WorldWideScience

Sample records for aminofluorene-modified dg adduct

  1. ACCUMULATION OF M1DG DNA ADDUCTS AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO PCBS, BUT NOT FROM ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage is one of the key events leading to mutation and cancer. The present study examined the accumulation of M1dG DNA adducts, 3-(2’-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-a]-purin-10(3H)-one, after single or yearly exposur...

  2. Potential repair of free radical adducts of dGMP and dG by a series of reductants. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, P.; Chapman, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Using the technique of pulse radiolysis, it has been demonstrated that the interaction of hydroxyl-radical adducts of dG and dGMP with a series of reductants with different oxidation potentials at pH 7.0-7.4 proceeds via an electron transfer process (k approx. 1.4-34 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). The one-electron oxidation of dGMP (dG) by Br2-anion radicals was shown to result in the formation of a species, the properties of which are similar to those of the OH-radical adduct of dGMP with oxidizing properties based upon both spectral and kinetic information. The nature of the dGMP species produced on interaction with Br2-anion radicals to produce specific base damage. The implications of these findings are presented in terms of potential free radical repair of hydroxyl radical damage and of synergistic effects whereby one reductant may be regenerated at the expense of another reductant. (author)

  3. How Y-Family DNA polymerase IV is more accurate than Dpo4 at dCTP insertion opposite an N2-dG adduct of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholder, Gabriel; Creech, Amanda; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    To bypass DNA damage, cells have Y-Family DNA polymerases (DNAPs). One Y-Family-class includes DNAP κ and DNAP IV, which accurately insert dCTP opposite N(2)-dG adducts, including from the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP). Another class includes DNAP η and DNAP V, which insert accurately opposite UV-damage, but inaccurately opposite BP-N(2)-dG. To investigate structural differences between Y-Family-classes, regions are swapped between DNAP IV (a κ/IV-class-member) and Dpo4 (a η/V-class-member); the kinetic consequences are evaluated via primer-extension studies with a BP-N(2)-dG-containing template. Four key structural elements are revealed. (1) Y-Family DNAPs have discreet non-covalent contacts between their little finger-domain (LF-Domain) and their catalytic core-domain (CC-Domain), which we call "non-covalent bridges" (NCBs). Arg37 and Arg38 in DNAP IV's CC-Domain near the active site form a non-covalent bridge (AS-NCB) by interacting with Glu251 and Asp252, respectively, in DNAP IV's LF-Domain. Without these interactions dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions increase. DNAP IV's AS-NCB suppresses misinsertions better than Dpo4's equivalent AS-NCB. (2) DNAP IV also suppresses dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions via a second non-covalent bridge, which is ∼8Å from the active site (Distal-NCB). Dpo4 has no Distal-NCB, rendering it inferior at dATP/dGTP/dTTP suppression. (3) dCTP insertion is facilitated by the larger minor groove opening near the active site in DNAP IV versus Dpo4, which is sensible given that Watson/Crick-like [dCTP:BP-N(2)-dG] pairing requires the BP-moiety to be in the minor groove. (4) Compared to Dpo4, DNAP IV has a smaller major groove opening, which suppresses dGTP misinsertion, implying BP-N(2)-dG bulk in the major groove during Hoogsteen syn-adduct-dG:dGTP pairing. In summary, DNAP IV has a large minor groove opening to enhance dCTP insertion, a plugged major groove opening to suppress dGTP misinsertion, and two non-covalent bridges (near and distal

  4. Conformational studies of the (+)-trans, (-)-trans, (+)-cis, and (-)-cis adducts of anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide to N2-dG in duplex oligonucleotides using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Myungkoo; Ariese, Freek; Small, Gerald J.; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Liu, Tong Ming; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    1995-01-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and low-temperature, laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and non-line narrowing (NLN) spectroscopic methods, the conformational characteristics of stereochemically defined and site-specific adducts derived from the binding of

  5. Dgroup: DG00795 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tanil hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioi

  6. Dgroup: DG01377 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG01567 ... GABA-A receptor agonist ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... Ba

  7. Dgroup: DG00793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anil citrate (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor a...gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics ATC code: N01AH03 General anesthetics OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00804 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aine hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ATC code: N01BB07 Local anesthetic

  9. Dgroup: DG01546 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... Local anesthetics ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04237 ... Fluroxene (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02028 ... Inhalational anaesth...etics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02028 ... Inhalational anaesthetics ATC code: N01AB Inhalation anesthetic ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oroprocaine hydrochloride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic ATC code: N01BA04 Anestheti

  12. Dgroup: DG00805 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ATC code: N01BB08 Local anesthetic

  13. Dgroup: DG00791 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tanyl citrate (JP17/USP) ... D10811 ... Fentanyl hydrochloride (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetic...s ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetic

  14. Dgroup: DG00794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ridine hydrochloride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ATC code: N01AH05 General anesthetics ...

  15. Dgroup: DG02025 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02025 DGroup Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG00789 ... Methohexital ... D04985 ... Methohexit...iamylal sodium (JP17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AF General anesthetics ...

  16. Dgroup: DG00999 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs fo...r addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp substrate ... DG0163

  17. Dgroup: DG01002 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01633

  18. Dgroup: DG00807 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available evobupivacaine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic... ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N01BB10 Anesthetic

  19. Dgroup: DG00792 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor ...agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist ATC code: N01AH02 General anesthetics OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] Enzyme: CYP3A [HSA:1576 1577 1551] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG00789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hohexital sodium (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG020...25 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ATC code: N01AF01 N05CA15 General anesthetics ...

  1. Dgroup: DG00790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP17/USP/INN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... D...G02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics... ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ATC code: N01AF03 N05CA19 General anesthetics ...

  2. Dgroup: DG00851 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA01 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian ag

  3. Dgroup: DG00855 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent... ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA05 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  4. Dgroup: DG01685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01685 DGroup Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ... DG00112 ... Phen...litazar (USAN/INN) ... D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... Antidiabetics ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hentermine hydrochloride (USP) ... Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexic ATC code: A08AA01 Phenethylamine type anorexics ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00853 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA03 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian

  7. Dgroup: DG01683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D05739 ... Rivoglitazone (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma... agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BG Antidiabetic

  8. Dgroup: DG00113 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic... Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code: A10BA02 Biganide antidiabetic

  9. Dgroup: DG00797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available propofol disodium (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01567 ... GABA-A receptor agonist ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetic...s ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AX10 General anesthetics GABRA/GABRB/G

  10. Dgroup: DG01486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01486 DGroup Penem -penem DG01486.gif DG00594 ... Faropenem ... D01839 ... Faropenem sodi...um hydrate (JP17) ... D08919 ... Faropenem medoxomil (USAN) DG01213 ... Sulopenem ... D05969 ... Sulopenem (USAN/INN) ... D09672 ... Sulopene

  11. Dgroup: DG00861 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne D1-receptor agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N04BC02 Antiparkinson

  12. Dgroup: DG01000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp su

  13. Dgroup: DG00808 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic... ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic Cyp inhibitor ... DG0...1645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N01BC01 R02AD03 S01HA01 S02DA02 Anesthetic (topi

  14. Dgroup: DG00806 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (USP); Ropivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetic...s ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesth...etic Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ATC code: N01BB09 Anesthetic

  15. Dgroup: DG00801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OMT substrate Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N01BB01 Local anesthetics Xylidine SCN1A [HSA:6323] [K

  16. Dgroup: DG00299 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic... ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01975 ... Agents for peptic ulcer ATC code: C05AD06 Anesthetic

  17. Dgroup: DG00686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cytarabine ocfosphate hydrate (JAN) ... D03637 ... Cytarabine hydrochloride (USAN) Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nuc...leic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic...acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ATC code: L01BC01 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite DNA polymerase ... ... Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic

  18. Dgroup: DG00687 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 974 ... Fluorouracil sodium salt Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineopla...stic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolit...e ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineoplastic... ATC code: L01BC02 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite TYMS [HSA:7298] [KO:K00560] Enzyme: DPYD [HSA:1806] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00734 Chemical ... DGroup Tamoxifen ... D08559 ... Tamoxifen (INN) D00966 ... Tamoxifen cit...rate (JP17/USP) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01585 ... Estrogen receptor antagonist Other ... DG01619 ... Clomifene and tamox...ifen derivative ... DG01620 ... Tamoxifene-type antineoplastic Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ... DG01642

  20. Dgroup: DG00803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JAN) D01243 ... Prilocaine hydrochloride (USP); Propitocaine hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetic...s ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic... ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel block...er ... DG01573 ... Calcium channel T type blocker ATC code: N01BB04 Local anesthetics voltage-gated Ca2+ channel

  1. Dgroup: DG01684 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01684 DGroup Biguanide antidiabetic -formin DG01684.gif DG00112 ... Phenformin ... D08... hydrochloride (JP17) ... D04103 ... Etoformin hydrochloride (USAN) Antidiabetic agen...t ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BA Antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG00298 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anestheti...c ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic ATC code: C05AD05 N01BA02 S01HA05 Anesth...etic (local) Ester-type SCN1A [HSA:6323] [KO:K04833] SCN

  3. Dgroup: DG00296 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... ...DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01674 ... Esterified local anesthetic ATC c...ode: C05AD02 D04AB06 N01BA03 S01HA03 Anesthetic (local) Ester-type SCN1A [HSA:632

  4. Dgroup: DG00297 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine (INN) D02220 ... Dibucaine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic... ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01673 ... Amide type local anesthetic... ATC code: C05AD04 D04AB02 N01BB06 S01HA06 S02DA04 Anesthetic (loc

  5. Dgroup: DG02028 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02028 DGroup Inhalational anaesthetics ... D01772 ... Ether (JP17/USP) DG01994 ... Halog... ... D00102 ... Nitrous oxide (JP17/USP) ... D03841 ... Nitrous oxide - oxygen Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetic...s ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... General anesthetics ...

  6. Dgroup: DG02026 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02026 DGroup Opioid anesthetics ... DG00791 ... Fentanyl ... D00320 ... Fentanyl (JAN/USAN/... ... D08473 ... Remifentanil (INN) ... D01177 ... Remifentanil hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetic...s ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AH General anesthetics Phenylpiperidine derivative ...

  7. Dgroup: DG01674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01674 DGroup Esterified local anesthetic -caine ... C17723 ... Metabutethamine DG00298...oride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ATC code: N01BA N01BC Local anesthetic ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00859 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eceptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkins...on agent ATC code: N04AC01 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  9. Dgroup: DG01326 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available son agent ... Antiparkinsonian of dopamin receptor agonist DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ... ...hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01472 ... Dopamine agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01967 ... Antiparkin

  10. Dgroup: DG00852 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA02 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  11. Dgroup: DG00858 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA12 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent ...

  12. Dgroup: DG00486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agonist ... DG01467 ... Dopamine D1-receptor agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ATC code: G04BE07 N04BC07 Antiparkinsonian, Emetic, Dopamine receptor

  13. Dgroup: DG00864 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se B inhibitor ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substr...ate ATC code: N04BD01 Antidepressant, Antiparkinsonian, Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-

  14. Dgroup: DG01732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN) D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sens...itizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist ... Antidiabetics, PPAR agonist NR1C1 (PPARA)

  15. Dgroup: DG00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available litazone maleate (JAN/USAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist...44 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01683 ... Thiazolidinedione ATC code: A10BG02 Antidiabetic, th

  16. Dgroup: DG00122 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dapagliflozin propanediol (USAN); Dapagliflozin propylene glycolate hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG0...1794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor ATC code: A10BK01 Antidiabetic

  17. Dgroup: DG00115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 ... Tolbutamide sodium, sterile Antidiabetic agent ... DG01790 ... Sulfonamide hypoglycemic ... DG01734 ... Sulfonamide ... ... DG01734 ... Sulfonamide type sulfonylurea receptor agonist ATC code: A10BB03 V04CA01 Antidiabetic, sulfonylu

  18. Dgroup: DG01283 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available igliptin hydrobromide hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... H...ypoglycemics ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01917 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anib phosphate (JAN) DG01357 ... Varlitinib ... D09689 ... Varlitinib (USAN/INN) ... D09690 ... Varlitinib tosylate (USAN) DG01361 ... Crenolan...ib ... D10102 ... Crenolanib (USAN) ... D10103 ... Crenolanib besylate (USAN) DG01363 ... Toceranib ... D0850

  20. Dgroup: DG00702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rubicin hydrochloride ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomerase... inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB08 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  1. Dgroup: DG00834 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimigraine, ergot alkaloid Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate... ATC code: N02CA02 Antimigraine, Vasoconstrictor, Serotonin receptor agonist/anta

  2. Dgroup: DG01351 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t hydrochloride (USAN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01754 ... Cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist ... Therapeutic agent of obesity CNR1 [HSA:1268] [KO:K04277] ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00868 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-Adrenergic receptor antagonist Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dop...ibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N05AA02 Phenothiazine antipsychotics

  4. Dgroup: DG00902 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ide hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagon...ist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AL04 Antipsychotic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagon

  5. Dgroup: DG00798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66 ... Sodium oxybate (USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AX11 N07XX04 General anesthetics ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00995 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne tartrate (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01571 ... Nicotinic cholinergic receptor partial agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence ATC code: N07BA03 Nicoti

  7. Dgroup: DG00996 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te calcium (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ATC code: N07BB03 Antialcohol dependence, NMDA r

  8. Dgroup: DG00998 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... DG01587 ... Opioid receptor agonist/antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence... ATC code: N07BB05 Antialcohol dependence, Narcotic antagon

  9. Dgroup: DG01764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01764 DGroup Emollient laxative ... DG00067 ... Liquid paraffin ... D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin... (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, light (NF) DG01771 ... Doc

  10. Dgroup: DG01770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01770 DGroup Laxative ... DG01764 ... Emollient laxative ... DG00067 ... Liquid paraffin ... ...D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, li

  11. Dgroup: DG01339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available il citrate (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor ago... DG01339 Chemical ... DGroup Carfentanil ... D07620 ... Carfentanil (INN) D03405 ... Carfentan

  12. Dgroup: DG00901 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hloride (JP17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... D... DG00901 Chemical ... DGroup Tiapride ... D08590 ... Tiapride (INN) D01522 ... Tiapride hydroc

  13. Dgroup: DG00823 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00823 Chemical ... DGroup Tilidine ... D08597 ... Tilidine (INN) D06147 ... Tilidine hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsych...iatric agent ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonis

  14. Dgroup: DG00112 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00112 Chemical ... DGroup Phenformin ... D08351 ... Phenformin (BAN) D08352 ... Phenformin hydrochloride Antidiabeti...c agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Cyp substrat...e ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code...: A10BA01 Biganide antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itabine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... D10222 ... Gemcitabine elaidate (USAN/INN) Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic... acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic...ic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ATC code: L01BC05 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite RRM1 [HSA:6240] [KO:K10807] ... ... Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplast

  16. Dgroup: DG00685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne phosphate (JAN/USP) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabin...ofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimet...abolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplasti...c ATC code: L01BB05 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite RRM [HSA:6240 6241 50484] [KO:K10807 K10808] DNA polymerase RNA polymerase ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01456 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... D07461 ... Apraclonidine (INN) ... D01008 ... Apraclonidine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01318 ... Detomidine ... D07795 ... Detomidine... (INN) ... D03702 ... Detomidine hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG0132

  18. Dgroup: DG01671 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 ... Trimethobenzamide hydrochloride (USP) ... Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01762 ... Antiemetic ... DG01783 ... Benzamide type antiemetic ... Antiemetics, benzamides DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01718 DGroup Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence ... DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) ... DG00995 ... Varenicline ... D08669 ... Varenicline (INN) ... D06282 ... Varenicline tartrate (JAN/USAN) ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ... DG00996 ... Acamprosate ... D07058 ... Acamprosate (INN) ... D02780 ... Acamprosate calcium (JAN/USAN) ... DG00997 ... Naltrexone ... D05113 ... Naltrexone (USAN/INN) ... D02095 ... Naltrexone hydrochloride (USP) ... DG00998 ... Nalmefene ... D05111 ... Nalmefene (USAN/INN) ... D02104 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride ... D10812 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) ... DG01756 ... Ondelopran ... D10143 ... Ondelopran (USAN/INN) ... D10144 ... Ondelopran hydrochloride (USAN) ... D00123 ... Cyanamide (JP17) ... D00131 ... Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN) ... D03288 ... Calcium carbimide (INN) DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ... DG00820 ... Buprenorphine ... D07132 ... Buprenorphine (JAN/INN) ... D00836 ... Buprenorphine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00999 ... Methadone ... D08195 ... Methadone (BAN) ... D02102 ... Methadone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01000 ... Levacetylmethadol ... D04716 ... Levomethadyl acetate (USAN); Levacetylmethadol (INN) ... D00840 ... Levomethadyl acetate hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG01001 ... Lofexidine ... D08141 ... Lofexidine (INN) ... D04765 ... Lofexidine hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG01002 ... Levomethadone ... D08121 ... Levomethadone (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride ... DG01003 ... Diamorphine ... D07286 ... Diamorphine (BAN) ... D07810 ... Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride ... D10250 ... Buprenorphine - naloxone mixt ... DG01151 ... Nalorphine ... D08247 ... Nalorphine (INN) ... D08248 ... Nalorphine hydrochloride (USP) ... DG01155 ... Naloxone ... D08249 ... Naloxone (INN) ... D01340 ... Naloxone hydrochloride (JP17/USP

  20. Dgroup: DG00856 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mide hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinso...n agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agen...t ATC code: N04AA08 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ...

  1. Dgroup: DG00452 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent Cyp subs...trate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: G02CB01 N04BC01 Antiparkinsonian, Dopam

  2. Dgroup: DG01272 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... Anticholinergics, antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ... ...ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG017

  3. Dgroup: DG00854 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA04 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ... ...idine hydrochloride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG017

  4. Dgroup: DG00114 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ydrochloride (JP17) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Unc...lassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code: A10BA03 Biganide antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG01284 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liptin succinate (JAN/USAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Cyp inhibitor ... DG01915 ... CYP3A5 i...nhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01282 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ... ...tin tartrate (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01... DG01282 Chemical ... DGroup Dutogliptin ... D09333 ... Dutogliptin (USAN) D09334 ... Dutoglip

  7. Dgroup: DG00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetic...s ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist ATC code: N01AX03 General anesthetics GRIN (NMDAR) [HSA:2902 2903 2904 2905 2906] [KO:K05208 K05209 K05210 K05211 K05212] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00593 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00593 Chemical ... DGroup Doripenem ... D03895 ... Doripenem (USAN/INN) ... D01836 ... Doripene...m hydrate (JAN) ... Antibacterial ... DG01710 ... beta-Lactam antibiotic ... DG01713 ... Penicillin skeleton group ... DG01458 ... Carbapene...m ATC code: J01DH04 beta-Lactam antibiotics, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  9. Dgroup: DG00592 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00592 Chemical ... DGroup Ertapenem ... D07908 ... Ertapenem (INN) D04049 ... Ertapenem sod...ium (USAN) ... Antibacterial ... DG01710 ... beta-Lactam antibiotic ... DG01713 ... Penicillin skeleton group ... DG01458 ... Carbapene...m ATC code: J01DH03 beta-Lactam antibiotics, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01212 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01212 Chemical ... DGroup Imipenem ... D04515 ... Imipenem (INN) D00206 ... Imipenem (USP); Imipene...m hydrate (JP17) Antibacterial ... DG01710 ... beta-Lactam antibiotic ... DG01713 ... Penicillin skeleton group ... DG01458 ... Carbapene...m ... beta-Lactam antibiotics, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00684 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00684 Chemical ... DGroup Tioguanine ... D08603 ... Tioguanine (INN) D06109 ... Thioguanine (USP) ... Antineoplastic... ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabo...lite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ATC code: L01BB03 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite ...

  12. Dgroup: DG00835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thysergide maleate (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01483 ... 5-HT1A-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimigraine...agonist ... DG01518 ... 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonist ATC code: N02CA04 Vasoconstrictor, Antimigraine

  13. Dgroup: DG01620 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01620 DGroup Tamoxifene-type antineoplastic -ifen(e) ... DG00734 ... Tamoxifen ... D08559 ... Tam...oxifen (INN) ... D00966 ... Tamoxifen citrate (JP17/USP) ... DG00735 ... Toremifene ... D08620 ... Toremifene (INN) ... D0...USAN/INN) D09380 ... Sivifene (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01619 ... Clomifene and tamoxifen derivative ... Antiestrogens or e

  14. Dgroup: DG00982 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ATC code: N06DA01 Anti-Alzheimer...ride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01595 ... Cholinesterase inhibitor ... DG01593 ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibit

  15. Dgroup: DG01382 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride ethanolate (JAN) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker ...Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel blocker ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type blocker ... DG01573 ... Calcium channel T type block...er ... Antihypertensive, calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776

  16. Dgroup: DG01458 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01458 DGroup Carbapenem -penem DG01458.gif DG00591 ... Meropenem ... D08185 ... Meropenem (INN) ... D02222 ... Meropene...m (USP); Meropenem hydrate (JP17) ... DG00592 ... Ertapenem ... D07908 ... Ertapenem (INN) ... D04049 ... Ertapene...m sodium (USAN) ... DG00593 ... Doripenem ... D03895 ... Doripenem (USAN/INN) ... D01836 ... Doripenem hydr...ate (JAN) ... DG01212 ... Imipenem ... D04515 ... Imipenem (INN) ... D00206 ... Imipenem (USP); Imipene...m hydrate (JP17) D01048 ... Panipenem (JP17/INN) D01057 ... Biapenem (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D01058 ... Lenapenem hyd

  17. Dgroup: DG01716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01716 DGroup Drugs for alcohol dependence ... DG00996 ... Acamprosate ... D07058 ... Acamprosate (INN) ... D02780 ... Acamprosate calcium (JAN/USAN) ... DG00997 ... Naltrexone ... D05113 ... Naltrexone (USAN/INN) ... D02095 ... Naltrexone hydrochloride (USP) ... DG00998 ... Nalmefene ... D05111 ... Nalmefene (USAN/INN) ... D02104 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride ... D10812 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) DG01756 ... Ondelopran ... D10143 ... Ondelopran (USAN/INN) ... D10144 ... Ondelopran hydrochloride (USAN) D00123 ... Cyanamide (JP17) ... D00131 ... Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN) ... D03288 ... Calcium carbimide (INN) Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ATC code: N07BB Drugs of addictive disorder ...

