), 2.59 (1.59, 4.21) and for elevated ALT 2.02 (1.50, 2.73), 2.68 (1.96, 3.65), 3.94 (2.86, 5.43) for the subjects with 1, 2, and ?3 risk factors after adjustment for age, gender, and BMI. Conclusion: The serum aminotransferase levels were

  17. An initiator codon mutation in ornithine-delta-aminotransferase causing gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, G. A.; Brody, L C; Looney, J; Steel, G.; Suchanek, M.; Dowling, C; Der Kaloustian, V; Kaiser-Kupfer, M; Valle, D

    1988-01-01

    Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GA) is an autosomal recessive chorioretinal degeneration caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT). To study the molecular basis of the mutations causing GA, we cloned and sequenced the human OAT cDNA and determined the intron-exon arrangement of the structural gene. Using the cDNA template, we synthesized antisense RNA probes and performed RNase A protection experiments with RNA from four Lebanese...

  18. The Association of Elevated Serum Alanine Aminotransferase with Metabolic Syndrome in A Military Population in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sabayan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly rising at an alarming rate through all parts of the world. Elevated serum aminotransferase was proposed as a marker for early detection of MetS. In this investigation we primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among army and secondly to explore the association between elevated serum aminotransferase and the components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 380 army personnel from a military camp in Southern Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Life style related characteristics, anthropometric features, serum aminotransferase and components of MetS, based on National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III, were measured. Statistical significant was set as p value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 35.0± 7.5 year-old and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.1%. The prevalence of the components of MetS including; central obesity, abnormal fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglycridemia and low HDL cholesterol level was 8.6%, 10.4%, 18.5%, 31%, and 45.5% respectively. MetS had significant relationship with obesity (P<0.001 and abnormal Waist Circumferance/Hip Circumference ratio (P<0.001. Twenty-six percent of subjects had ALT ≥ 41 U/L and 4.9% of them had ALT ≥ 81. Elevated serum aminotransferase had significant association with presence of MetS (P= 0.007. Conclusion: Although prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the studied army population was not high, life style modification of army members is recommended. Liver function tests should be included in routine health checkup of military personnel.

  19. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  20. Alanine Aminotransferase Is Associated with an Adverse Nocturnal Blood Glucose Profile in Individuals with Normal Glucose Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian; Mo, Yifei; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; LI Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...

  1. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of lysine ∊-aminotransferase (Rv3290c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysine ∊-aminotransferase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis shows that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. Lysine ∊-aminotransferase (LAT) is a protein involved in lysine catabolism; it belongs to the aminotransferase family of enzymes, which use pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. LAT probably plays a significant role during the persistent/latent phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as observed by its up-regulation by ∼40-fold during this stage. Crystals of recombinant LAT have been grown in 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate solution containing 0.2 M ammonium acetate and 25% PEG 4000 in the pH range 5.4–6.0. Diffraction data extending to 1.98 Å were collected at room temperature from a single crystal. Crystals are trigonal in shape and belong to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.26, b = 103.26, c = 98.22 Å. The crystals contain a monomer in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 3.1 Å3 Da−1

  2. Clinical significance of elevated serum aminotransferases levels in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hepatitis C is a common and important cause of chronic liver disease that often remains asymptomatic and most of the times discovered incidentally by routine serologic or biochemical testing. Aminotransferases (AST and ALT) reflect alterations in liver function/inflammation in liver diseases. The current study was conducted to examine the utilization and limitations of these biochemical markers in subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection. Aims and Objectives: To find out how many subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection have normal or elevated serum AST and ALT levels. Subjects and Methods: Study Design: Cross sectional. Study Duration: Seven months from November 2008 to July 2009. Study Universe: Services Hospital, Lahore. Study Population: This study included 413 subjects attending the outpatient departments of hospital with minor complaints. The random population of subjects was referred to the clinical laboratory of Services Hospital, Lahore for LFTs, HBsAg and anti-HCV screening from OPD department of the hospital. A total of 413 persons of all ages were analyzed during this study. There were 263 subjects who were sero - positive for anti-HCV (141 females, 122 males; median age 35 +- 11.34 years) and 150 in the control group (80 of them were females and 70 males with median age 32 +- 12.97 years) were sero-negative for both HBsAg and anti - HCV. Subjects Selection Criteria: In this study, only anti - HCV sero - positive subjects were included who was sero - negative for HBsAg or dual infection (both HBsAg and anti - HCV) and not on anti - viral therapy. Control group was sero - negative for both - HBsAg and anti - HCV antibodies. Data Collection: We assayed levels of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and screened blood for HBsAg and anti-HCV. ELISA technique was used for viral hepatitis markers. Results: Out of 263 subjects tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies in their blood, 90.76 % and 87.45 % had elevated AST and ALT levels (ALT = 40 U

  3. Liver fibrosis progression in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients with normal aminotransferases levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Heleno de Lima Pace

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of hepatitis C virus (HCV monoinfected patients present persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. Most of these patients have a slow progression of liver fibrosis. Studies have demonstrated the rate of liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HCV-HIV coinfected patients is faster than in patients infected only by HCV. Few studies have evaluated the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients with normal ALT levels. METHODS: HCV-HIV coinfected patients (HCV-RNA and anti-HIV positive with known time of HCV infection (intravenous drugs users were selected. Patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg positive or hepatitis C treatment before liver biopsy were excluded. Patients were considered to have a normal ALT levels if they had at least 3 normal determinations in the previous 6 months prior to liver biopsy. All patients were submitted to liver biopsy and METAVIR scale was used. RESULTS: Of 50 studied patients 40 (80% were males. All patients were treated with antiretroviral therapy. The ALT levels were normal in 13 (26% patients. HCV-HIV co-infected patients with normal ALT levels had presented means of the liver fibrosis stages (0.77±0.44 versus 1.86±1.38; p<0.001 periportal inflammatory activity (0.62±0.77 versus 2.24±1.35; p<0.001 and liver fibrosis progression rate (0.058±0.043 fibrosis unit/year versus 0.118±0.102 fibrosis unit/year significantly lower as compared to those with elevated ALT. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-HIV coinfected patients with persistently normal ALTs showed slower progression of liver fibrosis. In these patients the development of liver cirrhosis is improbable.

  4. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a target for algaecide development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick C J Dobson

    Full Text Available In some bacterial species and photosynthetic cohorts, including algae, the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL (E.C. 2.6.1.83 is involved in the anabolism of the essential amino acid L-lysine. DapL catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate (THDPA to L,L-diaminopimelate (L,L-DAP, in one step bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic reactions present in the acyl DAP pathways. Here we present an in vivo and in vitro characterization of the DapL ortholog from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-DapL. The in vivo analysis illustrated that the enzyme is able to functionally complement the E. coli dap auxotrophs and was essential for plant development in Arabidopsis. In vitro, the enzyme was able to inter-convert THDPA and L,L-DAP, showing strong substrate specificity. Cr-DapL was dimeric in both solution and when crystallized. The structure of Cr-DapL was solved in its apo form, showing an overall architecture of a α/β protein with each monomer in the dimer adopting a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase-like fold in a V-shaped conformation. The active site comprises residues from both monomers in the dimer and shows some rearrangement when compared to the apo-DapL structure from Arabidopsis. Since animals do not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for the de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine, enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive targets for the development of antibiotics, herbicides and algaecides.

  5. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

  6. Chitosan-Mediated shRNA Knockdown of Cytosolic Alanine Aminotransferase Improves Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan D; Silva-Marrero, Jonás I; Metón, Isidoro; Caballero-Solares, Albert; Viegas, Ivan; Fernández, Felipe; Miñarro, Montserrat; Fàbregas, Anna; Ticó, Josep R; Jones, John G; Baanante, Isabel V

    2016-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) catalyses a transamination reaction that links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effect of silencing cytosolic ALT (cALT) expression on the hepatic metabolism in Sparus aurata. A number of siRNA and shRNA designed to down-regulate cALT expression were validated in HEK-293 cells transfected with plasmids expressing S. aurata cALT or mitochondrial ALT (mALT) isoforms: ALT silencing significantly decreased the expression levels of S. aurata mRNA cALT1 to 62% (siRNA) and 48% (shRNA) of the values observed in control cells. The effect of cALT silencing was analysed in the liver of S. aurata 72 h after intraperitoneal injection of chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles complexed with a plasmid encoding a shRNA to down-regulate cALT expression (pCpG-si1sh1). In fish fed diets with different ratio of protein to carbohydrate and treated with chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1, cALT1 and cALT2 mRNA levels significantly decreased irrespective of the diet. Consistently, ALT activity decreased in liver of treated animals. In the liver of S. aurata treated with chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1 nanoparticles, down-regulation of cALT expression increased the activity of key enzymes in glycolysis (6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and pyruvate kinase) and protein metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase). Besides showing for the first time that administration of chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1 nanoparticles silences hepatic cALT expression in vivo, our data support that down-regulation of cALT could improve the use of dietary carbohydrates to obtain energy and spare protein catabolism. PMID:26475146

  7. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  8. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  9. Discovery of novel lysine ɛ-aminotransferase inhibitors: An intriguing potential target for latent tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parthiban Brindha; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Kakan, Shruti Singh; Saxena, Shalini; Jeankumar, Variam Ullas; Soni, Vijay; Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has remarkable ability to persist in the human host and causes latent infection in one third of the world population. Currently available tuberculosis (TB) drugs while effective in killing actively growing MTB, is largely ineffective in killing persistent or latent MTB. Lysine-ɛ aminotransferase (LAT) enzyme is reported to be highly up-regulated (41.86 times) in in vitro models of TB designed to mimic the latent stage. Hence inhibition of this MTB LAT seems attractive for developing novel drugs against latent TB. In the present study, crystal structure of the MTB LAT bound to substrate was used as a framework for structure-based design utilizing database compounds to identify novel thiazole derivative as LAT inhibitors. Thirty six compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit LAT, in vitro activity against latent MTB, in vivo activity using Mycobacterium marinum infected zebra fish and cytotoxicity as steps toward the derivation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) for lead optimization. Compound 4-methoxy-2-(pyridin-4-yl)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (24) emerged as the most promising lead with an IC50 of 1.22 ± 0.85 μM against LAT and showed 2.8 log reduction against nutrient starved MTB, with little cytotoxicity at a higher concentration (>50 μM). It also exhibited 1.5 log reduction of M. marinum load in in vivo zebra fish model at 10 mg/kg. PMID:26299907

  10. A community-based epidemiological study of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Tao-Hsin Tung; Jorn-Hon Liu; Victor Tze-Kai Chen; Ching-Heng Lin; Chung-Te Hsu; Pesus Chou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore any gender-related differences in prevalence of and condition-associated factors related to an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level amongst residents of Kinmen, Taiwan.METHODS: A total of 11 898 of a potential 20 112 regional residents aged 30 years or more completed a related questionnaire that was carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade between 1991 and 1994 inclusively, with blood samples being collected by public nurses. The overall questionnaire response rate was 59.3% (52.4% for males and 66.0% for females).RESULTS: The prevalence of an elevated serum ALT level for this sub-population was found to be 7,2%, the prevalence revealing a statistically significant decrease with increasing population age (P<0.0001). Males exhibited a greater prevalence of elevated serum ALT level than did females (9.4% vs 5.3%, P<0.0001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, in addition to male gender, a younger age, greater waist circumference,presence of type-2 diabetes and hyperuricemia were the significant factors associated with an elevated serum ALT level for both males and females. Gender-related differences as regards associated factors were also revealed. For males, obesity was significantly related to an elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.00-1.66)but this was not so for females (OR = 1.09, 95%CI:0.84-1.42). Hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.36-2.39) and hyperuricemia (OR = 1.61, 95%CI:1.03-2.52) were significantly related to elevated serum ALT levels only for females.CONCLUSION: Several gender-related differences were noted pertaining to the prevalence of and relationship between obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and elevated serum ALT level in the present study.(c)2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Ihc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Salezze Vieira; Vanessa Beijamini; Ana Carolina Melchiors

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special d...

  12. Relationship between alanine aminotransferase levels and metabolic syndrome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-wen CHEN; Li-ying CHEN; Hong-lei DAI; Jian-hua CHEN; Li-zheng FANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT)levels and metabolic syndrome (MS)in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).Methods:A total of 26527 subjects who received medical health checkup in our hospital from January 2005 to July 2007 were enrolled in the study.The diagnosis of fatty liver was based on ultrasound imaging.MS Was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ.ALT,triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c),fasting plasma glucose(FPG),height,weight,waist circumference(WC),systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure(DBP)were measured in each subject to analyze the relationship between MS and ALT activity.Results:(1)The prevalence of NAFLD in men(30.94%)was significantly higher than that in women(15.65%);(2)The incidence of MS in NAFLD(33.83%)was significantly greater than that in non-NAFLD(10.62%);(3)Of the 6470 subjects with NAFLD,in the age-adjusted partial correlation analysis,there were statistically significant correlations between the ALT levels and most metabolic risk factors in each sex(P<0.01),except that ALT levels had no correlation with HDL-c in women.Moreover,in the multiple stepwise regression analysis,SBP lost its significance,and WC,body mass index(BMI),age,DBP,TG and FPG were independently associated with ALT levels in both sexes (P<0.05).HDL-c remained significant and was independently related to ALT leveis in men;(4)ALT levels were significantly higher in subjects with MS compared to those without MS(P<0.001).Mean ALT levels increased with the number of MS cornponents in each sex (P.<0.05 for trend).Conelusion:We found a strong relationship between ALT leveIs and MS in NAFLD and revealed that the cluster of MS components might be the predictor for ALT elevations.

  13. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

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    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variant of the diaminopimelate/lysine pathway has recently been defined following the discovery of the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL). The cloning of the cDNA, recombinant expression, purification and preliminary diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga C. reinhardtii are presented. In the anabolic synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine in plants and in some bacteria, the enzyme l,l-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL; EC 2.6.1.83) catalyzes the conversion of tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDPA) to l,l-diaminopimelate, bypassing the DapD, DapC and DapE enzymatic steps in the bacterial acyl pathways. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DapL from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions containing 25%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 200 mM lithium sulfate and initially diffracted to ∼1.35 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 91.8, c = 162.9 Å. The data were processed to 1.55 Å resolution with an Rmerge of 0.081, an Rp.i.m. of 0.044, an Rr.i.m of 0.093 and a VM of 2.28 Å3 Da−1

  15. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l-1), Pb (350-700 μg·l-1) and Cu (10-20 μg·l-1) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l-1, 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l-1, 5 days) were observed significant differences (P-1. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard; Berencsi, Klara; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Stidsen, Jacob Volmer; Friborg, Søren; Brandslund, Ivan; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine...... aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women....../>21 drinks per week for women/men) (aPR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50), and in those with no regular physical activity (aPR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.93). Obesity and metabolic syndrome per se showed no association with elevated ALT when adjusted for other markers, whereas we found positive associations of ALT with...

  17. Splice-mediated insertion of an Alu sequence inactivates ornithine δ-aminotransferase: A role for Alu elements in human mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of mutations causing deficiency of ornithine δ-aminotransferase the authors found an allele whose mature mRNA has a 142-nucleotide insertion at the junction of sequences from exons 3 and 4. The insert derives from an Alu element in ornithine δ-aminotransferase intron 3 oriented in the direction opposite to transcription (an antisense Alu). A guanine → cytosine transversion creates a donor splice site in this Alu, activating a cryptic acceptor splice site at its 5' end and causing splice-mediated insertion of an Alu fragment into the mature ornithine-δ-aminotransferase mRNA. The authors note that the complement of the Alu consensus sequence has at least two cryptic acceptor sites and several potential donor sequences and predict that similar mutations will be found in other genes

  18. Enhancement of solubility in Escherichia coli and purification of an aminotransferase from Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartinger Doris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisin B1 is a cancerogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other fungi. Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 can degrade fumonisin B1, and a key enzyme in the catabolic pathway is an aminotransferase which removes the C2-amino group from hydrolyzed fumonisin B1. In order to study this aminotransferase with respect to a possible future application in enzymatic fumonisin detoxification, we attempted expression of the corresponding fumI gene in E. coli and purification of the enzyme. Since the aminotransferase initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, we compared the effects of induction level, host strain, expression temperature, solubility enhancers and a fusion partner on enzyme solubility and activity. Results When expressed from a T7 promoter at 30°C, the aminotransferase accumulated invariably in inclusion bodies in DE3 lysogens of the E. coli strains BL21, HMS174, Rosetta 2, Origami 2, or Rosetta-gami. Omission of the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction caused a reduction of expression level, but no enhancement of solubility. Likewise, protein production but not solubility correlated with the IPTG concentration in E. coli Tuner(DE3. Addition of the solubility enhancers betaine and sorbitol or the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate showed no effect. Maltose-binding protein, used as an N-terminal fusion partner, promoted solubility at 30°C or less, but not at 37°C. Low enzyme activity and subsequent aggregation in the course of purification and cleavage indicated that the soluble fusion protein contained incorrectly folded aminotransferase. Expression in E. coli ArcticExpress(DE3, which co-expresses two cold-adapted chaperonins, at 11°C finally resulted in production of appreciable amounts of active enzyme. Since His tag-mediated affinity purification from this strain was hindered by co-elution of chaperonin, two steps of chromatography with optimized imidazole concentration in the

  19. Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren M; Beck, Hans Christian; Ravn, Peter; Vrang, Astrid; Hansen, Anne Maria; Israelsen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus are widely used as aroma producers in the manufacture of dried fermented sausages. Catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by these strains contributes to aroma formation by production of methyl-branched aldehydes and carboxy acids. The...... first step in the catabolism is most likely a transamination reaction catalyzed by BCAA aminotransferases (IlvE proteins). In this study, we cloned the ilvE gene from S. carnosus by using degenerate oligonucleotides and PCR. We found that the deduced amino acid sequence was 80% identical to that of the...... corresponding enzyme in Staphylococcus aureus and that the ilvE gene was constitutively expressed as a monocistronic transcript. To study the influence of ilvE on BCAA catabolism, we constructed an ilvE deletion mutant by gene replacement. The IlvE protein from S. carnosus was shown mainly to catalyze the...

  20. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

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    Taketa,Kazuhisa

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relatively small and was seen more often in patients given blood transfusions. It was interpreted as retardation and suppression of ALT rise and as being related to the induction of interferon or to immunopotentiation. Other antihepatotoxic effects of Picibanil, due to its antioxidant activity, for example, may also account for the prevention of the early postoperative rise in ALT activity.

  1. The Discovery of in Vivo Active Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase (BCATm) Inhibitors by Hybridizing Fragment and HTS Hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie M; Ancellin, Nicolas; Beaufils, Benjamin; Bingham, Ryan P; Borthwick, Jennifer A; Boullay, Anne-Bénédicte; Boursier, Eric; Carter, Paul S; Chung, Chun-wa; Churcher, Ian; Dodic, Nerina; Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Fournier, Charlène; Francis, Peter L; Gummer, Laura A; Herry, Kenny; Hobbs, Andrew; Hobbs, Clare I; Homes, Paul; Jamieson, Craig; Nicodeme, Edwige; Pickett, Stephen D; Reid, Iain H; Simpson, Graham L; Sloan, Lisa A; Smith, Sarah E; Somers, Donald O'N; Spitzfaden, Claus; Suckling, Colin J; Valko, Klara; Washio, Yoshiaki; Young, Robert J

    2015-09-24

    The hybridization of hits, identified by complementary fragment and high throughput screens, enabled the discovery of the first series of potent inhibitors of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) based on a 2-benzylamino-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone-3-carbonitrile template. Structure-guided growth enabled rapid optimization of potency with maintenance of ligand efficiency, while the focus on physicochemical properties delivered compounds with excellent pharmacokinetic exposure that enabled a proof of concept experiment in mice. Oral administration of 2-((4-chloro-2,6-difluorobenzyl)amino)-7-oxo-5-propyl-4,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carbonitrile 61 significantly raised the circulating levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine in this acute study. PMID:26090771

  2. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  3. Significant enhancement of methionol production by co-expression of the aminotransferase gene ARO8 and the decarboxylase gene ARO10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng; Lang, Tiandan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2015-03-01

    Methionol is an important volatile sulfur flavor compound, which can be produced via the Ehrlich pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aminotransferase and decarboxylase are essential enzymes catalyzing methionol biosynthesis. In this work, two aminotransferase genes ARO8 and ARO9 and one decarboxylase gene ARO10 were introduced into S. cerevisiae S288c, respectively, via an expression vector. Over-expression of ARO8 resulted in higher aminotransferase activity than that of ARO9. And the cellular decarboxylase activity was remarkably increased by over-expression of ARO10. A co-expression vector carrying both ARO8 and ARO10 was further constructed to generate the recombinant strain S810. Shaking flask experiments showed that the methionol yield from S810 reached 1.27 g L(-1), which was increased by 51.8 and 68.8% compared to that from the wild-type strain and the control strain harboring the empty vector. The fed-batch fermentation by strain S810 produced 3.24 g L(-1) of methionol after 72 h of cultivation in a bioreactor. These results demonstrated that co-expression of ARO8 and ARO10 significantly boosted the methionol production. It is the first time that more than 3.0 g L(-1) of methionol produced by genetically engineered yeast strain was reported by co-expression of the aminotransferase and decarboxylase via the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:25743068

  4. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  5. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24–28 weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ≥7.8 mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels with GDM. Relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index were used to estimate additive interaction between high ALT and overweight/obesity for GDM. Finally, 1332 (7.7%) women had GDM. ALT levels were positively associated with GDM risk without a clear threshold. Using ALT levels obesity greatly enhanced the OR of ALT ≥22 U/L from 1.44 (1.23–1.69) to 3.46 (2.79–4.29) with significant additive interactions. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels in the first trimester even within normal range predicted GDM risk, further enhanced by overweight/obesity. PMID:27264612

  6. Structure of ALD1, a plant-specific homologue of the universal diaminopimelate aminotransferase enzyme of lysine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of AtALD1 from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana was solved at a resolution of 2.3 Å. The structural analysis supports previous biochemical evidence for differential expression and distinct functions of AtALD1 and AtDAP-AT. Diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DAP-AT) is an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway. Conversely, ALD1, a close homologue of DAP-AT in plants, uses lysine as a substrate in vitro. Both proteins require pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) for their activity. The structure of ALD1 from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtALD1) was solved at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Comparison of AtALD1 with the previously solved structure of A. thaliana DAP-AT (AtDAP-AT) revealed similar interactions with PLP despite sequence differences within the PLP-binding site. However, sequence differences between the binding site of AtDAP-AT for malate, a purported mimic of substrate binding, and the corresponding site in AtALD1 led to different interactions. This suggests that either the substrate itself, or the substrate-binding mode, differs in the two proteins, supporting the known in vitro findings

  7. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  8. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2 and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1 play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01 from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita.

  9. The relationship between seminal plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity, sperm osmotic resistance test value, and semen quality in boars

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    Jacyno Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT in seminal plasma and the values of the osmotic resistance test (ORT of acrosomal membranes and semen traits was examined on 120 young hybrid Pietrain and Duroc boars. The following semen quality traits were determined: the volume of the ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, sperm concentration and the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosome, the percentage of spermatozoa with major and minor morphological defects, ORT, and the activity of AspAT in seminal plasma. The activity of AspAT in seminal plasma was negatively correlated (p_0.01 with the spermatozoa concentration and total number per ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility and percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome, while positively with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p≤0.001 and minor (p≤0.01 morphological defects. The ORT values negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p≤0.05 and minor (p≤0.01 morphological defects, while positively (p≤0.001 with the percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome.

  10. Assessment of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in cow's milk as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, H; Mansouri-Najand, L; Molaei, M M; Kheradmand, A; Sharifan, M

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those which were classified as positive by California mastitis test (CMT) were deemed to have subclinical mastitis. All the milk samples were skimmed by centrifugation at 10 000g at 0 degrees C and were used for enzyme activities estimations. The mean activities of LDH and ALP were higher in the milk from udders with SCM than in the milk from healthy udders (p CMT results and LDH and ALP values were seen at thresholds of > 180 IU/L and > 40 IU/L respectively (kappa values 0.65 and 0.79, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the tests for identifying SCM at these thresholds was higher for ALP (96.4%) than for LDH (68.5%). In this study, LDH and ALP tests were standardized for cow's milk and results showed that only the ALP test was reliable in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. PMID:17268916

  11. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  12. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

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    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  13. Alanine Aminotransferase Is Associated with an Adverse Nocturnal Blood Glucose Profile in Individuals with Normal Glucose Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00–20∶00) and nocturnal (20∶00–06∶00) mean blood glucose (MBG) levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. Results The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation. PMID:23424646

  14. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis with combined serum aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To construct a noninvasive assessment model consisting of routine laboratory data to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 137 consecutive patients with CHB who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to their aminotransferase (ALl-) level. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), the likelihood ratio (LR) of aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥ 1.5 or 300 ng/mL could detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients. The PPV was 93.7%, the specificity was 98.9%. The APRI 300 ng/mL can detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients.

  15. Efficient, Antibiotic Marker-Free Transformation of a Dicot and a Monocot Crop with Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase Selectable Marker Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giancaspro, Angelica; Nicolia, Alessandro; Gadaleta, Agata; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-free, efficient in vitro selection in plant genetic engineering can improve risk perception and speed up pre-market scrutiny of genetically modified crops. We provide a protocol for genetic transformation of two important crops, durum wheat and alfalfa, using a bacterial and a plant-derived selectable marker gene encoding mutated, gabaculine-insensitive glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA) enzymes. These methods can potentially be applied, with minor adaptations, to many other monocot and dicot crop plants. PMID:26614283

  16. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis ...

  17. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo; Edna Ogechi Nwachuku

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotranferease (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)] of rats under this toxic insult. Male ...

  18. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the biosynthetic N-acetylornithine aminotransferases from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylornithine aminotransferases, members of the type I subgroup II family of PLP-dependent enzymes, from S. typhimurium and E. coli have been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Acetylornithine aminotransferase (AcOAT) is a type I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzing the conversion of N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde to N-acetylornithine in the presence of α-ketoglutarate, a step involved in arginine metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the biosynthetic AcOAT also catalyzes the conversion of N-succinyl-l-2-amino-6-oxopimelate to N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelate, one of the steps in lysine biosynthesis. It is closely related to ornithine aminotransferase. AcOAT was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli, overexpressed in E. coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. The enzymes crystallized in the presence of gabaculine. Crystals of E. coli AcOAT (eAcOAT) only diffracted X-rays to 3.5 Å and were twinned. The crystals of S. typhimurium AcOAT (sAcOAT) diffracted to 1.9 Å and had a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of sAcOAT was solved by the molecular-replacement method

  19. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

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    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

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    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the bat1Δ bat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  1. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  2. Association of Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine the prevalence of increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT, defined by a gender-specific cutoff value, among normal weight and overweight children; and to assess the relationship of increasing ALT levels with cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among school students, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. Based on the body mass index (BMI percentiles, a group of normal-weight was compared with a group of overweight and obese students. Gender differences were considered for increased levels of ALT, i.e. 19U/L and 30U/L for girls and boys respectively. Findings:The study participants consisted of 1172 students (56.2% girls, with a mean (SD age of 12.57 (3.3 years. Among overweight/obese students the mean triglycerides (TG and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those with increased ALT than in those with normal ALT levels. The logistic regression analysis showed that among overweight/obese boys, for each 1 unit increase in ALT, the odds ratio (OR of TG, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased significantly. After adjusting for age, these associations remained significant, and the OR of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c decreased significantly. In the model adjusting for age and BMI, the ORs of TG and HDL-c remained significant. After adjusting for age and waist circumference, HDL-c was the only parameter with significant OR. Among overweight/obese girls, in all models applied, the OR was significant for TG and total cholesterol. A significant independent association was documented for waist circumference and increase in ALT after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion:This study documented significant relationship of increased ALT levels, defined by a gender-specific cutoff point, with cardiometabolic risk factors and hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype in Iranian children and adolescents.

  3. L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL: A putative target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial compounds

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    Alexander J Triassi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP/lysine (lys anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2,771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.

  4. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

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    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  5. An evaluation on the activity level of Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase nzymes in peri-implant sulcus fluid

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    Paknegad M. Assistant Professor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The correlation between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes in gingival sulcular fluid (GCF with inflammation and periodontal attachment loss has been proved, however there are not adequate studies about dental implants. Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the presence and activity level of AST & ALP and their correlation with pocket depth (PD and bleeding of peri-implant slcular fluid (PISF, and to evaluate the possibility of using these assessments as a diagnostic index in oral implantology. Material and Methods: In this study, 41 implants as test group and 41 contralateral teeth as control group, in 21 patients were evaluated. At first visit, the general information about implants and the values of pocket probing depth (PPD, modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBl and modified plaque index (mPI were recorded. At the second visit, samples of GCF/PISF were collected. AST & ALP activity was determined spectrophotometrically and data were analyzed by "t", "Mann-Whitney" tests and Pearson Spearman correlation coefficient."nResults: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the activity of AST between two study groups (P<0.0001. The average activity of ALP in test group was more than control group but the difference was not significant. After elimination of the confounding variables, the average AST in test group was 54.6 (S£=2.3 and in control groups was 44.8 (SE=2.3 (P=0.004. The average ALP in test group (SE=2.2 and in control (SE=2.2 were 36.6 and 35.4, respectively. Values of AST and ALP were positively correlated with other clinical parameters such as PD and mSBI which was significant in test group."nConclusion: The present study suggests that PISF analysis could be considered as a proper diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of dental implant success.