  18. Dgroup: DG01613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01613 DGroup Xantine-type antiparkinsonian agent -fylline ... D02964 ... Apaxifylline ...(USAN/INN) D04641 ... Istradefylline (JAN/USAN/INN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00860 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04BB01 Antiviral, M2 protein inhibitor, Antiparkinsonian, Dopamine secretagogue Adamantan

  20. Dgroup: DG01573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate semisodium (INN) ... D00710 ... Valproate sodium (USAN); Sodium valproate (JP17) ... D08667 ... Calcium valproate DG01006 ... Flunar...izine ... D07971 ... Flunarizine (INN) ... D01303 ... Flunarizine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) DG01382 ... E

  1. Dgroup: DG00591 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00591 Chemical ... DGroup Meropenem ... D08185 ... Meropenem (INN) D02222 ... Meropenem (USP); Meropene...n group ... DG01458 ... Carbapenem ATC code: J01DH02 beta-Lactam antibiotics, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available done (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride DG01015 ... Hydroxychloroquine ... D08050 ... Hydroxychloroquine (INN) ... D02114 ... Hydroxychloroq...uine sulfate (JAN/USP) ... DG01021 ... Halofantrine ... D08033 ... Halofantrine (INN) ... D02485

  3. Dgroup: DG01639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Escitalopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram... (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00951 ... Mianserin

  4. Dgroup: DG01970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylphenidate (USAN/INN) ... D01296 ... Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00970 ... Atomoxetine... ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00972 ... De

  5. Dgroup: DG01673 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bup...ivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... DG00802 ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01614 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01614 DGroup Xanthine-type vasodilator -fylline ... DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine... (USP); Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP)

  7. Dgroup: DG01633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trazodone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP); A...nhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ... DG00983 ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tine (INN) ... D01179 ... Duloxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP); Anhydr...ous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ... DG00982 ... Tacri

  9. Dgroup: DG01918 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available litinib ... D09689 ... Varlitinib (USAN/INN) ... D09690 ... Varlitinib tosylate (USAN) ... DG01361 ... Crenolanib ... D10102 ... Crenolan...ib (USAN) ... D10103 ... Crenolanib besylate (USAN) ... DG01363 ... Toceranib ... D085

  10. Dgroup: DG02574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available derivative ... DG01961 ... Prostaglandin derivative ... DG01960 ... Prostaglandin F derivative ATC code: S01EE01 Antiglaucoma, Prostaglandin F receptor agonist PTGFR [HSA:5737] [KO:K04262] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01642 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7/USAN/INN); Fluconazole capsules (JP17) ... D01429 ... Fosfluconazole (JAN/INN) ... DG00375 ... Terbinafine ... D02375 ... Terbinafine... (USAN/INN) ... D02219 ... Terbinafine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00441 ... Diclofenac ... D07816 ... Dicl

  12. Dgroup: DG00533 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... DG01480 ... Penam ... DG01780 ... Extended spectrum penicillin ATC code: J01CA19 Antibacterial, Cell wall biosynt...hesis inhibitor beta-Lactam, penicillin, penicillinase-sensitive, Semisynthetic penicillin: extended spectrum penicillin penicillin binding protein ...

  13. Dgroup: DG02008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02008 DGroup Gastric mucosal protectant ... DG00025 ... Sucralfate ... C07314 ... Sucralfate ... D00446 ... Sucralfate... (USP/INN); Sucralfate hydrate (JP17) ... D00177 ... Methylmethionine sulfonium chloride (J

  14. Dgroup: DG01975 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91 ... Enprostil (JAN/USAN/INN) D01451 ... Scopolamine butylbromide (JP17) ... DG02008 ... Gastric mucosal protectant ... DG00025 ... Sucralfate... ... C07314 ... Sucralfate ... D00446 ... Sucralfate (USP/INN); Sucralfate

  15. Dgroup: DG01704 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05454 ... Phenmetrazine hydrochloride (USP) D07114 ... Etilamfetamine (INN) D07115 ... Clobenzorex (INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AA Anoretics ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01655 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 130 ... Apraclonidine ... D07461 ... Apraclonidine (INN) ... D01008 ... Apraclonidine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01318 ... Detomidine ... D07795 ... Detomi...dine (INN) ... D03702 ... Detomidine hydrochloride (USAN) DG01320 ... Medetomidine ... D08165 ...

  17. Dgroup: DG00986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer...-type dementia ATC code: N06DX01 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesterase agent GRIN (NMDAR) [HSA:290

  18. Dgroup: DG00109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00109 Chemical ... DGroup Diastase ... D03329 ... Diastase (JP17) ... D08705 ... Digestive enzyme derived from asperg...illus ... Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01744 ... digestive enzyme ATC code: A09AA01 Digestive enzyme ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -dried BCG vaccine (for percutaneous use) (JP17) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine ATC code: L03AX03 Immunoregulators; Vaccines ...

  20. Dgroup: DG00503 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00503 Chemical ... DGroup Pasireotide ... D10147 ... Pasireotide (USAN) D10497 ... Pasireot...ide diaspartate ... D10566 ... Pasireotide pamoate (JAN) ... Other ... DG01588 ... Somatostatin receptor agonist ATC co

  1. Dgroup: DG00067 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00067 Chemical ... DGroup Liquid paraffin ... D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin... (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, light (NF) Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01770

  2. Dgroup: DG00980 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00980 Chemical ... DGroup Nizofenone ... D08280 ... Nizofenone (INN) D01465 ... Nizofenone fumarate (JAN) Neuropsych...iatric agent ... DG01972 ... Nootropic ATC code: N06BX10 Nervous system stimulant ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00052 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ATC code: A03BA0... DG00052 Chemical ... DGroup Atropine ... D00113 ... Atropine (USP) D02069 ... Atropine sulfate (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsyc

  4. Dgroup: DG00872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00872 Chemical ... DGroup Cyamemazine ... D07307 ... Cyamemazine (INN) D07756 ... Cyamemazine tartrate Neuropsychiat...ric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ATC code: N05AA06 Phenothiazine antipsychotics ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00887 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00887 Chemical ... DGroup Melperone ... D07309 ... Melperone (INN) D08172 ... Melperone hydrochloride Neuropsychiatr...ic agent ... DG01940 ... Butyrophenone derivative ATC code: N05AD03 Butyrophenone antipsychotics ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00979 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00979 Chemical ... DGroup Pirisudanol ... D07347 ... Pirisudanol (INN) D08390 ... Pirisudanol dimaleate Neuropsychia...tric agent ... DG01972 ... Nootropic ATC code: N06BX08 Nervous system stimulant ...

  7. Dgroup: DG01450 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline...rine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline

  8. Dgroup: DG01727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01727 DGroup Anthraquinone antineoplastic -antrone DG01727.gif DG00701 ... Mitoxantrone ... D08224 ... Mitoxantron...e (INN) ... D02166 ... Mitoxantrone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00704 ... Pixantrone ... D05522 ... Pixantron...e (USAN/INN) ... D09654 ... Pixantrone dimaleate (USAN) D02894 ... Ametantrone acetate (USAN) D04685 ... Ledoxantron...e trihydrochloride (USAN) D04783 ... Losoxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D05510 ... Piroxantron...e hydrochloride (USAN) D06059 ... Teloxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D06190 ... Topixantrone (USAN/IN

  9. Dgroup: DG00994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATC code: N07BA01 Nicotine dependence agent ... Enzyme: CYP2A6 [HSA:1548] CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544] ...artrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine depen...dence Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cyp inducer ... DG01637 ... CYP1A2 inducer

  10. Dgroup: DG00325 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel bloc...ker ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type blocker Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substra...te ATC code: C08CA12 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776 778 779] [KO:K04850 K04851 K04853 K04857] Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00324 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel block...er ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type blocker Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate... ATC code: C08CA11 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776 778 779] [KO:K04850 K04851 K04853 K04857] Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] ...

  12. Dgroup: DG00327 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel block...er ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type blocker Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate... ATC code: C08CA15 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776 778 779] [KO:K04850 K04851 K04853 K04857] Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] ...

  13. Dgroup: DG00464 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00464 Chemical ... DGroup Estrone ... D00067 ... Estrone (JAN/USP/INN) D00312 ... Estrone sodium sulfate D00948 ... Est...ropipate (USP) ... Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA07 G03CC04 Est

  14. Dgroup: DG00463 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00463 Chemical ... DGroup Estriol ... D00185 ... Estriol (JP17/USP) ... D01986 ... Estriol t...ripropionate (JAN) ... D01989 ... Estriol diacetate benzoate (JAN) D07920 ... Estriol succinate D07921 ... Estriol sod...ium succinate (BAN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA04 G03CC06 Estr

  15. Dgroup: DG01260 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on agent ATC code: N04BD03 MAO-B inhibitor, Antiparkinsonian agent MAOB [HSA:4129] [KO:K00274] ... ...mide mesylate (USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01568 ... MAO inhibitor ... DG01512 ... Monoamine oxidase B inhibitor ... DG01967 ... Antiparkins

  16. Dgroup: DG01803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01803 DGroup Antidiabetic, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor -bose ... D00216 ... Acarbose (...e (USAN) D09779 ... Emiglitate (JAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01663 ... alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BF Antidiabetics GAA [HSA:2548] [KO:K12316] GANC [HSA:2595] [KO:K12317] MGAM [HSA:8972] [KO:K12047] ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01248 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liflozin L-proline (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemic...s ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor ... Antidiabetics, SGLT2 inhibitors SLC5A2 (SGLT2) [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] ...

  18. Dgroup: DG00117 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available azone hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agon...s ... DG01683 ... Thiazolidinedione ATC code: A10BG03 Antidiabetic, thiazolidene NR1C3 (PPARG) [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00809 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic ... DG01675 ... Local anesthetic... ATC code: N01BX02 R02AD04 Anesthetic (topical) SCN1A [HSA:6323] [KO:K04833] SCN2A [HSA:6326] [KO:K0

  20. Dgroup: DG00015 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00015 Chemical ... DGroup Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspiri...n aluminum (JP17) D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) D07581 ... Aspirin... magnesium salt D07582 ... Aspirin sodium Cardiovascular agent ... DG01712 ... Antiplatelet agent ... DG01950

  1. Dgroup: DG01712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available salicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin... calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin sodium DG0... DG01712 DGroup Antiplatelet agent Platelet aggregation inhibitor ... DG00015 ... Acetyl

  2. Dgroup: DG01615 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01615 DGroup Xanthine-type diuretic ... DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP);... Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ... D08962 ... Pamabrom (USP) Other ... DG01616 ... Xanthine derivative ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00700 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomer...ase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB06 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG00698 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17/USAN) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisome...rase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB03 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00900 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonis...t ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AL02 Antipsychotic, Neuroleptic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Benzamide derivative DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00871 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 ... Triflupromazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG...01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AA05 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00882 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oridazine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478...p inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N05AC02 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00877 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB06 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ... ...rifluoperazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... D01448 ... Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01

  9. Dgroup: DG00879 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hioproperazine mesilate (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopami...ne antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB08 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG00876 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available orperazine edisylate (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopami...ne antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB04 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00905 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01942 ... Iminobenzyl antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine anta...gonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AX10 Antipsychotics HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157] DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  12. Dgroup: DG00006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate (USP) Antiparasitic ... DG01884 ... Imidazole antiprotozoal Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cyp inhib...itor ... DG01643 ... CYP2C9 inhibitor ATC code: A01AB17 D06BX01 G01AF01 J01XD01 P01AB01 Antiprotozoa

  13. Dgroup: DG01715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01715 DGroup Drugs for nicotine dependence ... DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine...08669 ... Varenicline (INN) ... D06282 ... Varenicline tartrate (JAN/USAN) ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ATC code: N07BA Drugs of addictive disorder ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01717 DGroup Drugs for opioid dependence ... DG00820 ... Buprenorphine ... D07132 ... Bupre... Naloxone ... D08249 ... Naloxone (INN) ... D01340 ... Naloxone hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ATC code: N07BC Drugs of addictive disorder ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00983 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sterase inhibitor ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ... DG0...1633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N06DA02 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesteras

  16. Dgroup: DG00322 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel blocker ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type block...1522 ... CYP3A4 inhibitor ATC code: C08CA01 Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776 778 7

  17. Dgroup: DG01574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01574 DGroup Calcium channel alpha-2 delta blocker ... DG01245 ... Gabapentin ... D00332...INN) ... Other ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel blocker ... CACNA2D [HSA:781 9254 55799 93589] [KO:K04858 K04859 K04860 K04861] ...

  18. Dgroup: DG00326 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nidipine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Cardiovascular agent ... DG01928 ... Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker Oth...er ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel blocker Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: C08CA13 Dihydropyridine calcium channel block

  19. Dgroup: DG01277 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01277 Chemical ... DGroup Pirlindole ... D08392 ... Pirlindole (INN) D08393 ... Pirlindole hydrochloride Neuropsychi...atric agent ... DG01568 ... MAO inhibitor ... DG01558 ... Monoamine oxidase A inhibitor ... Reversible monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor MAOA [HSA:4128] [KO:K00274] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG01600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01600 DGroup Bisphosphonate -dronic acid, -dronate ... DG00780 ... Etidronic acid ... D02373 ... Etidron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D00314 ... Etidronate disodium (JP17/USP) ... DG00781 ... Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D03544 ... Clodronate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) ... D07720 ... Clodron...ic acid disodium salt DG00782 ... Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) ... D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... DG00783 ... Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendron

  1. Dgroup: DG01584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01584 DGroup Estrogen receptor agonist -estr- ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554... ... Ethinyl estradiol (USP); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estrad...iol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol a...cetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradio

  2. Dgroup: DG00875 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ide ... D08341 ... Perphenazine decanoate D08342 ... Perphenazine enantate Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsycho...5AB03 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] Genomic biomarker: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...or antagonist Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate Cyp inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N0

  3. Dgroup: DG01908 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01908 DGroup Antiinflammatory drug, propionic acid derivatives ... DG00245 ... Ibuprofen ... D00126 ... Ibuprofen... (JP17/USP/INN) ... D01122 ... Ibuprofen piconol (JP17/USAN) ... D04490 ... Ibuprofen aluminum (USAN) ... D06606 ... Ibupro...fen lysine (USAN); Ibuprofen L-lysine (JAN) ... D08058 ... Ibuprofen arginine salt ... D08059 ... Ibuprofen... sodium ... D09760 ... Ibuprofen sodium (USAN) DG00455 ... Naproxen ... D00118

  4. Dgroup: DG00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00462 Chemical ... DGroup Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estradiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estr...adiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) D04061 ... Estr...adiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) D04065 ... Estr...adiol undecylate (USAN/INN) D07918 ... Estradiol hemihydrate D07919 ... Estr...adiol 17 beta-hemisuccinate Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG0

  5. Dgroup: DG02643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02643 Chemical ... DGroup Ritipenem ... D09849 ... Ritipenem acoxil hydrate (JAN) ... Anti...bacterial, Cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor beta-Lactam, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01220 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available biotic, Antineoplastic, Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma), Protein biosynthesis inhibitor ribosome ... ... DG01220 Chemical ... DGroup Puromycin ... D05653 ... Puromycin (USAN) D05655 ... Puromycin hydrochloride (USAN) ... Anti

  7. Dgroup: DG01630 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01630 DGroup beta-Estrogen receptor agonist -berel ... D06631 ... Prinaberel (USAN/INN...) D09899 ... Erteberel (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... NR3A2 (ESR2) [HSA:2100] [KO:K08551] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00857 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA10 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ...

  9. Dgroup: DG01798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eutral (USAN); Neutral insulin injection (INN) D04550 ... Insulin zinc, prompt (USP) Antidiabetic... agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AB Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  10. Dgroup: DG01663 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01663 DGroup alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor -bose, -glustat ... DG01803 ... Antidiabetic,...at ... D09605 ... Duvoglustat (USAN/INN) ... D09606 ... Duvoglustat hydrochloride (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... alpha-glucosidase [KO:K12316 K12317 K12047] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (USP) D04547 ... Insulin, isophane (USP); Isophane insulin injection (aqueous suspension) (JAN) Antidiabetic ...agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AC Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  12. Dgroup: DG01800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulin human zinc (USP) D04543 ... Insulin human zinc, extended (USP) D05622 ... Proinsulin human (USAN) Antidiabetic... agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AE Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  13. Dgroup: DG01504 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory drug, salicylic acid derivatives ... DG00015 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin... aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin... magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin sodium ... DG00099 ... Olsalazine ... D0

  14. Dgroup: DG01909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available salazide DG01909.gif DG00015 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin... aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspiri

  15. Dgroup: DG01634 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d hydrate (JP17) ... DG00946 ... Fluvoxamine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00974 ... Caffeine... ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP); Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine

  16. Dgroup: DG01746 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 ... Loop diuretic ... Loop diuretics, sulfonamide SLC12A1 (NKCC2) [HSA:6557] [KO:K14425] SLC12A2 (NKCC1) [HSA:6558] [KO:K10951] ... ...P17/USP/INN) ... D01634 ... Piretanide (JAN/USAN/INN) Cardiovascular agent ... DG01690 ... Sulfonamide diuretic ... DG017

  17. Dgroup: DG01751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ta-1a (USAN); Interferon beta-1a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01752 ... Interferone ... Immunostimulants, Antineoplastics ... ... DG01751 Chemical ... DGroup Interferon beta ... D00746 ... Interferon beta-1b (USAN/INN); Interferon beta-1b (genet...ical recombination) (JAN) ... D03304 ... Interferon beta (JAN) ... D04554 ... Interferon be

  18. Dgroup: DG00786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00786 Chemical ... DGroup Risedronic acid ... D08484 ... Risedronic acid (INN) D00942 ... Risedron...ate sodium (USP) ... D03234 ... Sodium risedronate hydrate (JP17) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA07 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00785 Chemical ... DGroup Ibandronic acid ... D08056 ... Ibandronic acid (INN) D04486 ... Ibandron...ate sodium (USAN); Ibandronate sodium hydrate (JAN) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA06 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG00782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00782 Chemical ... DGroup Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA03 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  1. Dgroup: DG00787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00787 Chemical ... DGroup Zoledronic acid ... D08689 ... Zoledronic acid (INN) D01968 ... Zoledron...ic acid (USAN); Zoledronic acid hydrate (JAN) ... D06378 ... Zoledronate disodium (USAN) D06379 ... Zoledron...ate trisodium (USAN) D10515 ... Zoledronic acid hemipentahydrate (JAN) Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA08 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG00781 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00781 Chemical ... DGroup Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodronic acid (USAN/INN) D03544 ... Clodron...ate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) D07720 ... Clodronic acid disodium salt Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA02 Bisphosphonates ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00783 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00783 Chemical ... DGroup Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendronic acid (INN) D00939 ... Alendron...ate sodium (USAN); Alendronate sodium hydrate (JP17) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA04 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Taranabant (USAN/INN) D09349 ... Ibipinabant (USAN/INN) D10314 ... Giminabant (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity... ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AX Antiobesity agents CNR1 [HSA:1268] [KO:K04277] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00874 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN/USP) ... D02163 ... Fluphenazine maleate (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychoti...ubstrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N05AB02 Antipsychotic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Phenothiazine derivative DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01001 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ific agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for op...ioid dependence ATC code: N07BC04 Alpha2b-adrenergic receptor agonist, Drugs used in opioid dependence, Antihypertensives ADRA2B [HSA:151] [KO:K04139] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00984 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available linesterase inhibitor ... DG01594 ... Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementi...a ATC code: N06DA03 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesterase agent ACHE [HSA:43] [KO:K01049] BCHE [HSA:590] [KO:K01050] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) ... D03077 ... Benazeprilat (USAN/INN) D03440 ... Ceronapril (USAN/INN) D03756 ... Indolapril hydrochloride (USAN) ... (USAN) ... D00383 ... Trandolapril (JAN/INN) ... DG00342 ... Spirapril ... D08529 ... Spirapril (INN) ... D03765 ... Spirapril ...USAN); Cilazapril hydrate (JP17) ... DG00341 ... Fosinopril ... D07992 ... Fosinopril (INN) ... D00622 ... Fosinopril sodium

  9. Dgroup: DG00973 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00973 Chemical ... DGroup Lisdexamfetamine ... D08130 ... Lisdexamfetamine (INN) D04747 ... Lisdexamfe...tamine dimesylate (USAN); Lisdexamfetamine mesilate (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01970 ... Age...nts for ADHD ATC code: N06BA12 Psychostimulant, Central sympathomimetic agent Active form of prodrug: Dextroamphetamine (Dexamfe

  10. Dgroup: DG00330 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available her ... DG01575 ... Calcium channel blocker ... DG01496 ... Calcium channel L type blocker ATC code: C08DA02 Phenylalky...lamine calcium channel blocker CACNA1-L [HSA:775 776 778 779] [KO:K04850 K04851 K04853 K04857] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ... D05206 ... Norepinephrine bitartr...USP); Isoprenaline sulfate (JAN) ... D02150 ... l-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JP17) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline...DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ...

  12. Dgroup: DG01986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01986 DGroup Estrogen ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554 ... Ethinyl estradiol (US...P); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estr...adiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estr...adiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradiol undecylate (USAN/INN) ... D07918 ... Estr

  13. Dgroup: DG01147 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01147 Chemical ... DGroup Rose bengal sodium ... D05762 ... Rose bengal sodium I 125 (US...AN) D05763 ... Rose bengal sodium I 131 (USP) ... ATC code: S01JA02 Ophthalmic diagnostic agents ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rtugliflozin (USAN/INN) D10669 ... Sotagliflozin (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent Uncla...ssified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BK Antidiabetics SLC5A2 (SGLT2) [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] ...

  15. Dgroup: DG01735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available glinide (JP17/USAN/INN) ... D01854 ... Mitiglinide calcium hydrate (JP17) ... Antidiabetic agent Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... Antidiabetics ABCC8 (SUR1) [HSA:6833] [KO:K05032] ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01182 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01182 Chemical ... DGroup Gadopentetic acid ... D08006 ... Gadopentetic acid (INN) D01707 ... Gadopen...tetate dimeglumine (JAN/USP) ... D09795 ... Meglumine gadopentetate (JAN) ... ATC code: V08CA01 Contrast medium for NMR-tomography ...

  17. Dgroup: DG00637 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00637 Chemical ... DGroup Micafungin ... D08218 ... Micafungin (INN) D02465 ... Micafungin ...sodium (JAN/USAN) ... D11010 ... Micafungin sodium hydrate (JAN) ... ATC code: J02AX05 Antibiotics ...

  18. Dgroup: DG02570 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02570 Chemical ... DGroup Tebipenem ... D09598 ... Tebipenem pivoxil (JAN/INN) ... Anti...bacterial, Cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor beta-Lactam, Carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  19. Dgroup: DG02651 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ody Monoclonal antibody IL2RA (CD25) [HSA:3559] [KO:K05068] ... ... DG02651 Chemical ... DGroup Daclizumab ... D03639 ... Daclizumab (USAN/INN) ... Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD25 antib

  20. Dgroup: DG02722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stic, TRAIL receptor 1 antibody Agonistic monoclonal antibody TNFRSF10A (TRAILR1, CD261) [HSA:8797] [KO:K04722] ... ... DG02722 Chemical ... DGroup Mapatumumab ... D04858 ... Mapatumumab (USAN/INN) ... Antineopla

  1. Dgroup: DG02667 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02667 Chemical ... DGroup Teplizumab ... D09013 ... Teplizumab (USAN/INN) ... Antidiabetic, Anti-CD3 antibody... Monoclonal antibody CD3 [HSA:915 916 917] [KO:K06450 K06451 K06452] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG02662 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02662 Chemical ... DGroup Apolizumab ... D02967 ... Apolizumab (USAN/INN) ... Antineoplastic, Anti-HLA-DR antibody... Monoclonal antibody HLA-DRB [HSA:3123 3125 3126 3127] [KO:K06752] ...

  3. Dgroup: DG02668 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02668 Chemical ... DGroup Visilizumab ... D06314 ... Visilizumab (USAN/INN) ... Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD3 antibod...y Monoclonal antibody CD3 [HSA:915 916 917] [KO:K06450 K06451 K06452] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG00135 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00135 Chemical ... DGroup Calcium gluconate ... D00935 ... Calcium gluconate (USP) ... D05463 ... Calcium... gluconate hydrate (JP17) ... ATC code: A12AA03 D11AX03 Calcium supplement ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00137 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00137 Chemical ... DGroup Calcium chloride ... C08130 ... Calcium chloride anhydrous D02256 ... Calcium... chloride (USP); Calcium chloride hydrate (JP17) ... ATC code: A12AA07 B05XA07 G04BA03 Calcium supplement ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01417 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01417 Chemical ... DGroup Volasertib ... D10182 ... Volasertib (USAN) D10183 ... Volasertib... trihydrochloride (USAN); Volasertib hydrochloride (JAN) ... Antineoplastics PLK1 [HSA:5347] [KO:K06631] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG02658 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02658 Chemical ... DGroup Cysteamine Mercaptamine ... D03634 ... Cysteamine (USAN); Merc...aptamine (INN) D03635 ... Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN) ... D10468 ... Cysteamine bitartrate (JAN) ... Cystine concentration-lowering agent ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01644 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available xetine ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxetine...0967 ... Dexamfetamine ... D03740 ... Dextroamphetamine (USAN); Dexamfetamine (INN) ... D02078 ... Dextroamphetamine sulfate (USP) ... DG00970 ... Atomo

  9. Dgroup: DG00850 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02037 ... GABA mimetic antiepileptics ATC code: N03AG06 Fatty acid derivative anticonvulsa...nts, Fatty acid derivative antiepileptics SLC6A1 (GAT1) [HSA:6529] [KO:K05034] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01675 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aine ... D01152 ... Oxethazaine (JP17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupiva...caine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochl

  11. Dgroup: DG00694 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00694 Chemical ... DGroup Docetaxel ... D07866 ... Docetaxel (JAN/INN) ... D02165 ... Docetaxel (USAN); Doc...etaxel hydrate (JP17); Docetaxel injection (JP17); Docetaxel for injection (JP17) ... Cyp subs

  12. Dgroup: DG01771 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01771 Chemical ... DGroup Docusate ... D00305 ... Docusate sodium (USP); Sodium dioctyl ...sulfosuccinate (INN); Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (JAN) ... D03885 ... Docusate calcium (USP) D03886 ... Docusate

  13. Dgroup: DG00760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00760 Chemical ... DGroup Glucosamine ... D04334 ... Glucosamine (USAN/INN) D08022 ... Glucosa...mine hydrochloride D08023 ... Glucosamine sulfate ... ATC code: M01AX05 Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, Antirheumatics ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01773 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01773 Chemical ... DGroup Berberine ... C00757 ... Berberine D01250 ... Berberine chloride ...hydrate (JP17) ... D03258 ... Berberine tannate (JP17) D03293 ... Berberine sulfate hydrate (JAN) ... Anti-allergic

  15. Dgroup: DG01612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne ... D07944 ... Fenetylline (INN) ... D04147 ... Fenethylline hydrochloride (USAN) DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine... (USP); Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ...

  16. Dgroup: DG02612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02612 Chemical ... DGroup Rituximab ... D02994 ... Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (gene...tical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... ATC code:

  17. Dgroup: DG01132 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucoma agents; Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia ACHE [HSA:43] [KO:K01049] ... ...esterase inhibitor ... DG01593 ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ATC code: S01EB05 V03AB19 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, Antigla

  18. Dgroup: DG02379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02379 Chemical ... DGroup Brinzolamide ... D00652 ... Brinzolamide (JAN/USP/INN) ... ATC code: S01EC04 Antiglauco...ma, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor CA2 [HSA:760] [KO:K18245] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01358 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01358 Chemical ... DGroup Trastuzumab ... D03257 ... Trastuzumab (INN); Trastuzumab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D09980 ... Trastuzumab emtansine (USAN/INN); Trastuzumab emtansine (genetical re

  20. Dgroup: DG02648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02648 Chemical ... DGroup Infliximab ... D02598 ... Infliximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetica

  1. Dgroup: DG01750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical recombination) (JAN) D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... DG01750 Chemical ... DGroup Interferon alpha ... D00745 ... Interferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (gene

  2. Dgroup: DG01789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) DG01442 ... Tedizolid ... D09685 ... Tedizolid (USAN/INN) ... D09686 ... Tedizolid phosphate (JAN/USAN) ... D10167 ... Sutezolid (USAN/INN) Antibacterial ... Antibiotics 50S ribosomal subunit ...

  3. Dgroup: DG01196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01196 Chemical ... DGroup Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam ... D08504 ... Samarium (153Sm) lexidron...am (INN) D05795 ... Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium (USAN); Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam sodium (JA

  4. Dgroup: DG01554 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01554 DGroup 5-Nitrofuran antiprotozoal nifur- ... D00830 ... Furazolidone (USP/INN) D... Nifuroxime (INN) D04714 ... Levofuraltadone (USAN/INN) D05165 ... Nifursemizone (USAN/INN) D05166 ... Nifursol (USAN) Antiparasitic ... Antiprotozoals ...

  5. Dgroup: DG01967 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available de (INN) ... D00502 ... Pergolide mesylate (USP); Pergolide mesilate (JAN) ... D07836 ... Dihydroergocryptine mesilate DG00862 ... Ropini...role ... D08489 ... Ropinirole (USAN/INN) ... D00784 ... Ropinirole hydrochlo

  6. Dgroup: DG02388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02388 Chemical ... DGroup Diazepam ... D00293 ... Diazepam (JP17/USP/INN) ... ATC code: ...N05BA01 Antianxiety, Minor tranquilizer, Sedative-hypnotic Benzodiazepine derivative GABRA/GABRB/GABRD/GABRE

  7. Dgroup: DG01872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01872 Chemical ... DGroup Aluminum silicate ... D03236 ... Synthetic aluminum silicate ...(JP17); Aluminum silicate, synthetic (JAN) ... D03237 ... Natural aluminum silicate (JP17); Aluminum silicate, natural (JAN) ... Antacids ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01244 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odium (USAN) Anti-allergic agent ... DG01541 ... Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist ... Leukotrien-receptor antagonist; Antiasthmatic agent CYSLTR1 [HSA:10800] [KO:K04322] ...

  9. Dgroup: DG01495 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (USAN/INN) ... D00626 ... Candesartan cilexetil (JP17/USAN) ... D00627 ... Telmisartan (JP17/USAN/INN); Telmisartan tablet...N); Olmesartan medoxomil tablets (JP17) ... DG00351 ... Azilsartan ... D08864 ... Azilsarta

  10. Dgroup: DG01720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17); Cyclophosphamide tablets (JP17) ... DG01514 ... Palifosfamide ... D09364 ... Palifosfamide (USAN/INN) ... D10373 ... P...yclophosphamide ... D07760 ... Cyclophosphamide (INN) ... D00287 ... Cyclophosphamide (USP); Cyclophosphamide hydrate (J

  11. Dgroup: DG02469 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02469 Chemical ... DGroup Naftopidil ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablet...s (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... Antidysuria, alpha1-Adrenergic receptor a

  12. Dgroup: DG01466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D... ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablet

  13. Dgroup: DG02000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN/INN) DG01828 ... Deleobuvir ... D10554 ... Deleobuvir (USAN/INN) ... D10622 ... Deleobuvir sodium (JAN/USAN) D10477 ... Mericitabine (USAN/INN) Antiviral ... Treatment of hepatitis C NS5B polymerase ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN) DG01610 ... Xanthine-type cardiotonics ... D07151 ... Cafedrine (BAN) ... D07155 ... Theodrenaline (INN) ... D07933 ... Etofy... ... Ciclafrine hydrochloride (USAN) ... D07150 ... Gepefrine (INN) ... D07151 ... Cafedrine (BA

  15. Dgroup: DG00054 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00054 Chemical ... DGroup Belladonna total alkaloid ... D03069 ... Belladonna (USP); Belladon...na extract (JP17) D03223 ... Belladonna leaf (USP) D03224 ... Belladonna root (JP17) ... ATC code: A03BA04 Paralysis of parasympathetic ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01987 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01987 Chemical ... DGroup Eglumegad Eglumetad ... D08908 ... Eglumegad (INN) D03966 ... Eglumetad (USAN) ... Antianxie...ty, Smoking cessation ajunct GRM2 [HSA:2912] [KO:K04605] ...

  17. Dgroup: DG02007 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02007 DGroup Antianxiety, carbamate derivatives ... D00376 ... Meprobamate (JAN/USP/I...NN) ... D07317 ... Emylcamate (INN) D01807 ... Mebutamate (JAN/USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... Antianxiety ...

  18. Dgroup: DG01186 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01186 Chemical ... DGroup Gadobenic acid ... D08018 ... Gadobenic acid (INN) D04283 ... Gadobe...nate dimeglumine (USAN); Meglumine gadobenate (JAN) ... ATC code: V08CA08 Non-ionic Contrast medium for NMR-tomography ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01439 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... Cytarabine ... D00168 ... ...tabine hydrochloride (JAN) D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN) D06100 ... Tezacitabi

  20. Dgroup: DG01958 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available USP) ... D03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG...Enocitabine (JAN/INN) ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flu

  1. Dgroup: DG02018 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... C... ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN)

  2. Dgroup: DG01846 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tat sodium (USAN) ... Antidyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemic), Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor DGAT1 [HSA:8694] [KO:K11155] ... ... DG01846 Chemical ... DGroup Pradigastat ... D10664 ... Pradigastat (USAN) D10657 ... Pradigas

  3. Dgroup: DG02590 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02590 Chemical ... DGroup Laropiprant ... D08940 ... Laropiprant (INN/USAN) ... Anti-atherosclerotic, Antidyslipide...mia, Prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist Target: PTGDR [HSA:5729] [KO:K04332] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01152 Chemical ... DGroup Edetate ... D00052 ... Edetic acid (NF/INN) D00571 ... Edetate calcium disodium... anhydrous (USP) D01802 ... Edetate disodium (USP); Disodium edetate hydrate (JP17) D03943 ... Edetate calcium disodium... (USP); Calcium sodium edetate hydrate (JP17); Sodium calcium edetate (INN) ... D03944 ... Ed...etate dipotassium (USAN) D03945 ... Disodium edetate D03946 ... Edetate sodium (USAN) D03947 ... Edetate trisodium... (USAN) D07934 ... Edetate calcium disodium D07935 ... Dicobalt edetate (INN) Other ... DG01692 ... Chelator ATC code: V03AB03 Antidotes, Chelating agents ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00119 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in hydrate (JAN/USAN) ... D10262 ... Saxagliptin hydrochloride ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor T...4 inhibitor ATC code: A10BH03 Antidiabetic, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00118 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gliptin phosphate (USAN); Sitagliptin phosphate hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibito...PP-4 inhibitor ATC code: A10BH01 DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243], SLC22A8 [HSA:9376] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG02639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02639 Chemical ... DGroup Erlizumab ... D04045 ... Erlizumab (USAN/INN) ... Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD18 antibody... Monoclonal antibody Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD18 antibody LTBR (TNFRSF3, CD18) [HSA:4055] [KO:K03159] ITGAL (CD11A) [HSA:3683] [KO:K05718] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00410 Chemical ... DGroup Methylprednisolone ... D00407 ... Methylprednisolone (JP17/USP.../INN) ... D00751 ... Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (JAN/USP) ... D00979 ... Methylprednisolone acetate (JAN/US...P) ... D05000 ... Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (USP); Methylprednisolone succinate (JP17) D05001 ... Methylprednisolo...ne sodium phosphate (USAN) D05002 ... Methylprednisolone suleptanate (USAN/INN) D07203 ... Methylprednisol

  9. Dgroup: DG01592 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (INN) ... D00633 ... Dopamine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine... hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... D00059 ... Levodopa (JP17/USP/INN) ... Cardiovascular agent ...

  10. Dgroup: DG02549 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02549 Chemical ... DGroup Rotigotine ... D05768 ... Rotigotine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... ATC code: N04BC09 Antiparkinson...ian, Dopamine D2 receptor agonist DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: SULT1A1 [HSA:

  11. Dgroup: DG02550 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02550 Chemical ... DGroup Entacapone ... D00781 ... Entacapone (JAN/USAN/INN) ... ATC code: N04BX02 Antiparkinson...ian, Antidyskinetic, COMT inhibitor Nitrocactechols COMT [HSA:1312] [KO:K00545] ... CYP inhibition: COMT [HSA:1312], CYP2C9 [HSA:1559

  12. Dgroup: DG01190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01190 Chemical ... DGroup Technetium (99mTc) medronic acid ... D02029 ... Technetium Tc 99m medron...ate (USP) ... D06038 ... Technetium Tc 99m medronate disodium (USP) ... ATC code: V09BA02 Radioactive dia

  13. Dgroup: DG02597 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02597 Chemical ... DGroup Brexpiprazole ... D10309 ... Brexpiprazole (JAN/USAN/INN) ... ATC code: N05AX16 Antipsy...chotic DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] HTR1A [HSA:3350] [KO:K04153] HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157] HTR7 [HSA:3363] [KO:K04163] ...

  14. Dgroup: DG00129 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00129 Chemical ... DGroup Tocopherol (vit E) ... D02332 ... Tocopherol (JP17) D01406 ... Toco...pherol calcium succinate (JP17) D01530 ... Tocopherol nicotinate (JP17) ... D01735 ... Tocopherol acetate (JP17) ... D08612 ... Tocopherol succinate ... ATC code: A11HA03 Vitamin E ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00997 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ATC code: N07BB04 Alcoholic agent OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] OPRK1 [HSA:4986] [KO:K04214] OPRD1 [HSA:4985] [KO:K04213] ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01457 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fine granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D0...zide (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17...); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... D01965 ... Silodosin (JP17/INN) ... D02995 ... Asenapine male

  17. Dgroup: DG01430 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01430 Chemical ... DGroup Paclitaxel ... D00491 ... Paclitaxel (JAN/USP/INN) ... D05333 ... Paclitax...el poliglumex (USAN/INN) ... Antineoplastics, taxane TUBB [HSA:10381 10382 10383 203068 347688 347733 7280 81027 84617] [KO:K07375] ...

  18. Dgroup: DG00245 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00245 Chemical ... DGroup Ibuprofen ... D00126 ... Ibuprofen (JP17/USP/INN) ... D01122 ... Ibuprofen... piconol (JP17/USAN) ... D04490 ... Ibuprofen aluminum (USAN) D06606 ... Ibuprofen lysine (USAN); Ibuprofen... L-lysine (JAN) ... D08058 ... Ibuprofen arginine salt D08059 ... Ibuprofen sodium D09760 ... Ibuprofen sodium (USAN)

  19. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Myungkoo.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ∼ 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G 2 or G 3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N 2 -dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N 2 -dG

  20. Dgroup: DG00177 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00177 Chemical ... DGroup Erythropoietin ... D03231 ... Epoetin alfa (USAN/INN); Epoetin... alfa (genetical recombination) (JP17) ... D03232 ... Epoetin beta (USAN/INN); Epoetin beta (genetical recombina...tion) (JP17) ... D04032 ... Epoetin delta (USAN) D09737 ... Epoetin kappa (INN); Epoetin kappa (genetical recombination) (Epoet...in alfa biosimilar 1) (JAN) ... D09998 ... Epoetin beta pegol (genetical ...recombination) (JAN) ... D10000 ... Epoetin epsilon (INN); Epoetin epsilon (genetical recombination) (JAN) D10846 ... Epoet

  1. Dgroup: DG01980 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01980 DGroup Calcium ... D00931 ... Calcium acetate (USP) ... D00932 ... Calcium carbonat...e (USP); Precipitated calcium carbonate (JP17); Calcium carbonate, precipitated (JAN) ... D00933 ... Calcium citrate (USP) D00934 ... Calciu...m gluceptate (USP); Calcium glucoheptonate (INN) ... D00935 ... Calcium gluconate (USP) ... D00936 ... Calcium... lactate (USP) D00937 ... Calcium phosphate, dihydrate, dibasic (...USP); Dibasic calcium phosphate hydrate (JP17) ... D00938 ... Tricalcium phosphate D02254 ... Calcium lactate hydrate (JP17) ... D02256 ... Calc

  2. Dgroup: DG01936 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01936 DGroup TNF inhibitor ... D00742 ... Etanercept (USAN/INN); Etanercept (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Etanercept (genetical recombination) [etanercept biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... D02598 ... Infl...iximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Inflixi...mab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimil...ar2] (JAN) ... D07436 ... Afelimomab (INN) D02597 ... Adalimumab (USAN/INN); Adalimumab (genetical recombination) (

  3. Dgroup: DG01797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical recombination) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (J...P17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination [Insulin glargin biosimilar 1] (JAN); Insulin glargine (genetica...mir (USAN/INN); Insulin detemir (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D09727 ... Insulin degludec (USAN/INN); Insulin degludec (genetica... DG01797 DGroup Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genet

  4. Dgroup: DG01636 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available analogue, fast-acting ... D04477 ... Insulin lispro (USP/INN); Insulin lispro (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... ... ... D04475 ... Insulin aspart (USAN/INN); Insulin aspart (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D04540 ... Insulin glu...lisine (USAN/INN); Insulin glulisine (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... DG01797 ... Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genetical recombinat...ion) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recomb