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of PseC, an Aminotransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Pseudaminic Acid, an Essential Flagellar Modification in Helicobacter Pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhofen,I.; Lunin, V.; Julien, J.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.; Brisson, J.; Aubry, A.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori flagellin is heavily glycosylated with the novel sialic acid-like nonulosonate, pseudaminic acid (Pse). The glycosylation process is essential for assembly of functional flagellar filaments and consequent bacterial motility. As motility is a key virulence factor for this and other important pathogens, the Pse biosynthetic pathway offers potential for novel therapeutic targets. From recent NMR analyses, we determined that the conversion of UDP-a-D-GlcNAc to the central intermediate in the pathway, UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-AltNAc, proceeds by formation of UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-arabino-4-hexulose by the dehydratase/epimerase PseB (HP0840) followed with amino transfer by the aminotransferase, PseC (HP0366). The central role of PseC in the H. pylori Pse biosynthetic pathway prompted us to determine crystal structures of the native protein, its complexes with pyridoxal phosphate alone and in combination with the UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-{beta}-L-AltNAc product, the latter being converted to the external aldimine form in the enzyme's active site. In the binding site, the AltNAc sugar ring adopts a 4C1 chair conformation which is different from the predominant 1C4 form found in solution. The enzyme forms a homodimer where each monomer contributes to the active site, and these structures have permitted the identification of key residues involved in stabilization, and possibly catalysis, of the {beta}-L-arabino intermediate during the amino transfer reaction. The essential role of Lys183 in the catalytic event was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. This work presents for the first time a nucleotide-sugar aminotransferase co-crystallized with its natural ligand, and in conjunction with the recent functional characterization of this enzyme, will assist in elucidating the aminotransferase reaction mechanism within the Pse biosynthetic pathway.

  7. Meta-analysis of the influence of TM6SF2 E167K variant on Plasma Concentration of Aminotransferases across different Populations and Diverse Liver Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2016-01-01

    A nonsynonymous E167K (rs58542926 C/T) variant in TM6SF2 gene was recently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored the association between E167K and plasma concentrations of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases through a meta-analysis. We also estimated the strength of the effect across diverse liver phenotypes, including NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis; fourteen studies were included. We found that ALT (p = 3.2 × 10(-6), n = 94,414) and AST (p = 0007, n = 93,809) levels were significantly associated with rs58542926 in NAFLD. By contrast, rs58542926 was not associated with either ALT (p = 0.24, n = 4187) or AST (p = 0.17, n = 2678) levels in four studies on chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, the results of the pooled estimates in patients with NAFLD showed that carriers of the T allele (EK + KK), when compared with homozygous subjects for the C allele (EE genotype) have increased levels of aminotransferases; however, this increase represents -2.5 (9.8%) and 1.2 (5%) IU/L of ALT and AST respectively, which is fairly small compared with the large effect of PNPLA3- rs738409-G allele that is associated with a -28% increase in serum ALT. PMID:27278285

  8. Comparison of measurements of canine plasma creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase obtained with Spotchem SP 4430 and Vitros 250 analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumel, C; Diquélou, A; Germain, C; Palanché, F; Braun, J P

    2005-12-01

    The suitability of the Spotchem 4430 benchtop biochemistry analyzer for canine blood samples was tested for creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alkaline phosphatases and alanine aminotransferase. Results obtained from whole blood and corresponding heparin plasma were identical except for proteins which were higher in plasma (n=10). Between series imprecision (n=10) was 0.93). The slopes of the Passing-Bablock's regression ranged from 0.90 to 1.20 and intercepts were low. The mean biases were low, except for creatinine for which the results obtained by Spotchem (Jaffe reaction) were about 20 micromol/L higher than with the Vitros (enzymatic reaction). The results of this study show that the Spotchem analyzer is suitable for use in canine whole blood or plasma when small numbers of tests are to be performed and large analyzers are not available. PMID:16054888

  9. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off......-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens...... at 1/300-1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats...

  10. Structural implications of a G170R mutation of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase that is associated with peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the G170R mutant form of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution. This mutation is associated with enzyme mistargeting in the hereditary kidney-stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1. In a subset of patients with the hereditary kidney-stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is mistargeted from peroxisomes to mitochondria. This is a consequence of the combined presence of the common P11L polymorphism and a disease-specific G170R mutation. In this paper, the crystal structure of mutant human AGT containing the G170R replacement determined at a resolution of 2.6 Å is reported. The crystal structure of AGT consists of an intimate dimer in which an extended N-terminal segment of 21 amino acids from one subunit wraps as an elongated irregular coil around the outside of the crystallographic symmetry-related subunit. In addition to the N-terminal segment, the monomer structure contains a large domain of 261 amino acids and a small C-terminal domain of 110 amino acids. Comparison of the mutant AGT structure and that of wild-type normal AGT shows that the two structures are almost identical, with a backbone-atom r.m.s. deviation of 0.34 Å. However, evidence of significant local structural changes in the vicinity of the G170R mutation might be linked to the apparent decrease in protein stability

  11. Relationship Between Hepatic Steatosis and the Elevation of Aminotransferases in HBV-Infected Patients With HBe-Antigen Negativity and a Low Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Ikeda, Naoto; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Takata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2016-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been suggested to be associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negativity and a low HBV-DNA level. However, few studies have evaluated the association according to histological findings of the liver.Among a total of 198 HBV-infected patients who received a percutaneous liver biopsy, we studied the histological and laboratory findings of HBeAg-negative patients without receiving nucleoside/nucleotide analogues treatment (N = 70) in order to evaluate whether hepatic steatosis and its related metabolic disorders were associated with an elevation in ALT levels in HBeAg-negative patients.In HBeAg-negative patients with a high serum HBV-DNA level (≥2000 IU/mL), the level of HBV-DNA was the only significant factor related to ALT elevation. However, in HBeAg-negative patients with a low HBV-DNA level, the serum ferritin level, and histologically observed hepatic steatosis were significantly associated factors with ALT elevation. When we evaluated 2 metabolic variables (serum ferritin and fasting insulin) that are suggested to be relevant to the presence of progressive disease in Japanese patients, we found that the rate of metabolic disorders was significantly higher among patients with a high ALT level and a low HBV-DNA level than it was among those with other conditions. The triglyceride level and the frequency of moderate or severe hepatic steatosis were significantly higher in patients with a low HBV-DNA level than in those with a high HBV-DNA level.Histologically proven hepatic steatosis and its related metabolic disorders are suggested to be involved in the elevation of aminotransferases of HBeAg-negative patients, particularly those with low HBV-DNA levels. PMID:27124068

  12. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  13. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P < 0.001). Patients with significant fibrosis had higher levels of IL-8 (P = 0.027), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) (P = 0.011), IL-2R (P = 0.002), and CXCL-11 (P = 0.032) than the group without significant fibrosis. In addition, 31.8% and 29.1% of 151 patients with ALT < 2 × ULN had at least moderate inflammation and significant fibrosis, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, and TGF-α and IL-2R independently correlated with significant fibrosis in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. Based on certain cytokines and clinical parameters, an inflammation-index and fib-index were developed, which showed areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for at least moderate inflammation and 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.90) for significant fibrosis, correspondingly. Compared to existing scores, fib-index was significantly superior to aspartate aminotransferase

  14. Structural Analysis of WbpE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: A Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in O-Antigen Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, A.; Olivier, N; Imperiali, B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major source of hospital-acquired infections. Effective treatment has proven increasingly difficult due to the spread of multidrug resistant strains and thus requires a deeper understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenicity. The central carbohydrate of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 (O5) B-band O-antigen, ManNAc(3NAc)A, has been shown to be critical for virulence and is produced in a stepwise manner by five enzymes in the Wbp pathway (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD, and WbpI). Herein, we present the crystal structure of the aminotransferase WbpE from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in complex with the cofactor pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP) and product UDP-GlcNAc(3NH{sub 2})A as the external aldimine at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. We also report the structures of WbpE in complex with PMP alone as well as the PLP internal aldimine and show that the dimeric structure of WbpE observed in the crystal structure is confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Analysis of these structures reveals that the active site of the enzyme is composed of residues from both subunits. In particular, we show that a key residue (Arg229), which has previously been implicated in direct interactions with the {alpha}-carboxylate moiety of {alpha}-ketoglutarate, is also uniquely positioned to bestow specificity for the 6{double_prime}-carboxyl group of GlcNAc(3NH2)A through a salt bridge. This finding is intriguing because while an analogous basic residue is present in WbpE homologues that do not process 6{double_prime}-carboxyl-modified saccharides, recent structural studies reveal that this side chain is retracted to accommodate a neutral C6{double_prime} atom. This work represents the first structural analysis of a nucleotide sugar aminotransferase with a bound product modified at the C2{double_prime}, C3{double_prime}, and C6{double_prime} positions and provides insight into a novel target for treatment of P

  15. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  16. Prediction of the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients after Sustained Virological Response by Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keol; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Cho, Hyun Chin; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Following sustained virological response (SVR) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, patients with advanced fibrosis require regular monitoring for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) is a simple noninvasive surrogate marker known to reflect fibrosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 598 patients who achieved SVR with interferon-based therapy for CHC. Results Over a median of 5.1 years of follow-up, there were eight patients diagnosed with HCC and a 5-year cumulative incidence rate of 1.3%. The median pretreatment APRI was 0.83, which decreased to 0.29 after achieving SVR (p<0.001). Both the pre- and posttreatment indices were associated with HCC development. The 5-year cumulative HCC incidence rates were 0% and 2.8% for patients with pretreatment APRI <1.0 and ≥1.0, respectively (p=0.001) and 0.8% and 12.8% for patients with posttreatment APRI <1.0 and ≥1.0, respectively (p<0.001). Pretreatment APRI at a cutoff of 1.0 had a 100% negative predictive value until 10 years after SVR. Conclusions HCC development was observed among CHC patients who achieved SVR. The pre- and post-treatment APRI could stratify HCC risk, indicating that the APRI could be a useful marker to classify HCC risk in CHC patients who achieved SVR. However, given the small number of HCC patients, this finding warrants further validation. PMID:27114418

  17. Complete amino acid sequence of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (transaminase B) of Salmonella typhimurium, identification of the coenzyme-binding site and sequence comparison analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete amino acid sequence of the subunit of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by automated Edman degradation of peptide fragments generated by chemical and enzymatic digestion of S-carboxymethylated and S-pyridylethylated transaminase B. Peptide fragments of transaminase B were generated by treatment of the enzyme with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, endoproteinase Lys-C, and cyanogen bromide. Protocols were developed for separation of the peptide fragments by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion-exchange HPLC, and SDS-urea gel electrophoresis. The enzyme subunit contains 308 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 33,920 daltons. The coenzyme-binding site was determined by treatment of the enzyme, containing bound pyridoxal 5-phosphate, with tritiated sodium borohydride prior to trypsin digestion. Monitoring radioactivity incorporation and peptide map comparisons with an apoenzyme tryptic digest, allowed identification of the pyridoxylated-peptide which was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and sequenced. The coenzyme-binding site is a lysyl residue at position 159. Some peptides were further characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

  18. Plasma glutathione S-transferase and F protein are more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase as markers of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, G J; Foster, G R; Hussey, A J; Oliveira, D B; Donovan, J W; Prescott, L F; Proudfoot, A T

    1989-11-01

    Concentrations of glutathione S-transferase (GST; glutathione transferase; EC 2.5.1.18) B1 subunits, F protein, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) were measured in sequential plasma samples taken from nine patients with self-administered paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning. GST exceeded the reference interval in all patients at the time of admission, and F protein was increased in seven. In contrast, abnormal activities of ALT in plasma were found in only one of the nine on admission, a patient admitted 12 h after poisoning. Subsequent to admission nine, eight, and five patients, respectively, had abnormal concentrations of GST, F protein, and ALT. When expressed as multiples of the upper reference limit, the highest values for GST measured in each patient always far exceeded the greatest abnormalities in ALT; this was true for F protein in only five patients. Patients in whom the concentration of GST exceeded 10 micrograms/L on admission subsequently went on to develop moderate or severe liver damage, despite treatment with N-acetylcysteine. F protein and ALT measurements on admission were not as efficient as GST at predicting the clinical outcome of the patients. We conclude that GST and F protein offer clear advantages over ALT for detecting minor degrees of acute liver dysfunction, particularly when only centrilobular damage may be involved. PMID:2582614

  19. A stereo-inverting D-phenylglycine aminotransferase from Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201: purification, characterization and application for D-phenylglycine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyakrutta, S; Meevootisom, V

    1997-07-01

    D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT) from a newly isolated soil bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight (M(r)) of the native enzyme was estimated to be 92,000. It is composed of two subunits identical in molecular weight (M(r)) = 47,500). The isoelectric point (pI) of the native enzyme was 5.0. The enzyme catalyzed reversible transamination specific for D-phenylglycine or D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine in which 2-oxoglutarate was an exclusive amino group acceptor and was converted into L-glutamic acid. Neither the D- nor L-isomer of phenylalanine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine or serine could serve as a substrate. The enzyme was most active at alkaline pH with maximum activity at pH 9-10. The temperature for maximum activity was 35-45 degrees C. The apparent K(m) values for D-phenylglycine and for 2-oxoglutarate at 35 degrees C, pH 9.5 were 1.1 and 2.4 mM, respectively. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by typical inhibitors of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. Possible application of this enzyme for synthesis of enantiomerically pure D-phenylglycine was demonstrated. PMID:9249994

  20. Combined acoustic radiation force impulse, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and Forns index assessment for hepatic fibrosis grading in hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang-Feng; Xiao, Jia; Shan, Ling-Bo; Li, Han-Ying; Xiong, Yong-Jia; Yang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Jing; Yao, Si-Min; Li, Sha-Xi; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Bo-Ping; Tipoe, George L; Liu, Ying-Xia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and Forns index for a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 206 patients had CHB with liver fibrosis stages F0-F4 classified by METAVIR and 40 were healthy volunteers were measured by ARFI, APRI and Forns index separately or combined as indicated. RESULTS: ARFI, APRI or Forns index demonstrated a significant correlation with the histological stage (all P < 0.001). According to the AUROC of ARFI and APRI for evaluating fibrotic stages more than F2, ARFI showed an enhanced diagnostic accuracy than APRI (P < 0.05). The combined measurement of ARFI and APRI exhibited better accuracy than ARFI alone when evaluating ≥ F2 fibrotic stage (Z = 2.77, P = 0.006). Combination of ARFI, APRI and Forns index did not obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy compared to the combination of ARFI and APRI (Z = 0.958, P = 0.338). CONCLUSION: ARFI + APRI showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI alone for significant liver fibrosis and ARFI + APRI + Forns index shows the same effect with ARFI + APRI. PMID:27190578

  1. Intrahepatic and peripheral T-cell responses in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus-infected patients with persistently normal and elevated aminotransferase levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz Akyüz; Nuray Polat; Sabahattin Kaymakoglu; Nevzat Aksoy; Kadir Demir; Fatih Be(s)i(s)ik; Selim Badur; Yilmaz (C)akaloglu; Atilla (O)kten

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the cytokine responses in liver and serum differ in chronic hepatitis C patients with normal and high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.METHODS: Thirty-three (16 with normal ALT level as group 1 and 17 with elevated ALT level as group 2) patients infected with genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) were examined. Liver infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells (LILMCs) were isolated from liver biopsy by collagenase type 1 and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2 (IL-2). IL-10, IL-12,interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in serum and LILMCs by ELISA.RESULTS: Serum cytokine levels were similar in both groups (P>0.05). Stimulated IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in LILMCs were increased in both groups. IL-12 and IL-10levels stimulated with IL-2 were higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P = 0.023). Histological activity index (HAI)and stage had a negative correlation with TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in group 2.CONCLUSION: Increased T-helper type 2 (Th2)cytokine response may regress inflammatory and biochemical activity. Progression of histological abnormalities in persons with elevated ALT probably depends on insufficient Th2 cytokine response, which does not balance Th1 cytokine response.

  2. Níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a admininstração de óleo de copaíba em ratos Serum levels of aminotransferases, bilirrubins and gama-glutamyltranspeptidase after copaiba oil administration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Noguchi; José Maciel Caldas dos Reis; Camila Silva Dias; Wellington Alves Epaminondas; Paulo Sérgio Roffé Azevedo; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2002-01-01

    O óleo de copaíba é um óleo-resina empregado como fitoterápico na região Amazônica. Sua utilização se faz de forma empírica e pouco se conhece à respeito de seus efeitos sobre os sistemas orgânicos. Objetivo: Verificar os níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a administração do óleo. Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, distribuídos em 2 grupos: Grupo Cop (n=10) submetidos diariamente à gavagem com adminis...

  3. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; De Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as fol...

  4. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABAA receptor antagonist NP260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABAA receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity

  5. A large increase in IAA during development of rice grains correlates with the expression of tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 and a grain-specific YUCCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaitoon, Yousef M; Bennett, Karina; Normanly, Jennifer; Nonhebel, Heather M

    2012-12-01

    The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content of developing grains of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica was measured by combined liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The increase from 50 ng g(-1) fresh weight to 2.9 µg g(-1) fresh weight from 1 to 14 days after pollination was much larger than that previously reported by enzyme-linked immunoassay methods. The largest increase in IAA content coincided with the start of the major starch deposition phase of grain-fill. The increase in IAA content was strongly correlated with the expression of putative IAA biosynthesis genes, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and OsTAR1, measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system. All three genes were expressed in endosperm; expression of OsYUC11 appeared to be confined to endosperm tissue. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OsYUC11 and AtYUC10 belong to a separate clade of YUCCAs, which do not have orthologues outside the Angiosperms. This clade may have evolved with a specific role in endosperm. Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels, indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system. In light of these observations, we hypothesize that IAA production in developing rice grains is controlled via expression of OsTAR1, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and that IAA may be important during starch deposition in addition to its previously suggested role early in grain development. PMID:22582989

  6. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A; Salido, E; Torres, A; Shapiro, L J

    2003-06-10

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT; EC 2.6.1.44). Most of the PH1 alleles detected in the Canary Islands carry the Ile-244 --> Thr (I244T) mutation in the AGXT gene, with 14 of 16 patients homozygous for this mutation. Four polymorphisms within AGXT and regional microsatellites also were shared in their haplotypes (AGXT*LTM), consistent with a founder effect. The consequences of these amino acid changes were investigated. Although I244T alone did not affect AGXT activity or subcellular localization, when present in the same protein molecule as Leu-11 --> Pro (L11P), it resulted in loss of enzymatic activity in soluble cell extracts. Like its normal counterpart, the AGXT*LTM protein was present in the peroxisomes but it was insoluble in detergent-free buffers. The polymorphism L11P behaved as an intragenic modifier of the I244T mutation, with the resulting protein undergoing stable interaction with molecular chaperones and aggregation. This aggregation was temperature-sensitive. AGXT*LTM expressed in Escherichia coli, as a GST-fusion protein, and in insect cells could be purified and retained enzymatic activity. Among various chemical chaperones tested in cell culture, betaine substantially improved the solubility of the mutant protein and the enzymatic activity in cell lysates. In summary, I244T, the second most common mutation responsible for PH1, is a protein conformational disease that may benefit from new therapies with pharmacological chaperones or small molecules to minimize protein aggregation. PMID:12777626

  7. Aminooxy-naphthylpropionic acid and its derivatives are inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis targeting l-tryptophan aminotransferase: structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa-Nara, Megumi; Nakamura, Ayako; Kikuzato, Ko; Kakei, Yusuke; Sato, Akiko; Mitani, Yuka; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Ishii, Takahiro; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Asami, Tadao; Ogura, Takehiko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Fujioka, Shozo; Kamakura, Takashi; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported l-α-aminooxy-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) to be an inhibitor of auxin biosynthesis, but its precise molecular target was not identified. In this study we found that AOPP targets TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE of ARABIDOPSIS 1 (TAA1). We then synthesized 14 novel compounds derived from AOPP to study the structure-activity relationships of TAA1 inhibitors in vitro. The aminooxy and carboxy groups of the compounds were essential for inhibition of TAA1 in vitro. Docking simulation analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of the compounds was correlated with their binding energy with TAA1. These active compounds reduced the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content upon application to Arabidopsis seedlings. Among the compounds, we selected 2-(aminooxy)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)propanoic acid (KOK1169/AONP) and analyzed its activities in vitro and in vivo. Arabidopsis seedlings treated with KOK1169 showed typical auxin-deficient phenotypes, which were reversed by exogenous IAA. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that KOK1169 is more specific for TAA1 than other enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. We further tested 41 novel compounds with aminooxy and carboxy groups to which we added protection groups to increase their calculated hydrophobicity. Most of these compounds decreased the endogenous auxin level to a greater degree than the original compounds, and resulted in a maximum reduction of about 90% in the endogenous IAA level in Arabidopsis seedlings. We conclude that the newly developed compounds constitute a class of inhibitors of TAA1. We designated them 'pyruvamine'. PMID:27147230

  8. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  9. Peginterferon alfa-2a is associated with elevations in alanine aminotransferase at the end of treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virologic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Tseng

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and demographic/clinical factors of alanine aminotransferase (ALT abnormalities at the end of treatment (EOT in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with sustained virologic response (SVR.Seven hundred naïve CHC patients who underwent combination treatment between January 2003 and December 2010 were included in the study. The patients with SVR and serum ALT>upper limit of normal (ULN at the EOT were further analyzed. The effects of clinical characteristics, treatment regimen, and virologic variables were evaluated by logistic regression. Of the 700 included patients, 488 (69.7% achieved an SVR after treatment, and 235 (33.6% had serum ALT levels>ULN at the EOT. Of those 488 patients, 137 (28.1% had abnormal ALT values at the EOT. A multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of ALT abnormalities at the EOT was significantly associated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN alfa-2a (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.45; P<0.001, baseline fatty liver (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.16-2.76; P = 0.007, and baseline liver cirrhosis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.35-4.09; P = 0.002.Use of PEG-IFN-alfa-2a, fatty liver, and cirrhosis are important factors associated with EOT-ALT abnormality in CHC patients receiving combination therapy that achieve an SVR. PEG-IFN-alfa-2a-related EOT-ALT elevation will become normal at the end of follow-up, but fatty liver and cirrhosis-related ALT elevation will not be resolved.

  10. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  11. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2 polymorphisms have considerable impact on methylarginine and β-aminoisobutyrate metabolism in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kittel

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric (ADMA and symmetric (SDMA dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse clinical outcomes. Both methylarginines are substrates of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2. It was the aim of the present study to simultaneously investigate the functional relevance and relative contributions of common AGXT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to plasma and urinary concentrations of methylarginines as well as β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB, a prototypic substrate of AGXT2. In a cohort of 400 healthy volunteers ADMA, SDMA and BAIB concentrations were determined in plasma and urine using HPLC-MS/MS and were related to the coding AGXT2 SNPs rs37369 (p.Val140Ile and rs16899974 (p.Val498Leu. Volunteers heterozygous or homozygous for the AGXT2 SNP rs37369 had higher SDMA plasma concentrations by 5% and 20% (p = 0.002 as well as higher BAIB concentrations by 54% and 146%, respectively, in plasma and 237% and 1661%, respectively, in urine (both p<0.001. ADMA concentrations were not affected by both SNPs. A haplotype analysis revealed that the second investigated AGXT2 SNP rs16899974, which was not significantly linked to the other AGXT2 SNP, further aggravates the effect of rs37369 with respect to BAIB concentrations in plasma and urine. To investigate the impact of the amino acid exchange p.Val140Ile, we established human embryonic kidney cell lines stably overexpressing wild-type or mutant (p.Val140Ile AGXT2 protein and assessed enzyme activity using BAIB and stable-isotope labeled [²H₆]-SDMA as substrate. In vitro, the amino acid exchange of the mutant protein resulted in a significantly lower enzyme activity compared to wild-type AGXT2 (p<0.05. In silico modeling of the SNPs indicated reduced enzyme stability and substrate binding. In conclusion, SNPs of AGXT2 affect plasma as well as urinary BAIB and SDMA concentrations linking methylarginine metabolism to the common genetic trait of hyper

  12. Complex association between alanine aminotransferase activity and mortality in general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists in using alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity for predicting long-term survival. Therefore, this research study investigated the association between ALT activity and mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective studies. METHODS: Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, were searched for relevant prospective observational studies (published before Dec 30, 2013 on the association between baseline ALT activity and ensuing all-cause/disease-specific mortality. Information on nationality, sample size, participant characteristics, follow-up duration, comparison, outcome assessment, hazard ratios (HRs and adjusted covariates was extracted. Pooled HRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were separately calculated for categorical risk estimates (highest vs. lowest ALT categories and continuous risk estimates (per 5 U/l of ALT increment in subgroups separated by age (<70/≥ 70 years. RESULTS: A total of twelve prospective cohort studies, totaling 206,678 participants and 16,249 deaths, were identified and analyzed. In the younger age group, the pooled HR for mortality related to liver-disease was about 1.24 (95% CI: 1.23-1.25 per 5 U/l of ALT increment. The dose-response HRs of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV disease-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality were 0.91 (0.88-0.94, 0.91 (0.85-0.96, 0.92 (0.86-0.98 respectively per 5 U/l of ALT elevation, with insignificant heterogeneity in the older population. There was an approximate decrease of 4‰ observed on HRs of all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality followed with one year's increment through meta-regression (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The ALT-mortality association was inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age after synthesizing the previous prospective studies. In terms of the age, ALT activity was more valuable

  13. BALANÇO ELETROLÍTICO E PROTÉICO DIETÉTICOS SOBRE AS AMINOTRANSFERASES HEPÁTICAS, RENAIS E SÉRICAS E TEORES SÉRICOS DE MAGNÉSIO E CLORO DE FRANGOS DE CORTE ELETROLÍCTIC AND PROTEIN DIET BALANCE ON AMINOTRANSFERASES ON LIVER, KIDNEY AND SERUM AND SERIC MAGNESIUM AND CHOLRIDE LEVELS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Silva Minafra Rezende

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se um experimento com pintos de corte machos para o estudo dos efeitos dos níveis de 20% e 23% de proteína bruta (PB combinados com 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 e 350 mEq/kg de balanço eletrolítico (BE sobre o perfil da atividade das aminotransferases (AST e ALT no tecido hepático, tecido renal e no soro, além dos níveis séricos do cloro (Cl e magnésio (Mg de frangos de corte de sete, quatorze e vinte e um dias de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial 2x8. Forneceram-se dietas e água ad libitum. Coletou-se o sangue, de quatro aves de cada tratamento, por punção cardíaca para separação do soro, o qual foi congelado a -200C. Após, sacrificaram-se as aves por deslocamento cervical, para remoção do tecido hepático e renal, material esse pesado e congelado em nitrogênio líquido e posteriormente homogeneizado. Centrifugou-se uma alíquota de cada amostra homogeneizada a 7.000rpm por três minutos a 4oC, para determinação das atividades das aminotransferases no sobrenadante. Níveis de PB e BE na dieta afetaram a atividade enzimática da AST no tecido renal aos sete e vinte e um dias de idade, e no soro aos sete e quatorze dias. A atividade da ALT foi alterada, aos quatorze dias no tecido renal, e aos sete e quatorze dias no soro. A concentração do íon cloro, no soro, aos quatorze dias de idade sofreu alteração pela interação dos níveis de BE e PB. A concentração do íon magnésio não foi alterada pelos níveis de PB e BE. Mostra-se, neste trabalho, um perfil dos resultados, uma vez que não há dados disponíveis na literatura. Com os resultados obtidos não se pôde correlacionar as modificações dos níveis de PB e BE com as alterações nas concentrações das enzimas ALT e AST no tecido hepático e renal, consequentemente, com as alterações metabólicas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Balanço eletrolítico, fígado, frangos, proteína dietética, frangos, soro, rim.