  5. Dgroup: DG01664 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D06070 ... Tenecteplase (USAN/INN) ... D05412 ... Monteplase (INN); Monteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN...) ... D05410 ... Pamiteplase (INN); Pamiteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D0825...6 ... Nateplase (INN) D03695 ... Desmoteplase (USAN/INN) D04665 ... Lanoteplase (USAN/INN); Lanoteplase (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D09814 ... Silteplase (INN); Silteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D09823 ... Duteplase (INN); Duteplase (genetica... DG01664 DGroup Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) -teplase ... D02837 ... Alteplase (USP/INN); Alteplase (geneti

  6. Dgroup: DG00093 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00093 Chemical ... DGroup Prednisolone ... D00472 ... Prednisolone (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00980 ... Prednisolo...ne acetate (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00981 ... Prednisolone sodium phosphate (JP17/USP) ... D00982 ... Prednisolo...ne tebutate (JAN/USP) D01239 ... Prednisolone sodium succinate (JP17/USP) ... D01998 ... Prednisolone farnesy...late (JAN) ... D02156 ... Prednisolone hemisuccinate (USP); Prednisolone succinate (JP17) D03301 ... Prednisolo...ne valerate acetate (JAN) ... D08412 ... Prednisolone pivalate D08413 ... Prednisolone sodiu

  7. Dgroup: DG01752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... Interferon alfa-n3 (USAN) DG01751 ... Interferon beta ... D00746 ... Interferon beta-1b (USAN/INN); Interferon beta-1b (genetica...D00747 ... Interferon gamma-1b (USAN/INN) ... D03357 ... Interferon gamma-1a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D...08805 ... Interferon gamma-n1 (JAN) D02744 ... Interferon alfacon-1 (USAN/INN); Interferon alfacon-1 (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D02747 ... Peginterferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Peginterferon alfa-2a (genetica

  8. DNA adducts as molecular dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that DNA adducts play an important role in the actions of many pulmonary carcinogens. During the last ten years sensitive methods (antibodies and 32 P-postlabeling) have been developed that permit detection of DNA adducts in tissues of animals or humans exposed to low levels of some genotoxic carcinogens. This capability has led to approaches designed to more reliably estimate the shape of the dose-response curve in the low dose region for a few carcinogens. Moreover, dosimetry comparisions can, in some cases, be made between animals and humans which help in judging the adequacy of animal models for human risk assessments. There are several points that need to be considered in the evaluation of DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. For example, DNA adduct formation is only one of many events that are needed for tumor development and some potent carcinogens do not form DNA adducts; i.e., TCDD. Other issues that need to be considered are DNA adduct heterogeneity, DNA repair, relationship of DNA adducts to somatic mutation and cell specificity in DNA adduct formation and persistence. Molecular epidemiology studies often require quantitation of adducts in cells such as lymphocytes which may or may not be reliable surrogates for adduct concentrations in target issues. In summary, accurate quantitation of low levels of DNA adducts may provide data useful in species to species extrapolation of risk including the development of more meaningful human monitoring programs

  9. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  10. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  11. Optimal DG placement in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Durga; Mithulananthan, Nadarajah

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two new methodologies for optimal placement of distributed generation (DG) in an optimal power flow (OPF) based wholesale electricity market. DG is assumed to participate in real time wholesale electricity market. The problem of optimal placement, including size, is formulated for two different objectives, namely, social welfare maximization and profit maximization. The candidate locations for DG placement are identified on the basis of locational marginal price (LMP). Obtained as lagrangian multiplier associated with active power flow equation for each node, LMP gives the short run marginal cost (SRMC) of electricity. Consumer payment, evaluated as a product of LMP and load at each load bus, is proposed as another ranking to identify candidate nodes for DG placement. The proposed rankings bridges engineering aspects of system operation and economic aspects of market operation and act as good indicators for the placement of DG, especially in a market environment. In order to provide a scenario of variety of DGs available in the market, several cost characteristics are assumed. For each DG cost characteristic, an optimal placement and size is identified for each of the objectives. The proposed methodology is tested in a modified IEEE 14 bus test system. (author)

  12. DNA adducts in senescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubatz, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Perturbations in DNA repair and other metabolic processes during development and aging might affect the steady-state level of genomic damage. The persistence or accumulation of DNA lesions in postmitotic cells could have a significant impact on proper cellular function, interfering with gene regulation for example. To test the notion that DNA damage increases as a function of age in non-dividing cells, DNA was purified from heart tissue of C57BL/6Nia mice at different ages and analyzed by post labeling techniques to detect DNA adducts. In the present experiments, four-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate aromatic adducts that were labeled with carrier-free (γ- 32 P) ATP under DNA-P excess conditions. The complexity and frequency of aromatic adducts varied between DNA samples. Several adducts were present in all preparations and were clearly more abundant in nucleotide maps of mature and old heart DNA. However, a direct correlation with age was not observed. In contrast, experiments in which aromatic adducts were first isolated by phase-transfer to 1-butanol, then labeled with excess (γ- 32 P)ATP indicated that there was an age-related increase in these adducts. The results are consistent with their earlier studies that showed alkyl adducts increased during aging of mouse myocardium and suggest that a common repair pathway might be involved

  13. [Laryngeal adduction reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Bonenberger, S; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Jungheim, M

    2014-07-01

    Laryngeal Adductor Reflex Background: A rapid closure of the vocal folds is necessary, whenever foreign materials or food particles penetrate into the larynx. Otherwise a passage of these particles into the trachea or the lower respiratory tract would be imminent. An aspiration could mechanically block the respiratory tract and cause severe dyspnoea or cause aspiration pneumonia. For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed and Scopus using the keywords "laryngeal adductor reflex" and "vocal fold closure" has been carried out. Apart from the oesophago-glottal and pharyngo-glottal closure reflexes, the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) has been investigated in particular. The LAR qualifies as a reflectory laryngeal adductor mechanism and involves early, presumably di- or oligosynaptic ipsilateral LAR1 as well as late polysynaptic ipsi- and contralateral LAR2 components. In clinical routine diagnostic settings of dysphagia, LAR is only assessed qualitatively and usually triggered by air pulses or tactile stimulation. Dysphagiologists often find that not only the laryngeal sensibility in general is impaired, but especially the protective laryngeal adduction mechanism, which results in a higher risk of aspiration. Thus, it appears mandatory to test the LAR not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Unfortunately a valid and reliable method that can be employed in clinical practice has not yet been put forward. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. DG CONNECT’s stakeholder engagement strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyden, M.; Glidden, J.; Shahin, J.

    2013-01-01

    How do we ensure that public policy represents the interests of all, rather than a select few? How will we ensure it draws upon the best insights and talents of key stakeholders? The European Commission’s DG CONNECT recently announced the results of its Stakeholder Engagement Survey, which is

  15. CONTEMPT-DG containment analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deem, R.E.; Rousseau, K.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of hydrogen burning in a containment building during a degraded core event requires a knowledge of various system responses. These system responses (i.e. heat sinks, fan cooler units, sprays, etc.) can have a marked effect on the overall containment integrity results during a hydrogen burn. In an attempt to properly handle the various system responses and still retain the capability to perform sensitivity analysis on various parameters, the CONTEMPT-DG computer code was developed. This paper will address the historical development of the code, its various features, and the rationale for its development. Comparisons between results from the CONTEMPT-DG analyses and results from similar MARCH analyses will also be given

  16. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  17. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde. This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers.

  18. Susceptibility of the Tomato Mutant High Pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Charnikhova, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Kohlen, W.; Bino, R.J.; Levin, I.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2dg is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as

  19. Susceptibility of the tomato mutant high pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Mulder, Patrick; Kohlen, Wouter; Bino, Raoul; Levin, Ilan; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2008-08-13

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2 ( dg ) is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as lycopene rich tomatoes (LRT) because of their enhanced fruit pigmentation, attributed to higher levels of carotenoids, including lycopene. Strigolactones are signaling compounds that mediate host finding in root parasitic plants and are biosynthetically derived from carotenoids. Considering the high carotenoid content of the hp-2 ( dg ) mutant, we studied its susceptibility to the root parasite Orobanche. In a field experiment, the average number of Orobanche aegyptiaca plants growing on hp-2 ( dg ) was surprisingly significantly reduced compared with its isogenic wild-type counterpart. In vitro assays and LC-MS/MS analysis showed that this reduction was associated with a lower production of strigolactones, which apparently renders the high-carotenoid hp-2 ( dg ) mutant less susceptible to Orobanche.

  20. Formation of adduct of cerium (4) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyfrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Adduct formation of thenoyltrifluoroacetonate of Ce(4) [Ce(TTFA) 4 ] with seven nitrogen- and oxygen-containing donor additional ligands is studied using the methods of IR-spectroscopy, derivatography, X-ray phase analysis. The presence of formation of Ce(TTFA) 4 adducts with phosphorus-containing additional ligands tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO); α, α'-dipyridyl (Dipy) and o-phenanthroline (Phen) is established. The adduct Ce(TTFA) 4 stable to reduction is formed with Dipy, and in the case of Phen, TBP, TOPO, TPPO in the process of adduct formation the reduction of Ce(4) to Ce(3) takes place [ru

  1. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  2. Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Guza, Rebecca; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Zhong-ze; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2007-10-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence

  3. Mechanistic Basis for the Bypass of a Bulky DNA Adduct Catalyzed by a Y-Family DNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Rajan; Efthimiopoulos, Georgia; Tokarsky, E. John; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Suo, Zucai

    2015-01-01

    1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), an environmental pollutant, induces DNA damage in vivo and is considered to be carcinogenic. The DNA adducts formed by the 1-NP metabolites stall replicative DNA polymerases but are presumably bypassed by error-prone Y-family DNA polymerases at the expense of replication fidelity and efficiency in vivo. Our running start assays confirmed that a site-specifically placed 8-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-1-aminopyrene (dG1,8), one of the DNA adducts derived from 1-NP, can be bypassed by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), although this representative Y-family enzyme was paused strongly by the lesion. Pre-steady-state kinetic assays were employed to determine the low nucleotide incorporation fidelity and establish a minimal kinetic mechanism for the dG1,8 bypass by Dpo4. To reveal a structural basis for dCTP incorporation opposite dG1,8, we solved the crystal structures of the complexes of Dpo4 and DNA containing a templating dG1,8 lesion in the absence or presence of dCTP. The Dpo4·DNA-dG1,8 binary structure shows that the aminopyrene moiety of the lesion stacks against the primer/template junction pair, while its dG moiety projected into the cleft between the Finger and Little Finger domains of Dpo4. In the Dpo4·DNA-dG1,8·dCTP ternary structure, the aminopyrene moiety of the dG1,8 lesion, is sandwiched between the nascent and junction base pairs, while its base is present in the major groove. Moreover, dCTP forms a Watson–Crick base pair with dG, two nucleotides upstream from the dG1,8 site, creating a complex for “-2” frameshift mutation. Mechanistically, these crystal structures provide additional insight into the aforementioned minimal kinetic mechanism. PMID:26327169

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Dark Ground Buffy Coat Technique (DG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of typanosome infection in 65 cattle reared under expensive system of management was determined using the dark ground buffy coat (DG) technique and the enzyme-linkedimmunisorbent assay (ELISA). The DG technique showed that there were 18 positive cases (27.69%) of total number of animals, made ...

  5. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A DG INTEGRATED SYSTEM: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. V. S. S. SAILAJA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation is capable of meeting the load of the consumers partially or completely. Depending on the type of DG involved it can be operated in interconnected mode and islanded mode. The availability of numerous alternatives present for the DG technologies and large initial investments necessitates a detailed cost benefit analysis for the implementation of DG technologies. In this work an attempt has been made to study the costs involved in implementing the DG technologies. A practical system having two kinds of distributed generation i.e., Diesel Generator and solar photovoltaic system for its back up purpose is considered. A detailed cost analysis of the two DG technologies is carried out.

  6. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  7. Hydrogen abstraction reactions by amide electron adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Sevilla, C.L.; Swarts, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron reactions with a number of peptide model compounds (amides and N-acetylamino acids) in aqueous glasses at low temperature have been investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The radicals produced by electron attachment to amides, RC(OD)NDR', are found to act as hydrogen abstracting agents. For example, the propionamide electron adduct is found to abstract from its parent propionamide. Electron adducts of other amides investigated show similar behavior except for acetamide electron adduct which does not abstract from its parent compound, but does abstract from other amides. The tendency toward abstraction for amide electron adducts are compared to electron adducts of several carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and esters. The comparison suggests the hydrogen abstraction tendency of the various deuterated electron adducts (DEAs) to be in the following order: aldehyde DEA > acid DEA = approximately ester DEA > ketone DEA > amide DEA. In basic glasses the hydrogen abstraction ability of the amide electron adducts is maintained until the concentration of base is increased sufficiently to convert the DEA to its anionic form, RC(O - )ND 2 . In this form the hydrogen abstracting ability of the radical is greatly diminished. Similar results were found for the ester and carboxylic acid DEA's tested. (author)

  8. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain.......An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  9. And the World Turned: Spin Testing the DG-1000S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    mainly glass-fiber reinforced plastic, with steel as necessary for the landing gear. Load factor limits are +7/- 5g . Manufactured in Germany, the DG...Forward CG’s carry an additional type of risk for spin testing: structural failure due to over- speed /overload. After spin entry, if the aircraft’s...become “sloppy” in the DG-1000S near stall speed , careful attention to the yaw string was required for coordinated flight: anything less tended to cause

  10. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  11. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly

  12. A comparative study of the DG-OMEGA (DG Omega), DGII, and GAT method for the structure elucidation of a methylene-acetal linked thymine dinucleotide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, A. H. C.; Beckers, M. L. M.; Buydens, L. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    This research continues the investigation of the properties of the recently developed structure elucidation method DG-OMEGA (DG Omega). Towards this end it was applied for the structure determination of a methylene-acetal linked thymine dinucleotide. The performance of DG Omega was compared to the

  13. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  14. DNA Adducts aand Human Atherosclerotis Lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strejc, Přemysl; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2001), s. 662 ISSN 0008-5472. [Annual Meeting of Proceedings /92./. 24.03.2001-28.03.2001, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA MZd NM10 Keywords : DNA adducts * LDL cholesterol Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  15. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  16. CERN High School Teachers Training Programme meets DG

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    CERN's DG Rolf Heuer met with the participants of the High School Teachers Training Programme on 23 July 2014 for a Q&A Session. Following the interaction, he met with the HST Working Group collaborating on a lesson plan for teaching SESAME in high schools.

  17. DG TOMO: A new method for tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, D. de; Feschet, F.; Cachin, F.; Geissler, B.; Bapt, A.; Karidioula, I.; Martin, C.; Kelly, A.; Mestas, D.; Gerard, Y.; Reveilles, J.P.; Maublant, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: FBP and OSEM are the most popular tomographic reconstruction methods in scintigraphy. FBP is a simple method but artifacts of reconstruction are generated which corrections induce degradation of the spatial resolution. OSEM takes account of statistical fluctuations but noise strongly increases after a certain number of iterations. We compare a new method of tomographic reconstruction based on discrete geometry (DG TOMO) to FBP and OSEM. Materials and methods: Acquisitions were performed on a three-head gamma-camera (Philips) with a NEMA Phantom containing six spheres of sizes from 10 to 37 mm inner diameter, filled with around 325 MBq/l of technetium-99 m. The spheres were positioned in water containing 3 MBq/l of technetium-99 m. Acquisitions were realized during a 180 o -rotation around the phantom by 25-s steps. DG TOMO has been developed in our laboratory in order to minimize the number of projections at acquisition. Two tomographic reconstructions utilizing 32 and 16 projections with FBP, OSEM and DG TOMO were performed and transverse slices were compared. Results: FBP with 32 projections detects only the activity in the three largest spheres (diameter ≥22 mm). With 16 projections, the star effect is predominant and the contrast of the third sphere is very low. OSEM with 32 projections provides a better image but the three smallest spheres (diameter ≤17 mm) are difficult to distinguish. With 16 projections, the three smaller spheres are not detectable. The results of DG TOMO are similar to OSEM. Conclusion: Since the parameters of DG TOMO can be further optimized, this method appears as a promising alternative for tomoscintigraphy reconstruction

  18. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene DgWRKY5 enhances tolerance to salt stress in transgenic chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Yu; Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Ke; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-07-06

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant growth development, resistance and substance metabolism regulation. However, the exact function of the response to salt stress in plants with specific WRKY transcription factors remains unclear. In this research, we isolated a new WRKY transcription factor DgWRKY5 from chrysanthemum. DgWRKY5 contains two WRKY domains of WKKYGQK and two C 2 H 2 zinc fingers. The expression of DgWRKY5 in chrysanthemum was up-regulated under various treatments. Meanwhile, we observed higher expression levels in the leaves contrasted with other tissues. Under salt stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in transgenic chrysanthemum were significantly higher than those in WT, whereas the accumulation of H 2 O 2 , O 2 - and malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in transgenic chrysanthemum. Several parameters including root length, root length, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and leaf gas exchange parameters in transgenic chrysanthemum were much better compared with WT under salt stress. Moreover, the expression of stress-related genes DgAPX, DgCAT, DgNCED3A, DgNCED3B, DgCuZnSOD, DgP5CS, DgCSD1 and DgCSD2 was up-regulated in DgWRKY5 transgenic chrysanthemum compared with that in WT. These results suggested that DgWRKY5 could function as a positive regulator of salt stress in chrysanthemum.

  19. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  20. Adduct formation in Ce(IV) thenolytrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The literature contains no information on adduct formation in Ce(IV) β-diketonates with additional ligands. Since tetrakis-β-diketonates of Ce(IV) have four six-membered chelate rings, we can suppose that the introduction of an additional monodentate or bidentate ligand into the coordination sphere of Ce(IV) β-diketonates would lead to an increase in the coordination number (CN) of the Ce(IV) to nine or ten. The possibility of realization of such a high CN for Ce(IV) has not been proved; a study of adduct formation by Ce(IV) tetrakis-β-diketonates is thus of theoretical interest. Such an investigation might also be of practical interest, because the introduction of an additional ligand into the coordination sphere of a rare-earth β-diketonate usually increases the solubility of the β-diketonate in nonpolar solvents and increases the volatility of the compound; such a modification of the properties is important for various practical purposes. The aim of our work was to study the possibility of separating solid adducts of Ce(IV) tetrakis-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate with certain oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing donor monodentate and bidentate ligands, and also to investigate their properties. As the β-diketone we used thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTFA), since in a parallel investigation it was found that Ce(TTFA) 4 has a high oxidation-reduction stability

  1. Short circuit analysis of distribution system with integration of DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    and as a result bring challenges to the network protection system. This problem has been frequently discussed in the literature, but mostly considering only the balanced fault situation. This paper presents an investigation on the influence of full converter based wind turbine (WT) integration on fault currents......Integration of distributed generation (DG) such as wind turbines into distribution system is increasing all around the world, because of the flexible and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, DG integration may change the pattern of the fault currents in the distribution system...... during both balanced and unbalanced faults. Major factors such as external grid short circuit power capacity, WT integration location, connection type of WT integration transformer are taken into account. In turn, the challenges brought to the protection system in the distribution network are presented...

  2. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    It is generally expected that the hydrogen bond strength in a D-H-A adduct is predicted by the difference between the proton affinities of D and A, measured by the adduct stabilization, and demonstrated by the IR redshift of the D-H bond stretching vibrational frequency. These criteria do...... not always yield consistent predictions, as illustrated by the hydrogen bonds formed by the E and Z OH groups of protonated carboxylic acids. The delta-PA and the stabilization of a series of hydrogen bonded adducts indicate that the E OH group forms the stronger hydrogen bonds, whereas the bond length...... carboxylic acids are different. The OH bond length and IR redshift afford the better measure of hydrogen bond strength....