    An experiment was

  14. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Salezze Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e

  15. 某高校转氨酶升高新生相关知识健康教育效果评价%Effect evaluation on health education among freshmen with aminotransferase elevation in a college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳清

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To evaluate the intervention effect of health education among college freshmen with aminotransferase elevation, provide the evidence for developing the intervention measures in the future. [Methods]336 freshmen with aminotransferase elevation in Grade 2011 of Yulin Teachers College were randomly divided into the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group was given the intervention program, while the control group received the general health guidance. The two groups were tested by the same questionnaire before and after intervention. [ Results ] The correct answer rate of viral hepatitis was low. The correct answer rates of symptoms and harms of aminotransferase elevation were less than 50% , and the correct answer rate of staying up late, unhealthy diet habit and tiredness may cause the aminotransferase elevation was only 15. 50% , 19.00% and 31. 50%, respectively. After intervention, the correct answer rate of causes of aminotransferase elevation in the intervention group increased, and the differences were significant (all P<0. 01 ). There was no significant difference in the control group (all P>0. 05 ). [ Conclusion] Health education can effectively increase the cognitive level of factors related to aminotransferase elevation of students, improve healthy life, style, and enhance health level.%目的 评价健康教育对高校新生转氨酶升高人群的干预效果,为进一步制定相应的干预措施提供依据.方法 选取玉林师范学院2011级336例转氨酶升高的新生为对象,随机分为干预组和对照组.干预组接受该模式的干预方案,对照组只作一般健康指导.干预前与干预后干预组和对照组均采用相同问卷进行测评.结果 学生对病毒性肝炎知识答对率较低,对转氨酶升高的症状答对率和转氨酶升高对身体的危害答对率都不足50%,尤其对熬夜、不良饮食习惯、劳累会引起转氨酶升高答对率只有15.50%、19.00

  16. 缬氨酸转氨酶工程菌的构建及表达条件的优化%Construction and Optimization of Engineering Bacteria to Express Valine Aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪铁鹏; 王海峰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]构建缬氨酸转氨酶基因(avtA)的大肠杆菌工程菌,并优化其表达条件.[方法]将avtA基因插入到载体pET32a中,构建表达质粒pET32a-avtA,通过纸层析检测酶活性,SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳检测目的蛋白,并通过考察培养基中蛋白胨浓度、IPTG诱导浓度和诱导时间来优化其表达条件.[结果]成功构建了缬氧酸转氨酶基因的大肠杆菌工程菌,其最佳表达条件为:培养基中蛋白胨浓度为12g/L,IPTG浓度为0.4 mmol/L,诱导时间为8h.[结论]缬氨酸转氨酶工程菌具有良好的应用前景.%[Objective] To construct E. Coli engineering bacteria expressing valine aminotransferase and optimize the expression conditions. [ Method] The avtA gene was inserted into expression vector pET32a and the expression plasmid pET32a-avtA was constructed. Valine aminotransferase of enzyme activity was detected by paper chromatography. The expression product of avtA gene was identified by SDS-PAGE, and the expression condition was optimized through inspecting the peptone concentration, IPTG concentration and induction time. [Result] An E. Coli engineering bacteria to express valine aminotransferase was successfully established. The optimum expression conditions were established as follows : 12 g/L of peptone, 0.4 mmol/L of IPTG and 8 h induction time. [Conclusion] Valine transaminase engineered bacteria had a good prospect.

  17. Níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a admininstração de óleo de copaíba em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi Aki; Reis José Maciel Caldas dos; Dias Camila Silva; Epaminondas Wellington Alves; Azevedo Paulo Sérgio Roffé; Brito Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2002-01-01

    O óleo de copaíba é um óleo-resina empregado como fitoterápico na região Amazônica. Sua utilização se faz de forma empírica e pouco se conhece à respeito de seus efeitos sobre os sistemas orgânicos. Objetivo: Verificar os níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a administração do óleo. Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, distribuídos em 2 grupos: Grupo Cop (n=10) submetidos diariamente à gavagem com adminis...

  18. Cloning of Partial Fragment of Aspartate Aminotransferase Gene in Foxtail Millet%谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶基因部分片段的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小平; 董志平; 董普辉; 郁飞燕

    2015-01-01

    The genomic DNA extracted from young,no-lesion leaves of foxtail millet cultivar Yugu 1 was as template,and a pair of specific primers was designed according to the reported corn aspartate aminotransferase gene sequence to clone aspartate transaminase partial gene sequence of foxtail millet,so as to provide foundation for alte-ring composition and content of amino acids by genetic engineering,further altering nutritional quality of foxtail mil-let.The results showed that:PCR amplification obtained a 750 bp target fragment.After cloning and sequencing,a 742 bp fragment was obtained.After Blast search through public database,a specific conserved domain belonging to aspartate aminotransferase supergene family was found in cloned sequence,which proved that the cloned fragment was aspartate aminotransferase gene.Then a phylogenetic tree based on the gene sequences was constructed,which indicated that part of monocots and dicots could cluster respectively,but foxtail millet,maize and sugar cane,three C4 plants,could not cluster together.This study provided foundation for further revealing the function of aspartate aminotransferase gene of foxtail millet.%为了利用基因工程手段改变谷子中氨基酸组成和含量,进而改善谷子营养品质,以谷子栽培品种豫谷1号幼嫩、无病斑的叶片基因组 DNA 为模板,根据已报道的玉米天冬氨酸转氨酶基因序列,设计1对特异性引物扩增克隆谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶基因部分序列。结果表明,PCR 扩增获得约750 bp 的目标片段,对该片段进行克隆测序得到一条742 bp 的片段,经公共数据库同源搜索发现该序列含有天冬氨酸转氨酶超基因家族特有的保守域,证明所克隆片段为天冬氨酸转氨酶基因。对该基因进行系统进化树分析发现,部分单子叶植物和双子叶植物分别聚类,但是谷子与玉米、甘蔗3个 C4作物并没有聚为一类。为进一步揭示谷子天冬氨酸转氨酶的功能奠定了基础。

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P212121. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pavate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State (India); Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van [Scottish Structural Facility and School of Life Sciences Research, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH,Scotland (United Kingdom); Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F. [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom); Barton, Geoffrey J. [Scottish Structural Facility and School of Life Sciences Research, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH,Scotland (United Kingdom); Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H., E-mail: naismith@st-andrews.ac.uk [Scottish Structural Facility and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University, St Andrews KY16 9ST,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  1. Níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a admininstração de óleo de copaíba em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Aki

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de copaíba é um óleo-resina empregado como fitoterápico na região Amazônica. Sua utilização se faz de forma empírica e pouco se conhece à respeito de seus efeitos sobre os sistemas orgânicos. Objetivo: Verificar os níveis séricos de aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e gama-glutamil transpeptidase após a administração do óleo. Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 250 e 300g, distribuídos em 2 grupos: Grupo Cop (n=10 submetidos diariamente à gavagem com administração de 0,63ml/kg do óleo, por 5 dias; Grupo P (n=10, animais nos quais nenhuma substância foi administrada. Ao sexto dia, em ambos os grupos, procedeu-se anestesia inalatória e obtenção de 3ml de sangue da VCI para dosagem dos níveis séricos de ALT, AST, bilirrubinas e GGT. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos com o GCop foram comparados com os do GP e analisados estatisticamente pelo teste t -Student. O GCop apresentou níveis de ALT, AST e GGT significantemente mais baixos que o GP (p<0,01, enquanto os níveis de BT elevaram-se às custas da fração direta. Conclusão: O óleo de copaíba altera os níveis das aminotransferases, bilirrubinas e GGT, sem alterar os níveis da fração indireta.

  2. Cloning of Phosphoserine Aminotransferase (SerB) Gene of Escherichia coli and Expression in Brevibacterium flavum%大肠杆菌SerB基因的克隆及其在黄色短杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷丽霞; 崔春生; 简子健; 谭慧林; 包慧芳

    2006-01-01

    磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶(Phosphoserine aminotransferase,SerB)是L-丝氨酸生物合成中的关键酶,应用PCR技术从大肠杆菌JM109(E.Coli JM109)中扩增出磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶基因,将其与表达载体pEC 7连接.通过电转化方法,将重组质粒转入黄色短杆菌(Brevibacterium flavum C-11,BfC-11)中,经酶活检测和摇瓶发酵培养,含有重组表达质粒的BfC-11B的磷酸丝氨酸转氨酶的活力和L-丝氨酸产率均比原宿主菌BfC-11有所提高,为构建L-丝氨酸高产基因工程菌的研究奠定了基础.

  3. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; de Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as follows: no exposure and ongoing short- and long-term exposure (2 years RR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.13-1.41); stavudine (2 years RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.05-1.32), but only short-term exposure to nevirapine (abacavir, and other protease inhibitors. Mortality did not differ between participants with and without cLEE. Conclusions.  Although didanosine, stavudine, nevirapine, and efavirenz have been described to be hepatotoxic, we additionally observed a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated. PMID:26925429

  4. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  5. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; Pradier, Christian; Dabis, Francois; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; de Wit, Stephane; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods. Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without chronic viral hepatitis were observed to the earliest of cLEE (elevated aminotransferase ≥6 months), death, last follow-up, or January 2, 2014. Antiretroviral treatment exposure was categorized as follows: no exposure and ongoing short- and long-term exposure (2 years RR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.13–1.41); stavudine (2 years RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03–1.32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.05–1.32), but only short-term exposure to nevirapine (<2 years RR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.29–1.61), efavirenz (<2 years RR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03–1.26), emtricitabine (<2 years RR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.04–1.33), and atazanavir (<2 years RR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.04–1.38). Chronic liver enzyme elevation was not associated with use of lamivudine, abacavir, and other protease inhibitors. Mortality did not differ between participants with and without cLEE. Conclusions. Although didanosine, stavudine, nevirapine, and efavirenz have been described to be hepatotoxic, we additionally observed a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated. PMID:26925429

  6. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Alison H., E-mail: ahharrill@uams.edu [College of Public Health, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Eaddy, John S. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rose, Kelly [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Cullen, John M. [College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Ramanathan, Lakshmi [QPS, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu [NeuroTherapeutics Pharma, Inc., Chicago, IL 60631 (United States); Watkins, Paul B. [The Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  7. Targeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thornburg, Joshua Marshall; Nelson, Kristin K; Clem, Brian F.; Lane, Andrew N.; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Simmons, Allan; Eaton, John W.; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Glycolysis is increased in breast adenocarcinoma cells relative to adjacent normal cells in order to produce the ATP and anabolic precursors required for survival, growth and invasion. Glycolysis also serves as a key source of the reduced form of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary for the shuttling of electrons into mitochondria for electron transport. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) regulates glycolytic flux by converting pyruvate to lactate and has been ...

  8. 肝脏丙氨酸氨基转移酶活性变化与生活习惯的相关性%CORRELATION OF LIVER ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE WITH LIFESTYLE HABITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丽芬; 赵海燕; 王响

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT )活性与生活习惯的联系,保证优良的生活质量。方法对10280例体检者进行身高、体重、饮酒、吸烟、饮食、运动、熬夜、服用药物等各种影响因素的实地调查,数据进行Epidata3.0双录入,导入SPSS 13.0进行统计分析;单因素分析采用χ2检验,多因素分析采用非条件Logistic回归分析。结果异常率为9.76%,ALT升高标本有1003例,体重质量指数、饮酒、运动及体力劳动、熬夜、服用药物是ALT升高的影响因素;清淡饮食是ALT升高的保护因素;吸烟对ALT的影响不大。单因素分析与多因素Logistic回归分析结果基本一致。结论本研究对人们养成良好的生活习惯有积极的指导意义,提醒人们健康的体质来源于良好的生活习惯。%Objective To explore the relationship of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT ) with lifestyle habits for promising the best life quality .Methods A questionnaire was established ,the relative factors of 10280 subjects were surveyed included height ,weight ,drinking ,smoking ,diet ,exercise ,stay up late , taking drugs ,et al .The database was established by Epidata 3 .0 and SPSS 13 .0 package was used statistic analysis .Results Among 10280 subjects ,the ALT level of 1003 samples were increased ,and the abnor-mal rate reached to 9 .76 percent .The results showed that BMI ,alcohol consumption ,exercise and physi-cal labor ,stay up late and taking drugs were risk factors ;Light diet was a protection factor;but smoking was almost no impact on ALT .Conclusion The research results remind people the healthy constitution come from the good life styles .

  9. Association of response to combined interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in patients of chronic hepatitis C with serum alanine aminotransferase levels and severity of the disease on liver biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raised serum alanine aminotransferase (serum ALT) levels indicate active liver disease while liver biopsy has been considered the 'gold standard' for assessing the severity of disease in patients of chronic Hepatitis C. The response of these patients to standard treatment regimen of interferon (INF)-alpha- 2b and ribavirin for 24 weeks have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of response to combined INF alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in patients of chronic hepatitis C with serum ALT levels and severity of the disease on liver biopsy. This quasi experimental study was conducted in Department of Physiology at Army Medical College and Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2006 to February 2007. One hundred and even diagnosed non cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C patients were studied. Prior to the commencement of treatment, qualitative assay of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) was done by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Knodell Histopathological Index (HPI) was determined on liver biopsy. The standard treatment of INF-alpha-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week subcutaneous, and Ribavirin 800-1200 mg per day was given for 24 weeks. Serum ALT levels were determined before the start of treatment and later at weeks 12 and 24. Qualitative assay of HCV RNA was done by PCR at the end of treatment to determine the response to treatment. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS 15. Out of 107 patients of chronic hepatitis C, 92 (69 males, 23 females) patients (84%) responded to INF-alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy and revealed negative qualitative assay of HCV RNA by PCR at the end of 24 weeks of treatment while serum ALT levels were normal in 88% of patients at 12 weeks and in 97% at the end of 24 weeks of treatment. Knodell HPI revealed mild, moderate and severe disease in 47.7%, 39.9% and 13.1% of patients respectively. No association was established between response to treatment and severity of the disease on liver biopsy (p<0

  10. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  11. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase accord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    This paper is the seventh in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Procedures for the Measurement of Catalytic Activity Concentrations of Enzymes; Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. The certification of the catalytic activity concentrations as determined by the recently elaborated IFCC primary reference methods at 37 degrees C of four enzyme preparations, namely IRMM/IFCC 452 (gamma-glutamyltransferase), IRMM/IFCC 453 (lactate dehydrogenase 1), IRMM/IFCC 454 (alanine aminotransferase) and IRMM/IFCC 455 (creatine kinase) is described. Homogeneity data were derived from previous results. Stability was assessed using recently obtained data as well as data from previous stability studies. The collaborative study for value assignment was performed under a strict quality control scheme to ensure traceability to the primary reference method. Uncertainty of the materials was assessed in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The certified values obtained at 37 degrees C are 1.90 microkat/l +/- 0.04 microkat/l (114.1 U/l +/- 2.4 U/l), for gamma-glutamyltransferase, 8.37 microkat/l +/- 0.12 microkat/l (502 U/l +/- 7 U/l), for lactate dehydrogenase 1, 3.09 microkat/l +/- 0.07 microkat

  12. Valores de referência da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase e da gama-glutamiltransferase em bovinos da raça Jersey. Influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos Reference values of the enzymatic activities of the aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase of Jersey breed. The influence of age and sexual factors, and of the infection by the bovine leukosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, L; E.H. Birgel Junior; R.M.S. Mirandola; W.P. Araújo; E. H. Birgel

    1999-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estabelecer os valores de referência de parâmetros bioquímicos que avaliem a função hepática, por meio da determinação da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase (AST) e da gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT), de bovinos da raça Jersey, criados no Estado de São Paulo, bem como avaliar a influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos sobre os referidos parâmetros bioquímicos, foram colhidas e examinadas amostras de soro sangüíneo...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Tyrosine Aminotransferase Gene Fragment in Perilla frutescens%紫苏酪氨酸氨基转移酶基因片段的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓玲; 郝磊; 王芳; 黄晨

    2012-01-01

    为获得紫苏迷迭香酸合成途径中的酪氨酸氨基转移酶基因,本研究采用同源克隆的方法,根据已报道的其他物种的TAT基因序列设计并合成简并引物,成功克隆得到了紫苏TAT基因片段(GenBank登录号:JN032113.1),该片段长为579 bp,共编码193个氨基酸残基,并命名为PfTAT.氨基酸序列比对分析发现其与彩叶草、丹参、拟南芥和罂粟的一致性分别为97%、94%、69%和58%,系统进化树分析表明PfTAT与唇形科植物的亲缘关系最近.采用半定量RT-PCR法分析PfTAT在紫苏的根、茎、叶中均有表达,且叶中的表达量较高,内源性植物激素信号分子对PfTAT表达量影响的实验表明,脱落酸、水杨酸处理均能够不同程度得上调PfTAT转录水平的表达.%The purposes of this paper was to obtain tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene involved in rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis pathway from Perilla frutescens. According to a parallel analysis of the amino acid sequence of TAT genes from other species,degenerate primers were designed and the fragment of TAT gene in Perilla frutescens was successfully cloned by homology cloning method (GenBank accession No. JN032113.1),and gene fragment was 579 bp encoding 193 amino acid protein. Sequence alignment revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PFTT was 97%,94%,69% and 58% identical to Coleus-blumei,Salvia miltiorrhiza,Arabidopsis thaliana and Papaver somniferum,respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PfTAT had the closest relationship with Lamiaceae plants. The PfTA T expressed in all the tested tissues but at different levels with higher expression in leaf using the semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Further expression analysis revealsed that the signaling components such as abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) up-regulated the PfTAT transcript levels in different degree.

  14. Correlations of serum alanine aminotransferase and insulin resistance, pancreatic B-cell function%丙氨酸转氨酶水平与胰岛素抵抗及胰岛β细胞功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永慧; 黎明; 高珊; 张秀娟; 李连霞; 张葵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function.Methods A total of 351 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus received a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at our outpatient clinic.All subjects were analyzed for the parameters of body mass index ( BMI),waist-hip ratio,blood pressure ( BP),serum lipids,ALT,aspartate aminotransferase (AST),plasma glucose (PG),true-insulin and proinsulin.Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was applied to assess the status of insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function. They were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles of ALT:ALT1 group (<12.9 U/L),ALT2 group (12.9- 17.3 U/L),ALT3 group (17.4-24.2 U/L) and ALT4 group ( ≥24.2 U/L).The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the definition of Chinese Diabetic Society.Results With the rising serum ALT levels (ALT4 vs ALT1 ),the levels of BMI [ (26.3 ± 2.9) kg/m2 vs (23.2±3.7) kg/m2,P<0.01],HOMA-IR [1.93(1.21 -3.26) vs 1.06(0.65 -1.54),P<0.01] and LnHOMA-beta (2.00 ±0.32 vs 1.87 ±0.28,P<0.05) were elevated; BP,serum lipids,PG,true-insulin and proinsulin also increased ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).The levels of serum ALT [ 23.3(16.3-37.6) vs 14.3 (10.3-18.5) U/L,P<0.01] and AST [21.5 (18.3-32.8) U/L vs 17.9( 15.5 -22.1 ) U/L,P <0.01 ] increased with the rising number of metabolic disorders (0 vs 3 -4 metabolic disorders).After adjustments for gender,age,BMI and waist-hip ratio,serum ALT were still positively correlated with BP,serum lipids,PG,fasting true-insulin,2 h proinsulin,2 h proinsulin/true-insulin,HOMA-IR and the numbers of metabolic disorder (r=0.117 -0.236,P<0.05 or P<0.01).After adjustments for gender,age,BMI,waist-hip ratio and HOMA-IR,the serum ALT level remained positively correlated with the numbers of metabolic disorders (r =0.120,P < 0.05).Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that triglyceride

  15. 发酵豆制品中高产转氨酶菌株筛选及固态菌剂制备%Screening and Identification of Aminotransferase-producing Strain from Fermented Soybean Products and Preparation of Its Solid Starter Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玲; 秦礼康

    2012-01-01

    为缩短传统大豆发酵制品后熟期,基于转氨反应这一主要风味形成途径,现从贵州各地采集风味良好的豆豉、腐乳等发酵样品,经稀释涂布平板法分离得到150株细菌。通过支链氨基酸转氨酶活力测定,从中筛选出WDH-8菌株具有最高酶活力,菌种鉴定后确定其为地衣芽孢杆菌,属安全益酵菌株,其支链氨基酸转氨酶活力达36.53U/mL。为便于生产应用,对该菌株进行固态菌剂培养基配方实验,以转氨酶活力为指标,培养基最佳配方为:黄豆粉25g、水料比1:1(V/m)、氯化钠添加量5%、葡萄糖添加量3%,其酶活力达到37.965U/mL。%In order to shorten the fermentation period of fermented soybean products,a total of 150 strains were isolated from top-quality fermented foods in Guizhou.Among these strains,strain WDH-8 was found to have the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity.The strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis that was a safe prebiotic yeast strain with a branched-chain aminotransferase activity of 36.53 U/mL.In order to facilitate practical applications,the preparation of its solid starter culture was investigated,and the optimal culture medium for achieving the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity,37.965 U/mL,was determined to be composed of soybean power 25 g,material-to-water ratio 1:1,sodium chloride 5% and glucose 3%.

  16. Efeito do óleo de copaíba nas aminotransferases de ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão hepática com e sem pré-condicionamento isquêmico Copaiba oil effect in rats aminotrasnferases submitted to hepatic ischemic and reperfusion with and without preconditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alves de Araújo Júnior; Marcelle Nobre Braz; Ozéas Galeno da Rocha Neto; Felipe D'Almeida Costa; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do óleo de copaíba nas aminotransferases de ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão (IR) hepática, com e sem pré-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI). MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 Rattus norvegicus albinus machos distribuídos em: Grupo padrão (GP), Grupo copaíba (GC), Grupo isquemia-reperfusão (GIR), Grupo isquemia-reperfusão + copaíba (GIRC), Grupo pré-condicionamento isquêmico (GPCI) e Grupo pré-condicionamento isquêmico + copaíba (GPCIC). Foi administrado 0,63ml/kg/d...

  17. Valores de referência da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase e da gama-glutamiltransferase em bovinos da raça Jersey. Influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos Reference values of the enzymatic activities of the aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase of Jersey breed. The influence of age and sexual factors, and of the infection by the bovine leukosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gregory

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estabelecer os valores de referência de parâmetros bioquímicos que avaliem a função hepática, por meio da determinação da atividade enzimática da aspartato-aminotransferase (AST e da gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, de bovinos da raça Jersey, criados no Estado de São Paulo, bem como avaliar a influência dos fatores etários, sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos sobre os referidos parâmetros bioquímicos, foram colhidas e examinadas amostras de soro sangüíneo de 170 animais, sendo 106 fêmeas e 17 machos, considerados clinicamente sadios e não reagentes ao antígeno glicoprotéico (gp51 da cápsula do vírus da leucose dos bovinos e 47 fêmeas soro-reagentes ao mencionado vírus. Os valores de referência obtidos para a AST foram iguais a 33,91±10,99U/l enquanto para a GGT obtiveram-se valores médios de 13,21±12,72U/l. A avaliação dos resultados demonstrou que as transaminases sofreram influência dos fatores etários, pois comprovou-se que os teores séricos da AST aumentaram significativamente com o evoluir da idade, sendo o valor mínimo observado nas bezerras com até 3 meses de idade (26,39±22,17U/l e valor máximo em vacas com idade entre 48 e 72 meses de idade (38,60±11,24U/l. Para os níveis séricos da GGT observou-se que nas bezerras com até 3 meses de idade os níveis séricos (31,15±38,70U/l foram maiores do que os observados nos animais mais velhos (entre 8,70±2,40U/l e 14,24±10,37U/l. Nesta pesquisa não foram observadas influências dos fatores sexuais e da infecção pelo vírus da leucose dos bovinos sobre a atividade enzimática das transaminases.With the purpose of having the reference values established for the biochemical parameters which evaluate the hepatic function through the determination of the enzymatic activities of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT of Jersey breed, raised in the São Paulo State, as well as, to

  18. Efeito do óleo de copaíba nas aminotransferases de ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão hepática com e sem pré-condicionamento isquêmico Copaiba oil effect in rats aminotrasnferases submitted to hepatic ischemic and reperfusion with and without preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves de Araújo Júnior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do óleo de copaíba nas aminotransferases de ratos submetidos à isquemia e reperfusão (IR hepática, com e sem pré-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 Rattus norvegicus albinus machos distribuídos em: Grupo padrão (GP, Grupo copaíba (GC, Grupo isquemia-reperfusão (GIR, Grupo isquemia-reperfusão + copaíba (GIRC, Grupo pré-condicionamento isquêmico (GPCI e Grupo pré-condicionamento isquêmico + copaíba (GPCIC. Foi administrado 0,63ml/kg/dia de copaíba, durante sete dias, por meio de gavagem nos animais do GC, GIRC e GPCIC. A isquemia hepática foi de 30 minutos e, nos animais submetidos ao PCI, realizou-se isquemia de 10 minutos, seguida de reperfusão de 5 minutos e isquemia de 30 minutos com posterior reperfusão. Os animais foram anestesiados via inalatória com éter etílico. O período de reperfusão foi de 24 horas. No 1° DPO foi realizada coleta de sangue venoso e dosagem das aminotransferases. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de AST não se alteraram nos animais submetidos à administração do óleo de copaíba. O óleo estudado não alterou os valores de ALT no GIRC quando comparado com o GIR, entretanto, houve aumento do nível sérico dessa enzima no GPCIC em comparação com o GPCI. CONCLUSÃO: O óleo de copaíba não alterou os níveis de AST nos grupos estudados. Ao se avaliar a ALT, esse óleo não influenciou os valores séricos nos animais submetidos somente à IR hepática, entretanto houve aumento dos níveis dessa enzima no GPCIC em relação ao seu controle. Os valores de ALT não foram diferentes estatisticamente entre os grupos IRC e PCIC.PURPOSE: To study the copaiba oil effect in rats' aminotrasnferases submited to hepatic ischemic and reperfusion with and without preconditioning. METHODS: 24 male and adults rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus,Wistar were distributed into six groups: Standard Group (SG; Copaiba Group (CG, Ischemic-reperfusion Group (IRG, Ischemic

  19. Efeito da adição de cloreto de cálcio sobre a qualidade espermática e atividade da aspartato amino transferase no sêmen resfriado de suíno Effect of adding calcium chloride on the spermatic quality and aminotransferase aspartate in cool swine semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinheiro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar dois processos de resfriamento de sêmen suíno, analisar o efeito da adição de CaCl2 ao diluidor BTS e testar o método de avaliação do perfil enzimático da Aspartato Aminotransferase (AAT sobre a qualidade espermática. Foram utilizados 12 ejaculados suínos de animais procedentes do setor de Suinocultura - DZO/UFLA. Estes ejaculados foram diluídos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CaCl2 (A: 0,0; B: 2,5; C: 5,0 e D: 7,5 mM. As amostras dos ejaculados foram submetidas a três processos de resfriamento (1: convencional - 15º C ; 2: lento - 15º C/5º C; 3: rápido - 5º C, sendo que cada ejaculado ficou armazenado por um período de 72 horas para avaliações da qualidade espermática, constituindo os tratamentos experimentais. Os parâmetros seminais avaliados foram motilidade e vigor espermáticos e perfil enzimático da AAT. Houve diferença significativa (P0,05. Conclui-se que a adição de CaCl2 melhora a motilidade espermática das amostras dos ejaculados suínos e que o processo de resfriamento lento substitui o processo convencional sem afetar a qualidade espermática do sêmen submetido à refrigeração. A avaliação da AAT não é válida para sêmen resfriado.The study was carried out with objective to test two swine semen cooling processes and verify the effects of adding chloride of calcium (CaCl2 on semen dilutor BTS and also to test the evaluation method of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT enzymatic profile on the cooled swine semen spermatic quality. Were used twelve samples of ejaculation of breeders supplied by the Swine Breeding section at the DZO/UFLA. The samples were diluted and received different concentrations of CaCl2 (A: 0.0; B: 2.5; C 5.0; D 7.5mM. The samples of ejaculation were submitted to three processes of cooling: 1 - standard cooling (15º C; 2 - slow cooling (15º C/ 5º C; 3 - fast cooling (5º C, and each sample of ejaculation was stored for

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of novel heteroaromatic substrates of GABA aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, Dustin D.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Two principal neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of mammalian neuronal activity, namely, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and L-glutamic acid, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Low GABA levels in the brain have been implicated in epilepsy and several other neurological diseases. Because of GABA’s poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a successful strategy to raise brain GABA concentrations is the use of a compound that does cross the BBB a...