  3. A novel family of DG methods for diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We describe and demonstrate a novel family of numerical schemes for handling elliptic/parabolic PDE behavior within the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) framework. Starting from the mixed-form approach commonly applied for handling diffusion (examples include Local DG and BR2), the new schemes apply the Recovery concept of Van Leer to handle cell interface terms. By applying recovery within the mixed-form approach, we have designed multiple schemes that show better accuracy than other mixed-form approaches while being more flexible and easier to implement than the Recovery DG schemes of Van Leer. While typical mixed-form approaches converge at rate 2p in the cell-average or functional error norms (where p is the order of the solution polynomial), many of our approaches achieve order 2p +2 convergence. In this talk, we will describe multiple schemes, including both compact and non-compact implementations; the compact approaches use only interface-connected neighbors to form the residual for each element, while the non-compact approaches add one extra layer to the stencil. In addition to testing the schemes on purely parabolic PDE problems, we apply them to handle the diffusive flux terms in advection-diffusion systems, such as the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates (3) have been synthesized with tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphenoxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphenoxide (TPO) of 1:1 and 1:2 composition as well as with α, α'-dipyridine (Dipy), o-phenanthroline (Phen) of 1:1 composition. The separated adducts have been studied by methods of element analysis, X-ray phase and derivatographic analyses and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the adducts are more thermostable compared to the corresponding rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonate hydrates

  5. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  6. Overcurrent protection issues due to the DG connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.C.; Tourn, D.H.; Amatti, J.C. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], E-mail: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The present energy crisis drives to carry to an extreme the use of all the available energy sources, which need to be connected to the network in their closest point. Traditional electric systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation, and especially on protection methodologies. The new protection problems of the different parts of the system are explained. The solution presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the customer in different ways. A revision about interconnection international standards is presented. The contributions of generators to short circuit currents is analyzed, especially the double fed generator. Philosophy changes are studied, such as: fault current bi directionality, modification of the protection reach, failures of the overcurrent coordination due to current share, etc. Solicitations to DG due to the normal unbalance of distribution systems are also studied. It is analyzed the discrepancy between the customers and utilities regarding the 'islanding operation', presenting the semi-rigid connection. The changes in the coordination methodology fusible-recloser are also studied, proposing a new methodology to check this coordination. Experimental results on 13.2 kV are presented that relate the deionization without zero current, with arc length and with 'network power to DG power ratio'. It is concluded that DG application offers technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user; and that the technology for these new protection approaches is already available, requiring of investments whose justification needs of a specific analysis for each particular case. (author)

  7. Infrared spectra of volatile adduct of uranyl pivaloyltrifluoroacetonate with hexamethylphosphorotriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhmarina, V.N.; Dushin, R.B.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Adduct of uranyl pivaloyltrifluoroacetonate with hexamethylphosphortriamide (1), sublimated without decomposition and characterized by a high thermal stability, has been synthesized, as well as adducts of uranyl dipivaloylmethanate with hexamethylphosphortriamide (2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (3), sublimated with partial dissociation. IR spectra of crystalline adducts 1-3, their solutions in benzene; gaseous and matrix-isolated adduct 1 have been measured. It is shown that in gaseous phase 1 exists practically completely in non-dissociated form. It is detected that uranyl group in crystalline 1 and 2 and in matrix-isolated 1 in contrast to crystalline 3 and previously studied adducts of uranyl β-diketonates has an asymmetric structure. Strength constants of uranyl group in crystalline 1-3 and matrix-isolated 1 are determined

  8. June Council - DG presentation to personnel / Conseil de juin - présentation de la DG au personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the DG presentation will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Kjell Johnsen Auditorium - 30-7-018 Prevessin 864-1-B04 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.  

  9. Mechanistic Investigation of the Bypass of a Bulky Aromatic DNA Adduct Catalyzed by a Y-family DNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Varun V.; Tokarsky, E. John; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a nitropolyaromatic hydrocarbon (NitroPAH) pollutant in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and carcinogen. After metabolic activation, the primary metabolites of 3-NBA react with DNA to form dG and dA adducts. One of the three major adducts identified is N-(2’-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dGC8-N-ABA). This bulky adduct likely stalls replicative DNA polymerases but can be traversed by lesion bypass polymerases in vivo. Here, we employed running start assays to show that a site-specifically placed dGC8-N-ABA is bypassed in vitro by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), a model Y-family DNA polymerase. However, the nucleotide incorporation rate of Dpo4 was significantly reduced opposite both the lesion and the template position immediately downstream from the lesion site, leading to two strong pause sites. To investigate the kinetic effect of dGC8-N-ABA on polymerization, we utilized pre-steady-state kinetic methods to determine the kinetic parameters for individual nucleotide incorporations upstream, opposite, and downstream from the dGC8-N-ABA lesion. Relative to the replication of the corresponding undamaged DNA template, both nucleotide incorporation efficiency and fidelity of Dpo4 were considerably decreased during dGC8-N-ABA lesion bypass and the subsequent extension step. The lower nucleotide incorporation efficiency caused by the lesion is a result of a significantly reduced dNTP incorporation rate constant and modestly weaker dNTP binding affinity. At both pause sites, nucleotide incorporation followed biphasic kinetics with a fast and a slow phase and their rates varied with nucleotide concentration. In contrast, only the fast phase was observed with undamaged DNA. A kinetic mechanism was proposed for the bypass of dGC8-N-ABA bypass catalyzed by Dpo4. PMID:25048879

  10. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  11. Determination of adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, R.M.; Chess, E.K.; Thomas, B.L.; Mann, D.B.; Dankovic, D.A.; Franz, J.A.; Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adducts to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), formed from metabolites of polynuclear aromatic compounds, are relatively persistent and correlate with bioresponse (carcinogenicity). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts in the DNA of individuals may provide valuable information as to recent exposure to carcinogenic hydrocarbons. Further, the ability to detect adducts in a large segment of a population may have significant epidemiological significance. The current thrust of the analytical development at PNL is to isolate the DNA, liberate the adducted hydrocarbon residue from the DNA with acid hydrolysis, and prepare derivatives of the hydrolyzed species that will enhance its detection, quantitation, and characterization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They have initiated the development of the necessary techniques using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Samples of DNA adducts of radiolabeled B[a]P have been prepared for study by reacting DNA isolated from calf thymus with benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (the ultimate carcinogenic form of B[a]P). Other DNA/B[a]P samples have been prepared by painting the skin of mice with radiolabeled B[a]P. The ability to prepare research quantities of adducts using the hepatocyte preparation method reported by Dankovic et al is a significant development to their DNA adduct analysis program

  12. Characterization of the Major Purine and Pyrimidine Adducts Formed after Incubations of 1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one with Single-/Double-Stranded DNA and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Yan; Zheng, Jin; Kong, Cong; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2017-02-20

    We have previously shown that 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a potential reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), exhibits potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity that have been attributed in part to its reactivity toward DNA. In an effort to identify the DNA adducts of CBO, we characterized the CBO reactions with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), 2'-deoxycytidine (dC), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) under in vitro physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C). In the present study, we investigated the CBO reaction with 2'-deoxythymidine (dT) and compared the rate constants of the reactions of CBO with dA, dC, dG, and dT at both individual- and mixed-nucleosides levels. We also investigated the reactions of CBO with single- and double-stranded DNA using HPLC with UV detection after adducts were released by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA. Consistent with the results from the nucleoside reactions and the rate constant experiments, 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)adenine (A-2D) was identified as the major DNA adduct detected after acid hydrolysis, followed by N7-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)guanine (CG-2H) and a small amount of 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)adenine (A-1D). After enzymatic hydrolysis, 1,N 6 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-dexoyadenosine (dA-1), 3,N 4 -(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxycytidine (dC-1/2), and 1,N 2 -(3-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-dexoyguanosine (CG-1) were detected, with dA-1 being the major product, followed by dC-1/2. When a nontoxic concentration of CBO (1 μM) was incubated with HepG2 cells, no adducts could be detected by LC-MS. However, pretreatment of cells with l-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete GSH levels allowed A-2D to be consistently detected in cellular DNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of the DNA adducts in CBO genotoxicity and mutagenicity. It also suggests that A-2D could be developed as a biomarker of CBO formation

  13. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Large-Signal DG-MOSFET Modelling for RFID Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the undoped DG-MOSFETs capability for the operation of rectifiers for RFIDs and Wireless Power Transmission (WPT at microwave frequencies. For this purpose, a large-signal compact model has been developed and implemented in Verilog-A. The model has been numerically validated with a device simulator (Sentaurus. It is found that the number of stages to achieve the optimal rectifier performance is inferior to that required with conventional MOSFETs. In addition, the DC output voltage could be incremented with the use of appropriate mid-gap metals for the gate, as TiN. Minor impact of short channel effects (SCEs on rectification is also pointed out.

  15. Designing a collection layout for DG-CO collections

    CERN Document Server

    Pantic, Radoslav

    2014-01-01

    While CDS is in use for years and contains a very large number of interesting resources (documents, papers, articles, presentations, videos, images, photos, audio files etc), practical and daily use of it has shown some limitations. First of all, the extremely large amount of available resources does not make easy the possibility to focus only on certain specific pre-selected documents. Second, the search capabilities of CDS, while very extended, do not always meet client-specific needs and are not always easy to use by unexperienced external visitors. This document describes an ideal tool to be used by DG-CO (but also potentially other services) to overcome the 2 limitations described above.

  16. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-11-01

    Adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates (3) have been synthesized with tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphenoxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphenoxide (TPO) of 1:1 and 1:2 composition as well as with ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridine (Dipy), o-phenanthroline (Phen) of 1:1 composition. The separated adducts have been studied by methods of element analysis, X-ray phase and derivatographic analyses and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the adducts are more thermostable compared to the corresponding rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonate hydrates.

  17. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  18. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  19. Evaluation of modified dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar for enumerating fungi in wheat flour: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Hwang, C A

    1996-04-01

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar base supplemented with 100 micrograms of chloramphenicol ml-1 (DG18 agar) was compared to DG18 agar supplemented with 100 micrograms of Triton X-301 ml-1 (DG18T) and DG18 agar supplemented with 1 microgram of iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methyl-ethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidine- carboxamide] ml-1 (DG18I agar) for enumeration of fungi in ten brands of wheat flour. As the flours contained low fungal populations, all were inoculated with two to four strains of xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens, E. rubrum, E. tonophilum, E. umbrosum and Wallemia sebi), after which counts ranged from 3.87 to 6.37 log10 CFU g-1. Significantly higher populations (p repens or E. tonophilum had also been inoculated into at least one of the three flours showing significantly higher numbers of CFU on DG18T agar. Analysis of collapsed data from all samples showed that DG18T agar was significantly better than DG18 or DG18I agars at p < 0.10 but not at p < 0.05. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility (among-laboratory variation) were 8.4%, 7.5% and 8.6%, respectively, for DG18, DG18T and DG18I agars. DG18I agar restricted colony development most, especially for Eurotium species. Naturally occurring Penicillium species grew equally well on DG18 and DG18T agars, whereas W. sebi grew well on all three media. DG18T agar was judged to be superior to DG18 and DG18I agars for enumerating fungi in wheat flours.

  20. NMR solution structure of an N2-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: Intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H.; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A.; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the non-planar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely-studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14-position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first NMR solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R (+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P–N2-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N2-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3’-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3’-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE - DNA adduct conformation differs from: (1) the classical intercalation motif where Watson-Crick base-pairing is intact at the lesion site, and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix . The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed. PMID:23121427

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  2. A control technique for integration of DG units to the electrical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Miguel-Espinar, Carlos; Massot-Campos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a multiobjective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid...

  3. Restoration of Low-Voltage Distribution Systems with Inverter-Interfaced DG Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietmannsberger, Markus; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    -area voltage collapse. This paper proposes a restoration strategy from zero voltage conditions for inverter-interfaced DG under islanded conditions. In the approach, a flexible and scalable Master DG inverter concept is introduced for distributed generations, where no communication is needed and an outage......The increasing share of distributed generation (DG) offers new chances in grid restoration of low-voltage distribution grids. Instead of relying on the transmission or high- and medium-voltage levels, establishing islanding operation in low-voltage grids might be a good option after a wide...... of the Master can be balanced by other DG inverters. The control strategy ensures the tracking of nominal values of the system voltage and frequency without zero steady-state error. The influences of non-controllable DG are also taken into account in the strategy with an effective countermeasure developed...

  4. A New DG Multiobjective Optimization Method Based on an Improved Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxing Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution generation (DG multiobjective optimization method based on an improved Pareto evolutionary algorithm is investigated in this paper. The improved Pareto evolutionary algorithm, which introduces a penalty factor in the objective function constraints, uses an adaptive crossover and a mutation operator in the evolutionary process and combines a simulated annealing iterative process. The proposed algorithm is utilized to the optimize DG injection models to maximize DG utilization while minimizing system loss and environmental pollution. A revised IEEE 33-bus system with multiple DG units was used to test the multiobjective optimization algorithm in a distribution power system. The proposed algorithm was implemented and compared with the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 (SPEA2, a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NGSA-II. The comparison of the results demonstrates the validity and practicality of utilizing DG units in terms of economic dispatch and optimal operation in a distribution power system.

  5. Adducts of uranium tetrachloride with neutral Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doretti, L; Madalosso, F; Sitran, S; Faleschini, S; Vigato, P A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    Studies are reported of adducts of UCl/sub 4/ with various Schiff base ligands: N-(phenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(propyl) salicylaldimine, N-(phenyl) salicylaldimine, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(4-chlorophenyl)salcylaldimine, N-(4-nitrophenyl)salicylaldimine, N,N'-o-phenylenebis(salycylideneimine). The synthesis and characterization of these ligands is reported, and the preparation and characterization of the relative adducts of UCl/sub 4/: their IR spectra are reported and discussed.

  6. Adducts of uranium tetrachloride with neutral Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doretti, L.; Madalosso, F.; Sitran, S.; Faleschini, S.; Vigato, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are reported of adducts of UCl 4 with various Schiff base ligands: N-(phenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(propyl) salicylaldimine, N-(phenyl) salicylaldimine, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(4-chlorophenyl)salcylaldimine, N-(4-nitrophenyl)salicylaldimine, N,N'-o-phenylenebis (salycylideneimine). The synthesis and characterization of these ligands is reported, and the preparation and characterization of the relative adducts of UCl 4 : their IR spectra are reported and discussed. (author)

  7. Detection of Dichlorvos Adducts in a Hepatocyte Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    5453543 aldo -keto reductase family 1 member C1 aldo -keto reductase TRUE 3 156523970 alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein preproprotein 5 4503571 alpha-enolase...enolase, (YISPDQLADLYK), three variants were identified with adducts on the first, second, or both tyrosines (Figure 2), and for one peptide in aldo -keto...suggesting the possibility that DDVP adducts could alter biological activities. The modifications of aldo -keto reductase family 1 members at three

  8. Detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.C.; Yuspa, S.H.; Weinstein, I.B.; Blobstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Covalent binding of carcinogen to nucleic acids is believed to be an essential component of the carcinogenic process, so it is desirable to have highly sensitive and specific methods for detecting such adducts in cells and tissues exposed to known and suspected carcinogens. A radioimmunoassay is here described capable of detecting nanogram amounts of DNA adducts resulting from the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its activated N-acetoxy derivative. (author)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH-related DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa, Błaszczyk; Danuta, Mielżyńska-Švach

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health have led to the development of an exposome concept. The exposome refers to the totality of exposures received by a person during life, including exposures to life-style factors, from the prenatal period to death. The exposure to genotoxic chemicals and their reactive metabolites can induce chemical modifications of DNA, such as, for example, DNA adducts, which have been extensively studied and which play a key role in chemically induced carcinogenesis. Development of different methods for the identification of DNA adducts has led to adopting DNA adductomic approaches. The ability to simultaneously detect multiple PAH-derived DNA adducts may allow for the improved assessment of exposure, and offer a mechanistic insight into the carcinogenic process following exposure to PAH mixtures. The major advantage of measuring chemical-specific DNA adducts is the assessment of a biologically effective dose. This review provides information about the occurrence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence on human exposure and biological effects, including PAH-derived DNA adduct formation and repair processes. Selected methods used for determination of DNA adducts have been presented.

  10. BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1984-10-01

    A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)

  11. Design and optimization analysis of dual material gate on DG-IMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabdeep; Raman, Ashish; Kumar, Naveen

    2017-12-01

    An impact ionization MOSFET (IMOS) is evolved for overcoming the constraint of less than 60 mV/decade sub-threshold slope (SS) of conventional MOSFET at room temperature. In this work, first, the device performance of the p-type double gate impact ionization MOSFET (DG-IMOS) is optimized by adjusting the device design parameters. The adjusted parameters are ratio of gate and intrinsic length, gate dielectric thickness and gate work function. Secondly, the DMG (dual material gate) DG-IMOS is proposed and investigated. This DMG DG-IMOS is further optimized to obtain the best possible performance parameters. Simulation results reveal that DMG DG-IMOS when compared to DG-IMOS, shows better I ON, I ON/I OFF ratio, and RF parameters. Results show that by properly tuning the lengths of two materials at a ratio of 1.5 in DMG DG-IMOS, optimized performance is achieved including I ON/I OFF ratio of 2.87 × 109 A/μm with I ON as 11.87 × 10-4 A/μm and transconductance of 1.06 × 10-3 S/μm. It is analyzed that length of drain side material should be greater than the length of source side material to attain the higher transconductance in DMG DG-IMOS.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of smart grids reliability due to indirect cyber-power interdependencies under various DG technologies, DG penetrations, and operation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi-Dezaki, Hamed; Agah, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Haeri-Khiavi, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel risk assessment method considering the ICPIs is proposed. • The protection and monitoring system as the ICPIs applications are studied. • The uncertainty of results is analyzed in addition to expected average results. • ICPIs impacts due to DG penetrations under various DG technologies are analyzed. • The well-being criteria have been provided in addition to reliability indices. - Abstract: The cyber failures such as failures in protection and monitoring systems will not stop the operation or change the behavior of the power system instantly but will adversely affect the performance of the power system against the potential failure. Such indirect cyber-power interdependencies (ICPIs) may either intensify the probability of future failures or postpone the repercussion to the present failure of the power elements. The much less effort has been devoted in literature to investigate the ICPIs impacts, particularly in stochastic simulating space. In this paper, a novel stochastic-based reliability evaluation method which considers the ICPIs impacts under various uncertain parameters is proposed. The consideration of uncertainty regarding the renewable distributed generation (DG) units, consumption patterns, power and cyber elements, and ICPIs is one of the most important contributions of the proposed method. Further, a novel stochastic-based state upgrading is introduced to concern the ICPIs of protection and monitoring systems. By using the proposed state upgrading methodology, it is possible to evaluate the reliability of smart grid based on ICPIs by using conventional reliability evaluation methods. The proposed risk assessment methodology is applied to an actual distribution grid. The several sensitivity studies are performed to gain insight into how the penetration level of DG units under various DG technology scenarios can affect the ICPIs impacts on the risk level of smart grid. The test results show that regardless of the DG

  13. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION FOR POROELASTICITY AND ELASTICITY WITH DG JUMPS AND MORTARS

    KAUST Repository

    GIRAULT, V.; PENCHEVA, G.; WHEELER, M. F.; WILDEY, T.

    2011-01-01

    by introducing DG jumps and mortars. The unknowns are condensed on the interface, so that at each time step, the computation in each subdomain can be performed in parallel. In addition, by extrapolating the displacement, we present an algorithm where

  14. An improved current control scheme for grid-connected DG unit based distribution system harmonic compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate distribution system harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach. It seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current...... controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, phase-locked loops (PLL) and system harmonic component extractions can be avoided during system harmonic compensation. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is also employed to derive...... the fundamental current reference. The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. Experimental results from a single...

  15. Molecular characterization and expression of DgZFP1, a gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization and ... stem mainly done by removing the auxiliary flower buds. But cultivars as potted ... DgZFP1 by using the first strand cDNA of chrysanthemum as a template.

  16. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  17. A power structure over the Grothendieck ring of geometric dg categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    We prove the existence of an effective power structure over the Grothendieck ring of geometric dg categories. Using this power structure we show that the categorical zeta function of a geometric dg category can be expressed as a power with exponent the category itself. This implies a conjecture of Galkin and Shinder relating the motivic and categorical zeta functions of varieties. We also deduce a formula for the generating series of the classes of derived categories of the Hilbert scheme of ...

  18. Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xueqian; Chen, Haoyong; Cai, Runqing; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme

  19. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.B.; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10 12 nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [ 14 C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [ 14 C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing 32 P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens

  20. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2007-01-01

    , a significant positive correlation was found between the AA-Hb adduct concentration and the intake of chips/snacks and crisp bread. GA-Hb adduct did not correlate with consumption of any of the main food groups. Neither AA-Hb nor GA-Hb adduct concentration correlated with total dietary intake of AA...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  2. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  3. Mass spectrometric analyses of organophosphate insecticide oxon protein adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles M; Prins, John M; George, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level. Our aim was to review the literature covering the current state of the art in mass spectrometry (MS) used to identify OP protein biomarkers. We identified general and specific research reports related to OP insecticides, OP toxicity, OP structure, and protein MS by searching PubMed and Chemical Abstracts for articles published before December 2008. A number of OP-based insecticides share common structural elements that result in predictable OP-protein adducts. The resultant OP-protein adducts show an increase in molecular mass that can be identified by MS and correlated with the OP agent. Customized OP-containing probes have also been used to tag and identify protein targets that can be identified by MS. MS is a useful and emerging tool for the identification of proteins that are modified by activated organophosphate insecticides. MS can characterize the structure of the OP adduct and also the specific amino acid residue that forms the key bond with the OP. Each protein that is modified in a unique way by an OP represents a unique molecular biomarker that with further research can lead to new correlations with exposure.

  4. Thermodynamic parameters for polyether adducts with neutral molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.N.; Zafar, A.I.; Ganunis, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Using calorimetry, thermodynamic parameters for the interaction of neutral molecules with polyether adducts are determined. When compared to its analogous acyclic ether, no macrocyclic effect is observed for 12-crown-4. The ether's collective oxygen atoms' action determines interaction with acetonitrile and malononitrile, with dimethyltin dichloride having a specific oxygen-binding site. 14 refs., 1 tab

  5. Vaporization of GaI3Py adduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshkina, A.Yu.; Grigor'ev, A.A.; Suvorov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Processes of GaI 3 Py complex vaporization have been studied by mass-spectrometric, tensimetric and calorimetric methods. It is shown that adduct transformation into vapour is accompanied by its thermal dissociation. Thermodynamic characteristics of evaporation and dissociation of GaI 3 Py complex have been obtained. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. The fate of H atom adducts to 3'-uridine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ru Bo; Eriksson, Leif A

    2010-07-29

    The stabilities of the adducts deriving from H free radical addition to the O2, O4, and C5 positions of 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'UMP) are studied by the hybrid density functional B3LYP approach. Upon H atom addition at the O2 position, a concerted low-barrier proton-transfer process will initially occur, followed by the potential ruptures of the N-glycosidic or beta-phosphate bonds. The rupture barriers are strongly influenced by the rotational configuration of the phosphate group at the 3' terminal, and are influenced by bulk solvation effects. The O4-H adduct has the highest thermal stability, as the localization of the unpaired electron does not enable cleavage of either the C1'-N1 or the C3'-O(P) bonds. For the most stable adduct, with H atom added to the C5 position, the rate-controlled step is the H2'a abstraction by the C6 radical site, after which the subsequent strand rupture reactions proceed with low barriers. The main unpaired electron densities are presented for the transient species. Combined with previous results, it is concluded that the H atom adducts are more facile to drive the strand scission rather than N-glycosidic bond ruptures within the nucleic acid bases.

  7. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping; Risko, Chad; Seo, Jung Hwa; Campbell, Casey; Wu, Guang; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths

  8. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.P.; Linder, K.E.; Maheu, L.J.; Patz, M.A.; Thompson, J.S.; Tulip, T.H.; Subramanyam, V.

    1988-01-01

    An method for preparing a coordination complex of isonitrile ligand and a radioisotope of Te, Ru, Co, Pt, Re, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Nb and Ta from a non-radioactive metal adduct of the isonitrile

  9. Characterization of trypsin-derived peptides acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Goheen, S.C.; Edmonds, C.G.; McCulloch, M.; Sylvester, D.M.; Sander, C.; Bull, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Even though there are a number of sources for human exposure to acrylamide, reliable biomarkers of exposure are not available. In an effort to develop such a biomarker, the authors are characterizing peptides derived from trypsin digests of acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin. For this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with purified human hemoglobin (Ao) and decomposition products removed by dialysis. When the adducted hemoglobin was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, radioactivity eluted with the α and β subunits, suggesting covalent binding. Digestion of individual subunits with trypsin followed by reverse phase HPLC, indicated that most of the radioactivity associated with the α subunit co-eluted with a single peptide. Similar results were observed for the β subunit except that significant amounts of radioactivity eluted with the solvent front, suggesting that radioactivity was released by trypsin digestion. Currently, these preparation are under further characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This approach will aid in the identification of the adducted will aid in the identification of the adducted peptide and subsequent preparation of an acrylamide-specific antibody

  10. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yun-bo.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs

  12. 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) inhibits radiation induced carcinogenesis (skin tumors) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Saurabh; Bhuria, Vikas; Pandey, Sanjay; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the late effects of radiation exposure i.e. carcinogenesis is exemplified by atomic bomb survivors, radiotherapy patients and occupational workers. Enhanced glucose metabolism (Warburg's effect) is a fundamental metabolic change in transformed cells which drives tumorigenesis. It is suggested that Dietary Energy Restriction (DER) that targets glucose metabolism may afford protection against radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, DER is practically difficult to sustain in humans. Therefore, we have hypothesized that the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a potential energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA) may impair the process of tumorigenesis as an alternative to DER. In the present studies we investigated the effects of dietary 2-DG on radiation induced papillomas in mice. Swiss albino mice (male) were irradiated with a fractionated dose schedule (1.5 Gy ionizing radiation/week for four weeks) focally on the shaved back followed by the application of tumor promoting agent (TPA) once weekly till the termination of the study. Mice were administered 2-DG (0.2% and 0.4% w/v) containing water starting a week after last irradiation. A significant reduction in the tumor incidence, tumor burden, besides increase in the latency period was observed in the 2-DG fed mice. The average tumor incidence (papillomas formation) was reduced to 25% and 37% in 0.2% and 0.4% 2-DG group respectively from 47% in the control group with a significant delay in the onset. Under these conditions, 2-DG considerably enhanced the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant decrease in the lipid peroxidation. 2-DG fed tumor bearing mice showed decrease in splenic CD4 + to CD8 + T-cell ratio and prevented the tumor induced augmentation of T-regulatory cells (CD4 + CD25 + ) which correlated with an increase in CD8 + (CTLs) cells. Dietary 2-DG also reduced the tumor associated and radiation induced angiogenesis. These observations suggest that dietary 2-DG

  13. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    and drinking-water disinfection by-products, mainly trihalomethanes (THMs), were available for a large proportion of the study population. RESULTS: Greek and Spanish neonates had higher adduct levels than the northern European neonates [median, 12.1 (n = 179) vs. 6.8 (n = 332) adducts per 108 nucleotides, p...... with higher adduct levels in adjusted models. Exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was associated with significantly higher adducts in the Danish subsample only. Overall, the pooled results for THMs in water show no evidence of association with adduct levels; however, there are country...

  14. Formation of DNA adducts in mouse tissues after 1-nitropyrene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    DNA adducts were isolated and characterized in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of [ 3 H]-1-nitropyrene (1-NP). HPLC analysis of the enzymatically digested DNA indicated the presence of multiple DNA adducts in mouse lung, liver and kidney. These results indicate that DNA adducts of 1-NP are formed in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of 1-NP; the HPLC profiles of the multiple adducts suggests that adducts may be formed via metabolic pathways that involve both nitroreduction and ring-oxidation. 6 references, 1 figure

  15. Molecular species analysis of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DG) in rat mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennerly, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of DG, PA and PI were studied in purified rat mast cells to determine whether generally accepted pathways of PI metabolism could explain the pattern of fatty acids seen in these intermediates. A method was developed to separate and quantitate by mass (for DG) or endogenous labeling (for PA and PI) the different molecular species of each lipid that are defined by their component fatty acids. The resultant molecular species fingerprint for each lipid was examined to see if it was similar to other intermediates in the PI cycle. For each class of compounds the percent in a given subclass was recorded. Stimulation caused a reduction of more saturated subclasses and/or an increase in AA containing compounds in PA, PI and DG. The relative similarity of subclasses of 32 P-PA and 32 P-PI supports the view that they are metabolically related. The relative absence of AA-containing species of DG suggests that most of the stimulated increase of DG was not produced by PI hydrolysis

  16. Reactive power and voltage control strategy based on dynamic and adaptive segment for DG inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jianwei; Lin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    The inverter of distributed generation (DG) can support reactive power to help solve the problem of out-of-limit voltage in active distribution network (ADN). Therefore, a reactive voltage control strategy based on dynamic and adaptive segment for DG inverter is put forward to actively control voltage in this paper. The proposed strategy adjusts the segmented voltage threshold of Q(U) droop curve dynamically and adaptively according to the voltage of grid-connected point and the power direction of adjacent downstream line. And then the reactive power reference of DG inverter can be got through modified Q(U) control strategy. The reactive power of inverter is controlled to trace the reference value. The proposed control strategy can not only control the local voltage of grid-connected point but also help to maintain voltage within qualified range considering the terminal voltage of distribution feeder and the reactive support for adjacent downstream DG. The scheme using the proposed strategy is compared with the scheme without the reactive support of DG inverter and the scheme using the Q(U) control strategy with constant segmented voltage threshold. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method has a significant improvement on solving the problem of out-of-limit voltage, restraining voltage variation and improving voltage quality.

  17. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT. Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2− than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding.

  18. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals

  19. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  20. Performance assessment of gate material engineered AlInN/GaN underlap DG MOSFET for enhanced carrier transport efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Hemant M.; Raj, Godwin; Pati, Sudhansu; Mohankumar, N.; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the work proposed, performance of dual material gate (DMG) AlInN/GaN underlap DG MOSFET has been analyzed and compared with the corresponding performance of single material gate (SMG) AlInN/GaN underlap DG MOSFET using Sentaurus TCAD device simulation. A systematic, quantitative investigation of key device metrics for DMG-DG device is presented and a comparison with SMG-DG device is done for a wide range of gate and underlap lengths. The key idea in this paper is to demonstrate the improved performance exhibited by DMG-DG device over SMG-DG device, due to enhanced carrier transport efficiency and suppressed short channel effect (SCE). Simulation reveals an improvement in drain current, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), Ion/Ioff, Delay and Energy Delay Product (EDP) for DMG-DG MOSFET as compared to SMG-DG MOSFET. Very high drain current of 6.7 mA/μm, low DIBL of 1.62 mV/V, high Ion/Ioff ratio of 4.044e107, low delay of 0.001 ps and low EDP of 1.37e-31 J s/μm are obtained for DGM-DG device. However, subthreshold slope (SS) for DMG-DG device is on higher side than SMG-DG. The proposed AlInN/GaN Heterostructure Underlap DGM-DG MOSFET shows excellent promise as one of the candidates to substitute present MOSFET for future high speed applications.

  1. General and Simple Decision Method for DG Penetration Level in View of Voltage Regulation at Distribution Substation Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribution system was designed and operated by considering unidirectional power flow from a utility source to end-use loads. The large penetrations of distributed generation (DG into the existing distribution system causes a variety of technical problems, such as frequent tap changing problems of the on-load tap changer (OLTC transformer, local voltage rise, protection coordination, exceeding short-circuit capacity, and harmonic distortion. In view of voltage regulation, the intermittent fluctuation of the DG output power results in frequent tap changing operations of the OLTC transformer. Thus, many utilities limit the penetration level of DG and are eager to find the reasonable penetration limits of DG in the distribution system. To overcome this technical problem, utilities have developed a new voltage regulation method in the distribution system with a large DG penetration level. In this paper, the impact of DG on the OLTC operations controlled by the line drop compensation (LDC method is analyzed. In addition, a generalized determination methodology for the DG penetration limits in a distribution substation transformer is proposed. The proposed DG penetration limits could be adopted for a simplified interconnection process in DG interconnection guidelines.

  2. Design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeffal, F.; Dibi, Z.; Hafiane, M.L.; Arar, D.

    2007-01-01

    The double gate (DG) MOSFET has received great attention in recent years owing to the inherent suppression of short channel effects (SCEs), excellent subthreshold slope (S), improved drive current (I ds ) and transconductance (gm), volume inversion for symmetric devices and excellent scalability. Therefore, simulation tools which can be applied to design nanoscale transistors in the future require new theory and modeling techniques that capture the physics of quantum transport accurately and efficiently. In this sense, this work presents the applicability of the artificial neural networks (ANN) for the design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source. The latter is based on the 2D numerical Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of an undoped symmetric DG MOSFET. Our results are discussed in order to obtain some new and useful information about the ULSI technology

  3. Impacts on the Voltage Profile of DC Distribution Network with DG Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, J. J.; Yin, Z. D.

    2017-07-01

    With the development of electronic, more and more distributed generations (DGs) access into grid and cause the research fever of direct current (DC) distribution network. Considering distributed generation (DG) location and capacity have great impacts on voltage profile, so use IEEE9 and IEEE33 typical circuit as examples, with DGs access in centralized and decentralized mode, to compare voltage profile in alternating and direct current (AC/DC) distribution network. Introducing the voltage change ratio as an evaluation index, so gets the general results on voltage profile of DC distributed network with DG access. Simulation shows that, in the premise of reasonable location and capacity, DC distribution network is more suitable for DG access.

  4. Multi-objective PSO based optimal placement of solar power DG in radial distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing trend of electricity demand, fossil fuel depletion and environmental issues request the integration of renewable energy into the distribution system. The optimal planning of renewable distributed generation (DG is much essential for ensuring maximum benefits. Hence, this paper proposes the optimal placement of probabilistic based solar power DG into the distribution system. The two objective functions such as power loss reduction and voltage stability index improvement are optimized. The power balance and voltage limits are kept as constraints of the problem. The non-sorting pare to-front based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO technique is proposed on standard IEEE 33 radial distribution test system.

  5. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  6. DNA-adducts in fish exposed to alkylating carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giam, C.S.; Holliday, T.L.; Williams, J.L.; Bahnson, A.; Weller, R.; Hinton, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    There are limited studies on DNA-adduct formation following exposure of fish or fish cells to carcinogens. It will be essential to determine if procarcinogens and carcinogens form the same DNA-adducts in different liver cells and how these compare to those reported in mammalian livers. They are also interested in the influence of different alkylating agents on the type and quantity of DNA-adduct formation and repair in fish. While eggs or small fish are ideal for routine screening, large fish such as trout (Salmo gairdneri) is needed initially for the development of analytical procedures for the isolation, quantitation and identification of various adducts. Trout (Salmo gairdneri) weighing approximately 250 grams were acclimatized at 13 degree C before being given i.p. injection of diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). The exposure period varied, though most animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. Their livers were excised and DNA was isolated mainly according the procedure of Croy et al. The neutral thermal hydrolysate and the acid hydrolysate were analyzed by HPLC-Fluorescent detector for 7-ethylguanine and O 6 -ethylguanine, respectively. O 6 -ethylguanine was detected, 7-ethylguanine was not detected. Attempts are being made to improve the detection of the latter compound. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to establish nanogram quantities of the ethylated bases. Laser desorption FT-IC-MS is particularly useful for characterizing thermally-labile and involatile nucleosides or nucleotides. Excretion of DEN was rapid and high. Exposure of trout (and other fish) to various ethylating agents will be discussed

  7. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates

  8. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  9. PHOSPHATO AND PHOSPHONATO ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  10. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  11. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  12. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  13. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on BP-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, M A; Chacko, M C; Annapurna, V V; Krishnaswamy, K

    1993-03-01

    Many human cancers that are widely prevalent today can be prevented through modifications in life-styles, of which diet appears to be an important agent. Several dietary constituents modulate the process of carcinogenesis and prevent genotoxicity. Many plant constituents including turmeric appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. Therefore the modulatory effects of turmeric and curcumin on the levels of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts in the livers of rats were studied by the newly developed 32P-postlabelling assay method. Turmeric when fed at 0.1, 0.5 and 3% and the active principle of turmeric (curcumin) when fed at a level of 0.03% in the diet for 4 weeks significantly reduced the level of BP-DNA adducts including the major adduct dG-N2-BP, formed within 24 h in response to a single i.p. injection of benzo[a]pyrene. The significance of these effects in terms of the potential anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric is discussed. Further, these results strengthen the various other biological effects of turmeric which have direct relevance to anticarcinogenesis and chemoprevention.

  14. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. PMID:23566956

  15. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Bjørkheim, André; Rolstad, Linn E; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2017-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint testing before and after the intervention. Per-protocol analyses were performed, and 12 players were excluded due to low compliance (<67% of sessions completed). The main outcome was eccentric hip adduction strength (N·m/kg). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater increase in eccentric hip adduction strength of 0.29 Nm/kg (8.9%; P = .01) in favor of the group performing the Copenhagen adduction exercise, whereas no within-group change was noted in the group that used the standard FIFA 11+ program (-0.02 N·m/kg [-0.7%]; P = .69). Including the Copenhagen adduction exercise in the FIFA 11+ program increases eccentric hip adduction strength, while the standard FIFA 11+ program does not. Registration: Registration: ISRCTN13731446 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry).

  16. 18F-DG PET/CT in detection of recurrence and metastasis of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of 18F-DG PET/CT in detecting recurrence and/or metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC).METHODS: Combined visual analysis with semiquantitative analysis, the 18F-DG PET/CT wholebody imaging results and the corresponding clinical data of 68 postoperative CRC patients including 48 male and 20 female with average age of 58.1 were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Recurrence and/or metastasis were confirmed in 56 patients in the clinical follow-up after the PET/CT imaging. The sensitivity of PET/CT diagnosis of CRC recurrence and/or metastasis was 94.6%, and the specificity was 83.3%. The positive predictive value (PPV)was 96.4% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 76.9%. PET/CT imaging detected one or more occult malignant lesions in 8 cases where abdominal/pelvic CT and/or ultrasonography showed negative findings, and also detected more lesions than CT or ultrasonography did in 30.4% (17/56) cases. Recurrence and/or metastasis was detected in 91.7% (22/24) cases with elevated serum CEA levels by 18F-DG PET/CT imaging.CONCLUSION: 18F-DG PET/CT could detect the recurrence and/or metastasis of CRC with high sensitivity and specificity.

  17. CosmosDG: An hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Peter; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Lau, Cheuk; Nemergut, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  18. CosmosDG: An hp -adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anninos, Peter; Lau, Cheuk [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bryant, Colton [Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois, 60208 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Holgado, A. Miguel [Department of Astronomy and National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, 61801 (United States); Nemergut, Daniel [Operations and Engineering Division, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge–Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  19. A multi-objective control strategy for grid connection of DG (distributed generation) resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Bergas-Jane, Joan [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETS d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETS d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (Spain); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a flexible control technique for connection of DG (distributed generation) resources to distribution networks, especially during ride-through on faulty grid. This strategy is derived from the abc/{alpha}{beta} and {alpha}{beta}/dq transformations of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG source are controlled in the synchronously rotating orthogonal dq reference frame. The transformed variables are used to control the VSI (voltage source inverter) which connects the DG to the distribution network. Using a P.L.L. (phase locked loop) in circuit of proposed control technique, the angle of positive sequence has been detected, in order to synchronize the currents to the distribution network. The proposed control technique has the capability of providing active and reactive powers and harmonic currents to nonlinear loads with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results and mathematical analysis have been completed in order to achieve a reduced THD (total harmonic distortion), increased power factor and compensated load's active and reactive powers. The analyses show the high performance of this control strategy in DG applications in comparison with other existing strategies. (author)

  20. CosmosDG: An hp -adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Peter; Lau, Cheuk; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Nemergut, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge–Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  1. Effect of Load Model Using Ranking Identification Technique for Multi Type DG Incorporating Embedded Meta EP-Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Siti Rafidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of load model prior to the distributed generation (DG planning in distribution system. In achieving optimal allocation and placement of DG, a ranking identification technique was proposed in order to study the DG planning using pre-developed Embedded Meta Evolutionary Programming–Firefly Algorithm. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of different type of DG in order to reduce the total losses considering load factor. To realize the effectiveness of the proposed technique, the IEEE 33 bus test systems was utilized as the test specimen. In this study, the proposed techniques were used to determine the DG sizing and the suitable location for DG planning. The results produced are utilized for the optimization process of DG for the benefit of power system operators and planners in the utility. The power system planner can choose the suitable size and location from the result obtained in this study with the appropriate company’s budget. The modeling of voltage dependent loads has been presented and the results show the voltage dependent load models have a significant effect on total losses of a distribution system for different DG type.

  2. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that use mobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to the MR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperforms mTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption. PMID:25526356

  3. HiCoDG: a hierarchical data-gathering scheme using cooperative multiple mobile elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2014-12-17

    In this paper, we study mobile element (ME)-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that use mobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG) scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC) and the mobile relay (MR). MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP) optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS)-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS)-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to the MR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP)-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperforms mTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption.

  4. A new evolutionary solution method for dynamic expansion planning of DG-integrated primary distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadigorji, Masoud; Amjady, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dynamic distribution network expansion planning model is presented. • A Binary Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (BEPSO) algorithm is proposed. • A Modified Differential Evolution (MDE) algorithm is proposed. • A new bi-level optimization approach composed of BEPSO and MDE is presented. • The effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach is extensively illustrated. - Abstract: Reconstruction in the power system and appearing of new technologies for generation capacity of electrical energy has led to significant innovation in Distribution Network Expansion Planning (DNEP). Distributed Generation (DG) includes the application of small/medium generation units located in power distribution networks and/or near the load centers. Appropriate utilization of DG can affect the various technical and operational indices of the distribution network such as the feeder loading, energy losses and voltage profile. In addition, application of DG in proper size is an essential tool to achieve the DG maximum potential benefits. In this paper, a time-based (dynamic) model for DNEP is proposed to determine the optimal size, location and installation year of DG in distribution system. Also, in this model, the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is exerted to determine the optimal generation of DGs for every potential solution in order to minimize the investment and operation costs following the load growth in a specified planning period. Besides, the reinforcement requirements of existing distribution feeders are considered, simultaneously. The proposed optimization problem is solved by the combination of evolutionary methods of a new Binary Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (BEPSO) and Modified Differential Evolution (MDE) to find the optimal expansion strategy and solve OPF, respectively. The proposed planning approach is applied to two typical primary distribution networks and compared with several other methods. These comparisons illustrate the

  5. The biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99Tcmm-EC-DG in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Yang Yi; Liu Zengli; Shi Yizhen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the biodistribution of technetium-99m labeled ethylenedicysteine-deoxyglucose ( 99 Tc m -EC-DG) and to calculate its internal radiation absorbed dose in normal volunteers. 740 MBq 99 Tc m -EC-DG was injected into the antecubital vein. 2 ml blood were sampled from the contralateral antecubital vein at different time after the injection, and its radioactivity was measured. The bi-exponential curve of time-radioactivity of blood and the dynamic parameters were obtained by using ORIGIN 5.0. Urine was collected in 24 hours after the injection and the percentage of Radioactivity excreted by urine to the total injected radioactivity was calculated. The anterior and posterior whole body imaging were acquired at different time after the injection of 740 MBq 99 Tc m -EC-DG. The region of interest of these referring organs and tissues was drawn, their radioactivity at different time was calculated. The bi-exponential curve of time-radioactivity of every organ was obtained by using ORIGIN 5.0, and then cumulated radioactivity and retaining time of 99 Tcm-EC-DG were calculated and input into the software MIRDOSE 3.0 to obtain the radiation absorbed dose of every organ and tissue. The heart rate, blood pressure and breathing frequency is normal after the injection. The male volunteer's T1/2α is 39 seconds, T1/2β is 59 minutes and that of female volunteer is 21 seconds and 61 minutes. 99 Tc m -EC-DG imaging is safe, and its characteristic of biodistribution in normal volunteer makes it easy to accumulate in tumor. Brain is not imaged, the uptake of muscle is low. The absorbed dose of every organ is far lower than that of the public annual average limitation. (authors)

  6. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Van Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study mobile element (ME-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC and the mobile relay (MR. MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to theMR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperformsmTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption.