  1. Alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto Ryuichi; Kohara Katsuhiko; Kusunoki Tomo; Tabara Yasuharu; Abe Masanori; Miki Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how liver markers are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 587 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20–89) years and 755 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21–88) years. The study sample consisted of 998 (74.4%) non-obese [body mass index (BMI)

  2. Application of ratio index of aspartate aminotransferase and platelet ratio on liver fibrosis classification of patients with chronic hepatitis B%慢性乙型肝炎患者肝纤维化分级中AST/PLT比值指数的临床研究1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗功贤; 王志鹏

    2013-01-01

      目的评价天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)与血小板(PLT)比值在预测慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)肝纤维化分级中的作用。方法将178例CHB合并肝纤维化患者肝组织纤维化程度进行Ishak分期,同时检测患者AST和PLT,计算AST与PLT比值指数(APRI)。比较患者不同肝纤维化分期与APRI间的关系,通过APRI的受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积,分析其预测显著肝纤维化及肝硬化的准确率,并对CHB肝纤维化患者抗病毒治疗前后肝组织纤维化分期和APRI的变化进行对比分析。结果APRI与肝纤维化程度呈正比(P =0.001),APRI预测CHB进展为显著肝纤维化ROC曲线下面积为0.795,而预测肝硬化的ROC曲线下面积为0.714(P =0.003),APRI >1.5和>2分别为显著肝纤维化和肝硬化的截断点,其阳性预测值分别为96%和75%,阴性预测值分别为44%和74%。CHB患者经抗病毒药物治疗后,肝组织学检查结果显示其纤维化程度比治疗前明显减轻,而APRI也明显降低。结论 APRI可作为预测CHB患者发生显著肝纤维化及肝硬化的指标之一。%Objective To evaluate the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and platelet (PLT) ratio in predicting classification of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) based on liver fibrosis. Methods Ishak staging of liver fibrosis of 178 cases with CHB was carried out, and AST, PLT levels were detected simutaneously and the ratio of AST and PLT (APRI) was calculated. By anaysis of APRI receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve, the accuracy of prediction of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis and changes of liver fibrosis and APRI before and after antiviral treatment were analyzed. Results APRI was positively related to the degree of liver fibrosis (P = 0.001). The area under the ROC curve of APRI prediction of CHB progression to significant fibrosis was 0.795, while was 0.714 for prediction of progression to cirrhosis (P = 0

  3. 自锁托槽矫治中龈沟液天冬氨酸转氨酶水平的变化及其生物学意义%Changes of the aspartate aminotransferase level in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic therapy with self-ligating appliance and their biological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫翔; 陈文静

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the changes of the aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ) level in gingival crev-icular fluid ( GCF ) during the early stage of orthodontic therapy with self-ligating appliance, and discuss the relationship between AST and periodontal tissue remodeling for this therapy. Methods We enrolled in this study 20 patients aged 11 to 16 years, and divided each dentition into an experimental and a control group, the former treated with self-ligating appliance and the latter with straight wire appliance for the contralateral dentition. We collected GCF samples before and at 1 h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 168h and 2wk after the treatment, and observed the changes of the AST level by automatic biochemical analysis. Results The AST level in the experimental group began to increase at 24 h, but at a significantly lower rate than that of the control group. Conclusion The AST level in GCF changes under the mechanical force during orthodontic therapy. Self-ligating appliance causes less change in the AST level than straight wire appliance, and therefore inflicts less damage to the periodontal tissue during orthodontic therapy.%目的 分析应用自锁托槽矫治器在错颌畸形矫治早期龈沟液天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)水平的变化,探讨自锁托槽矫治对早期牙周组织改建的影响.方法 选择20例青少年患者,年龄11~16岁,每例患者随机选取同颌同名牙列分别作为实验组和对照组,实验组牙列佩戴自锁托槽矫治器;同颌对侧牙列佩戴普通直丝弓托槽,设为对照组.利用全自动生化分析仪检测矫治前、矫治后1h、24h、48h、72h、168h及2周龈沟液中AST含量水平的变化.结果 佩戴自锁托槽矫治器牙列的龈沟液AST含量水平在加力24h开始升高,但升高的幅度、速率明显小于佩戴普通直丝弓托槽矫治器的对照组牙列.结论 牙齿正畸过程中受机械力的作用龈沟液AST水平发生动态变化.使用自锁托槽矫治器,龈

  4. Clinical characteristics of elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver%丙氨酸氨基转移酶升高的老年人的临床特征与超声诊断脂肪肝的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健生; 徐惠明; 陈小芳; 薛骏明; 周明霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical characteristics associated withof elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver. Methods The physical examination data of 1 054 elders were cross - sectionally analyzed from May. 2010 to Jun. 2012. There were 154 persons with elevated ALT, in which 54 cases were caused by hepatitis B and alcohol abuse. 100 subjects were included into the present study. Subjects were divided into NAFLD group (50 cases) and control group (50 cases). BMI, lipid metabolism, ALT, diabetes mellitus and so on were analyzed. Results In 100 cases of included individuals, 50% were diagnosed as NAFLD using ultrasonography. Patients with NAFLD showed higher (BMI) (P =0.013) , diabetes prevalence (P =0.019) and tri-glycerides (P =0.022) compared with individuals without NAFLD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI (OR = 1.454; 95% CI: 1.139 -1.856; P= 0.003) and diabetes mellitus (OR =3. 378; 95% CI: 1.343 -8.494, P = 0.01) were independent risk factor associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Clinical features such as history of diabetes and high BMI may predict the presence of NAFLD on ultrasonography inpatients with elevated ALT but negative hepatitis.%目的 评估丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)升高的老年人的临床特征与脂肪肝的相关性.方法 通过对2010年5月-2010年6月来我院行健康体检的1 054例老年体检者进行横断面研究,发现154例ALT升高,其中54例有乙型肝炎或者酒精摄入过量,最终100例入选本组研究.被分为非酒精性脂肪肝组(NAFLD)50例和对照组50例.分别进行体格检查计算体质量指数(BMI)、脂质代谢、ALT及糖尿病等调查.结果 在100例患者中,超声诊断50%有非酒精性脂肪肝,与无脂肪肝的患者相比,非酒精性脂肪肝患者有糖尿病史(P=0.019),并有较高的BMI (P=0.013)和甘油三脂(P=0.022).多变量回归分析显示BMI和糖尿病为脂肪

  5. 丙氨酸转氨酶正常的慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染者的肝脏病理学分析%Pathological analysis of liver tissues from chronic hepatitis B patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭友文; 史正全; 於学军; 杨丽君; 陈丽; 孙丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解ALT正常的慢性HBV感染者的肝脏病理学改变及其影响因素.方法 观察632例ALT正常的慢性HBV感染者,采用超声定位穿刺取肝组织,行HE染色、纤维Masson染色,HBsAg和HBcAg免疫组织化学染色,观察Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分,并分析它们与年龄、ALT水平、血清HBV DNA载量、HBsAg和HBcAg肝组织表达的关系.两均数比较采用t检验,多均数比较采用单因素方差分析及q检验,计数资料采用x2检验.结果 632例ALT正常的HBV感染者中,中度炎症坏死167例,占26.4%,重度炎症坏死26例,占4.1%,中度纤维化217例,占34.3%,重度纤维化(肝硬化)52例,占8.2%.Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分在高ALT层次组比低ALT层次组高,在女性高ALT层次组比男性高ALT层次组高,在年龄>40岁组比年龄≤20岁组高(q=19.63,P<0.05).肝组织损伤程度在HBV DNA载量≤5×105拷贝/L组明显轻于HBV DNA 5×105~1×107拷贝/L、1×107~1×109拷贝/L和>1×109拷贝/L组(Knodell评分,q=3.87、2.87、6.34;Ishak评分,q=2.64、2.64、5.54;均P<0.05),在不同HBV DNA载量复制组之间差异无统计学意义(F=1.35,P>0.05).HBsAg(F=1.65、0.73,均P>0.05)和HBcAg(F=0.17、1.29,均P>0.05)肝组织表达与Knodell坏死炎症评分和Ishak纤维化评分差异均无统计学意义.结论 可检测到HBV DNA的ALT持续正常的慢性HBV感染患者应考虑进行肝组织活检,特别是年龄>40岁且ALT在(0.75~1.00)×正常值上限者.%Objective To study the liver histological changes in chronic hepaitits B (CHB) patients with normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the related factors. Methods Six hundred and thirty-two CHB patients with normal ALT levels had undergone ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsies. All specimen were examined by HE staining, collagen fiber Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core

  6. Serum asparate aminotransferase levels following cadmium and/or 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 216 young adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats were used. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) every 3 days for 29 days for a total of 9 injections with 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt. Twenty‐four hrs after the last Cd injection (day 30), each animal was subjected to an acute sublethal total‐body exposure of 0, 3.62 or 5.43 gray of gamma (60Co) radiation at a dose rate of 3.04 gray/min. Eight rats from each of the 9 groups were sacrificed by cardiac exsanguination on post‐irradiation day 1, 7, or 21. A significant high‐dose cadmium‐induced increase in AST enzyme was observed at days 1 and 7; however, by day 21 levels had returned to normal. The results suggest that high‐dose cadmium increases were dose and time‐dependent. No significant differences in AST values were observed between radiation only groups, days, or doses. However, significant dose‐related differences were observed between high‐dose cadmium and means, as well as between high and low‐dose cadmium doses at days 1, 7, and 21. When the co‐insult was used, significant differences were seen between the high cadmium‐high radiation group and the mean at day one

  7. HCV carriers with normal aminotransferase levels: “normal” does not always mean “healthy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Puoti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Approximately 30% of patients with chronic HCV infection show persistently normal ALT levels (PNALT, and another 40% have minimally raised ALT values. Although formerly referred to as “healthy” or “asymptomatic” HCV carriers, it has now become clear that the majority of these patients have some degree of histological liver damage. Controversies still exist regarding the definition of “persistent” ALT normality, the virological and histological features of these subjects, and the natural history and optimal management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC with normal ALT. Most patients with normal ALT have histologically proven liver damage that may be significant (> F2 in up to 20% of patients, and might progress toward more severe degree of liver fibrosis. A significant proportion of patients (≥ 20% experiences periods of increased serum ALT (flare associated with disease progression. AIM OF THE STUDY The introduction of the new combination therapy of PEG-IFN plus ribavirin allowed response rates higher than 50%, with a favourable risk-benefit ratio also in patients with benign or slow progressive disease. Given the efficacy of the new treatments, which soon became the standard of care for CHC, it has been suggested that the issue of whether or not to treat subjects with PNALT should be re-evaluated. ALT levels may have less importance in deciding who should be treated. Many other factors might influence the decision to treat, such as the age of the patient, HCV genotype, liver histology, patient’s motivation, symptoms, extrahepatic manifestations, comorbid illness. The role of non-invasive tools for the assessment of liver fibrosis (transient hepatic elastography remains to be further validated.

  8. Coordination of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis by the aminotransferase VAS1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, Z.Y.; Guo, Y.X.; Novák, Ondřej; Dai, X.H.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ljung, K.; Noel, J.P.; Chory, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 244-246. ISSN 1552-4450 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PLANT DEVELOPMENT * SHADE AVOIDANCE * ARABIDOPSIS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 13.217, year: 2013

  9. Post-operative aspartate aminotransferase levels independently predict mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kai Ming Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Increase in AST levels within 48 hours of CABG was a strong independent predictor of 30 day mortality. Although AST increase is not specific to myocardial necrosis, it remains useful for prognosis in cardiac surgery.

  10. Application of microfluidics for the development of intensified aminotransferase (ATA) processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren

    /or toxic compounds. Furthermore, development based on applying microfluidic platforms potentially enables easier introduction of continuous process aspects, when suitable. The motivation for this project is to investigate the potential of applying microfluidic technologies in the development and testing of...... to overcome the challenges. Due to the physicochemical properties of the compounds involved in the case studies in this thesis, the focus will be on the application/development of liquid-liquid extraction modules to operate in combination with reactor modules. The main outcome of this PhD thesis is......Development of biocatalytic processes is greatly dominated by well-established batch process based screening technologies, e.g. glass vials (mL) and microtiter plates (μL). However, there is still a need for improvement of currently available technologies and for new technologies enabling...

  11. Identification of Bilophila wadsworthia by specific PCR which targets the taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laue, H.; Smits, T.H.M.; Schumacher, U.K.; Claros, M.C.; Hartemink, R.; Cook, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The bile-resistant, strictly anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia is found in human faecal flora, in human infections and in environmental samples. A specific PCR primer set for the gene encoding the first metabolic enzyme in the degradative pathway for taurine in B. wadsworthia, taurine:pyruva

  12. Entamoeba histolytica Phosphoserine aminotransferase (EhPSAT: insights into the structure-function relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakuni Vinod

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of phosphorylated Serine biosynthesis pathway upstream to the de novo cysteine biosynthesis pathway makes PSAT a crucial enzyme. Besides this, phoshoserine produced by the enzyme can also be taken up directly by cysteine synthase as a substrate. PSAT is a PLP dependent enzyme where the cofactor serves as an epicenter for functional catalysis with the active site architecture playing crucial role in optimum function of the enzyme. Findings EhPSAT is a homodimer of molecular mass 86 kDa. To understand the structural modulations associated with pH dependent changes in functional activity of EhPSAT detailed biophysical studies were carried out. pH alterations had no significant effect on the secondary structure, cofactor orientation and oligomeric configuration of the enzyme however, pH dependent compaction in molecular dimensions was observed. Most interestingly, a direct correlation between pH induced modulation of functional activity and orientation of Trp 101 present in the active site of the enzyme was observed. Sodium halides nullified the pH induced global changes in the enzyme, however differential effect of these salts on the active site microenvironment and functional activity of the enzyme was observed. Conclusions The study unequivocally demonstrates that pH induced selective modification of active site microenvironment and not global change in structure or oligomeric status of the enzyme is responsible for the pH dependent change in enzymatic activity of PSAT.

  13. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kechagias, S; Ernersson, Å; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T.; Nystrom, F. H.; ,

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Design: Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. Setting: University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Participants: 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Intervention: Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5–15% by eating at least two fast-food-based ...

  14. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Earl Kim; Yunkoo Kang; Seungmin Hahn; Mi Jung Lee; Young Nyun Park; Hong Koh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotra...

  15. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen;

    examined the number of T2D patients within gender specific quartiles of ALAT values. We also examined demographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics associated with increased ALAT levels. Data on BMI, lipid profile and blood pressure could be ascertained from the Danish Diabetes Database for Adults...

  16. Development of an Electrochemical-Based Aspartate Aminotransferase Nanoparticle Ir-C Biosensor for Screening of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chiun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST is a hepatocelluar enzyme released into the bloodstream when hepatic cells are damaged, resulting in elevated blood levels of AST. A single use, disposable biosensor prototype, composed of catalytic iridium nano-particles dispersed on carbon paste, was developed to detect enzymatically-produced H2O2 in AST-mediated reactions. This biosensor is capable of measuring AST levels in a phosphate buffer and undiluted human serum over the concentration range of 0 to 0.89 μg/mL AST concentration (corresponding to 0–250 UL−1 specific activity. The biosensor operates at relatively low oxidation potential (+0.3 volt (V versus the printed Ag/AgCl, minimizing any potential chemical interference in human serum. The measurements of AST in human serum using the biosensor compared well with those measured by standard hospital spectrophotometric assays. This Ir-C biosensor may be useful for AST measurements in the clinical environment.

  17. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with obesity and whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance and prospectively associated with a decline in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that high ALT is a marker of risk for type 2 diabetes and suggest a...... with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion and whether these elevated enzymes predict the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. We measured ALT, AST, and GGT in 451 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (aged 30 +/- 6...... years, body fat 33 +/- 8%, ALT 45 +/- 29 units/l, AST 34 +/- 18 units/l, and GGT 56 +/- 40 units/l [mean +/- SD]) who were characterized for body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M), and hepatic insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose...

  18. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Natasha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for hepatitis C virus infection in healthy asymptomatic blood donors who were serologically negative. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year from November 2006 to October 2007. All donors were screened serologically for hepatitis B, C and HIV I and II, syphilis and malaria and those tested positive were excluded from further evaluation. Gender-wise reference ranges and minimal and markedly raised results for ALT (described respectively as one and two folds increase above reference range were defined and, accordingly, donors were grouped into three. Two hundred seronegative blood donors were randomly selected from all three groups of ALT results and tested for hepatitis C nucleic acid through Amplicor; HCV RNA test. The cost of discarding an ALT -only elevated blood unit was also assessed. During the study period, 25117 subjects donated blood. Eight hundred and Results: seventy two donors (3.4% were positive for one or more serological tests. ALT of all donors ranged from 0-1501 U/L (Mean ± SD; 33.4 ± 25.45U/L. The donors seronegative for all disease markers were 24245 (96.6%. Of these, 21164 (87.2% donors had their ALT within reference range while 2874 (11.8% and 207 (0.8% of donors had minimal and markedly elevated results. Thus, 621 blood bags (red cells, platelets and plasma costing $ 39200.0 were discarded based on ALT results alone. Of 200 seronegative donors evaluated for hepatitis C nucleic acid, only one within markedly elevated ALT levels was found to be positive. The present work did not support a positive association between hepatitis C virus nucleic acid and elevated ALT in healthy serologically negative blood donors. Conclusion: We did not find serum ALT testing in donors as cost effective strategy for detection of hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. As the number of samples tested by us was small we suggest further work to evaluate the value of ALT levels in serologically negative donors in association with hepatitis C antigen and NAT testing to elucidate the true burden of disease in geographical regions where hepatitis C is endemic and voluntary blood donation is sparse.

  19. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Natasha; Moiz Bushra; Moatter Tariq; Ahmed Shiraz; Adil Salman; Khurshid Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for...

  20. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    elevation was not associated with use of lamivudine, abacavir, and other protease inhibitors. Mortality did not differ between participants with and without cLEE. Conclusions.  Although didanosine, stavudine, nevirapine, and efavirenz have been described to be hepatotoxic, we additionally observed a...

  1. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages. PMID:25616436

  2. Late-onset primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in a Chinese individual with absent alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黃炳南; 唐美華; 麥肇嘉; 盧建宜; 黃煜; 黃矩民

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical problem, and its cause is often classified as idiopathic. Primary hyperoxaluria, mostly type 1, constitutes one of the rare causes of recurrent nephrolithiasis, but its diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The exact prevalence of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), therefore, has been unclear. The reported prevalence varies in different countries. No Chinese PH1 has ever been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of late-onset primary hyperoxaluria, which was diagnosed only after the development of end-stage renal failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first confirmed Chinese PH1.

  3. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-1–Monoinfected Adults With Elevated Aminotransferase Levels on Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Caryn G.; McLaughlin, Mary; Matthews, Lindsay; Proschan, Michael; Thomas, Francine; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Orenstein, Abigail; Engle, Ronald E.; Hu, Xiaojun; Lempicki, Richard; Hadigan, Colleen; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    In a cohort of HIV-infected adults with chronically elevated liver-associated enzymes on antiretroviral therapy in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse, liver biopsy identified clinically significant liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis, in 65% of participants.

  4. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.;

    2004-01-01

    temperature optima of 7.3 and 43degreesC, respectively, and activity was detected at the pH and salt conditions found in cheese (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl). Hg2+ completely inhibited the enzyme, and the inhibition pattern was similar to that for pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, when studying the effect of...

  5. Serum alanine aminotransferase level and response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the difference in sustained virological response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy between patients with normal ALT and those with raised ALT in chronic hepatitis C. Patients with positive HCV RNA by PCR and compensated liver disease were included and divided in two groups. One group with ALT below upper normal limit (UNL= 65U/L) and second group with raised ALT (> 1x UNL). After treatment with standard interferon alpha 2a and ribavirin, both groups were checked for sustained viral response (SVR) six months after end of treatment and compared for response to therapy with Chi square test. Of the 70 patients included, 25 had normal ALT ( 1 x UNL). Of these, 63 patients completed treatment. Sustained viral response (SVR) was seen in 13 of 22 patients with normal ALT who completed therapy and 22 of 41 patients with raised ALT who completed treatment. Difference in SVR in two groups was not significant (p 0.679). When patients with raised ALT were sub-classified, significantly better response was seen in patients with ALT Z 2 times the upper normal limit (p 0.021). Patients with normal baseline ALT respond equally well to combination therapy as is seen in patients with raised ALT. (author)

  6. Frequency of hepatitis C viral RNA in anti-hepatitis C virus non-reactive blood donors with normal alanine aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of HCV RNA in an anti-HCV non-reactive blood donor population with normal ALT, and its cost effectiveness. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, and Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2008. Methodology: After initial interview and mini-medical examination, demographic data of blood donors was recorded, and anti-HCV, HBsAg and HIV were screened by third generation ELISA. Those reactive to anti-HCV, HbsAg and/or HIV were excluded. Four hundred consecutive donors with ALT within the reference range of 15-41 units/L were included in study. HCV RNA RT-PCR was performed on 5 sample mini-pools using Bio-Rad Real time PCR equipment. Results: All 400 donors were male, with mean age 27 years SD + 6.2. ALT of blood donors varied between 15-41 U/L with mean of 31.5+6.4 U/L, HCV RNA was detected in 2/400 (0.5%) blood donors. Screening one blood bag for HCV RNA costs Rs 4,000.00 equivalent to 50 US dollars, while screening through 5 sample mini-pools was Rs. 800.00 equivalent to approximately 10 US dollars. Conclusion: HCV RNA frequency was 0.5% (2/400) in the studied anti-HCV non-reactive normal ALT blood donors. Screening through mini-pools is more cost-effective. (author)

  7. Absolute quantification of serum microRNA-122 and its correlation with liver inflammation grade and serum alanine aminotransferase in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that serum microRNA-122 was elevated in acute and chronic hepatitis patients. However, this biomarker for acute liver injury did not reflect the liver inflammation activity in CHC patients.

  8. Untersuchungen zum Einbau des Stickstoffes in der Acarviose-Einheit der Acarbose bei [Actinoplanes] sp. 50/110: die Aminotransferase Acb

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guardamino Uribe, Paz Marta

    2001-01-01

    Diese Arbeit befasste sich mit dem Stickstoffstoffwechsel bei Actinoplanes sp. unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Frage, wie der Stickstoff in den alpha-Glucosidaseinhibitor Acarbose während der Biogenese eingeführt wird. Zu klären galt es welches der postulierten Intermediate der Biosynthese transaminiert und durch welches Enzym diese Reaktion katalysiert wird. Heterologe PCR führte zur Identifizierung der Glutaminsynthetasen kodierenden Gene glnA und glnII auf dem Genom von Actinopla...

  9. ELEVATED ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT IN BLOOD DONORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MAIN ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes GONÇALES Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of aminotranferases levels is very useful in the diagnosis of hepatopathies. In recent years, an elevated serum ALT level in blood donors has been associated with an increased risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH. The purpose of the study was to research the factors associated with elevated ALT levels in a cohort of voluntary blood donors and to evaluate the relationship between increased ALT levels and the development of hepatitis C (HCV infection. 166 volunteer blood donors with elevated ALT at the time of their first donation were studied. All of the donors were questioned about previous hepatopathies, exposure to hepatitis, exposure to chemicals, use of medication or drugs, sexual behaviour, contact with blood or secretions and their intake of alcohol. Every three months, the serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia are assessed over a two year follow-up. The serum thyroid hormone levels as well as the presence of auto-antibodies were also measured. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients with persistently elevated ALT or AST levels. A needle biopsy of liver was performed in 9 donors without definite diagnostic after medical investigation. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in 116 donors were assayed again the first clinical evaluation. At the end of follow-up period (2 years later 71 donors were tested again for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. None of donors resulted positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C markers during the follow-up. Of the 116 donors, 101 (87% had persistently elevated ALT serum levels during the follow-up. Obesity and alcoholism were the principal conditions related to elevated ALT serum levels in 91/101 (90.1% donors. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus also were associated with increased ALT levels. Only 1/101 (0.9% had mild chronic active non A-G viral hepatitis and 3/101 (2.9% had liver biopsy with non-specific reactive hepatitis. The determination of ALT levels was not useful to detect donors infected with HCV at donation in Brazil, including the initial seronegative anti-HCV phase.A determinação dos níveis de alanina aminostransferase (ALT tem sido útil para o diagnóstico de hepatopatias. Ultimamente, a elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em doadores de sangue, tem sido associada a um maior risco de hepatites pós-transfusionais. Este estudo busca identificar os fatores associados com elevados níveis de ALT entre doadores voluntários de sangue e avaliar as relações entre estes aumentos de ALT e o desenvolvimento de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C. Assim, 116 doadores voluntários de sangue com níveis de ALT elevados, quando da primeira doação, foram estudados. Todos foram questionados sobre hepatopatias prévias, exposição a hepatites, exposição a produtos químicos, uso de drogas ou medicamentos, comportamento sexual, contacto com sangue ou secreções e consumo de álcool. A cada 3 meses foram medidos os níveis de AST, ALT, fosfatase alcalina, gama-glutamil transferase, colesterol, triglicérides e glicemia durante o período de 1-2 anos. Os níveis séricos de hormônios tireoidianos e a presença de auto-anticorpos também foram mensurados. Ultrassonografia abdominal foi realizada em todos os pacientes com elevação persistente dos níveis de AST ou ALT. Foi realizada biópsia hepática em 9 doadores sem diagnóstico definido após investigação clínica. A presença de anticorpos anti-HCV foi novamente pesquisada em 116 doadores no momento da primeira avaliação clínica. Ao final do follow-up (2 anos 71 doadores foram re-testados para a presença do anti-HCV. Nenhum doador se tornou reagente para os marcadores dos virus da hepatite B ou hepatite C, durante o seguimento. Dos 116 doadores, 101 (87% mantiveram níveis séricos de ALT persistentemente aumentados. Obesidade e alcoolismo foram as principais condições associadas à elevação dos níveis séricos de ALT em 91/101 (90,1% doadores. Hipertrigliceridemia, hipercolesterolemia, hipotireoidismo e diabetes mellitus também se associaram a níveis aumentados de ALT. Somente 1/101 (0,9% apresentou hepatite crônica ativa não A-G e 3/101 (2,9% apresentaram biópsia hepática com diagnóstico de hepatite reacional. A determinação rotineira dos níveis de ALT, em bancos de sangue não foi útil para detectar doadores infectados com o vírus da hepatite C no Brasil no período que antecede a soroconversão para anti-vhc.

  10. The cross-sectional association between insulin resistance and circulating complement C3 is partly explained by plasma alanine aminotransferase, independent of central obesity and general inflammation (the CODAM study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Jacobs, M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Vermeulen, V.M.M.J.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    P>Background Complement C3, a central component of the innate immune system is increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the strong association between insulin resistance and circulating amounts of C3 may be

  11. Clinical Observation of Alanine Aminotransferase Abnormality of A Radiologist%一例放射医师丙氨酸氨基转移酶异常的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长军; 李丹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 一放射医师患非酒精性脂肪性肝炎(NASH),血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)异常,治疗效果欠佳,后从事非X线放射工作并自行停止药物治疗,观察2 a,血清ALT基本恢复正常,现予以报道.

  12. Physiological and biochemical effects of morphactin IT 3233 on callus and tumour tissues of Nicotiana tabacum L. cultured in vitro III. Transamination processes catalysed by aminotransferase L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An active alanine transaminase was found both in callus and tumour tissues of tobacco. The enzyme is more active in the latter tissue, and the reaction balance is strongly shifted towards alanine production, while in callus tissue towards glutamic acid formation. Morphactin applied to the tissue cultures stimulates markedly the enzyme activity only in callus. A negative correlation was observed between the intensity of transamination processes and enhanced synthesis of proteins in the tissues studied. Morphactin disturbs nitrogen metabolism in the callus tissue. Tumour tissue is more resistant to the action of this substance. The different hormonal activities in these tissues may be the cause of the different effects of morphactin.

  13. 受试者工作特征曲线评价OCT/ALT在肝细胞癌诊断中的价值%Diagnostic Value of Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase/Alanine Aminotransferase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 秦浩歌; 李彦姝

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶(OCT/ALT)对肝细胞癌的诊断价值.方法 测定87例肝细胞癌、75例慢性肝炎、66例肝硬化和72例健康对照者血清OCT和ALT水平,计算OCT/ALT值.并用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)进行评价.结果 肝细胞癌组、肝炎组、肝硬化组OCT/ALT与对照组比较,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05);肝炎组和肝硬化组OCT/ALT与肝细胞癌组比较,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清OCT/ALT的ROC下面积为0.855,OCT/ALT的最优截断点约为3.32,灵敏度和特异度分别为79.3%和87.3%.结论 通过ROC评价,血清OCT/ALT可作为鉴别诊断肝细胞癌的指标.

  14. Untersuchungen zur genetischen Regulation des Tryptophan-abhängigen Pigmentstoffwechsels von Malassezia furfur und Aufklärung der genetischen Sequenz des Schlüsselenzyms Mf_Tam1, einer Tryptophan-Aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Sarah Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Die Pityriasis versicolor (PV) gilt als eine der häufigsten erregerbedingten Dermatosen weltweit. Sie geht mit einem weiten Spektrum verschiedener Charakteristika einher, wie dem Auftreten von hyperpigmentierten aber auch depigmentierten Läsionen, einer relativen Unempfindlichkeit der Depigmentierungen gegenüber UV-Licht, Fluoreszenz der Läsionen im Woodlicht (311nm) und einem in Relation zur Pilzlast nur gering ausgeprägtem entzündlichem Infiltrat. Bislang ist die Pathogenese der Erkrankung ...

  15. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula; Prause, J.U.; Kivelä, Tero

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  16. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton0416 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton0416 ornithine aminotransferase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 438 TATC...CAGTTTGCCGAGTATATCACCCGTTATTT fb20049 1 PREDICTED: probable ornithine aminotransferase-like [Glycine max] XP_003531161 4.30167E-26 GO:0008483 ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-03-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0025 ref|YP_450021.1| aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ...MAFF 311018] ref|YP_199733.6| aspartate aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10331] dbj|BAE67...747.1| aminotransferase [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF 311018] YP_450021.1 5.5 30% ...

  18. Sequence Classification: 399729 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15610426|ref|NP_217807.1| PROBABLE L-LYSINE - ... EPSILON AMINOTRANSFERASE LAT (L-LYSINE ... AMINOTRANSFERASE) (LYSINE ... 6-AMINOTRANSFERASE) || h ...

  19. Sequence Classification: 389959 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|31794470|ref|NP_856963.1| PROBABLE L-LYSINE - ... EPSILON AMINOTRANSFERASE LAT (L-LYSINE ... AMINOTRANSFERASE) (LYSINE ... 6-AMINOTRANSFERASE) || h ...

  20. Changes in activity of selected adaptive enzymes in the liver of rats following lethal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity was determined of thyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophan pyrolase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The activity of the first two enzymes culminated 6 hours after irradiation and showed a secondary increase between hours 48 and 72 after irradiation. The second two enzymes changed insignificantly in the first 24 hours, while 48 hours after irradiation activity was significantly increased. (M.D.)

  1. Gclust Server: 91919 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (C-terminus part) ROCD2 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOTRANSFERASE) 1 1.00e-10 0.0 0.0 0.0 ...sentative annotation PROBABLE ORNITHINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (C-terminus part) ROCD2 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOT

  2. Gclust Server: 93109 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (N-terminus part) ROCD1 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOTRANSFERASE) 1 1.00e-12 0.0 0.0 0.0 ...sentative annotation PROBABLE ORNITHINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (N-terminus part) ROCD1 (ORNITHINE--OXO-ACID AMINOT

  3. Viral and host factors related with histopathologyc activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels Influencia de factores virales y del huésped en la actividad histológica en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis B y elevación moderada o intermitente de alanina aminotransferasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: viral and host factors are related with progression of pathological lesion in chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed these factors in patients with moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels, and its threshold that determinate significant histological activity. Patients and methods: retrospective analyses of viral and host parameters in 89 consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients biopsied because of moderate or intermittently elevated ALT levels [1-2 x ULN (ULN = 39 IU/mL] and/or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL in AntiHBe+ patients. It was analyzed age, gender, ALT levels, HBeAg, viral load and genotype. It was considered advanced histological lesion a Knodell Score (KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment, lobular inflammation ≥ 2 or fibrosis ≥ 2 according to Scheuer Classification. Results: KS > 7 and histological lesion indicating treatment was found in 47.8 and 60.7% respectively. It was observed relationship between age, male gender, ALT levels and viral load with histological damage (p ULN (69.1 vs. 47.1%, p = 0.04. There were not significant upper frequencies of advanced lesion when a cut-off of 40 years or DNA-HBV > 2 x 10³ IU/mL viral load or serological status HBeAg was considerate. Histological activity was lesser in genotype D patients than those infected with others genotypes (p Objetivo: analizar factores virales y del huésped relacionados con actividad histológica en un subgrupo de pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT, y el umbral que determine daño histológico indicativo de tratamiento. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de parámetros virales y del huésped en 89 pacientes con hepatitis crónica B biopsiados consecutivamente por elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT [1-2 x USN (USN = 39 UI/mL]. Fueron analizados edad, sexo, ALT, HBeAg, carga viral y genotipo. Se consideró como lesion histologica avanzada un Índice de Knodell (IK > 7, e indicativa de tratamiento la inflamación lobulillar ≥ 2 o fibrosis ≥ 2 según la clasificación de Scheuer. Resultados: existió un IK > 7 y lesión indicativa de tratamiento en 47,8 y 60,7%, respectivamente. La edad, sexo varón, ALT y carga viral se relacionaron con lesión avanzada (p USN (69,1 vs. 47,1%, p = 0,04. La frecuencia de lesión avanzada no fue significativamente mayor cuando se consideraron como puntos de corte la edad de 40 años o DNA-VHB > 2 x 10³ UI/mL o positividad de HBeAg. Se observó menor actividad histológica en pacientes con genotipo D respecto a aquellos infectados con otros genotipos (p < 0,05. Conclusión: una mayor frecuencia de lesión avanzada en pacientes con hepatitis crónica B y elevación intermitente o moderada de ALT hacen recomendable la biopsia hepática independientemente de la carga viral y positividad de HBeAg. Factores como la edad, sexo o genotipo pueden ayudar de forma individual a dicha indicación.

  4. Diagnostic value of ornithine carbamoyltransferase/alanine aminotransferase and alpha fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma%鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶和甲胎蛋白联合检测在肝细胞癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彬; 程大也; 孔虹; 解芳

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶(OCT/ALT)比值和甲胎蛋白(AFP)联合检测对肝细胞癌的诊断价值.方法:测定61例肝细胞癌、49例慢性肝炎、45例肝硬化和51名健康体检者血清OCT/ALT比值和AFP水平,应用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)进行评价.结果:肝细胞癌组血清OCT/ALT和AFP水平高于对照组、肝炎组和肝硬化组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清OCT/ALT和AFP的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.808和0.758.OCT/ALT的最优截断点约为3.2,灵敏度和特异度为68.3%和90.3%.AFP的最优截断点约为400ng/ml,灵敏度和特异度分别为60.7%和80.0%.结论:通过ROC曲线评价,在肝细胞癌的诊断中,血清0CT/ALT和AFP联合检测优于两项指标的单独检测.

  5. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients with normal serum alanine aminotransferase by peg-IFN alpha-2a and ribavirin%聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何纲

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价聚乙二醇(PEG)干扰素联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎的临床疗效.方法 使用聚乙二醇干扰素α-2a联合利巴韦林治疗20例ALT正常和25例ALT升高的慢性丙型肝炎患者.分别于治疗 12周、48周及治疗结束后24周评价疗效,并观察药物副反应.结果 ALT正常组所有患者均完成治疗,在治疗12周时的早期应答率为45%(9/20),治疗结束时的应答率为55%(11/20),在治疗结束后随访24周,持续应答率为45%(9/20).2例患者在随访24周内出现ALT升高,血清HCV RNA阳转,复发率为18.2%(2/11),所有疗效指标与ALT升高组对比均无显著差异.结论 PEG干扰素联合利巴韦林治疗ALT正常的慢性丙型肝炎同样具有较好的临床疗效,且副反应较轻.

  6. AcEST: BP919465 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P34037 Definition sp|P34037|HIS8_ZYMMO Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase OS=Zymomonas mobilis Align leng... alignments: (bits) Value sp|P34037|HIS8_ZYMMO Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase OS=Zy... 34 0.50 sp|Q9A671|HIS81_CAUCR His...tidinol-phosphate aminotransferase 1 OS... 34 0.50 sp|A7HCR6|HIS8_ANADF Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase... OS=An... 32 1.4 sp|Q3JEN8|HIS81_NITOC Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase...FLDAVPKDTLVVLDEAY 194 >sp|Q3JEN8|HIS81_NITOC Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase 1 OS=Nitrosococcus oceani

  7. AcEST: DK962734 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0014_K16 630 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0014_K16. 5' end seq ... aminotransferase OS=Prochlo... 42 0.002 sp|Q3YXH0|PAT _SHISS Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella sonn ... ... 42 0.003 sp|Q0TD34|PAT _ECOL5 Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Escherichia c ... aminotransferase OS=Mycobac... 42 0.003 sp|Q31WW1|PAT _SHIBS Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella boyd ... ... 42 0.003 sp|Q1R6Q7|PAT _ECOUT Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Escherichia c ...

  8. TRANSAMINASES ACTIVITY IN THE SAND LIZARD’S SERUM UNDER INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  9. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  10. AcEST: DK948950 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 6e-43 tr|A7Q8Z7|A7Q8Z7_VITVI Chromosome chr9 scaffold_65, whole genome... 177 6e-43 tr|A8J933|A8J933_CHLRE Acetylornithine amin...ition sp|O04866|ARGD_ALNGL Acetylornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial OS=Alnus glutinosa Align length... significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O04866|ARGD_ALNGL Acetylornithine amin...otransferase, mitochond... 172 2e-42 sp|Q58131|ARGD_METJA Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Meth...LAKRLVASSFADRVFFSNSGTEANEAAIKFARKFQR 167 >sp|Q58131|ARGD_METJA Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Methanocaldococcus jannaschi

  11. Prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction in a regional group of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Gluud, C; Schlichting, P; Burcharth, F; Binder, V

    1991-01-01

    -22%) had at least 1 abnormal laboratory value. Serum bilirubin was elevated in 5%, alkaline phosphatases in 8%, aspartate aminotransferases in 4%, and alanine aminotransferases in 8% of the patients. Two per cent had decreased plasma coagulation factors (2.7 and 10) and serum albumin. Further diagnositc...... laboratory value. Serum bilirubin was elevated in 2%, alkaline phosphatases in 18%, asparetate aminotransferases in 3%, and alanine aminotransferases in 10% of the patients. One per cent had decreased plasma coagulation factors (2.7 and 10) and serum albumin concentrations. Three patients (2%) fulfilled the...

  12. UniProt search blastx result: AK287722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se (EC 2.6.1.62) (7,8-diamino-pelargonic acid aminotransferase) (DAPA aminotransferase) - Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum 9.00E-19 ... ...AK287722 J065136M20 Q8K9P0|BIOA_BUCAP Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransfera

  13. Randomized controlled trial of the CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant for migraine prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Tony W; Connor, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Pearlman, Eric; Koppenhaver, Janelle; Fan, Xiaoyin; Lines, Christopher; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J; Michelson, David

    2014-01-01

    in the telcagepant groups, had an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation ≥ 3 × the upper limit of normal and 7 of these also had an aspartate aminotransferase elevation ≥ 3 × the upper limit of normal. Two patients had very high symptomatic transaminase elevations that occurred within 2-6 weeks of...

  14. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  15. Effect of ionising radiation and salt of cadmium on the activity enzymes in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg-1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  16. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0303 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0303 ref|YP_001109469.1| valine-pyruvate aminotransferase [Saccharopol...yspora erythraea NRRL 2338] emb|CAM06544.1| valine-pyruvate aminotransferase [Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338] YP_001109469.1 5.0 33% ...

  18. Degradation of pyrimidines in Saccharomyces kluyveri: transamination of beta-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnackerz, K D; Andersen, G; Dobritzsch, D; Piskur, J

    2008-01-01

    Beta-alanine is an intermediate in the reductive degradation of uracil. Recently we have identified and characterized the Saccharomyces kluyveri PYD4 gene and the corresponding enzyme beta -alanine aminotransferase ((Sk)Pyd4p), highly homologous to eukaryotic gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase...... (GABA-AT). S. kluyveri has two aminotransferases, GABA aminotransferase ((Sk)Uga1p) with 80% and (Sk)Pyd4p with 55% identity to S. cerevisiae GABA-AT. (Sk)Pyd4p is a typical pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferase, specific for alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG), beta-alanine (BAL) and gamma......-aminobutyrate (GABA), showing a ping-pong kinetic mechanism involving two half-reactions and substrate inhibition. (Sk)Uga1p accepts only alpha KG and GABA but not BAL, thus only (Sk)Pydy4p belongs to the uracil degradative pathway....

  19. AcEST: BP920419 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000136_H03 554 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000136_H03. BP920419 CL1240C ... ansferase OS=Plasmodium yoe... 100 8e-21 sp|Q31WW1|PAT _SHIBS Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella boyd ... ... 99 1e-20 sp|Q8Z3L9|PAT _SALTI Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Salmonella ty ... aminotransferase OS=Methano... 99 2e-20 sp|Q83JJ8|PAT _SHIFL Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella flex ... ... 98 2e-20 sp|Q0T0J2|PAT _SHIF8 Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella flex ...

  20. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  1. AcEST: DK947602 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1. 5' end sequence. DK947602 - Show DK947602 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0016_G21 Library YMU02 Length 273 Definition Adiant...inol-phosphate aminotransferase OS=Pseudoalteromonas atlantica (strain T6c / BAA-1087) Align length ... (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids...inol-phosphate aminotransferase OS=Pseudoalteromonas atlanti...s: (bits) Value sp|Q15RU8|HIS8_PSEA6 Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase OS=Ps... 29 6.4 >sp|Q15RU8|HIS8_PSEA6 Histid

  2. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  3. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose viral infections (such as hepatitis or mononucleosis) or to monitor medications that can cause liver- ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) ...

  4. AcEST: BP915528 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GPSGEGYFRLTAFGSRENTLEAVERFK 406 >sp|Q64SY6|DAPAT_BACFR LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase OS=Bacteroides fra...d_95, whole genome... 103 3e-21 tr|B6TIG6|B6TIG6_MAIZE Transaminase/ transferase, transferring n... 101 2e-2...opimelate aminotransferase OS=Geobacter sulfurreducens GN=dapL PE=3 SV=1 Length = 410 Scor...406 >sp|A5GD93|DAPAT_GEOUR LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase OS=Geobacter uraniireducens (strain Rf4) GN=dapL PE=3 SV=1 Leng...6VMN8|Q6VMN8_ORYSJ Putative aminotransferase AGD2 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica GN=AGD2 PE=2 SV=1 Length =

  5. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (P44708) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_HAEIN 8e-56 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q5HE49) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STAAC 2e-51 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q577Y1) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BRUAB 4e-69 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (Q6AD32) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_LEIXX 3e-47 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q8R841) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_THETN 3e-68 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK107595 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107595 002-131-A11 (Q6G322) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_BARHE 2e-12 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O86781) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_STRCO 2e-65 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK105856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105856 001-203-H06 (O83833) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_TREPA 2e-54 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (O84823) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_CHLTR 9e-83 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107318 002-126-E03 (Q5L3P0) Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [i...) (L-glutamine-D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase) (Glucosamine-6-ph GLMS_GEOKA 3e-50 ...

  15. A study on biochemical differences among five different groups of rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zibaee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biodiversity in different rice striped stem borer (Chilo supprressalis populations is very important to adopt suitable integrated pest management procedures. Larvae were collected from five different regions in north of Iran including Gourabzarmikh (Go, Sheikhmahaleh (Sh, Rasht (Ra, Amol (Am and Babol (Ba. Activity levels of five enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase were evaluated in 4th instar larvae. In addition, five non-enzymatic compounds such as glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and urea were also measured. Amount of measured compounds showed significant differences in all groups except for alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model demonstrated that Ba population had the most genetic distance and was separated from other groups. In the second group, Go population had the most genetic distance from others and two groups of Ra and Sh had the least genetic distances.

  16. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  17. Diversity among Leishmania isolates from the Sudan: isoenzyme homogeneity of L. donovani versus heterogeneity of L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M E; Evans, D A; Theander, T G;

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania isolates from patients in the Sudan suffering from either visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis were characterized using a battery of 12 enzymes. Aspartate aminotransferase separated the L. donovani isolates into 2 distinct zymodemes, but the overall results showed no significant...

  18. AcEST: BP917609 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000103_A10 527 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000103_A10. BP917609 CL1240C ... ransferase OS=Plasmodium yoe... 94 4e-19 sp|Q31WW1|PAT _SHIBS Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella boyd ... ransferase OS=Bacillus subti... 92 1e-18 sp|Q83JJ8|PAT _SHIFL Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella flex ... ... 92 2e-18 sp|Q0T0J2|PAT _SHIF8 Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Shigella flex ... ... 92 2e-18 sp|Q8Z3L9|PAT _SALTI Putrescine aminotransferase OS=Salmonella ty ...

  19. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo H. Rauber; Maurício S. Oliveira; Adriano O. Mallmann; Paulo Dilkin; Carlos A. Mallmann; Leandro Z. Giacomini; Vladimir P. Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed) on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive pr...

  20. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Azari; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Ladan Emadi; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Hamid Sharifi; Sara Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters ...

  1. Protective Effects of Kaempferol on Isoniazid- and Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Tung-Yuan; Young, Ton-Ho; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the first-line drugs for antituberculosis (anti-TB) chemotherapy. The levels of serum transaminases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] are abnormal in 27% of patients undergoing INH and RIF treatments and in 19% of patients undergoing treatment with INH alone. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes many toxic substrates, including ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and INH, which ultimately results in liver injury. The ...

  2. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki,Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita,Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  3. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sadeghipour; Maryam Eidi; Ali Ilchizadeh Kavgani; Reza Ghahramani; Saleh Shahabzadeh; Ali Anissian

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in ...

  4. Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farkaad A. Kadir; Faizah Othman; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Farida Hussan; Pouya Hassandarvish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of the dried stems of Tinospora crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. Materials and Methods : The extract was gavaged daily to the rats, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg along with thioacetamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice weekly. To assess the effectivity of extract, against thioacetamide, the activity of aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartat...

  5. Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, V.; Pandey, D.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity. Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. The decreased level of tissue enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and a...

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation and zinc on changes of the activity of adaptive enzymes in the poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum of broiler chicks after single whole-body gamma irradiation in time gap 3., 7., 14. and 21 day. We applied zinc to organism of chicks after irradiation. Our observations showed that most of the changes in the enzyme activity were very different at irradiation groups and zinc groups of chickens compared to controls. (authors)

  7. Effect of monocrotaline on blood-brain barrier permeability in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Carlos; Fernández, María Alejandra; Coll, Sebastián; Coll, Tamara; Malliardi, Pablo; Perazzo, Juan; Filinger, Ester Julia; Lemberg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    We studied if monocrotaline (MCT) portal hypertensive model modifies blood-brain barrier (BBB) condition. Male Wistar rats were used: Group MCT injected i.p. with MCT (60 mg/kg of body weight) and Group Sham (GS) with saline. Forty-four days after injection rats were sacrificed. Trypan blue and Evans blue tests were performed to evaluate BBB integrity in both groups. In cerebrospinal fluid (CF), protein and glucose were determined. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (A...

  8. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758): Biochemical response

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nematdoust Haghi; Ahmed Th. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...

  9. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expres...

  10. Changes of basic metabolic parameters after single gamma irradiation in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms helps us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The presented study focused on changes in the concentration of corticosterone, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers irradiated with gamma rays. The serum corticosterone had increased on day one after irradiation. The increase in serum corticosterone can be ascribed to the stress action of ionizing radiation on the broilers. (authors)

  11. Transamination enzymes activity in the leaves of Sambucus nigrа under the high mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspartate aminotransferase (АsАТ, EC 2.6.1.1 and alanine aminotransferase (АlАТ, EC 2.6.1.2 activities in the leaves of Sambucus nigra L. under the magnesium sulfate (0.5–2.5 g/l influense as an exogenous factor in a model experiment are analysed. The correlation between minaralization level and transaminases activities in the leaves are presented.

  12. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  13. Prevalence and Etiology of Abnormal Liver Tests in an Adult Population in Jilin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; He, Shu Mei; Sun, Jie; Wang, Chunyan; Jiang, Yan Fang; Gu, Qing; Feng, Xiang Wei; Du, Bing; Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Si Qi; Li, Wan Yu; Niu, Jun Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum biochemical liver tests (LTs) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase) and platelet counts are often used to screen for chronic liver disease. We determined the prevalence and etiologies of abnormal LTs in an adult population in Jilin, China. Methods: A total of 3791 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years were interviewed and then underwent ultrasonography and blood tests. Results: The prevalence of abnormal LTs was 14.77...

  14. Protective Effect of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshi Dong; Lianhong Yin; Yan Qi; Lina Xu; Jinyong Peng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the protective effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx (RLTS) against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was evaluated. The results showed that RLTS significantly rehabilitated the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin, which were confirmed using ...

  15. Effect of samh seeds supplementation (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) on liver enzymes and lipid profiles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Faris, Nora A.; Al-sawadi, Ali D.; Alokail, Majed S

    2009-01-01

    Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic of Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. The rat groups received different food (natural diet or high fat content diet) supplemented with 10% or 15% of samh seeds for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes have been measured in diabetic rats liver. In addition, liver lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), trigly...

  16. Fibroscan versus simple noninvasive screening tools in predicting fibrosis in high-risk nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients from Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Pathik, Parikh; Ravindra, Surude; Ajay, Choksey; Prasad, Bhate; Jatin, Patel; Prabha, Sawant

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of Fibroscan versus noninvasive markers, i.e. nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score (NFS); Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST)/platelet ratio (APRI); and AST/Alanine-aminotransferase (AAR) as a screening tool in NAFLD patients with high risk of liver fibrosis. Methods This is a single-center study carried out in patients attending the outpatient department for dyspepsia and diagnosed with fatty liver on ultrasound. L...

  17. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović; Vesna Davidović

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT), in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartu...

  18. Estimation of Specific Salivary Enzymatic Biomarkers in Individuals with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Roji; Khan, S Nubesh; Iqbal, P Safar; Soman, Rino Roopak; Chakkarayan, Jithesh; V. Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host response to periodontal disease includes the release of different enzymes from stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. The enzymes which are produced from these cells are associated with cell injury and cell death like: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Normal enzymatic activity of these enzymes is necessary for healthy functioning of gingiva and periodontium. The aim of the study is ...

  19. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; SONG, JIA-LE; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphata...

  20. Cell Damage, Antioxidant Status, and Cortisol Levels Related to Nutrition in Ski Mountaineering During a Two-Day Race

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Diaz; Fatima Ruiz; Itziar Hoyos; Jaime Zubero; Leyre Gravina; Javier Gil; Jon Irazusta; Susana Maria Gil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities (GR) and C-reacti...

  1. Examination of the relationships between environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds and biochemical liver tests: application of canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing LIU; Drane, Wanzer; Liu, Xuefeng; Wu, Tiejian

    2008-01-01

    This study was to explore the relationships between personal exposure to ten volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biochemical liver tests with the application of canonical correlation analysis. Data from a subsample of the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Serum albumin, total bilirubin (TB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) served as ...

  2. Prevalence and Etiology of Abnormal Liver Tests in an Adult Population in Jilin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhang, Shu Mei He, Jie Sun, ChunYan Wang, Yan Fang Jiang, Qing Gu, Xiang Wei Feng, Bing Du, Wei Wang, Xiao Dong Shi, Si Qi Zhang, Wan Yu Li, Jun Qi Niu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum biochemical liver tests (LTs) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase) and platelet counts are often used to screen for chronic liver disease. We determined the prevalence and etiologies of abnormal LTs in an adult population in Jilin, China.Methods: A total of 3791 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years were interviewed and then underwent ultrasonography and blood tests.Results: The prevalence of abnormal LTs was 14.77% ...

  3. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome in Talca, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; PALOMO, I.; ORREGO, R.; Guzmán, L.; S. Núñez; MOORE-CARRASCO, R.; Icaza, G.; Díaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a core set of disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia that together predict the development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationship between liver enzyme levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in subjects with and without MS. Alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and hs-CRP were measured in 510...

  4. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  5. The effect of BmNPV infection on protein metabolism in silkworm (Bombyx mori larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Etebari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Grasseri is one of the most important diseases of silkworm with significant yield loss, which is caused by nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV. In the present research the effect of this disease on changes of biochemical compounds which are related to protein metabolism in 5th instar larvae were studied. The larvae that showed the grasseri symptoms after contamination with 5.5×10-4 polyhedral/ml were assumed as infected treatment. The hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae in 3 and 5 days after 4th molting were collected and its total protein, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured. The results showed that the amount of all the compounds except urea were considerably different in both groups. Total protein had decreased in infected larvae but activity level of two aminotransferases significantly increased. Therefore, grasseri has a considerable effect on protein metabolism.

  6. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Lothar; Bonora, Roberto; Burtis, Carl A; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Férard, Georges; Ferrero, Carlo A; Forest, Jean-Claude; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F Javier; Hoelzel, Wieland; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen; Kanno, Takashi; Kessner, Art; Klauke, Rainer; Kristiansen, Nina; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Misaki, Hideo; Mueller, Mathias M; Panteghini, Mauro; Pauwels, Jean; Schiele, Françoise; Schimmel, Heinz G; Vialle, Arlette; Weidemann, Gerhard; Schumann, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C and with the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 2. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Creatine Kinase; Part 3. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Lactate Dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Alanine Aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Aspartate Aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference Procedure for the Measurement of Catalytic fication of Four Reference Materials for the Determination of Enzymatic Activity of y-Glutamyltransferase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Creatine Kinase at 37 degrees C. A document describing the determination of preliminary reference values is also in preparation. PMID:12211661

  7. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  8. Serum biochemical values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot. Serum mean biochemical values from shot deer are presented for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus. Mean total protein and albumin increased with age. There was an age-associated increase of gamma globulins. Mean creatine kinase activity and creatinine, albumin and phosphorus concentrations were higher in stags than in hinds. Pregnant hinds had lower mean creatine kinase activity and phosphorus and higher mean alanine aminotransferase and total protein than non-pregnant hinds. Mean calcium concentration increased when deer were agitated before bleeding. PMID:1288472

  9. [Effect of space flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite on enzyme activity of the rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, S; Tigranian, R A

    1983-01-01

    After the 18.5 day Cosmos-1129 flight the activity of 7 glucocorticoid-stimulated enzymes of the rat liver was measured. Immediately postflight the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophan pyrolase and serine dehydrogenase increased. These enzymes rapidly (within several hours) react to increased glucocorticoids. The activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases also increased. These enzymes require many days of a continuous effect of glucocorticoids. The glycogen concentration in the rat liver also grew. At R + 6 the activity of tryptophan pyrolase and serine dehydrogenase decreased and that of the other enzymes returned to normal. The immobilization stress applied postflight led to an increased activity of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrolase. This study gives evidence that after space flight rats are in an acute stress state, evidently, produced by the biosatellite recovery. PMID:6620954

  10. Estudo comparativo entre estibogluconato de sódio BP 88® e antimoniato de meglumina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea II. Toxicidade bioquímica e cardíaca Comparative study between sodium stibogluconate BP 88®and meglumine antimoniate in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. II. Biochemical and cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina R. Saldanha

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a toxicidade de dois antimoniais pentavalentes em 111 pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea. Quarenta e sete pacientes receberam antimoniato de meglumina (Grupo I e 64 pacientes, estibogluconato de sódio BP 88® (Grupo II, 20mg SbV/kg/dia por 20 dias. Realizou-se a avaliação de aminotransferases, fosfatase alcalina, amilase, creatinina, uréia, exame de urina e eletrocardiograma, antes do tratamento e no décimo e vigésimo dias. Observou-se maior freqüência de valores anormais de aminotransferases no décimo e vigésimo dias de tratamento no grupo II (p Toxicity of two antimonial pentavalents were evaluated in 111 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Forty seven patients received meglumine antimoniate (Group I and 64 patients, sodium stibogluconate BP 88® (Group II, 20mg SbV/kg/day for 20 days. Evaluation of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, amilase, creatinine, urea, urine analysis and electrocardiogram were performed at baseline, on the tenth and twentieth day of treatment. Greater frequency of aminotransferase abnormal levels were observed on the tenth and twentieth days in group II (p < 0,001 and a greater proportion of amilase abnormal levels at the tenth day in the same group (p < 0,001. There was a greater variation of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and amilase in the first ten days of treatment in group II (p < 0,01. On the twentieth day there was a greater variation of aminotransferase levels in group II (p = 0,02 and p = 0,03, respectively. Forty three percent of group I and 54% of group II showed electrocardiographic abnormalities (p = 0,30.

  11. Biochemical alterations in the rat following exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide cyanox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanox is an organophosphorus insecticide with an oral LD50 of 580 mg/kg for male rats. For the assessment of the subacute toxicity, two groups of male rats were treated with 11.6 and 29 mg/kg/day of the pesticide for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 2,4,10,16,22 and 8. The compound significantly altered plasma protein electrophoretic pattern, brain and erythrocytes acetylcholinesterase (AchE), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, inorganic phosphorus, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

  12. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...

  13. Combined influence of γ-irradiation and nitrocompounds on the activity of the main ferments of the glutamic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase in the liver of rats in 1, 7 and 15 days after γ-irradiation effect of the dose of 0.5 Gy on the background of consumption by animals of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and nitrosodiethylamine was studied. The combined influence of chemical agents and γ-irradiation modified the effects of nitrocompounds-xenobiotics on the processes of synthesis and dissociation of the glutamic acid as well as the intensity of transamination of reamination by aspartate aminotransferase

  14. Heterotopic pancreatitis causing confusion in small bowel tumor.

    OpenAIRE

    Joskin, J; Bleus, N; Couvreur, T.; TSELIKAS, L; Milicevic, M.

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for acute epigastric pain with nausea and vomiting. Physical examination was suggestive for acute abdomen without peritoneal irritation findings. Blood tests results were as follow: alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 87 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 55 U/L, amylase: 135 U/L, lipase: 69 U/L, total bilirubin: 11,6 mg/l, creatinine: 9 mg/l, C-reactive protein (CRP): 108,4 mg/L, and white blood cells (WBC): 14640/mm3

  15. [Age factors in natural mechanisms of detoxication and curative effect of enterosgel in burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naĭda, I V; Zapadniuk, V I; Povstianoĭ, N E; Bezverkhaia, I S; Zaika, M U; Oranskaia, S A; Shevchenko, Iu N

    1993-01-01

    In the experiment, the age peculiarities of the detoxication system of the liver in burn disease and the effect of enterosgel on them were studied. Decrease in hydroxylase and demethylase activity of hepatic microsomes in relatively stable activity of oxidoreductase as well as increase in activity of aminotransferases, especially that of alanine aminotransferase, which was more pronounced in aged animals, was noted. Under the influence of enterosorption, the increase in functional activity of monooxygenase system of the liver and stabilization of hepatocytic membranes are more pronounced in young animals. This contributed to reduction in lethality, activation of natural mechanisms of detoxication and reparative processes. PMID:8158926

  16. AcEST: DK956810 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TCATGACAGATGGTTTCAATAGTTGCAGAAACATCACTTTGCAATTTCACTGAAGGTGC CAT ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to Bla...pped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3... 5' (603 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.........Value sp|Q54MJ7|ALAM_DICDI Probable alanine aminotransferase, mitochon... 147 3e-...36 sp|P52894|ALA2_HORVU Alanine aminotransferase 2 OS=Hordeum vulga... 140 7e-35 sp|P34106|ALA2_PANMI Alanin

  17. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  18. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutat...

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DapC (Rv0858c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. tuberculosis N-succinyldiaminopimelate aminotransferase, the enzyme which catalyzes the sixth reaction in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway, has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. N-Succinyldiaminopimelate aminotransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DAP-AT; DapC; Rv0858c) has been cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified using standard chromatographic techniques and crystallized in two related crystal forms. Preliminary diffraction data analysis suggests the presence of a monomer in the asymmetric unit of the tetragonal crystal form and a dimer in the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystal form

  20. Nevirapine induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in an HIV infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, is widely prescribed as a part of the combination therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection because of its efficacy and good tolerability. Here, we report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS secondary to nevirapine. The patient had a diffuse, exfoliating exanthema with generalized bullous eruptions that involved the face, trunk and both extremities with elevated hepatic alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities. The condition improved with stoppage of nevirapine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimen, so we attributed this adverse event to nevirapine. A strict vigilance of adverse drug reaction is required in HAART.