  7. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  8. Decay kinetics of nicotine/NNK-DNA adducts in vivo studied by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.F.; He, L.; Liu, Y.F.; Liu, K.X.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Ma, H.J.; Li, K.

    2000-01-01

    The decay kinetics of nicotine-DNA adducts and NNK-DNA adducts in mice liver after single dosing was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The decay is characterized by a two-stage process. The half-lives of nicotine-DNA adducts are 1.3 d (4-24 h) and 7.0 d (1-21 d), while for NNK-DNA adducts are 0.7 d (4-24 h) and 18.0 d (1-21 d). The relatively faster decay of nicotine-DNA adducts suggests that the genotoxicity of nicotine is weaker than that of NNK. The in vitro study shows that the metabolization of nicotine is necessary for the final formation of nicotine-DNA adducts, and nicotine Δ1'(5') iminium ion is a probable metabolite species that binds to DNA molecule covalently

  9. Fast repair of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiang; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun; Zhu Dayuan

    1999-01-01

    Using pulse radiolytic techniques, it has been demonstrated that the interactions of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), polyA and polyG with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceed via an electron transfer process (k=5-30x10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). In addition, the rates for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP, polyA and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rates for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents. The slower rates for repair of oxidizing OH adducts of dAMP may be the rate determining step during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adducts of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA constituents

  10. /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in human oral mucosal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B.P.; Stich, H.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exfoliated mucosal cells were collected from the oral cavity of three groups at high risk for oral cancer: Indian betel nut chewers, Filipino inverted smokers (burning end of cigar in mouth) and Indian Khaini tobacco chewers. DNA was extracted from these samples, as well as from samples of exfoliated cells of Canadian non-smoking controls. DNA was analyzed for the presence of aromatic DNA adducts using /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis. Five chromatographically distinct adducts were found in samples from both the high risk groups and the nonsmoking controls. Individual adducts were detectable in approximately 30-95% of samples, depending on the adduct and population group. Estimated levels of specific adducts ranged from non-detectable (prevalence relative to normal nucleotides less than 1 X 10(-9)) to occasionally greater than 1 X 10(-7). No adducts were found in high risk groups which did not also appear in control subjects.

  11. Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-06-01

    G --> T transversion mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are characteristic of smoking-related lung tumors, suggesting that these genetic changes may result from exposure to tobacco carcinogens. It has been previously demonstrated that the diol epoxide metabolites of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), preferentially bind to the most frequently mutated guanine nucleotides within p53 codons 157, 158, 248, and 273 [Denissenko, M. F., Pao, A., Tang, M., and Pfeifer, G. P. (1996) Science 274, 430-432]. However, the methodology used in that work (ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction in combination with the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay) cannot establish the chemical structures and stereochemical identities of BPDE-guanine lesions. In the present study, we employ a stable isotope-labeling HPLC-MS/MS approach [Tretyakova, N., Matter, B., Jones, R., and Shallop, A. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 9535-9544] to analyze the formation of diastereomeric N(2)-BPDE-dG lesions within double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing p53 lung cancer mutational hotspots and their surrounding DNA sequences. (15)N-labeled dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes containing 5-methylcytosine at all physiologically methylated sites, followed by (+/-)-anti-BPDE treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the adducted DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides. Capillary HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS was used to establish the amounts of (-)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (+)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (-)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, and (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG originating from the (15)N-labeled bases. We found that all four N(2)-BPDE-dG diastereomers were formed preferentially at the methylated CG dinucleotides, including the frequently mutated p53 codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273. The contributions of individual diastereomers to the total adducts number at a given site varied between 70.8 and 92.9% for (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, 5.6 and 16.7% for

  12. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger W; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such add...... such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants....

  13. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  14. Mass-spectrometric study of volatile uranyl β-diketonates and their adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, V.M.; Belyaev, B.N.; Berezinskij, S.O.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    The mass spectra of a number of uranyl β-diketonates containing methyl, trifluoromethyl and tert-butyl substituents in β-diketonate anion, and their adducts are measured. The form of the unsolvated β-diketonates and their adducts in gas phase is studied. The ways of fragmentation of uranyl β-diketonates and their adducts are investigated. The data concerning the thermal and chemical side reactions proceeding with uranyl β-diketonates and their addicts in an ion source are obtained. The mass spectra of the samples of neptunyl and plutonyl β-diketonate adducts synthesized for the first time are measured

  15. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  16. On the use of kinetic energy preserving DG-schemes for large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, David; Gassner, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Recently, element based high order methods such as Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods and the closely related flux reconstruction (FR) schemes have become popular for compressible large eddy simulation (LES). Element based high order methods with Riemann solver based interface numerical flux functions offer an interesting dispersion dissipation behavior for multi-scale problems: dispersion errors are very low for a broad range of scales, while dissipation errors are very low for well resolved scales and are very high for scales close to the Nyquist cutoff. In some sense, the inherent numerical dissipation caused by the interface Riemann solver acts as a filter of high frequency solution components. This observation motivates the trend that element based high order methods with Riemann solvers are used without an explicit LES model added. Only the high frequency type inherent dissipation caused by the Riemann solver at the element interfaces is used to account for the missing sub-grid scale dissipation. Due to under-resolution of vortical dominated structures typical for LES type setups, element based high order methods suffer from stability issues caused by aliasing errors of the non-linear flux terms. A very common strategy to fight these aliasing issues (and instabilities) is so-called polynomial de-aliasing, where interpolation is exchanged with projection based on an increased number of quadrature points. In this paper, we start with this common no-model or implicit LES (iLES) DG approach with polynomial de-aliasing and Riemann solver dissipation and review its capabilities and limitations. We find that the strategy gives excellent results, but only when the resolution is such, that about 40% of the dissipation is resolved. For more realistic, coarser resolutions used in classical LES e.g. of industrial applications, the iLES DG strategy becomes quite inaccurate. We show that there is no obvious fix to this strategy, as adding for instance a sub

  17. Diphenyl-phosphinyl-morpholide (DPPM) lanthanide trifluoroacetate adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.R.F. de; Kim, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Preparation and properties of adducts of lanthanide salts and diphenyl-phosphinyl-morpholide (DPPM) have been described in the literature. Addition compounds containing lanthanide nitrates, isothiocyanates, perchlorates, chlorides, bromides with DPPM have been obtained. In this article, the preparation and characterization of the addition compounds of lanthanide trifluoroacetates (TFA) with DPPM are reported. The compounds of general formula Ln (TFA) 3 . 3DPPM, Ln= La-Lu, Y were characterized by elemental analysis, melting ranges, infrared spectra, absorption and emission visible spectra, X-ray powder patterns. (Author) [pt

  18. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any......-Pt and cisplatin were not stable in RPMI-1640 with 10% serum. The stability was determined using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and after 4 h new platinum peaks were observed. These findings indicate that before conducting cell experiments, the stability...

  19. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...

  20. A Functional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with PLA-PEG-DG as Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Hu, Ke; Yu, Haoli; Zhou, Lijun; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianping; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe 3 O 4 @OA NPs. The stability and anti phagocytosis of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG was tested in vitro; the MRI efficiency and toxicity was also detected in vivo. These functional magnetic nanoparticles demonstrated good biocompatibility and stability both in vitro and in vivo. Cell experiments showed that Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles exist good anti phagocytosis and high targetability. In vivo MRI images showed that the contrast effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles prevailed over the commercial non tumor-targeting magnetic nanomaterials MRI agent at a relatively low dose. The DG can validly enhance the tumor-targetting effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG nanoparticle. Maybe MRI agents with DG can hold promise as tumor-targetting development in the future.

  1. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  2. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  3. Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

  4. Combined effect of CVR and penetration of DG in the voltage profile and losses of lowvoltage secondary distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Abdullah

    Demarcations between traditional distribution power systems and distributed generation (DG) architectures are increasingly evolving as higher DG penetration is introduced in the system. The concerns in existing electric power systems (EPSs) to accommodate less restrictive interconnection policies while maintaining reliability and performance of power delivery have been the major challenge for DG growth. In this dissertation, the work is aimed to study power quality, energy saving and losses in a low voltage distributed network under various DG penetration cases. Simulation platform suite that includes electric power system, distributed generation and ZIP load models is implemented to determine the impact of DGs on power system steady state performance and the voltage profile of the customers/loads in the network under the voltage reduction events. The investigation designed to test the DG impact on power system starting with one type of DG, then moves on multiple DG types distributed in a random case and realistic/balanced case. The functionality of the proposed DG interconnection is designed to meet the basic requirements imposed by the various interconnection standards, most notably IEEE 1547, public service commission, and local utility regulation. It is found that implementation of DGs on the low voltage secondary network would improve customer's voltage profile, system losses and significantly provide energy savings and economics for utilities. In a network populated with DGs, utility would have a uniform voltage profile at the customers end as the voltage profile becomes more concentrated around targeted voltage level. The study further reinforced the concept that the behavior of DG in distributed network would improve voltage regulation as certain percentage reduction on utility side would ensure uniform percentage reduction seen by all customers and reduce number of voltage violations.

  5. Path Searching Based Fault Automated Recovery Scheme for Distribution Grid with DG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lin; Qun, Wang; Hui, Xue; Simeng, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Applying the method of path searching based on distribution network topology in setting software has a good effect, and the path searching method containing DG power source is also applicable to the automatic generation and division of planned islands after the fault. This paper applies path searching algorithm in the automatic division of planned islands after faults: starting from the switch of fault isolation, ending in each power source, and according to the line load that the searching path traverses and the load integrated by important optimized searching path, forming optimized division scheme of planned islands that uses each DG as power source and is balanced to local important load. Finally, COBASE software and distribution network automation software applied are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the realization of such automatic restoration program.

  6. Optimal placement and sizing of wind / solar based DG sources in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wanlin; Guo, Niao; Yu, Chunlai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Haiyang; Liu, Zhipeng; Cui, Jiapeng

    2017-06-01

    Proper placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution system can obtain maximum potential benefits. This paper proposes quantum particle swarm algorithm (QPSO) based wind turbine generation unit (WTGU) and photovoltaic (PV) array placement and sizing approach for real power loss reduction and voltage stability improvement of distribution system. Performance modeling of wind and solar generation system are described and classified into PQ\\PQ (V)\\PI type models in power flow. Considering the WTGU and PV based DGs in distribution system is geographical restrictive, the optimal area and DG capacity limits of each bus in the setting area need to be set before optimization, the area optimization method is proposed . The method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Effect of Multi-DG Installation to Loss Reduction in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zahirah Mohd Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since last decade, Artificial Intelligence (AI methods have been used to solve complex DG problems because in most cases, they can provide global or near global solution. The major advantage of the AI methods is that they are relatively versatile for handling various qualitative constraints. AI methods mainly include Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Expert System (ES, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Evolutionary Programming (EP, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The purpose of this paper is to present a new technique, namely Adaptive Embedded Clonal Evolutionary Programming (AECEP. The objective of the study is to employ AECEP optimization techniques for loss minimization. This technique was developed to optimally determine the location and sizing of DG. The IEEE 41- Bus RTS was implemented for testing several cases in terms of loading conditions.

  8. A combined ADER-DG and PML approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains

    KAUST Repository

    Amler, Thomas

    2012-09-19

    In this work, we present a numerical approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains which combines discontinuous Galerkin methods with arbitrary high order time integration (ADER-DG) and a stabilized modification of perfectly matched layers (PML). Here, the ADER-DG method is applied to Bérenger’s formulation of PML. The instabilities caused by the original PML formulation are treated by a fractional step method that allows to monitor whether waves are damped in PML region. In grid cells where waves are amplified by the PML, the contribution of damping terms is neglected and auxiliary variables are reset. Results of 2D simulations in acoustic media with constant and discontinuous material parameters are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.

  9. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase π. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  11. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  12. Two novel creatinine adducts of andrographolide in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Cui, Liang; Chen, Lixia; Sun, Jiawen; Yao, Xinsheng

    2012-09-01

    Andrographolide is a major labdane diterpenoid of the traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Andrographis paniculate (Burm) Nees, is used in clinical situations in China mainly to treat fever, cold, and inflammation. In our previous study, fifteen metabolites of andrographolide were identified in human urine. However, there are still two other unknown metabolites. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structures of these two metabolites. 3. The two metabolites which are probably epimers were identified as creatinine adducts, and their structures were determined to be 14-deoxy-12-(creatinine-5-yl)-andrographolide-19-O-β-D-glucuronide A (Metabolite 1) and 14-deoxy-12-(creatinine-5-yl)-andrographolide-19-O-β-D-glucuronide B (Metabolite 2) by means of spectroscopic evidences. 4. It is for the first time that the formation of creatinine adducts as a novel metabolic pathway is reported. The mechanism was presumed that β-carbon (C-12) of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl was attacked by a 5-anion intermediate of creatinine formed through elimination of a proton, followed by the double bond migration from 12(13) to 13(14) and elimination of the hydroxyl group at C-14.

  13. Benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct formation in cells: time-dependent differences in the benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, W.M.; Dumaswala, R.U.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures involving isolation of the DNA from tritium labelled hydrocarbon-treated cells are discussed. Enzymatic degradation of the DNA to deoxyribonucleosides, and chromatography of the adducts on columns of water gradients were covered as well

  14. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... (smokers and non-smokers). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabelling with the butanol enrichment procedure. The bus drivers answered a comprehensive questionnaire on passive smoking, residential area, diet and other potential confounding variables. A significantly higher adduct level...... was observed in bus drivers working in central Copenhagen (1.214 fmol/microg DNA, n = 49) compared with both those driving in the dormitory (median: 0.507 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.046, n = 16) and suburban (median: 0.585 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.041, n = 25) areas. All three groups had higher adduct levels than...

  15. Inert Reassessment Document for Poly(oxyethylene) adducts of mixed phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is uncategorized as to list classification status. Based upon the reasonable certainty of no harm safety finding, the List 4B classification for poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is affirmed.

  16. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  17. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts on a reconstituted replication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.C.; Romano, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have used a partially reconstituted replication system consisting of T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gene 4 protein to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) adducts on DNA synthesis and gene 4 protein activities. The gene 4 protein is required for T7 DNA replication because of its ability to act as both a primase and helicase. They show here that total synthesis decreases as the level of adducts per molecule of DNA increases, suggesting that the B[a]P adducts are blocking an aspect of the replication process. By challenging synthesis on oligonucleotide-primed B[a]P-modified DNA with unmodified DNA, they present evidence that the T7 DNA polymerase freely dissociates after encountering an adduct. Prior studies have shown that the gene 4 protein alone does not dissociate from the template during translocation upon encountering an adduct. However, when gene 4 protein primed DNA synthesis is challenged, they observe an increase in synthesis but to a lesser extent than observed on oligonucleotide-primed synthesis. Finally, they have examined DNA synthesis on duplex templates and show the B[a]P adducts inhibit synthesis by the T7 DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein to the same extent regardless of whether the adducts are positioned in the leading or lagging strand, while synthesis by the polymerase alone is inhibited only when the adducts are in the template strand

  18. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  20. NMR studies of the exocyclic 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine adduct (εdA) opposite thymidine in a DNA duplex. Nonplanar alignment of εdA(anti) and dT(anti) at the lesion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakdjian, M.; Patel, D.J.; Eisenberg, M.; Yarema, K.; Basu, A.; Essigmann, J.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional proton NMR studies are reported on the complementary d(C-A-T-G-T-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-εA-C-A-T-G) nonanucleotide duplex (designated εdA·dT 9-mer duplex) containing 1,N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA), a carcinogen-DNA adduct, positioned opposite thymidine in the center of the helix. The authors NMR studies have focused on the conformation of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex at neutral pH with emphasis on defining the alignment at the dT5·εdA14 lesion site. The through-space NOE distance connectivities establish that both dT5 and εdA14 adopt anti glycosidic torsion angles, are directed into the interior of the helix, and stack with flanking Watson-Crick dG4·dC15 and dG6·dC13 pairs. Furthermore, the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) trinucleotide segment centered about the dT5·εdA14 lesion site adopts a right-handed helical conformation in solution. Energy minimization computations were undertaken starting from six different alignments of dT5(anti) and εdA14(anti) at the lesion site and were guided by distance constraints defined by lower and upper bounds estimated from NOESY data sets on the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex. The NMR data are consistent with a nonplanar alignment of εdA14(anti) and dT5(anti) with dT5 displaced toward the flanking dG4·dC15 base pair within the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) segment of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex

  1. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Myungkoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  2. [Effect of 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampal DG on active avoidance learning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng-ze; Lv, Jing; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Hai-ying; Li, Ying-shun; Jin, Qing-hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of serotonin (5-HTIA) receptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) on active avoidance learning in rats. Totally 36 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, antagonist group and agonist group(n = 12). Active avoidance learning ability of rats was assessed by the shuttle box. The extracellular concentrations of 5-HT in the DG during active avoidance conditioned reflex were measured by microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Then the antagonist (WAY-100635) or agonist (8-OH-DPAT) of the 5-HT1A receptors were microinjected into the DG region, and the active avoidance learning was measured. (1) During the active avoidance learning, the concentration of 5-HT in the hippocampal DG was significantly increased in the extinction but not establishment in the conditioned reflex, which reached 164.90% ± 26.07% (P active avoidance learning. (3) The microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT(an agonist of 5-HT1A receptor) into the DG significantly facilitated the establishment process and inhibited the extinction process during active avoidance conditioned reflex. The data suggest that activation of 5-HT1A receptors in hipocampal DG may facilitate active avoidance learning and memory in rats.

  3. Glucose metabolism-weighted imaging with chemical exchange-sensitive MRI of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) in brain: Sensitivity and biological sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Mehrens, Hunter; Wang, Ping; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2016-12-01

    Recent proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the uptake and metabolism of non-labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) by a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MRI approach. In order to gain better understanding of this new approach, we performed dynamic in vivo CESL MRI on healthy rat brains with an intravenous injection of 2DG under various conditions at 9.4T. For three 2DG doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg, we found that 2DG-CESL signals increased linearly with injection dose at the initial (40min) suggesting time-dependent differential weightings of 2DG transport and metabolism. Remaining 2DG-CESL studies were performed with 0.25g/kg 2DG. Since a higher isoflurane level reduces glucose metabolism and increases blood flow, 2DG-CESL was measured under 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.2% isoflurane. The 2DG-CESL signal was reduced at higher isoflurane levels correlating well with the 2DG phosphorylation in the intracellular space. To detect regional heterogeneities of glucose metabolism, 2DG-CESL with 0.33×0.33×1.50mm 3 resolution was obtained, which indeed showed a higher response in the cortex compared to the corpus callosum. Lastly, unlike CESL MRI with the injection of non-transportable mannitol, the 2DG-CESL response decreased with an increased spin-lock pulse power confirming that 2DG-CESL is dominated by chemical exchange processes in the extravascular space. Taken together, our results showed that 2DG-CESL MRI signals mainly indicate glucose transport and metabolism and may be a useful biomarker for metabolic studies of normal and diseased brains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of benzo(a)pyrene-globin adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H; Jeffre, A M; Santella, R M

    1987-05-01

    The nature of the adducts formed between benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and globin were investigated in animals treated with (/sup 3/H)BP. Modification levels on globin were determined by radioactivity measurements. Since BP tetraols can be released from benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide modified protein and DNA by acid treatment, globin samples were treated with acid, released tetraols separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. In addition, acid released material was measured in competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antibodies which recognize BP tetraols. Both measurements indicate that only 2% of bound radioactivity could be released as free BP tetraols. These studies indicate that benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide may not be the major metabolite of BP involved in globin binding. (author). 14 refs.

  5. Vitamin A-aldehyde adducts: AMD risk and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Janet R

    2016-04-26

    Although currently available treatment options for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited, particularly for atrophic AMD, the identification of predisposing genetic variations has informed clinical studies addressing therapeutic options such as complement inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents. To lower risk of early AMD, recommended lifestyle interventions such as the avoidance of smoking and the intake of low glycemic antioxidant-rich diets have largely followed from the identification of nongenetic modifiable factors. On the other hand, the challenge of understanding the complex relationship between aging and cumulative damage leading to AMD has fueled investigations of the visual cycle adducts that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and are a hallmark of aging retina. These studies have revealed properties of these compounds that provide insights into processes that may compromise RPE and could contribute to disease mechanisms in AMD. This work has also led to the design of targeted therapeutics that are currently under investigation.