  1. Acompanhamento de um modelo de indução de cirrose em ratos mediante vídeolaparoscopia Accompanying of a cirrhosis induction model in rat through the videolaparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Enelruy Ávila Farias; Paulo Roberto Ott Fontes; Cláudia Ramos Rhoden; Márcio Luís Lucas; Márcio Luís Migliavacca Leal; Marcelo Sabedotti; Ernani Luis Rhoden

    2000-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um modelo de vídeolaparoscopia experimental para avaliar a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4) em ratos. Nódulos sobre a superfície hepática e aumento significativo das provas de função hepatobiliar (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, fosfatase alcalina e g -glutamiltranspeptidase) foram observados nos ratos tratados com CCl4. Além disso, cirrose hepática foi diagnosticada por estudo histopatológico em todos os ratos submetido...

  2. Effects on the hemostatic system and liver function in relation to Implanon and Norplant. A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberg, N; van Beek, A; Gunnervik, C; Hulkko, S; Hirvonen, E; Larsson-Cohn, U; Bennink, H C

    1998-08-01

    In this prospective randomized clinical trial, two long-term contraceptive implants were studied with respect to hemostasis and liver function in 86 healthy young women. The two implants used were Implanon, containing the progestagen etonogestrel (the biologically active metabolite of desogestrel) and Norplant, the implant containing the progestagen levonorgestrel. The results of the trial showed that both implants had similar small effects on the hemostatic system that are not suggestive of a tendency towards thrombosis. The effect on liver function was characterized by increases in total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase and decreases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:9773263

  3. Spathodea campanulata Extract Attenuates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Phyllis Elsie Dadzeasah; Charles Ansah

    2013-01-01

    Spathodea campanulata, well known for its traditional medicinal uses was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. Six groups of mice were pre-treated with 100, 300 and 625 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of Spathodea campanulata stem bark, N-acetyl cysteine (300 mg/kg; p.o) or distilled water for 5 days before they were intoxicated with a single dose of acetaminophen (600 mg/kg; p.o). Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase an...

  4. CONSUMO DE ÁLCOOL E A INFLUÊNCIA DO EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO NA ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE RATOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Righi; Camilo Amaro de Carvalho; Lucas Mota Ribeiro; Daise Nunes Queiroz da Cunha; Ana Carolina Silva Paiva; Antônio José Natali; Eveline Torres Pereira; Luciana Moreira Lima

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Introdução: Biomarcadores vem sendo utilizados para monitorar o uso do álcool e, atualmente, os mais sensíveis e específicos são enzimas hepáticas, por exemplo, gama glutamiltransferase (GGT), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP). Objetivo: Verificar, a partir da experimentação animal, as alterações provocadas pelo uso de álcool e pela prática de atividade física nas enzimas hepáticas e pancreáticas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro r...

  5. Plasma chemistry references values in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, J T; Overduin, L M

    1990-04-01

    Reference values for 17 plasma chemical variables in African greys. Amazons, cockatoos and macaws were established for use in avian clinical practice. The inner limits are given for the percentiles P(2.5) and P(97.5) with a probability of 90%. The following variables were studied: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urea/uric acid ratio, osmolality, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, bile acids, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Differences between methods used and values found in this study and those reported previously are discussed. PMID:18679934

  6. Sequence Classification: 891219 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase) involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathwa...ys; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; Uga1p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321456 ...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of YgjG from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YgjG is a putrescine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase that belongs to the class III aminotransferases. In this study, YgjG from E. coli was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Putrescine, one of the polyamines that are found in virtually all living organisms, has been implicated as an important biological material. The protein YgjG is involved in the putrescine-degradation pathway in Escherichia coli. The enzyme is a putrescine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase that belongs to the class III aminotransferases. In this study, YgjG from E. coli was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.1, b = 129.5, c = 131.3 Å, and is estimated to contain four molecules of YgjG per asymmetric unit

  8. Biomarkers of fibrosis and impaired liver function in chronic hepatitis C: how well do they predict clinical outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L.; Rockstroh, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    levels of the fibrosis marker hyaluronic acid are a strong predictor of clinical complications. A smaller study found hyaluronic acid and two other fibrosis tests, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fib-4, to be independent predictors of mortality when included in models with...

  9. Cloning and verification of the Lactococcus lactis pyrG gene and characterization of the gene product, CTP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Willemoës, M.; Martinussen, Jan;

    2001-01-01

    The pyrG gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, encoding CTP synthase, has been cloned and sequenced. It is flanked upstream by an open reading frame showing homology to several aminotransferases and downstream by an open reading frame of unknown function. L. lactis strains harboring disrupted...

  10. The localization of glycollate-pathway enzymes in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, N; Merrett, M J

    1975-05-01

    Isolation of organelles from broken-cell suspensions of phototrophically grown Euglena gracilis Klebs was achieved by isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients. 2. Equilibrium densities of 1.23g/cm3 for peroxisome-like particles, 1.22g/cm3 for mitochondria and 1.17g/cm3 for chloroplasts were recorded. 3. The enzymes glycollate dehydrogenase, glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase, serineglyoxylate aminotransferase, aspartate-alpha-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, hydroxy pyruvate reductase and malate dehydrogenase were present in peroxisome-like particles. 4. Unlike higher plants glycollate dehydrogenase and glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase were present in the mitochondria of Euglena. 5. Rates of glycollate and D-lactate oxidation were additive in the mitochondria, and, although glycollate dehydrogenase was inhibited by cyanide, D-lactate dehydrogenase activity was unaffected. 6. Glycollate oxidation was linked to O2 uptake in mitochondria but not in peroxisome-like particles. This glycollate-dependent O2 uptake was inhibited by antimycin A or cyanide. 7. The physiological significance of glycollate metabolism in Euglena mitochondria is discussed, with special reference to its role in photorespiration in algae. PMID:1156408

  11. SwissProt search result: AK102306 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 5e-11 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK105642 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 4e-14 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 3e-19 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-18 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 4e-13 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-13 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_RAT 5e-13 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK103274 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sor (EC 2.6.1.19) ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC 2.6.1.22) (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-12 ...

  19. Stereoselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of the four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine and pharmacological characterization at human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Sophie; Jensen, Anders A.; Maurat, Vincent; Gu, Xin; Sagot, Emmanuelle; Aitken, David J; Bolte, Jean; Gefflaut, Thierry; Bunch, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine, l-CBG-I, l-CBG-II, l-CBG-III, and l-CBG-IV, were synthesized in good yield and high enantiomeric excess, from the corresponding cis and trans-2-oxalylcyclobutanecarboxylic acids 5 and 6 using the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AAT...

  20. The liver in consecutive patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P less than 0.0001) compared with non-obese controls. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly raised only in patients with fatty change. With respect to serum bilirubin and plasma cholesterol concentrations no...

  1. Carvacrol partially reverses symptoms of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Senturk, Hakan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Colak, Suat; Ozmen, Ayse; Kolankaya, Durdane

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the protective effects of carvacrol on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Hence, this present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of the strong antioxidant, carvacrol, on the symptoms of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Carvacrol at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to diabetic rats for a period of 7 days after the onset of diabetes. Food-water intake and body weight changes were daily recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Although treatment of diabetic rats with oral administration of carvacrol resulted in a slight reduction in serum glucose level and significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in comparison with diabetic control rats, there were no significant differences in serum insulin levels, food-water intake values and body weight changes. Despite the inadequacy of carvacrol on diabetes treatments, it was determined to have at least a partially protective role on liver enzymes. PMID:23579248

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK105000 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105000 001-004-C12 AF434658.1 Leptospira interrogans putative protease (ppa), hypothetical pro ... branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (ilvE), DNA ... polymerase III, gamma subunit (dp3X), chromosomal ... replication initiation protein A (dna A), DNA ... polymerase III, beta subunit (dna N), and pu ...

  3. Heat shock proteins 27 and 70 contribute to the protection of Schisandrin B against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiying; Zhang, Jishun; Li, Libo; Shen, Longqing; Li, Qingyi; Zou, Yu; Du, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhibo

    2016-04-01

    Schisandrin B is a hepatoprotective component isolated from a traditional Chinese herb, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study determined the effect of Schisandrin B on d-galactosamine -induced liver injury and the role of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 against liver injury in mice. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine to mice, and Schisandrin B was given orally. The protein and gene expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 were detected by western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Liver tissues were subjected to histological evaluation, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum were measured. Pretreatment of Schisandrin B significantly attenuated d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. This result was evidenced by improved alteration of histopathological hepatic necrosis and reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum. The hepatoprotective effect was accompanied with overexpression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 both at the protein and mRNA levels. However, the aforementioned actions of Schisandrin B were all markedly suppressed by the heat shock protein inhibitor quercetin. Heat shock proteins 27 and 70 were involved in the protective effect of Schisandrin B against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. PMID:26666831

  4. Association between ALT level and the rate of cardio/cerebrovascular events in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Ryom, Lene; Kovari, Helen;

    2013-01-01

    An inverse association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in the general population. We investigated associations between ALT levels and the risk of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in a large cohort ...

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK061967 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061967 001-042-G12 CR457045.1 Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZP...Do834H0811D for gene OAT, ornithine aminotransferase (gyrate atrophy); complete cds, incl. stopcodon.|PRI PRI 1e-26 +3 ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK104694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104694 001-036-H12 CR457045.1 Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZP...Do834H0811D for gene OAT, ornithine aminotransferase (gyrate atrophy); complete cds, incl. stopcodon.|PRI PRI 4e-22 +2 ...

  7. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a series of 4-substituted glutamate analogues and pharmacological characterization at human glutamate transporters subtypes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaux, Sebastien; Kusk, Mie; Sagot, Emanuelle;

    2005-01-01

    A series of nine L-2,4-syn-4-alkylglutamic acid analogues (1a-i) were synthesized in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (>99% ee) from their corresponding 4-substituted ketoglutaric acids (2a-i), using the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) from pig heart or E. coli. The synthesized...

  8. Sequence Classification: 389262 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|31793773|ref|NP_856266.1| 4-AMINOBUTYRATE AMINOTRA...NSAMINASE) (GABA AMINOTRANSFERASE) (GABA-AT) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/31793773 ... ...NSFERASE GABT (GAMMA-AMINO-N-BUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE) (GABA TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMATE:SUCCINIC SEMIALDEHYDE TRA

  9. Sequence Classification: 399013 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15609726|ref|NP_217105.1| 4-AMINOBUTYRATE AMINOTRA...NSAMINASE) (GABA AMINOTRANSFERASE) (GABA-AT) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/15609726 ... ...NSFERASE GABT (GAMMA-AMINO-N-BUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE) (GABA TRANSAMINASE) (GLUTAMATE:SUCCINIC SEMIALDEHYDE TRA

  10. AcEST: DK951501 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0011_J07 690 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_J07. 5' end seq ... minotransferase OS=Pro... 74 7e-13 sp|Q1MR87|DAPAT_LAW IP LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase OS=Law ... 74 ...

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. A preliminary study in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C E; Taylor, P E; Pindyck, J; Choo, Q L; Bradley, D W; Kuo, G; Houghton, M

    1990-01-01

    In a survey carried out from 1985 through 1986, volunteer blood donors to The Greater New York Blood Program were tested for two surrogate markers for non-A, non-B hepatitis--elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. Stored serum samples from selected donors were also recently tested for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). Anti-HCV was detected in 0.9% to 1.4% of donors and was higher in black and Hispanic donors than in white donors. Anti-HCV prevalence increased with increasing age through the fourth decade of life, but decreased thereafter, possibly reflecting the disappearance of detectable antibody with time. Anti-HCV correlated with both alanine aminotransferase level and the presence or absence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. These associations suggest that donor screening for elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen was, as expected, at least partially effective in preventing transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. The detection of anti-HCV in donors who have neither an elevation of alanine aminotransferase level nor presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen suggests that donor screening for anti-HCV will further reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis. PMID:2104548

  12. The essential oil of Artemisia capillaris protects against CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghan Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the hepatoprotective effect of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Asteraceae, on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assayed. Administration of the essential oil of A. capillaris at 100 and 50 mg/kg to mice prior to CCl4 injection was shown to confer stronger in vivo protective effects and could observably antagonize the CCl4-induced increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and malondialdehyde levels as well as prevent CCl4-induced decrease in the antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.01. The oil mainly contained β-citronellol, 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, thymol and myrcene. This finding demonstrates that the essential oil of A. capillaris can protect hepatic function against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

  13. The study of 201 TICl short-term effects on rat serum factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl-201 administration for cardial scan using SPECT has been performed for more than 4 decades, while in Iran it has been produced and used for 17 years. Although this radiopharmaceutical is injected at sub-pharmacological doses to the patients, there has been no documented research on the short-term effects on the tissues such as heart and liver, according to the best of our knowledge. In this work, the radiopharmaceutical effects on hepatic serum factors such as, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase have been investigated. The experiments were performed for periods of 1, 4 and 24 hours post injection of the tracer to 12 rats in each group in comparison with the negative control group. The results demonstrated a slight serum bilirubin difference in two groups, while significant differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were detected. The results of this study offer some valuable information on the serum biochemical factors and Tl-201 administration relationship which is not only important in the interpretation of the clinical biochemistry tests, but also would impose limitations on the application of this tracer in patients with hepatic disorders. Further investigations on the human patients must be conducted.

  14. Protective effect of Tetracera scandens L.leaf extract against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tung; Bui; Thanh; Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Huong; Le-Thi-Thu; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Loi; Vu; Duc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective potential of ethanolic extracts of Tetracera scandens L.(T.scandens) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in liver tissues.Methods:Dried leaf powder of T.scandens was extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue.Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extracts orally once daily for one week.Animals were subsequently administered with a single dose of CCl4(I mL/kg body weight,intraperitoneal injection).Various assays,such as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,lipid peroxidation,protein oxidation(carbonyl protein group),tumor necrosis factor alpha,catalase,superoxide dismutase,and glutathione peroxidase,were used to assess damage caused by CCl4 and the protective effects of the ethanol extract on liver tissues.Results:Hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 was evidenced by a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level,lipid peroxidation,protein carbonyl group,and tumor necrosis factor alpha,as well as decreased activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes(catalase.superoxide dismutase.and glutathione peroxidase).Treatment with ethanolic T.scandens extracts prevented all of these typically observed changes in CCl4-treated rats.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that T.scandens has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat.which may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  15. Effect of ulinastatin on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Ma; Zhen-hua Ma; Xiao-lin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Totally 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated control group (SO group), ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group) and ulinastatin group (UTI group). Liver in I/R group underwent 1 h of reperfasion after 30 min of ischemia. In UTI group, UTI (2×104 U/kg) was administered to rats 30 min before modeling. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in serum were measured and the levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in liver were determined. The histological changes of liver were observed. Results The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and TNF-α in serum were significantly increased in I/R group compared with those in UTI group (P<0.05). The levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in liver were significantly higher in I/R group than in UTI group (P<0.05).Histological examination of liver indicated that the damages were more severe in I/R group than in UTI group.Conclusion UTI has the ability to inhibit the production of TNF-α and oxyradical, and ameliorate microcirculatory dysfunction in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfasion injury.

  16. Deferasirox in iron-overloaded patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes: Results from the large 1-year EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Finelli, Carlo; Porta, Matteo Della;

    2010-01-01

    The prospective 1-year EPIC study enrolled 341 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); although baseline iron burden was >2500ng/mL, approximately 50% were chelation-naïve. Overall median serum ferritin decreased significantly at 1 year (p=0.002). Decreases occurred irrespective of whether....... Alanine aminotransferase levels decreased significantly; change correlated significantly with reduction in serum ferritin (p...

  17. INTER-RELAÇÕES ENTRE A FUNÇÃO HEPÁTICA, LIPIDOGRAMA E OS DISTÚRBIOS INFLAMATÓRIOS DO ENDOMÉTRIO (ENDOMETRITES PUERPERAIS AGUDAS, RETENÇÃO DOS ANEXOS FETAIS E CATARROS GENITAIS) DE FÊMEAS BOVINAS DA RAÇA HOLANDESA

    OpenAIRE

    Regiane Machado de Souza; Melina Marie Yasuoka; Diego Antonio Leão; Eduardo Harry Birgel Junior

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to assess the relationship among hepatic function,lipid profile and endometrium inflammatory disorders (acutepostpartum endometritis, placental retention and genital catarrhaldischarges), 126 blood samples were collected from Holsteincows. Hepatic function was assessed by total serum protein,albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gammaglutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin measurement. Lipidprofile assessment was measured by serum levels of cholesterol,triglycerides,...

  18. Effect of Some Herbal Plants on Liver Function of Rats Treated with Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. ALGhwij, A. M. Ghoneim, A. E. Said and G. A. Abd-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Curcumin (CCM, Cinnamon (CNN and Ginger (GE had been considered to possess antioxidant activities. This study aimed to investigate their protection effect against trichloroethylene (TCE-induced hepatotoxicity and to demonstrate its possible mode of action. Methods: Rats were fed CCM, CNN and GE singly with or without 5mg/l of TCE in drinking water. The rat were killed after treatment period of 8 weeks, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, bilirubin, proteins, glucose, albumin and triglycerides were determined. Results: TCE- receiving rat exhibited significant changes in biomarkers of liver function to indicate liver injury. The CCM containing diet significantly ameliorated the serum aminotransferases, especially ALAT, total protein and albumin. The CNN containing diet significantly ameliorated the total protein and albumin. The GE containing diet significantly ameliorated the serum aminotransferases, especially ALAT. In conclusion, this work indicated that CCM is the most herbal plant which can protected and alleviated the liver function.

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK058999 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058999 001-020-G08 J01804.1 S.typhimurium his operon encoding ATP phosphoribosyl transferase ( ... hosphate aminotransferase (hisC) complete cds, and imidazole -glycerol phosphate dehydratase (hisB), 5' end.|BCT ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK060677 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060677 001-029-B10 AF038578.2 Pseudomonas stutzeri gyrase A subunit (gyrA) gene, partial cds; ... te mutase/prephenate dehydratase (aroQp/pheA), and imidazole ... acetol phosphate aminotransferase (hisHb) genes, c ...

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK058999 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058999 001-020-G08 AB091436.1 Burkholderia multivorans genes for UDP-N-glucosamine 1-carboxyvi ... ydrogenase, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, imidazole glycerol-phosphate dehydratase, probable transmembr ... e amidotransferase, phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole ... carboxamide ribotide isomerase, imidazole ... glycerol ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK061778 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061778 001-039-D09 AB091436.1 Burkholderia multivorans genes for UDP-N-glucosamine 1-carboxyvi ... ydrogenase, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, imidazole glycerol-phosphate dehydratase, probable transmembr ... e amidotransferase, phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole ... carboxamide ribotide isomerase, imidazole ... glycerol ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK105065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105065 001-044-F05 AF038578.2 Pseudomonas stutzeri gyrase A subunit (gyrA) gene, partial cds; ... te mutase/prephenate dehydratase (aroQp/pheA), and imidazole ... acetol phosphate aminotransferase (hisHb) genes, c ...

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK058999 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058999 001-020-G08 AF038578.2 Pseudomonas stutzeri gyrase A subunit (gyrA) gene, partial cds; ... te mutase/prephenate dehydratase (aroQp/pheA), and imidazole ... acetol phosphate aminotransferase (hisHb) genes, c ...

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK061778 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061778 001-039-D09 J01804.1 S.typhimurium his operon encoding ATP phosphoribosyl transferase ( ... hosphate aminotransferase (hisC) complete cds, and imidazole -glycerol phosphate dehydratase (hisB), 5' end.|BCT ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK107310 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107310 002-126-D06 J01804.1 S.typhimurium his operon encoding ATP phosphoribosyl transferase ( ... hosphate aminotransferase (hisC) complete cds, and imidazole -glycerol phosphate dehydratase (hisB), 5' end.|BCT ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK059281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059281 001-025-D02 AF038578.2 Pseudomonas stutzeri gyrase A subunit (gyrA) gene, partial cds; ... te mutase/prephenate dehydratase (aroQp/pheA), and imidazole ... acetol phosphate aminotransferase (hisHb) genes, c ...

  8. Metabolism of β-valine via a CoA-dependent ammonia lyase pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otzen, Marleen; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Postema, Christiaan P.; Wijma, Hein J.; Heberling, Matthew M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Janssen, Dick B.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas species strain SBV1 can rapidly grow on medium containing β-valine as a sole nitrogen source. The tertiary amine feature of β-valine prevents direct deamination reactions catalyzed by aminotransferases, amino acid dehydrogenases, and amino acid oxidases. However, lyase- or aminomutase-me

  9. Sequence Classification: 445208 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|37524309|ref|NP_927653.1| valine...--pyruvate aminotransferase (transaminase C) (alanine--valine transaminase) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/37524309 ...

  10. Serum Mac-2 binding protein is a novel biomarker for chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Tomohiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Ueda, Makiko; Hata, Tomoki; Kawamoto, Koichi; Takamatsu, Shinji; Mizutani, Kayo; Shimomura, Mayuka; Sobajima, Tomoaki; Fujii, Hironobu; Nakayama, Kotarosumitomo; Nishino, Kimihiro; Yamada, Makoto; Kumada, Takashi; Ito, Toshifumi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2bp) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers (HV), 162 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 94 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were enrolled in this study. We measured serum Mac-2bp using our developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Additional biochemical variables were measured using an automated analyzer (including aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, and amylase levels) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen). The ability of Mac-2bp to predict CP diagnosis accurately was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. RESULTS: Serum Mac-2bp levels were significantly increased in CP patients compared to HV (P < 0.0001) and PDAC patients (P < 0.0001). Area under the ROC curve values of Mac-2bp for the discrimination of CP from HV and PDAC were 0.727 and 0.784, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that serum Mac-2bp levels were independent determinants for CP diagnosis from HV and PDAC patients. Immunohistological staining showed that Mac-2bp was expressed faintly in the pancreas tissues of both CP and PDAC patients. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in patients with CP or PDAC. Serum Mac-2bp levels were highly correlated with protein levels of alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and C-reactive protein, but not amylase, suggesting that the damaged liver produces Mac-2bp. CONCLUSION: Measurement of serum Mac-2bp may be a novel and useful biomarker for CP diagnosis as well as liver fibrosis in the general population. PMID:27158210

  11. Liver synthesis function in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with other liver tests A função de síntese hepática em alcoolistas crônicos assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos. Correlações com outros testes hepáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver function and its correlation with bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were evaluated in 30 male chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics admitted into the psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Hypoalbuminemia, lowered prothrombin activity, hypotransferrinemia and hypofibrinogenemia were detected in 32 %, 32 %, 28 %, and 24 % of patients, respectively. Transferrin was elevated in 8 %. Greater prevalence of hyperbilirubinemia was found in patients with lowered prothrombin activity, hypofibrinogenemia, or hypotransferrinemia. No correlation was found between serum bilirubin or aminotransferase levels and normal or elevated albumin levels, time or activity of prothrombin, and fibrinogen levels. Serum alkaline phosphatase was elevated in normoalbuminemics and gamma-glutamyltransferase in patients with lowered prothrombin activity. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with hypofibrinogenemia, hypotransferrinemia with elevated aspartate aminotransferase or gamma-glutamyltransferase, and hypertransferrinemia with elevation of alanine aminotransferase. These data indicated the occurrence of hepatic dysfunction due to liver damage caused directly by alcohol or by alcoholism-associated nutritional deficiencies.A função hepática e suas correlações com a bilirrubina e as enzimas hepáticas foram avaliados em 30 alcoolistas crônicos do sexo masculino, assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos, internados em hospital psiquiátrico para desintoxicação e tratamento do alcoolismo. Hipoalbuminemia, hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogenemia e hipotransferrinemia ocorreram em 32%, 32%, 24% e 28% dos pacientes, respectivamente. A transferrina estava elevada em 8%. Maior prevalência de hiperbilirrubinemia foi encontrada em pacientes com hipoatividade da protrombina, hipofibrinogemia e hipotransferrinemia. Não observou-se correlações entre os níveis séricos da bilirrubina e das aminotransferases e os níveis normais

  12. Immunological changes in different patient populations with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, Laszlo; Meggyes, Matyas; Halasz, Melinda; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Par, Alajos; Par, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate killer inhibitory and activating receptor expression by natural killer (NK), natural killer T-like (NKT-like) and CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with elevated and with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT). METHODS: The percentage of peripheral blood Treg cells, KIR2DL3, ILT-2, KIR3DL1, CD160, NKG2D, NKG2C expressing NK, T and NKT-like cells, cytokine production and NK cytotoxicity were determined by flow cytometry. Twenty-one patients with chronic HCV infection with elevated alanine aminotransferase, 11 HCV carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the percentage of total T, NK or NKT-like cells between study groups. Comparing the activating and inhibitory receptor expression by NK cells obtained from HCV carriers with PNALT and chronic HCV hepatitis patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase, NKG2D activating receptor expression was the only receptor showing a significant difference. NKG2D expression of NK cells was significantly lower in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase. The expression of CD160, NKG2D and NKG2C activating receptor by CD8+ T cells were significantly lower in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis than in healthy controls and in HCV carriers with PNALT. Plasma TGF-β1 levels inversely correlated with NKG2D expression by NK cells. In vitroTGF-β1 treatment inhibited NK cells cytotoxic activity and downregulated NKG2D expression. CD8+ T cells from HCV carriers with PNALT showed significantly elevated expression of CD160, NKG2D and NKG2C activating receptors compared to chronic HCV patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase. Enhanced expression of inhibitory KIR2DL3 receptor, and decreased ILT-2 expression on NK cells were also found in chronic hepatitis C patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a complex

  13. Alterações clínicas e laboratoriais anteriores ao desenvolvimento do delirium tremens Clinical and laboratorial alterations previous at the delirium tremens

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    Paulo Borini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e trinta pacientes alcoolistas crônicos do sexo masculino internados em hospital psiquiátrico para tratamento do alcoolismo foram examinados clínica e laboratorialmente dentro das primeiras 24 horas da internação. Treze pacientes que desenvolveram delirium tremens (DT após a internação (grupo I constituem a casuística deste estudo que visa avaliar a ocorrência de alterações clínicas, hematológicas, bioquímicas hepáticas e eletrolíticas que antecedem ao aparecimento das manifestações do DT. Para análises comparativas foram estudados dois grupos de 26 pacientes cada um, constituídos de pacientes que não entraram em DT na internação atual mas com história pregressa de DT (grupo II e pacientes aleatoriamente arrolados - amostra aleatória simples obtida empregando tabela de números aleatórios fornecida por computador - que nunca entraram em DT (grupo III. Os pacientes do grupo I apresentavam média de idade significativamente mais baixa e fisicamente encontravam-se em pior estado geral que os do grupo III. As frequências de taxas elevadas de aminotransferases e de hipomagnesemia foram significativamente maiores nos grupos I e II que no grupo III. Os valores plasmáticos médios das aminotransferases, especialmente da aspartato-aminotransferase, estavam significativamente mais elevados nos grupos I e II que no grupo III.Thirteen alcoholic male patients that developed delirium tremens (DT after admission in a psychiatric hospital for treatment of alcoholism (group I had their clinical and laboratorial records examined. The laboratory samples were taken during the phase previous at the DT. Data on this group were compared to those of two other groups of alcoholics - 26 patients each - that did not develop DT in the present admission, with (group II or without (group III previous history of DT. The patients of group I had significantly lower average age and worse general conditions than the patients of group III. The

  14. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements. (Auth.)

  15. Serum biochemistry in Andean flamingos (Phoenicoparrus andinus): natural versus artificial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, M Cecilia; Parada, Mario

    2005-09-01

    A study of 10 clinical pathology values in four groups of Andean flamingo chicks (Phoenicoparrus andinus) was conducted to evaluate an artificial feeding program in Chile. Three groups were fed controlled diets (groups 2000, 2001, and 2002) with quantitative differences in their nutritional content. A fourth group of free-living Andean flamingo chicks was used as normal controls. Nutritional management techniques used in 2002 resulted in hematologic values with similar levels of total protein, globulins, albumin, cholesterol, urea, phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and calcium to those obtained in free-living chicks. In addition, final weight, physical condition, and plumage in flamingo chicks of group 2002 were considered satisfactory to face local climatic conditions and nomadic activity. These results may be useful as reference values and help to improve conservation management and veterinary care of this species. PMID:17312761

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

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    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  17. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  18. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  19. Effect of parenterally administered cystamine and gammaphos (WR-2721) on some biochemical parameters in dog blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects were studied of intravenous and intramuscular administration of radioprotectives cystamine and gammaphos in dogs on the biochemical parameters of the blood serum. The activities were studied of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase. The contents were determined of total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, lipids, calcium, sodium and potassium. Cystamine was shown to be hepatotoxic. The intramuscular administration of gammaphos was found to be more advantageous than of cystamine. Only slight increase was observed in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and alpha-amylase. With cystamine, the changes in all biochemical parameters were most marked. (M.D.). 17 figs., 18 refs

  20. PROTECTIVE ABILITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN RATS

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    Pingale Shirish S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Momordica charantia on the experimental hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Carbon tetrachloride was administered once and simultaneously suspension of dry fruit powder was prepared in aqueous medium and was daily administered at a dose level of 1mg/kg body weight for 4 days. Silymarin was used as a standard drug for this study. Administration of carbon tetrachloride showed significant changes in the levels of serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total proteins levels, however necrosis, collagen deposition and altered hepatic architecture were also observed. Markers of liver injury, altered aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin etc. and morphological changes such as necrosis and collagen deposition were significantly decreased in the rats treated with Momordica charantia fruit powder. These results suggest that the Momordica charantia showed hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage and may be a potential clinical application for treatment of liver diseases.

  1. Effects of traditional homemade koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics in sedentary men exposed to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, N; Kısadere, İ; Balaban, C; Kadiralieva, N

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of koumiss on some hematological and biochemical characteristics of persons who exercise. Eighteen sedentary males were assigned to three equal groups: koumiss (K), koumiss + exercise (KE) and exercise alone (E). Leukocytes (WBC), differential leucocyte count, erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assessed In blood samples. By the end of the study, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels tended to decrease in all groups, but the decrease was significant only at day 15 for the KE group. HDL tended to be increased in all groups at day 15, but the increase was significant only in the KE group. We found that koumiss had beneficial effects on some hematological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:24893332

  2. Enzymes and muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plebani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle disorders may result in release of muscle enzymes into the circulation and give increased serum enzyme activity. A variety of enzymes routinely determined in the clinical laboratory may be elevated, but creatine kinase is the enzyme present in the highest concentration in muscle, and in every variety of muscle disease is the serum enzyme which shows the greatest incidence and degree of elevation. Aspartate aminotransferase is the enzyme associated most significantly with inflammation. A diagnostic algorithm based on the combined measurement of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and aldolase has been found to discriminate muscular distrophies from polymyositis and other myopathies. This combination of laboratory tests has diagnostic application and thus allows the clinician to better select patients who need to have a skeletal muscle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure.

  3. Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Neven; Pangercic, Ana; Vargovic, Martina; Barsic, Bruno; Vince, Adriana; Kuzman, Ilija

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Papic et al. (2011) Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e2–e5. Elevation of liver transaminase levels is a frequent observation during systemic infections. The aim of our study was to investigate liver damage during pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 infection in comparison with seasonal influenza. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma‐glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were significantly higher in patients with pandemic influenza compared to seasonal influenza, which was strongly correlated with hypoxia. Moreover, a positive correlation between C‐reactive protein and serum GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase was noticed. Our findings support the hypothesis that the pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 is an illness with a significant immune response to infection leading to hepatocellular injury. PMID:21951624

  4. A study on interaspecific biodiversity of eight groups of silkworm (Bombyx mori) by biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAYVANETEBARI; S.Z.MIRHOSEINI; L.MATINDOOST

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of biodiversity in different races and lines of silkworm (Bombyx mori) is very useful for breeding programs and production of high efficiency hybrids. In this study eight groups of silkworm were selected including 103, 107, Xihang 1 and 2 of Japanese origin and 104, 110, Koming 1 and 2 of Chinese origin. The activity levels of three enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in haemolymph of fifth instar larva were measured. Moreover, the quantitative amount of total protein, cholesterol and glucose of haemolymph was evaluated.The data reveal that the activity level of measured macromolecules except for alkaline phosphatase were significantly different in all the groups. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model separated line 104 from other groups. Two groups of Koming 1 and Xihang 1 had the most intergroup similarities.

  5. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  6. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432 on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto,Ko

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432, attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the value of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in serum and hepatic tissue after hepatectomy were serially measured, and these values were significantly lower in Picibanil treated animals than in control animals. Free radical production in the regenerating liver was also measured by electron spin resonance spectrometry, and OK-432 injection significantly reduced free radical production. These results suggested that OK-432 reduced hepatocellular damage in regenerating liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  7. The influence of potassium and calcium ions on nitrogen metabolism of cucumber seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was found that K+ or Ca2+ deficiency in a nitrate or ammonium medium increased the amount of accumulated total and non-protein nitrogen in some organs of cucumber seedlings, as also caused changes in accumulated potassium and calcium. Lack of K+ or Ca2+ in a medium which did not contain nitrogen led to an increased level of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the cotyledons and roots of cucumbers. Similar changes in the activity of these enzymes were noted in certain organs of seedlings growing in nitrate or ammonium medium with decreased K+ or Ca2+ contents, although the magnitude of these changes depended upon the applied dosage of these cations, the form of mineral nitrogen, developmental phase of plants and the plant organ dealt with.

  8. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PUNICA GRANATUM FLOWER ON BIOMARKERS AND ECG CHANGES IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib N.A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG against isoproterenol (ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Creatine kinase (CK-MB, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST in serum. Altered ECG pattern with ST segment elevation, which conforms the MI. Oral pretreatment with PG at 400mg/kg and Vitamin E (100mg/kg as a standard daily for a period of 28 days showed significant decrease in serum cardiac marker enzymes level and ECG alterations. Thus the result suggests that PG has cardioprotective effect in ISO induced myocardial infracted rats.

  9. Suppressive Effect of Kampo Formula "Juzen-taiho-to" on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Miura, Nobuhiko; Onosaka, Satomi; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Nagatsu, Akito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pretreatment with the Japanese herbal medicine, "Juzen-taiho-to" (JTX), had an ameliorative effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity through anorexia prevention. Mice injected with CCl4 exhibited severe anorexia. Moreover, CCl4 increased the plasma levels of hepatic injury markers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), lipid peroxidation, and hepatic Ca(2+) levels. Pretreatment with JTX recovered the CCl4-induced anorexia. In addition, JTX pretreatment decreased CCl4-induced plasma levels of hepatic injury markers. Increased Ca(2+) is a known indicator of the final progression to hepatocyte death, and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity is mainly caused by oxidative stress. The present study indicated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic Ca(2+) content decreased with JTX pretreatment. Our results suggest that JTX has potential to protect of CCl4-induced anorexia, and the modulation of oxidative stress. PMID:27582337

  10. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  11. Burkitt's lymphoma causing acute pancreatitis in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Akl; Avni Kaya; MSeluk Bekta; Fesih Aktar; Sinan Akbayram; Salim Bilici; Mehmet Beyazal

    2013-01-01

    A8-year-old boy admitted with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting for the previous10 days. Sensitivity was detected in the epigastric area.There was not defense and rebond.Aspartate aminotransferase was106U/L, alanine aminotransferase25U/L, alkaline phosphatase311U/L, blood amylase level748U/L, blood lipase level391U/L.In thoracicCT, soft tissue with smooth contours measuring32 mmí28 mm was identified in the posterior mediastinum.Bone marrow aspiration biopsy was normal.A mass specimen obtained from the duodenum endoscopic biopsy. This specimen was diffuse staining by leukocyte common antigen,CD10 andCD20.The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis associated with stage3 duodenalBurkitt's lymphoma. ModifiedLMB-98 was initiated.Burkitt's lymphoma may rarely cause acute pancreatitis.

  12. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi; Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu; Mubarak Labaran Liman; Dorothy Uju Iliemene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods:Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results:Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions:Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia.

  13. [Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Okhrimenko, S M

    2012-01-01

    Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys. PMID:22679761

  14. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max; Ring-Larsen, H.; Krarup, H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and...

  15. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  16. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced Steven Johnson syndrome in an HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Taqi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX is a widely prescribed antimicrobial for the management of several uncomplicated infections. It is commonly used for the treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP in the HIV-infected population. The adverse reaction to TMP/SMX is more frequent and severe in HIV-infected patients as compared to the general population. Here, we report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS secondary to TMP/SMX. The patient had a generalized cutaneous reaction with involvement of the eyes, oral cavity, and genitals. He had elevated hepatic alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme. TMP/SMX therapy was stopped and supportive treatment was started. His condition improved after eight days of stopping TMP/SMX therapy.

  17. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  18. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A Hassan, Sherif M El-Agmy, Rajiv L Gaur, Augusta Fernando, Madhwa HG Raj, Allal Ouhtit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  19. AcEST: DK951949 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |P73133|ARGD_SYNY3 Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Synecho... 32 1.4 sp|Q80WC3|TNC18_MOUSE Trinucleotide repeat-containing...>sp|P73133|ARGD_SYNY3 Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803) GN=argD PE=3 SV=1 Leng...s... 34 5.2 tr|Q2JUB9|Q2JUB9_SYNJA Acetylornithine transaminase OS=Synechoco... 34 5.2 tr|Q0JR45|Q0JR45_ORYSJ Os01g0120600 protein... OS=Yersi... 33 6.7 tr|Q2JLM2|Q2JLM2_SYNJB Acetylornithine transaminase OS=Sy...LLLVYGVSNWLPTMMR 275 >tr|Q2T3G6|Q2T3G6_BURTA Diaminopimelate decarboxylase OS=Burkholderia thailandensis (strain

  20. Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice on cardiac disorder in rats fed on fried food in oxidized frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. A. and Edrees G. M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effect of lycopene-rich tomato juice against evoked cardiac disorders in rats fed on fried potato in oxidized frying cotton seed oil (20% w/w for 4-weeks was studied using lycopene at a daily dose of 1 mg/Kg body weight. Total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were estimated in different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT as well as serum calcium, potassium and magnesium were determined The obtained results revealed that, feeding on fried potato in deep oxidized frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profils and LDL-c associated with a marked elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CK, ALT and AST activities. These biochemical alterations ameliorated when lycopene was administered to rats fed fried potato in oxidized frying oil.

  1. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Chapman, B.J. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1983-10-31

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements.

  2. EFFECT OF CONSUMPTION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED FISH (TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN RABBITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolawa O.E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the biochemical effect of the consumption of heavy metals contaminated fish on metabolic parameters in rabbit. Total glucose, cholesterol, protein and levels of alkaline phosphate, alkaline aminotransferase (ALT together with aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the serum were measured. Compared with the control a significant decrease of total protein and total cholesterol (p was ascertained in the serum of the experimental groups. Total glucose level was level was significantly increased in the serum of the experimental (p . The values of alkaline phosphate, ALT and AST significantly increased in the serum of the groups. The above results on the biochemical consumption profile indicate the toxic effect of the consumption of these contaminated fishes in rabbits.

  3. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  4. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  5. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  6. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, L; Salau, A K; Adewuyi, S O; Osineye, S O; Tijani, K O; Balogun, R O

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Male and female rats were exposed to Osun river water for three weeks and then sacrificed. The abundance of heavy metals in Osun river followed the trend Pb > Cd > Zn > Fe > Cr > Cu while VOCs followed the trend benzene water for three weeks had increased WBC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), serum proteins and serum aminotransferases. There were also significant decreases in HCT, PLT, liver aminotransferases and liver glutathione compared to the control. These results show that the pollutants in Osun river water are capable of inducing hematological imbalance and liver cell injury. The toxicity induced in blood was sex-dependent affecting female rats more than male rats. PMID:27506174

  8. Changes of plasma VEGF levels and liver function in patients with liver cancer before and after interventional treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effect of the interventional treatment for the angiogenesis and liver function in patients with liver cancer within short time, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of VEGF in plasma. The level of liver function was measured through automatic biochemistry analyzer. The results indicated that the level of VEGF in patients with liver cancer decreased after interventional treatment than that of before treatment (P<0.05). The level of total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bile acid decreased after interventional treatment (P<0.05). The level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were increased than before (P<0.05). The interventional treatment inhibit the expression of the VEGF in the tumor tissue and limited the angiogenesis within short time, but to some extent may caused the injury of the hepatocytes and the synthetic and excremental function in patients with liver cancer. (authors)

  9. Comparison of zootechnical performances, welfare condition and quality traits of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis reared in different Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Melotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performances of sunshine bass (initial m.b.w.=200±50 g were examined in 3 different rearing conditions: concrete square basins (HSB-1; raceways (HSB-2; natural ponds (HSB-3. Fish received the same extruded feed (prot. 48.8%; lip. 17.8%. The trial lasted 16 months in HSB-1 and HSB-2 and only 12 months in HSB-3 due to unfavourable welfare status and low growth performances. At harvest (after 16 months, sunshine bass reached a satisfactory mean weight with- out significant differences between groups. HSB-2 fish were longer with a smaller circumference, prob- ably due to different hydrodynamics of the raceway. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, protein, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, glycogen of plasma or tissue were not affected by rearing conditions as well as the proximate composition and the fatty acid profile of the fillet.

  10. Normal serum activities of liver enzymes in Swedish paint industry workers with heavy exposure to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, I.; Hakansson, M.

    1985-09-01

    The serum activities of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ornithine carbamyl transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were examined in 47 paint industry workers and unexposed age matched referents. The workers were exposed to a mixture of industrial solvents, of which xylene was the main component in most cases. The median total exposure was about 50% of Swedish 1981 threshold limit values according to measurements of individual solvent exposure performed at the same time. No differences in enzyme activities were shown either when the whole exposed and referent groups were compared or when the five workers with outstanding solvent exposures of five times the TLV or more were compared with their referents. It is concluded that in most workers the liver seems to remain largely undamaged from inhalation exposure to a commonly used mixture of non-chlorinated solvents. In many workers this seems to hold true even for high exposures for limited periods.

  11. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  12. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  13. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  14. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  15. Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Joshaghani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a toxic material for mammalians. It is detoxificated and converted to urea in the urea cycle in liver. Each defect in the urea cycle cause increase in blood ammonia level. Ornithine transcarbamylase enzyme (OTC is the second enzyme in the urea cycle that exists in mitochondria. OTC deficiency is the most common hereditary disorder in the urea cycle. In this study, 45 hyper ammonia patients were selected (2-13 years old and assayed for serum OTC, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Four patients (n=45, 8.9% suffered from OTC deficiency. One patient was male (n=29, 3.4% and the others were female (n=16, 18.8%. About half of children (53.3 with hyper ammonia have liver disease. Further studies on OTC deficiency and OTC gene mutations in Iran are recommended.

  16. Fenofibrate-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazufumi Dohmen; Hiromi Tshibashi; Chun Yang Wen; Shinya Nagaoka; Koji Yano; Seigo Abiru; Toshihito Ueki; Atsumasa Komori; Manabu Daikoku; Hiroshi Yatsuhashi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Fenofibrate is a member of such fibrate class agents as bezafibrate and it work as a ligand of PPARα, and also shows a potent triglyceride-lowering effect. The elevation of aminotransferase levels has been frequently observed after the administration of fenofibrate and this phenomenon is considered to be non-pathological because fenofibrate activates the gene expression of the aminotransferases. Recently, fenofibrate has been used not only for hypercholesterolemia but also for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)[1,2]. However, the occurrence of liver injury induced by fenofibrate has not yet been reported written in the English literature. We herein report a rare case of liver injury due to the oral use of this drug.

  17. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  18. Actinomyces naeslundii and Eikenella corrodens as rare causes of liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until catheter drainage of the abscesses was performed. He was eventually discharged in improved condition on amoxicillin-clavulanate. His aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin continued to improve and he remained afebrile and asymptomatic. A repeat CT 2 months after discharge demonstrated resolution of the abscesses. Actinomyces and Eikenella are rare causes of liver abscesses and treatment requires drainage and an extended course of antibiotics. The polymicrobial character typical of liver abscesses makes antibiotic therapy challenging when cultures reveal rare organisms such as Actinomyces and Eikenella. PMID:23867879

  19. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  20. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Yu Hsieh; Shui-Yi Tung; Kamfai Lee; Cheng-Shyong Wu; Kuo-Liang Wei; Chien-Heng Shen; Te-Sheng Chang; Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,compared with other noninvasive tests.METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment.FibroQ,aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR),AST to platelet ratio index,cirrhosis discriminant score,age-platelet index (API),Pohl score,FIB-4 index,and Lok's model were calculated and compared.RESULTS:FibroQ,FIB-4,AAR,API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test:P < 0.001).FibroQ trended to be superior in predicting significant fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests.CONCLUSION:FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  1. Hepatic enzymes activity in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) after sublethal cypermethrin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loteste, A; Scagnetti, J; Simoniello, M F; Campana, M; Parma, M J

    2013-05-01

    Prochilodus lineatus, a fish, was exposed to sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin: 0.075, 0.150, and 0.300 μg L(-1) and a control group (without cypermethrin) for 96 h. Five specimens were exposed in each concentration for triplicate (n = 60). Hepatic biochemical values and behavioral changes were studied. The results revealed a significantly higher level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hepatic tissue at different concentrations of cypermethrin tested compared to control (p  0.05). This study provides information to know toxic mechanisms of cypermethrin on hepatic enzymes of P. lineatus that are poorly understood. PMID:23417111

  2. Hematologic and plasma chemistry values in captive psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, F J; Peinado, V I; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J

    1998-01-01

    Reference values for some hematologic parameters in 19 species and plasma chemical values in 11 species of Psittacine birds, including cockatoos, parrots, amazons, macaws, conures, and lories, were established for use in veterinary medicine. The following parameters were studied: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte dimensions, leukocyte number and differential leukocyte count, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total phosphorus, chloride, and osmolality. Hematologically, the Psittacine is a very homogeneous avian group, with small differences between species. They are, however, different from other groups of birds. PMID:9777153

  3. 'Continuous muscle fibre activity' in six dogs with episodic myokymia, stiffness and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S; Polis, I; Fatzer, R; Braund, K; Thoonen, H

    2004-12-11

    Continuous muscle fibre activity was observed in a crossbred dog, a Yorkshire terrier, a border collie and three Jack Russell terriers. The clinical signs consisted of episodes of generalised myokymia which developed into muscle stiffness and delayed muscle relaxation and generally led to the dogs collapsing into lateral recumbency. These episodes were preceded by intense facial rubbing in three of the dogs, and were associated with severe hyperthermia in five of them. All three Jack Russell terriers showed continuous ataxia. The dogs had above normal activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase, but their cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Myokymic discharges were observed by electromyography in two of the dogs. Two of them were treated with membrane-stabilising agents, with variable results. PMID:15638001

  4. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  5. Genetic determinants of haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Jacqueline N.; Rooks, Helen; Drasar, Emma; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Melista, Efi; Gordeuk, Victor R; Nouraie, Mehdi; Kato, Gregory R.; Minniti, Caterina; Taylor, James; Campbell, Andrew; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Rana, Sohail; Castro, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is variable among patients with sickle cell anaemia and can be estimated by reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Using principal component analysis of these measurements we computed a haemolytic score that we used as a subphenotype in a genome-wide association study. We identified in one cohort and replicated in two additional cohorts the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in NPRL3 (rs7203560; chr16p13·3) (...

  6. Liver function tests: Association with cardiovascular outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease has been repeatedly reported. Several studies have focused on levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Evidence indicates that GGT may have a potential role for cardiovascular risk stratification while the role of ALT for cardiac prognosis remains controversial. A conceptual framework that includes not only GGT and ALT but also markers ...

  7. Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Eleva...

  8. The association of Hsp90 expression induced by aspirin with anti-stress damage in chicken myocardial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Huai-sen; Qian, Zhuang; Tang, Shu; Wu, Di; Kemper, Nicole; Hartung, Joerg; Bao, En-dong

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of aspirin during exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens was investigated. We assayed pathological damage, expression and distribution of Hsp90 protein and hsp90 mRNA expression in chicken heart tissues after oral administration of aspirin following exposure to high temperature for varying times. Heat stress induced increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while causing severe heart damage, which was charac...

  9. Ischemic Hepatitis as the Presenting Manifestation of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Petz, Chelsey A.; Todoran, Thomas; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    An abrupt elevation in aminotransferases without clear etiology may be attributed to hypoxic hepatitis. Underlying cardiac dysfunction, an important clinical clue, is often overlooked as a cause of hypoxic hepatitis, and understanding the interdependence of the heart and liver is crucial in making this diagnosis. Causes of cardiac dysfunction may include any of many different diagnoses; infiltrative heart disease is a rare cause of cardiac dysfunction, with amyloidosis being the most common a...

  10. Two alanine aminotranferases link mitochondrial glycolate oxidation to the major photorespiratory pathway in Arabidopsis and rice

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, M; K. Krause; Horst, I.; Staebler, N.; Klaus, S; Gaertner, S.; Kebeish, R.; Araujo, W.; Fernie, A.; Peterhansel, C.

    2012-01-01

    The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that li...

  11. Endogenously generated sulfur dioxide and its vasorelaxant effect in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xu DU; Hong-fang JIN; Ding-fang BU; Xia ZHAO; Bin GENG; Chao-shu TANG; Jun-bao DU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to explore the endogenous production and localization of the sulfur dioxide (SO2)/aspartate aminotransferase pathway in vas- cular tissues of rats and to examine its vasorelaxant effect on isolated aortic rings, as well as the possible mechanisms. Methods: The content of SO2 in the samples was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography with fluores- cence detection. Aspartate aminotransferase activity and its gene expression were measured by an enzymatic method and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Aspar- tate aminotransferase mRNA location in aorta was detected by in situ hybridization. The vasorelaxant effect of SO2 on isolated aortic rings of the rats was investigated in vitro. L-type calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, and L-type calcium channel agonist, Bay K8644, were used to explore the mechanisms by which SO2 relaxed the aortic rings. Results: Aorta had the highest SO2 content among the vascular tissues tested (P<0.01). The aortic aspartate aminotransferase mRNA located in endothelia and vascular smooth muscle cells beneath the endothelial layer. Furthermore, a physiological dose of the SO2 derivatives (Na2SO3/NaHSO3) re- laxed isolated artery rings slightly, whereas higher doses (1-12 mmol/L) relaxed rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with nicardipine elimi- nated the vasorelaxant response of the norepinephrine-contracted rings to SO2 completely. Incubation with nicardipine or SO2 derivatives successfully prevented vasoconstriction induced by Bay K8644. Conclusion: Endogenous SO2 and its derivatives have a vasorelaxant function, the mechanisms of which might involve the inhibition of the L-type calcium channel.

  12. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection Increases the Risk of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nino Lomtadze; Lali Kupreishvili; Archil Salakaia; Sergo Vashakidze; Lali Sharvadze; Kempker, Russell R.; Matthew J Magee; Carlos del Rio; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The country of Georgia has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. PURPOSE: To determine whether HCV co-infection increases the risk of incident drug-induced hepatitis among patients on first-line anti-TB drug therapy. METHODS: Prospective cohort study; HCV serology was obtained on all study subjects at the time of TB diagnosis; hepatic enzyme tests (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity) were obtained at baseline and monthly during tr...

  14. Acute hepatitis in a woman following excessive ingestion of an energy drink: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked Alain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The consumption of energy drinks has increased significantly. We report the case of a patient who presented to our hospital with jaundice, abdominal pain, and markedly increased liver transaminases likely due to the increased consumption of an energy drink. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature linking the development of acute hepatitis to the consumption of an energy drink. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. She had been drinking 10 cans of an energy drink daily for two weeks prior to presentation. Her physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. Her initial blood tests revealed elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis was normal, and the patient was discharged to home. She returned to the Emergency Department of our hospital with worsening pain and new-onset jaundice. This time her physical examination revealed epigastric tenderness and icteric sclera. Her aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and international normalized ratio were markedly elevated. Further radiological studies were non-specific, and she was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis. Her viral serology and toxicology screens were negative. The patient was treated supportively and was discharged after resolution of her symptoms and a marked decrease in her liver enzymes. Conclusion The development of acute hepatitis in this patient was most likely due to the excessive ingestion of an energy drink, and we speculate that niacin was the culprit ingredient.

  15. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ružič Maja; Fabri Milotka; Pobor Marta; Jovelić Aleksandra; Lukač Damir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day...

  16. Reproductive strategies and genetic variability in tropical freshwater fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dolores Peres Lassala; Erasmo Renesto

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the genetic variability of nine fish species from the Brazilian upper Paraná River floodplain (Astyanax altiparanae, Hoplias malabaricus, Leporinus lacustris, Loricariichthys platymetopon, Parauchenipterus galeatus, Pimelodus maculatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Roeboides paranensis and Serrasalmus marginatus) based on data for 36 putative allozyme loci obtained using corn starch gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymatic systems: aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), acid phosphatase (EC...

  17. Activated farnesoid X receptor attenuates apoptosis and liver injury in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fan; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Youjun; Wu, Xiwen; Xu, Hanshi; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with interface hepatitis, the presence of autoantibodies, regulatory T‑cell dysfunction and raised plasma liver enzyme levels. The present study assessed the hepatoprotective and antiapoptotic role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in AIH. a mouse model of AIH was induced by treatment with concanavalin A (ConA). The FXR agonist, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), was administered to mice exhibiting ConA‑induced liver injury and a normal control. Blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines. Liver specimens were collected, and hematoxylin‑eosin staining was used for histopathological examination and detection. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The expression levels of apoptosis‑associated genes and proteins were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results demonstrated that FXR was downregulated at the mRNA and protein level in the liver specimens of mice induced with ConA‑induced hepatitis. Increased levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines, including interferon‑γ, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑4 and IL‑2, were detected in ConA‑treated mice. The mice pretreated with the FXR agonist, CDCA, were more resistant to ConA hepatitis, as indicated by reduced levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase and aminotransferases. The activation of FXR ameliorated hepatocyte apoptosis, as demonstrated by TUNEL analysis and downregulation of the Fas/Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand and caspase‑3. Taken together, FXR activation ameliorated liver injury and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in ConA‑induced hepatitis. FXR, therefore, exerts a protective role against ConA-induced apoptosis. PMID

  18. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil Scientific Note: biochemical profile of rats fed yogurt containing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Taís Ril

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42 foram divididos em três grupos (n=14, e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado no presente estudo efeito significativo do extrato de erva-mate sobre os níveis de colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina, glicose e na atividade das enzimas fosfatase alcalina, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase. O extrato de erva-mate, 0,1% no iogurte, não interfere no metabolismo de ratos alimentados por 30 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoghurt containing yerba-mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis, with and without probiotic cultures, on the lipidic, glycemic, hepatic and kidney profiles of rats fed these types of yoghurt. Wistar rats (42 were divided into three groups (n=14 and for 30 days were fed yoghurt without yerba-mate extract, yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and probiotic cultures. No significant effect of the yerba mate extract on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose and the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed in the present study. The addition of 0.1% yerba mate extract to the yoghurt did not interfere with the metabolism of the rats during 30 days.

  19. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M T; Ho, C.K.; Huang, S.L.; Yeh, Y. F.; C. L. Liu; Mao, I F; Christiani, D C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideove...

  20. Systemic pathological alterations caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Teibler, Pamela; Ruíz, Raquel; Leiva, Laura; Acosta, Ofelia

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about the systemic effects caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom. In this work, this venom was tested for its ability to induce histopathological changes in rats after its intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous administration, by light microscopic examination of some organs (cerebellum, cerebrum, lung, liver, kidney and heart). Four rats were used for each dose of 0.23, 0.45 and 0.90 mg of venom in 0.3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4). Aliquots of blood were withdrawn at different time intervals for enzymatic determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels. After 2h the animals were killed by an overdose of anesthetic, and samples of kidney, heart, liver, lung, cerebrum and cerebellum were taken to microscopic examination (hematoxylin and eosin stain). Histologically, no abnormality was observed in heart tissue, in none of the administration routes of the venom used. However, histological observations showed multifocal hemorrhage in cerebellum, cerebrum and lung sections, severe peritubular capillary congestion in kidney sections and hydropic degeneration in liver sections, when venom was administrated intravenously. The subcutaneous route showed similar results to the previous one, with the exception of cerebellar hemorrhage. Intramuscularly, neither cerebral nor cerebellar hemorrhage was observed. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increased levels were demonstrated, mainly when venom was administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Our results suggest that P. patagoniensis venom induces moderate histopathological changes in vital organs of rats. These changes are initiated at early stages of the envenomation and may be associated with a behavioral or functional abnormality of those organs during envenoming. PMID:16911815

  1. Space flight and radiaton effects on aminoacid metabolism in skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented on the investigation of aminoacid metabolism in the skeletal muscles of rats after the flight on the Cosmos-690 biosatellite. It is demonstrated that a combined effect of 20.5 - day space flight and gamma-irradiation at doses of 220, 670 and 955 rad has reduced the content of a number of biologically important aminoacids and inhileited the activity of aspartate aminotransferase of sarcoplasmatic proteins

  2. Minocycline and N-Methyl-4-Isoleucine Cyclosporin (NIM811) Mitigate Storage/Reperfusion Injury After Rat Liver Transplantation Through Suppression of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Theruvath, Tom P.; Zhong, Zhi; Pediaditakis, Peter; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Currin, Robert T.; Tikunov, Andrey; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Lemasters, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Graft failure after liver transplantation may involve mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined whether prevention of mitochondrial injury would improve graft function. Orthotopic rat liver transplantation was performed after 18 hours' cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution and treatment with vehicle, minocycline, tetracycline, or N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin (NIM811) of explants and recipients. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrosis, and apoptosis were assessed 6 hours af...

  3. Tissue repair response as a function of dose in thioacetamide hepatotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangipudy, R S; Chanda, S.; Mehendale, H M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a dose-response relationship for thioacetamide (TA), where tissue regeneration as well as liver injury were two simultaneous but opposing responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitioneally with a 12-fold dose range of TA, and both liver injury and tissue repair were measured. Liver injury was assessed by serum enzyme elevations. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation did not show any dose response over a 12-fold dose ...

  4. Suppression of Graft Regeneration, Not Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, Is the Primary Cause of Small-for-Size Syndrome after Partial Liver Transplantation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Pan; Xiangwei Lv; Rui Liang; Liming Wang; Qinlong Liu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly considered to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) after liver transplantation. Rapid regeneration is also considered essential for the survival of SFS grafts. METHODS: Mouse models of full-size orthotopic liver transplantation, 50% partial liver transplantation and 30% partial liver transplantation were established. Survival rate and serum alanine aminotransferase were observed. IRI was assessed by...

  5. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; Williams, June H.; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  6. Dissimilation of cysteate via 3-sulfolactate sulfo-lyase and a sulfate exporter in Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA

    OpenAIRE

    Rein, Ulrike; Gueta, Ronnie; Denger, Karin; Ruff, Jürgen; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2005-01-01

    Paracoccus pantotrophus NKNCYSA utilizes (R)-cysteate (2-amino-3-sulfopropionate) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth, with either nitrate or molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor, and the specific utilization rate of cysteate is about 2 mkat (kg protein)(-1). The initial degradative reaction is catalysed by an (R)-cysteate : 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, which yields 3-sulfopyruvate. The latter was reduced to 3-sulfolactate by an NAD-linked sulfolactate dehydrogenase...

  7. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B in 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced hepatic injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, In-Chul; Lee, Sang-Min; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, In-Sik; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the potential hepatotoxicity of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and its hepatotoxic mechanisms in rats was investigated. The test chemical was administered orally to male rats at 0, 27.5, 55, and 110 mg/kg body weight. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol administration caused acute hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol, and total bilirubin levels and a decrease in serum glucose concentration in a dose-dependent manner with corresponding histopath...

  8. A comparative analysis of the evolutionary relationship between diet and enzyme targeting in bats, marsupials and other mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsey, Graeme M; Lewin, Jackie; Holbrook, Joanna D; Simpson, Victor R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Danpure, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the enzyme alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the livers of different mammals appears to be related to their natural diets. Thus, AGT tends to be mitochondrial in carnivores, peroxisomal in herbivores, and both mitochondrial and peroxisomal in omnivores. To what extent this relationship is an incidental consequence of phylogenetic structure or an evolutionarily meaningful adaptive response to changes in dietary selection pressure is unknown. In orde...

  9. A comparative analysis of the evolutionary relationship between diet and enzyme targeting in bats, marsupials and other mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsey, G. M.; Lewin, J; Holbrook, J.D.; Simpson, V. R.; Cunningham, A. A.; Danpure, C J

    2005-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the enzyme alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the livers of different mammals appears to be related to their natural diets. Thus, AGT tends to be mitochondrial in carnivores, peroxisomal in herbivores, and both mitochondrial and peroxisomal in omnivores. To what extent this relationship is an incidental consequence of phylogenetic structure or an evolutionarily meaningful adaptive response to changes in dietary selection pressure is unknown. In orde...

  10. Possible Ameliorative Effect of Chicory Extract (Cichorium Intybus) on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Chicorium intybus (Chicory) against radiation induced-oxidative stress and changes in the levels of 150-180 g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with chicory extract at a daily dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt/day for four weeks, group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with chicory extract two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid profile was measured.also concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and TBARS level was estimated in the cardiac tissue. The results showed decreased body weight and heart weight in irradiated animals. Compared to the control normal rats, irradiated rats had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine phosphokinase(CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, cardiac tissue TBARS was markedly increased while SOD, GSH and CAT were significantly decreased. Oral and heart weights, serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile. Cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased while TBARS was markedly reduced, membrane bound enzymes in rats' heart was investigated. Rats weighing about administration of chicory extract at doses of 250 mg/kg b.wt. improved the body compared to irradiated rats. These results may suggest a strong antioxidant effect of chicory, which was effective in mitigating adverse effect of γ irradiation on animals

  11. Alterations in the activities of the enzymes of proline metabolism in Ragi (Eleusine coracana) leaves during water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kandpal, Rajendra P; Vaidyanathan, CS; Kumar, Udaya M; Sastry, Krishna KS; Rao, Appaji N.

    1981-01-01

    Free proline content in Ragi (Eleusine coracana) leaves increased markedly (6 to 85 fold) as the degree of water stress, created by polyethylene gylcol treatment, was prolonged There was also a marginal increase in soluble proteins in the stressed leaves as compared to that in the controls. Water stress stimulated the activities of ornithine aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, the enzymes of proline biosynthesis and markedly inhibited the enzymes involved in proline degrad...

  12. Use of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamma, Safa; Eross, Balint; Mclaughlin, Simon

    2013-03-01

    A 62-year-old woman with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) failed to sustain remission when steroids were withdrawn from a regimen of steroids and azathioprine (AZA). Thiopurine metabolites revealed elevated 6-MMP (6-methyl mercaptopurine) and low 6-TGN (6-thioguanine nucleotide) consistent with AZA-induced hepatotoxicity. Introducing the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol led to rapid normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and discontinuation of steroids. PMID:23238820

  13. Gene-enzyme relationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids have been isolated from Nicotiana silvestris. Isozymes of chlorismate mutase were isolated, partially purified and subjected to enzyme kinetic analysis. In addition, studies investigating the role of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthetase, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase, shikimate dehydrogenase, prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in regulation of aromatic amino acids levels in tobacco are reported

  14. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Tušimová Eva; Kováčik Anton; Harangozo Ľuboš; Lukáč Norbert; Kolesárová Adriana; Vollmannová Alena; Kováčik Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotrans...

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of a Semiautomated, Standardized Assay for Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Romanò, Luisa; Velati, Claudio; Baruffi, Lorella; Fomiatti, Laura; Colucci, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Alessandro R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the COBAS Ampliscreen hepatitis B virus (HBV) test using standards, seroconversion panels, consecutive donations, and samples from patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase and chronic hepatitis C. Specificity was 100% and sensitivity was 20 IU/ml. In seroconversion panels, HBV DNA was detected up to 4 to 18 days before HBsAg, suggesting that this assay is useful in shortening the infectious window phase.

  16. Perfusion CT findings in liver of patients with tumor during chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the microcirculation changes in liver of patients with tumor during chemotherapy by perfusion computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Sixty patients with tumor and 20 controls were enrolled in this study. Perfusion CT parameters of patients and controls were compared, including hepatic perfusion index (HPI), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product (PS). Correlation between perfusion CT parameters, treatment cycle and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was studied. RES...

  17. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary for optimal growth of Salmonella typhimurium in media of high osmolality but not induction of the proU operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Csonka, L N; Ikeda, T P; Fletcher, S A; Kustu, S

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of glutamate can be limited in bacterial strains carrying mutations to loss of function of glutamate synthase (2-oxoglutarate:glutamine aminotransferase) by using low concentrations of NH4+ in the growth medium. By using such gltB/D mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium, we demonstrated that: (i) a large glutamate pool, previously observed to correlate with growth at high external osmolality, is actually required for optimal growth under these conditions; (ii) the osmoprotectant ...

  18. Acute hepatic injury with atorvastatin: An unusual occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Pinki Vishwakarma; Rajiv Nehra; Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a commonly used and well-tolerated hypolipidemic drug, belongs to the class of statins or hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Use of atorvastatin may be associated with minor asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferases, but clinically significant hepatotoxicity is usually infrequent. Here we present a case of self-limiting clinically apparent acute hepatic injury attributable to atorvastatin occurring at recommended daily dose of 20 mg once a day. This ...

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of the serine and glycine pathway in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Antonov, Alexey; Agostini, Massimiliano; Morello, Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Melino, Gerry; Amelio, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Serine and glycine are amino acids that provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Employing 3 subsequent enzymes, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH), phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), 3-phosphoglycerate from glycolysis can be converted in serine, which in turn can by converted in glycine by serine methyl transferase (SHMT). Besides proving precursors for macromolecules, serine/glycine biosynthesis is...

  20. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate...

  1. Cathepsin B inactivation attenuates hepatic injury and fibrosis during cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Canbay, Ali; Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Higuchi, Hajime; Feldstein, Ariel; Bronk, Steven F.; Rydzewski, Robert; Tanai, Makiko; Gores, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B–dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. Our aim was to ascertain if Ctsb inactivation attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrogenesis after bile duct ligation (BDL). In 3-day BDL mice, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were reduced in Ctsb–/– versus Ctsb+/+ animals. Likewise, R-3032 (a C...

  2. Physico-chemical and biochemical approaches to assessing the development of precancerous pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract during their modeling in mice with complex effects of stress factors of different nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Zamira O.; Kanevskiy, Matvej V.; Galitskaya, Anna A.; Mironova, Irina K.; Pleshakova, Ekaterina V.; Velikov, Vladimir A.; Chumakov, Daniil S.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Konnova, Svetlana A.

    2016-04-01

    It was shown in the experience with 60 white mice that separate and combined effects of stress factors: noctidial lighting (800 lux), sodium nitrite (0.2% solution in water) and p-toluidine (with food) within 107 days causes a change in impedance value of erythrocytes at frequencies 1 Hz - 1MHz. Changes in the activity of intracellular aminotransferases, creatinine and urea were observed, indicating cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic effects.

  3. Mode of action of the biotin antimetabolites actithiazic acid and alpha-methyldethiobiotin.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, M. A.; Hsiung, S C

    1982-01-01

    Actithiazic acid and alpha-methyldethiobiotin inhibited the conversion of dethiobiotin to biotin resting-cell suspensions of Escherichia coli. The concentrations which effected 50% inhibition were 0.45 and 1.1 microM for actithiazic acid and alpha-methyldethiobiotin, respectively. Cells grown in low concentrations of the two biotin antimetabolites showed derepression of the biotin A operon, as evidenced by the enhanced levels of the enzymes 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase and deth...

  4. Alkaline phosphatase and transaminase activity in rat liver and blood serum at delayed periods following external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase in rat liver and blood serum at remote times after external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to 239Pu nitrate delivered in two chronically effective doses. The radionuclide was shown to be mainly responsible for the changes observed in activity of the enzymes under study. The degree to which the changes were manifest depended upon dose of plutonium administered

  5. The effect of delta-aminolevulinic acid on the synthesis and metabolism of GABA in rabbit brain homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porphyrin precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA) is a structural analogue of the putative amino acid neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study has demonstrated that delta-ALA has no effect on glutamate decarboxylase activity and only a small inhibitory effect on GABA aminotransferase activity. This would suggest that if accumulation of delta-ALA is related to development of the acute attack of porphyria, it is not via an effect on GABA synthesis and metabolism

  6. BIOQUÍMICA SÉRICA DE EQUINOS DA RAÇA PURO SANGUE LUSITANO ANTES E APÓS EXERCÍCIO

    OpenAIRE

    Gloriane Izabel Vojciechovski de Oliveira; Kellen Cristina Kuhawara; Cecília Braga Laposy; Alessandra Melchert

    2011-01-01

    The use of tests to evaluate athletic performance can be a valuable tool for maximizing the results of competitions in athletic horses. Exercise induces reversible changes in ultra structure of the skeletal muscle of horses, as the elevation of muscle enzymes that are released into circulation. There are few studies assessing the biochemical muscle enzyme pure bred Lusitano horses. This study evaluated the effects of exercise on muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydro...

  7. Auxin Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yunde

    2014-01-01

    lndole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most important natural auxin in plants, is mainly synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Recent genetic and biochemical studies in Arabidopsis have unambiguously established the first complete Trp-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway. The first chemical step of auxin biosynthesis is the removal of the amino group from Trp by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of transaminases to generate indole-3-pyruvate (IPA). IPA then unde...

  8. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research in the following areas: use of liver for mechanistic studies of multistage hepatocarcinogenesis and for screening of environmental contaminants for tumor initiating and promoting activity; molecular properties of rat liver ornithine aminotransferase; regulation of gene expression in rat liver; methods of tumor detection; mechanisms of radiation and viral oncogenesis; biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes; and studies on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity

  9. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO BRANCHES OF THE KYNURENINE PATHWAY IN THE RAT BRAIN IN VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Amori, Laura; Guidetti, Paolo; Pellicciari, Roberto; Kajii, Yasushi; Schwarcz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), key enzymes of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, form the neuroactive metabolites kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), respectively. Although physically segregated, both enzymes use the pivotal kynurenine pathway metabolite L-kynurenine as a substrate. We studied the functional consequences of this cellular compartmentalization in vivo using two specific tools...

  10. Richner-Hanhart Syndrome (Tyrosinemia Type II) A Case Report of Delay Diagnosis with Hyperkeratotic Lesions of Palmes and Soles

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Alian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II) is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with high serum tyrosine levels caused by the deficiency of tyrosine ami-notransferase enzyme. Case Report: We report a 7-year-old female patient with complaints of hyperkeratosis lesions of palms and soles which started 3 years ago. Chromatography of serum amino acids showed a tyrosine level of 120micromole/L (normal range: 22-87). She had normal ophthalmologic examination and mild m...

  11. Early elevated serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase after liver transplantation is associated with better survival [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/473

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris M Alkozai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT is a membrane bound enzyme that plays a key role in the synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. Epidemiological studies have linked high GGT with an increased risk of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In contrast, GGT is usually elevated in liver transplant recipients that experience good outcomes. Aims: To study if and how GGT is correlated with mortality following liver transplantation. Methods: We analyzed the prognostic relevance of serum GGT levels during the early and late postoperative period after liver transplantation in 522 consecutive adults. We also studied alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels. Results: Early after transplantation, the peak median (interquartile range GGT levels were significantly higher in patients who survived more than 90 days compared to non-survivors: 293 (178-464 vs. 172 (84-239 U/l, p<0.0001. In contrast, late after transplantation, GGT levels were significantly lower in patients who survived more than 5 years than those who did not (p<0.01. The pattern of GGT levels also differed from those of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin early after transplantation, while these patterns were congruent late after transplantation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that early after transplantation the higher the GGT levels, the better the 90-day survival (p<0.001. In contrast, late after transplantation, higher GGT levels were associated with a lower 5-year survival (p<0.001. Conclusions:  These paradoxical findings may be explained by the time-dependent role of GGT in glutathione metabolism. Immediate postoperative elevation of GGT may indicate a physiological systemic response to oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and liver transplantation while chronic elevation reflects a pathological response.

  12. Effect of ecoimmunonutrition supports on maintenance of integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major causes of death in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is severe infection owing to bacterial translocation. Some clinical studies suggested that ecoimmunonutrition (EIN) as a new strategy had better treatment effect on SAP patients. But the experiment studies on the precise mechanism of the effect of EIN were less reported. In this study, we mainly investigated the effects of EIN on bacterial translocation in SAP model of dogs.Methods SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in healthy hybrid dogs. The SAP dogs were supported with either parenteral nutrition (PN) or elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) or EIN. The levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase and plasma endotoxin were detected before and after pancreatitis induction. On the 7th day after nutrition supports, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, and pancreas were collected for bacterial culture with standard techniques to observe the incidence of bacterial translocation. Pathology changes of pancreas were analyzed by histopathologic grading and scoring of the severity of pancreas, and the degree of intestinal mucosal damage was assessed by measuring mucosal thickness, villus height, and crypt depth of ileum.Results Compared with PN and EEN, EIN significantly decreased the levels of serum amylase, serum aminotransferase, plasma endotoxin, and the incidence of bacterial translocation. Furthermore, compared with the others, the histology scores of inflammation in pancreas and the ileum injury (ileum mocosa thickness, villus height, and crypt depth) were significantly alleviated by EIN (P<0.05). Moreover, concerning liver function, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin were ameliorating significantly in the EIN group.Conclusion Our results suggested that EIN could maintain the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier and reducing the incidence of bacterial translocation

  13. Directed Evolution of Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (3′) Type IIIa Variants That Inactivate Amikacin but Impose Significant Fitness Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Joseph R.; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The rules that govern adaptive protein evolution remain incompletely understood. Aminoglycoside aminotransferase (3′) type IIIa (hereafter abbreviated APH(3′)-IIIa) is a good model enzyme because it inactivates kanamycin efficiently; it recognizes other aminoglycoside antibiotics, including amikacin, but not nearly as well. Here we direct the evolution of APH(3′)-IIIa variants with increased activity against amikacin. After four rounds of random mutation and selection in Escherichia coli, the...

  14. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  15. Two cases of food additive-induced severe liver damage associated with positive results on lymphocyte stimulation test and for antinuclear antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Rena; Ohishi, Chitose; Kim, Miniru; Shiina, Masaaki; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masazumi; Munakata, Kazuo; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of severe liver injury and positive result for antinuclear antibodies induced by food additives are reported. The first patient reported long-term intake of Mabo Ramen(®) noodle soup, nutritional supplements, and over-the-counter drugs. Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.6 mg/dL, 1,048, and 1,574 IU/L, respectively. Antinuclear antibody was 80×. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for Mabo Ramen(®) and its additives such as Xanthan gum, guar gum, and Doubanjiang. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis. The autoimmune hepatitis score was 3. The second patient reported intake of dietary supplements, including Bimore C(®) and Chokora BB(®). Laboratory tests revealed that total bilirubin was 9.8 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase was 1,130 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 1,094 IU/L. Antinuclear antibody was 320×. Co-existing pancreatic damage was confirmed by the findings on abdominal CT and elevation of serum lipase, span-1, and DUPAN-2. DLSTs were positive for both supplements. These two supplements contained additives such as titanium oxide, magnesium stearate, and hydroxypropylcellulose. DLSTs for all three additives were positive. Histologic examination revealed periportal necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration of lobular and portal areas. These two cases demonstrate that repeating DLSTs is useful for identifying causative constituents in foods and supplements. PMID:26182392

  16. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azza M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO, fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-α than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  17. Serum ferritin concentration in sickle cell crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brownell, A; Lowson, S; Brozović, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) were studied during 21 vaso-occlusive crises in 12 adults with sickle cell disease (11 SS, 1 S beta degrees). The patients comprised three groups: those who had been untransfused (4), those who had received occasional exchange transfusion in crisis (3), and those who had been multiply transfused (5). Serum ferritin concentrations in crisis were compared with those of the steady state...

  18. Selected biochemical and oxidative stress parameters and ceruloplasmin as acute phase protein associated with bovine leukaemia virus infection in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Akalın Pınar Peker; Ataseven Veysel Soydal; Fırat Doğan; Ergün Yaşar; Başpınar Nuri; Özcan Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ceruloplasmin (Cp) and vitamin C concentrations, the total antioxidant status (TAS), and selected biochemical parameters in dairy cows spontaneously infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). Of the 27 cows included in the study, 18 animals were seropositive for enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), whereas nine cows were seronegative and were used as controls. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.003) and Cp concentrations (P = 0.03) decreas...

  19. Postpartal Subclinical Endometritis Alters Transcriptome Profiles in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Akbar; Cardoso, Felipe C; Susanne Meier; Christopher Burke; Scott McDougall; Murray Mitchell; Caroline Walker; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A; Roche, John R; Juan J. Loor

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome alterations in liver and adipose tissue of cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 29 d postpartum were evaluated. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach by means of KEGG and DAVID databases. Milk production, blood metabolites (non-esterified fatty acids, magnesium), and disease biomarkers (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase) did not differ greatly between healthy and SCE cows. In liver tissue of cows with SCE, alterations in gene expression...

  20. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

    OpenAIRE

    Ary Gomes da Silva; Romildo Rocha Azevedo Júnior; Adriana Canal; Rodrigo Roque Lesqueves de Castro; Alessandro Ramos; Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia) were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransfe...

  1. Mycorrhizal-Mediated Lower Proline Accumulation in Poncirus trifoliata under Water Deficit Derives from the Integration of Inhibition of Proline Synthesis with Increase of Proline Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ning ZOU; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Huang, Yong-Ming; Qiu-Dan NI; He, Xin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Proline accumulation was often correlated with drought tolerance of plants infected by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas lower proline in some AM plants including citrus was also found under drought stress and the relevant mechanisms have not been fully elaborated. In this study proline accumulation and activity of key enzymes relative to proline biosynthesis (▵1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, P5CS; ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, OAT) and degradation (proline dehydrogenase, ProD...

  2. Effect of Some Herbal Plants on Liver Function of Rats Treated with Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. ALGhwij, A. M. Ghoneim, A. E. Said and G. A. Abd-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims: Curcumin (CCM), Cinnamon (CNN) and Ginger (GE) had been considered to possess antioxidant activities. This study aimed to investigate their protection effect against trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced hepatotoxicity and to demonstrate its possible mode of action. Methods: Rats were fed CCM, CNN and GE singly with or without 5mg/l of TCE in drinking water. The rat were killed after treatment period of 8 weeks, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate a...

  3. Actinomyces naeslundii and Eikenella corrodens as rare causes of liver abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J.; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until ...

  4. Performance and Serum Hepatic Enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 Laying Hens Intoxicated with Dietary Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadavi A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1 no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4 control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05. The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.

  5. A Mathematical Model of Tryptophan Metabolism via the Kynurenine Pathway Provides Insights into the Effects of Vitamin B-6 Deficiency, Tryptophan Loading, and Induction of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase on Tryptophan Metabolites123

    OpenAIRE

    Rios-Avila, Luisa; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; SITREN, HARRY S.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enz...

  6. Changes in arginase activity and AST enzyme levels in the cardiac andskeletal muscle and liver of lambs with white muscle disease

    OpenAIRE

    HANEDAN, Başak; ERİŞİR, MİNE; KANDEMİR, FATİH MEHMET; ÖZKARACA, MUSTAFA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate arginase activity and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the tissues of the cardiac and skeletal muscle and liver of lambs with white muscle disease (WMD). The cardiac and skeletal muscle and liver tissues were obtained from 8 lambs with WMD and 9 apparently healthy lambs. The diagnosis of WMD was made with the detection of hyaline degeneration upon histopathological examination. A significant increase in arginase activity in the cardiac and skele...

  7. Hepatotoxicidade pela flutamida em paciente sob tratamento para acne: relato de caso Flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity during treatment of acne: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duques de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutamida é agente antiandrogênico não esteróide usado no tratamento do câncer de próstata, da acne e do hirsutismo. Alguns casos de hepatotoxicidade grave têm sido apresentados na literatura com seu uso. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com 21 anos de idade, que apresentou significativa elevação das aminotransferases durante o tratamento para acne com flutamida, completamente resolvida após a descontinuação da droga. Discute-se o diagnóstico, a relação risco/benefício e conclui-se que a monitoração com exames que avaliem o fígado é imperativa e que a droga deve ser suspensa se houver elevação de aminotransferases, dada a possibilidade de disfunção hepática grave.Flutamide is a non-steroidal anti-androgenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, acne and hirsutism. Some cases of severe flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who presented with a significant increase of aminotransferase levels during the treatment of acne with flutamide, which resolved completely after discontinuation of the drug. We discuss the diagnosis, the risk/benefit ratio, and conclude that monitoring liver function tests is mandatory and that the drug should be discontinued if an increase in aminotransferase levels occurs, due to the possibility of severe liver dysfunction.

  8. SOME UNTOWARD EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE BIOPREPARATION FROM PICRALIMA NITIDA SEEDS EXTRACT AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Akinloye, O.; Balogun, E; Omotainse, S.; Adeleye, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate some untoward effects that could be associated with the use of P. nitida as hypoglycemic agent using some biochemical and histological evidences. The antioxidant property of the plant was determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Biochemical studies in plasma using determining the testes such as blood glucose, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase activities, electrolytes (sodium, potassium a...

  9. The acute hepatic flare in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection receiving pegylated interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati Demiraslan; Zeynep Türe; Ayşegül Ulu Kılıç

    2012-01-01

    The pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin treatment is well established therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.During the treatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) flare may be observed rarely.A 51-year-old female receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for HCV infection, complained nausea, vomitingin seventh week of the therapy, and her ALT level was detected over 20 times above the normal level. Hepatitis B surfaceantigen, anti-nuclear antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti...

  10. Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Heap, L C; Peters, T. J.; Wessely, S

    1999-01-01

    Some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome say they benefit from taking vitamin supplements. We assessed functional status for the B vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine in 12 vitamin-untreated CFS patients and in 18 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Vitamin-dependent activities--aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for pyridoxine, glutathione reductase (GTR) for riboflavin, transketolase (TK) for thiamine--were measured in erythrocyte haemolysates before and after in-vitro addit...

  11. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase level...

  12. Acute steatohepatitis, due to extreme metabolic dysregulation, as the first presentation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Kranidiotis; Angeliki Angelidi; Emmanouel Sevdalis; Thomas-Nikolaos Telios; Alexandra Gougoutsi; Andreas Melidonis

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a slowly progressive chronic disease, with a high prevalence among obese, dyslipidemic or diabetic people, commonly presented as an asymptomatic mild elevation of serum aminotransferases. We report a patient who experienced an acute form of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, as the first manifestation of NAFLD, due to exacerbation of pre-existing metabolic disorders by an extremely unhealthy lifestyle. A 50-year old, obese, diabetic man presented with ...

  13. Regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to define in molecular terms the mechanisms controlling expression of specific genes in mammalian cells, how gene expression is activated, how tissue-specific expression is effected, how expression is modulated by hormones and other specific effectors, and how genetic control mechanisms are altered in the dysfunction of gene expression in cells transformed to malignancy were studied. Much of this work has focused on expression of the rat liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase

  14. Phase I dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of ispinesib, a kinesin spindle protein inhibitor, administered on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day schedule in patients with no prior treatment for advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Henry L; Philco, Manuel; Pimentel, Patricia; Kiyan, Miriam; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Conlan, Maureen G; Saikali, Khalil G; Chen, Michael M; Seroogy, Joseph J; Wolff, Andrew A; Escandon, Rafael D

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of ispinesib, a kinesin spindle protein inhibitor. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who had received only prior neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were treated with escalating doses of ispinesib administered as a 1-h infusion on days 1 and 15 every 28 days until toxicity or progression of disease. Doses were escalated until dose-limiting toxicity was observed in two out of six patients during cycle 1. A total of 16 patients were treated at three dose levels: 10 mg/m (n=3), 12 mg/m (n=6), and 14 mg/m (n=7). Forty-four percent of the patients had locally advanced disease and 56% had metastatic disease; 50% were estrogen receptor positive, 44% were progesterone receptor positive, 25% human epidermal growth factor 2 were positive, and 31% triple (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor 2) negative. Sixty-nine percent of patients were chemo-naive. The maximum tolerated dose was 12 mg/m and dose-limiting toxicity was grade 3 increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The most common toxicities included neutropenia (88%; 38% grade 3 and 44% grade 4), increased alanine aminotransferase (56%), anemia (38%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (31%), and diarrhea (31%). No neuropathy, mucositis, or alopecia was reported. Among the 15 patients evaluable for antitumor activity, there were three partial responses, one confirmed by the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (7% response rate). Nine patients (60%) had stable disease lasting at least 42 days, with four (27%) lasting for at least 90 days. Disease stabilization (partial responses+stable disease) was observed in 11 (73.3%) patients. In conclusion, ispinesib was well tolerated when administered on days 1 and 15 every 28 days. Limited activity was observed with this schedule in patients with previously untreated advanced breast cancer

  15. Usefulness of High-Frequency Compound Spatial Sonography in the Assessment of Hepatitis B Virus Related Chronic Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Soo [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Baek Hyun; Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Park, Cheol Min; Lee, Eung Seok; Byun, Kwan Soo [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To evaluate the liver parenchyma according to the echo patterns of CSS (compound spatial sonography), and to correlate them with the extent of hepatic fibrosis and the serum aminotransferase level. The CSS images were classified into the following three echo patterns: type I, a normal looking echo: type II, hyperechoic or hypoechoic nodules scattered in a normal-looking echo: type III, a severely heterogeneous echogenic or hypoechoic honeycomb-like echo. The CSS findings were correlated with the histopathology findings in 63 patients with HBV. The serum aminotransferase levels and the occurrence of acute exacerbation in 168 patients with HBV, with and without a progressed parenchymal echo pattern, and who were followed up more than 1-year period, were compared. The interobserver agreement between the two radiologists for assessing the parenchymal echo pattern was scored. The correlation between the CSS pattern and hepatic fibrosis was statistically significant (correlation coefficient = 0.58, p < 0.05). The baseline serum aminotransferase level was not significantly different between the patients with and without a progressed parenchymal echo pattern. However, the rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with a progressed parenchymal echo pattern (p < 0.05). The interobserver agreement was good (k statistic = 0.63, 0.78). The liver parenchymal pattern based on the 5-12 MHz CSS is a useful and objective tool for diagnosing and monitoring HBV related chronic liver disease

  16. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

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    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  17. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leire Zubiaurre; Eva Zapata; Luis Bujanda; María Castillo; Igor Oyarzabal; Maria A Gutiérrez-Stampa; Angel Cosme

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders,changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged.

  18. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  19. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent. PMID:26471562

  20. Hepato-splenic lymphoma: a rare entity mimicking acute hepatitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Perfetto; Roberto Tarquini; Franceco Mancuso; Simonetta di Lollo; Silvia Tozzini; Giampiero Belesi; Giacomo Laffi

    2003-01-01

    We reported a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma where liver involvement was the predominant clinical manifestation. A 27-year old man presented wiht markedly elevated serum aspartate aminotrasferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, reduced prothrombin activity, thrombocytopenic purpura and hepato-splenomegaly without adenopathy. Viral, toxic,autoimmune and metabolic liver diseases were excluded.Bone marrow biopsy showed an intracapillary infiltration of T-lymphocytes with no evidence of lipid storage disease.Because of a progressive spleen enlargement, splenectomy was performed. Histological examination showed lymphomatous intrasinuses invasion of the spleen.Immunohistochemical investigation revealed the T phenotype of the neoplastic cells: CD45+, CD45RO+,CD3+, CD4-, CD8-, TIA1-. About 50 % of the lymphoid cells expressed CD56 antigen. The diagnosis of hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma was done. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, which induced a complete remission. Eighteen months later, he had a first relapse with increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase,thrombocytopenic purpura and blast in the peripheral blood.In spite of autologous bone marrow transplantation, he died twenty months after the diagnosis. Even in the absence of a mass lesion or lymphoadenopathy, hepatosplenic Tcell lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient whose clinical course is atypical for acute hepatic dysfunction.