  6. Formation of monofunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts in carbonate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Alexandra; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2006-07-01

    Carbonate in its various forms is an important component in blood and the cytosol. Since, under conditions that simulate therapy, carbonate reacts with cisplatin to form carbonato complexes, one of which is taken up and/or modified by the cell [C.R. Centerwall, J. Goodisman, D.J. Kerwood, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) 12768-12769], cisplatin-carbonato complexes may be important in the mechanism of action of cisplatin. In this report we study the binding of cisplatin to pBR322 DNA in two different buffers, using gel electrophoresis. In 23.8mM HEPES, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, 5mM NaCl, pH 7.4 buffer, cisplatin produces aquated species, which react with DNA to unwind supercoiled Form I DNA, increasing its mobility, and reducing the binding of ethidium to DNA. This behavior is consistent with the formation of the well-known intrastrand crosslink on DNA. In 23.8mM carbonate buffer, 5mM NaCl, pH 7.4, cisplatin forms carbonato species that produce DNA-adducts which do not significantly change supercoiling but enhance binding of ethidium to DNA. This behavior is consistent with the formation of a monofunctional cisplatin adduct on DNA. These results show that aquated cisplatin and carbonato complexes of cisplatin produce different types of lesions on DNA and they underscore the importance of carrying out binding studies with cisplatin and DNA using conditions that approximate those found in the cell.

  7. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) protein adduct concentrations during therapeutic dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon; Green, Jody L; Anderson, Victoria; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol protein adducts (PPA) are a biomarker of paracetamol exposure. PPA are quantified as paracetamol-cysteine (APAP-CYS), and concentrations above 1.1 μmol l(-1) have been suggested as a marker of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. However, there is little information on the range of concentrations observed during prolonged therapeutic dosing. The aim of the present study was to describe the concentration of PPA in the serum of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol for at least 16 days. Preplanned secondary aim of a prospective randomized controlled (placebo vs. 4g day(-1) paracetamol) trial. We measured subjects' serum PPA concentrations every 3 days for a minimum of 16 days. We also measured concentrations on study days 1-3 and 16-25 in subsets of patients. PPA were quantified as APAP-CYS after gel filtration and protein digestion using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ninety per cent of subjects had detectable PPA after five doses. Median APAP-CYS concentrations in paracetamol-treated subjects increased to a plateau of 0.1 μmol l(-1) on day 7, where they remained. The highest concentration measured was 1.1 μmol l(-1) and two subjects never had detectable PPA levels. PPA were detected in the serum of 78% of subjects 9 days after their final dose. PPA are detectable in the vast majority of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol. While most have concentrations well below the threshold associated with hepatotoxicity, concentrations may approach 1.1 μmol l(-1) in rare cases. Adducts are detectable after a few doses and can persist for over a week after dosing is stopped. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Forefoot Adduction Is a Risk Factor for Jones Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Adam E; Stack, Rebecca; Klein, Erin E; Baker, Jeffrey R; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott

    Jones fractures are among the most common fractures of the foot; however, much remains unknown about their etiology. The purpose of the present study was to further examine the risk factors of forefoot and hindfoot alignment on Jones fractures using an epidemiologic study design. We used a retrospective, matched, case-control study design. Cases consisted of patients with acute, isolated Jones fractures confirmed on plain film radiographs seen at our institute from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients presenting with pain unrelated to metatarsal fractures served as controls. Controls were matched to cases by age (±2 years), gender, and year of presentation. Weightbearing foot radiographs were assessed for 13 angular relationships by a single rater. Conditional multivariable logistic regression was used to identify important risk factors. Fifty patients with acute Jones fractures and 200 controls were included. The only significant variables in the final multivariable model were the metatarsus adductus angle (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08 to 1.25) and fourth/fifth intermetatarsal angle (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.83)-both measures of static forefoot adduction. The presence of metatarsus adductus (defined as >15°) on foot radiographs was associated with a 2.4 times greater risk of a Jones fracture (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.8). We have concluded that the risk of Jones fracture increases with an adducted forefoot posture. In our population, which consisted primarily of patients presenting after a fall (10 of 50; 20%) or misstep/inversion injury (19 of 50; 38%), the hindfoot alignment appeared to be a less important factor. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adduction of acrylamide with biomacromolecules at environmental dose level measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Q.Y.; Sun, H.F.; Liu, Y.F.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a well-known neurotoxin, which also has developmental, reproductive as well as genetic toxicity. AA has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by IARC in 1994 since its carcinogenic effects in animals were reported after repetitive high level dosing. Over the last 10 years, there have been a large number of studies investigating the effects of AA on rodent reproductive performance. In 2002, the Swedish Food Administration reported the presence of AA in the heat-treated food products. which again elicited great concern on the toxicity of AA. However most of these studies were investigated at a dose level of mg/kg b.w and above, which is much higher than the actual human relevant dose. In this study we investigate the adduction of environmental level AA with biomacromolecules by the ultra-sensitive AMS technique. This may provide some information on the reproductive toxicity of AA under extremely low level exposure. A series doses of [2, 3- 14 C] AA (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 250, 1000 μg/kg bw) were administrated with a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) to ICR adult male mice. The blood and spermatozoon were collected 24 h post dosing. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum albumin (SA), protamine, spermatozoon DNA, spermatozoon head and tail were isolated respectively, and then transformed into graphite following our previous procedure, The adduct levels were determined by a 0.6 MV compact AMS facility at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics of Peking University. The results indicate that: (1) AA adduct number increases with the doses within 0.1-1000 μg/kg b.w. range in a log/log linear mode, except for DNA within 10-1000 μg/kg b.w. range. (2) Comparing protamine, Hb, and SA adducts with that of spermatozoon DNA (see Fig. 1), AA mainly adducts to proteins. For instance, at 1000 μg/kg b.w. dose level, spermatozoon DNA adducts only account for about 0.71%, 1.36% and 0.82% of protamine, Hb and SA adducts, respectively. (3) AA-protamine adducts, AA

  10. Inhibition of nitrobenzene-induced DNA and hemoglobin adductions by dietary constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongli; Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Liu Yuanfang E-mail: yliu@pku.edu.cn; Liu Kexin; Peng Shixiang

    2003-03-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB), a widely used industrial chemical, is a likely human carcinogen. Many dietary constituents can suppress the DNA-adduction, acting as the inhibitors of cancer. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), tea polyphenols (TP), garlic squeeze, curcumin, and grapestone extract on NB-DNA and NB-hemoglobin (Hb) adductions in mice using an ultrasensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C-labelled nitrobenzene. All of these dietary constituents showed their inhibitory effects on DNA or Hb adduction. VC, VE, TP and grapestone extract could efficaciously inhibit the adductions by 33-50%, and all of these six agents could inhibit Hb adduction by 30-64%. We also investigated resveratrol, curcumin, VC and VE as inhibitors of NB-DNA adduction in vitro using liquid scintillation counting technique. These agents in the presence of NADPH and S9 components also pronouncedly blocked DNA adduction in a dose-dependent profile. Our study suggests that these seven constituents may interrupt the process of NB-induced chemical carcinogenesis.

  11. Microdose-Induced Drug-DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Chemotherapy Resistance in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Maike; Wang, Si-Si; Zhang, Hongyong; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Malfatti, Michael; Haack, Kurt; Ognibene, Ted; Yang, Hongyuan; Airhart, Susan; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Cimino, George D; Tepper, Clifford G; Drakaki, Alexandra; Chamie, Karim; de Vere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-Xian; Henderson, Paul T

    2017-02-01

    We report progress on predicting tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Fourteen bladder cancer patients were administered one diagnostic microdose each of [ 14 C]carboplatin (1% of the therapeutic dose). Carboplatin-DNA adducts were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry in blood and tumor samples collected within 24 hours, and compared with subsequent chemotherapy response. Patients with the highest adduct levels were responders, but not all responders had high adduct levels. Four patient-derived bladder cancer xenograft mouse models were used to test the possibility that another drug in the regimen could cause a response. The mice were dosed with [ 14 C]carboplatin or [ 14 C]gemcitabine and the resulting drug-DNA adduct levels were compared with tumor response to chemotherapy. At least one of the drugs had to induce high drug-DNA adduct levels or create a synergistic increase in overall adducts to prompt a corresponding therapeutic response, demonstrating proof-of-principle for drug-DNA adducts as predictive biomarkers. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 376-87. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Electrophilic properties of patulin. Adduct structures and reaction pathways with 4-bromothiophenol and other model nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, R; Metzler, M

    2000-05-01

    The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) is believed to exert its cytotoxic and chromosome-damaging effects by forming covalent adducts with essential cellular thiols. Since the chemical structures of such adducts are unknown to date, we have studied the reaction of PAT and its O-acetylated derivative with the monofunctional thiol model compound 4-bromothiophenol (BTP), which was chosen due to analytical advantages. By means of analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, 16 adducts of PAT and 3 adducts of acetyl-PAT were isolated and their chemical structures elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy. Time course studies and analysis of daughter product formation from isolated intermediate adducts led to a detailed scheme for the reaction of PAT with BTP. The structures of adducts of PAT formed with other model nucleophiles, e. g., the aliphatic thiol 2-mercaptoethanol and the aromatic amine 4-bromoaniline, were also elucidated and found to corroborate the reaction scheme. In addition, one further reaction pathway was observed with 2-mercaptoethanol, which appears to be independent from those found for BTP. Our study with model nucleophiles provides insights into the electrophilic reactivity of PAT and proved to be useful for the structure elucidation of PAT adducts with biological nucleophiles of toxicological relevance, as will be reported by Fliege and Metzler [(2000) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13, 373-381].

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  14. Direct antioxidant properties of methotrexate: Inhibition of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein adduct formation and superoxide scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Zimmerman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA and acetaldehyde (AA, known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic, supporting the concept that MAA-adducts not only serve as markers of oxidative stress but may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Because MAA-adducts are commonly detected in diseased tissues and are proposed to mitigate disease progression in both RA and CVD, we tested the hypothesis that MTX inhibits the generation of MAA-protein adducts by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Using a cell free system, we found that MTX reduces MAA-adduct formation by approximately 6-fold, and scavenges free radicals produced during MAA-adduct formation. Further investigation revealed that MTX directly scavenges superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, using the Nrf2/ARE luciferase reporter cell line, which responds to intracellular redox changes, we observed that MTX inhibits the activation of Nrf2 in cells treated with MDA and AA. These studies define previously unrecognized mechanisms by which MTX can reduce inflammation and subsequent tissue damage, namely, scavenging free radicals, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting MAA-adduct formation.

  15. Knee adduction moment and medial contact force--facts about their correlation during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kutzner

    Full Text Available The external knee adduction moment is considered a surrogate measure for the medial tibiofemoral contact force and is commonly used to quantify the load reducing effect of orthopedic interventions. However, only limited and controversial data exist about the correlation between adduction moment and medial force. The objective of this study was to examine whether the adduction moment is indeed a strong predictor for the medial force by determining their correlation during gait. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure tibiofemoral contact forces in nine subjects. Gait analyses were performed simultaneously to the joint load measurements. Skeletal kinematics, as well as the ground reaction forces and inertial parameters, were used as inputs in an inverse dynamics approach to calculate the external knee adduction moment. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between adduction moment and medial force for the whole stance phase and separately for the early and late stance phase. Whereas only moderate correlations between adduction moment and medial force were observed throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.56 and during the late stance phase (R(2 = 0.51, a high correlation was observed at the early stance phase (R(2 = 0.76. Furthermore, the adduction moment was highly correlated to the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.75. These results suggest that the adduction moment is a surrogate measure, well-suited to predicting the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase or medial force during the early stance phase. However, particularly during the late stance phase, moderate correlations and high inter-individual variations revealed that the predictive value of the adduction moment is limited. Further analyses are necessary to examine whether a combination of other kinematic, kinetic or neuromuscular factors may lead to a more

  16. 7-Alkylguanine adduct levels in urine, lungs and liver of mice exposed to styrene by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodicka, Pavel Erik; Linhart, Igor; Novak, Jan; Koskinen, Mikko; Vodickova, Ludmila; Hemminki, Kari

    2006-01-01

    This study describes urinary excretion of two nucleobase adducts derived from styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), i.e., 7-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)guanine (N7αG) and 7-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)guanine (N7βG), as well as a formation of N7-SO-guanine adducts in lungs and liver of two month old male NMRI mice exposed to styrene by inhalation in a 3-week subacute study. Strikingly higher excretion of both isomeric nucleobase adducts in the first day of exposure was recorded, while the daily excretion of nucleobase adducts in following time intervals reached the steady-state level at 4.32 + 1.14 and 6.91 + 1.17 pmol/animal for lower and higher styrene exposure, respectively. β-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs increased with exposure in a linear way (F = 13.7 for linearity and 0.17 for non-linearity, respectively), reaching at the 21st day the level of 23.0 adducts/10 8 normal nucleotides, i.e., 0.74 fmol/μg DNA of 7-alkylguanine DNA adducts for the concentration of 1500 mg/m 3 , while no 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts were detected in the liver after 21 days of inhalation exposure to both of styrene concentrations. A comparison of 7-alkylguanines excreted in urine with 7-SO-guanines in lungs (after correction for depurination and for missing α-isomers) revealed that persisting 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs account for about 0.5% of the total alkylation at N7 of guanine. The total styrene-specific 7-guanine alkylation accounts for about 1.0 x 10 -5 % of the total styrene uptake, while N1-adenine alkylation contributes to this percentage only negligibly

  17. Pulse radiolysis studies of the interaction of tea polyphenol derivatives with oxidizing OH adduct of thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Li Hucheng; Yao Side; Zuo Zhihua; Wang Zailan; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1996-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions between oxidizing OH adduct of thymine with tea polyphenol derivatives has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The tea polyphenol derivatives are identified as good antioxidants for reduction of oxidizing OH adducts of thymine. From buildup kinetic analysis of radical phenoxyl product, the rate constants for reactions of the N 3 radical with tea polyphenol derivatives have been determined to be (8-9) x 10 9 dm 3 /mol s, while the rate constants of electron transfer from tea polyphenol derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of thymine was obtained to be around 10 9 dm 3 /mol s. Copyright direct C 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  18. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    of network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...... reduce the current output from the converters during faults so as to mitigate the influence on protection coordination. However, converter current reduction may not be necessary for all types of faults. This paper proposes a converter control strategy with adaptivity to different fault types and also non......-fault voltage drop events. This control strategy is validated by simulations in DIgSILENT PowerFactory....

  19. DNA-nicotine adduction of lung and liver of mice exposed to passive smoking studied by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Sun Hongfang; Shi Jingyuan; Liu Yuanfang; Wang Jianjun; Lu Xiangyang; Li Kun; Zhao Qiang

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the measurement of adduction of mice lung or liver DNA with nicotine by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Mice were exposed in a toxicity infecting chamber filled up with cigarette smoke for a period of time of simulate the exposure of mice to passive smoking. The dose of nicotine inhaled by mice was determined. The results of AMS showed, when the dose of inhaled nicotine ranged from 33 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, the adducts number of lung DNA was 10 3 -10 4 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, and the adducts increased linearly with increasing dose of nicotine; the adducts number of liver DNA reached to 10 4 -10 5 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, when the dose of nicotine ranged from 99 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, and the adducts increased vigorously as dose of nicotine increased. Comparing the DNA adducts levels of the same nicotine dose, liver DNA adducts were more than lung DNA adducts. This study also suggested that the other components of cigarette smoke have synergic effect on the formation of nicotine derived DNA adducts

  20. Simulation of InGaAs subchannel DG-HEMTs for analogue/RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, R.; Mohanbabu, A.; Mohankumar, N.; Godwin Raj, D.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports on the influence of a barrier thickness and gate length on the various device parameters of double gate high electron mobility transistors (DG-HEMTs). The DC and RF performance of the device have been studied by varying the barrier thickness from 1 to 5 nm and gate length from 10 to 150 nm, respectively. As the gate length is reduced below 50 nm regime, the barrier thickness plays an important role in device performance. Scaling the gate length leads to higher transconductance and high frequency operations with the expense of poor short channel effects. The authors claim that the 30-nm gate length, mole fractions tuned In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.53Ga0.47As subchannel DG-HEMT with optimised device structure of 2 nm In0.48Al0.52As barrier layer show a peak gm of 3.09 mS/µm, VT of 0.29 V, ION/IOFF ratio of 2.24 × 105, subthreshold slope 73 mV/decade and drain induced barrier lowering 68 mV/V with fT and fmax of 776 and 905 GHz at Vds = 0.5 V is achieved. These superior performances are achieved by using double-gate architecture with reduced gate to channel distance.

  1. Turbulent mixing layers in supersonic protostellar outflows, with application to DG Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. C.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Salmeron, R.; McGregor, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent entrainment processes may play an important role in the outflows from young stellar objects at all stages of their evolution. In particular, lateral entrainment of ambient material by high-velocity, well-collimated protostellar jets may be the cause of the multiple emission-line velocity components observed in the microjet-scale outflows driven by classical T Tauri stars. Intermediate-velocity outflow components may be emitted by a turbulent, shock-excited mixing layer along the boundaries of the jet. We present a formalism for describing such a mixing layer based on Reynolds decomposition of quantities measuring fundamental properties of the gas. In this model, the molecular wind from large disc radii provides a continual supply of material for entrainment. We calculate the total stress profile in the mixing layer, which allows us to estimate the dissipation of turbulent energy, and hence the luminosity of the layer. We utilize MAPPINGS IV shock models to determine the fraction of total emission that occurs in [Fe II] 1.644 μm line emission in order to facilitate comparison to previous observations of the young stellar object DG Tauri. Our model accurately estimates the luminosity and changes in mass outflow rate of the intermediate-velocity component of the DG Tau approaching outflow. Therefore, we propose that this component represents a turbulent mixing layer surrounding the well-collimated jet in this object. Finally, we compare and contrast our model to previous work in the field.

  2. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  3. Enhanced electrochemical performance from 3DG/LiFePO4/G sandwich cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yahui; Tang, Yufeng; Chang, Chengkang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have successfully synthesized a three dimensional graphene/LiFePO4/graphene (3DG/LFP/G) sandwich composite by an in-situ hydrothermal method, in which chemical vapor deposited 3D graphene acts as the high conductivity supporting framework, while the LiFePO4 nanoparticles are anchored onto the 3D graphene framework covered by graphene sheets. XRD and SEM results confirmed the formation of the 3DG/LFP/G sandwich composite. Cyclic Voltammetry curve of the sandwich composite shows sharper redox peaks and reduced voltage separation when compared to the reference electrodes, suggesting high specific capacity and good rate performance. Further charge/discharge measurements presented high capacity of 164 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 124 mAh g-1 at 10 C (75.7% of its initial capacity) for the sandwich composite, with capacity retention of 95.7% after 100 cycles, implying potential application in lithium ion battery at high rates. The EIS investigation suggests that both the electronic conductivity and the Li ion diffusion are promoted by the underlined 3D graphene framework, which is regarded as the reason for the enhanced electrochemical performance.

  4. Second vowel formant relationship to adduction: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Kevin G.

    The relationship between the vocal tract and the larynx in the formation of vowels has been debated for decades. Vowels were first thought to have been formed in the larynx; then later it was believed that they were formed solely in the vocal tract. In the 1960s Fant formalized this belief into the Source-Filter Theory of Vowel Formation. The theory was interpreted by voice teachers to mean that the larynx had very little to do with the formation of vowels, and this interpretation has dominated voice teaching for decades. Recent research, however, is now suggesting that the larynx and the vocal tract are interactive with each other, meaning that a change of muscular function in the larynx will create a change of resonator function in the vocal tract, and vice versa. This conclusion is drawn mainly on the work of Titze, Story, Laukkanen, et.al. They have found that a relationship exists between laryngeal function and the first vowel formant (F1). When examining research on the second vowel formant (F2), this author discovered that there may be a relationship between F2 and adduction. Therefore, based on present evidence, it was hypothesized that an elevated frequency of F2 corresponded to an increase in adduction. The hypothesis was examined by comparing the resonance output and glottal closure between vowels where F2 was elevated and vowels without modification of F2. Subjects were asked to sing [i], [a], and [u] at a medium dynamic level on D4, G#4, and D5 for the female subjects and an octave below for the male subjects, once using a "generic" version of the vowel, meaning what they considered a "nice, easy, and generic" version of the vowel to be, and then again modifying the vowel to increase the frequency of the upper harmonics. Electroglottogram, pitch, intensity, and formant data were collected and compared. An increase in the frequency of F2 corresponded to an increase in the Closed Quotient (CQ), the length of time the vocal folds are closed, in a few

  5. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  6. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Circulating Covalent Protein Adducts Derived from a Drug Acyl Glucuronide Metabolite: Multiple Albumin Adductions in Diclofenac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas G.; Meng, Xiaoli; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Maggs, James L.; Castelazo, Anahi Santoyo; Regan, Sophie L.; Bennett, Stuart N. L.; Earnshaw, Caroline J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Pande, Ira; Kenna, J. Gerry; Stachulski, Andrew V.; Park, B. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Covalent protein modifications by electrophilic acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites are hypothetical causes of hypersensitivity reactions associated with certain carboxylate drugs. The complex rearrangements and reactivities of drug AG have been defined in great detail, and protein adducts of carboxylate drugs, such as diclofenac, have been found in liver and plasma of experimental animals and humans. However, in the absence of definitive molecular characterization, and specifically, identification of signature glycation conjugates retaining the glucuronyl and carboxyl residues, it cannot be assumed any of these adducts is derived uniquely or even fractionally from AG metabolites. We have therefore undertaken targeted mass spectrometric analyses of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from diclofenac patients to characterize drug-derived structures and, thereby, for the first time, have deconstructed conclusively the pathways of adduct formation from a drug AG and its isomeric rearrangement products in vivo. These analyses were informed by a thorough understanding of the reactions of HSA with diclofenac AG in vitro. HSA from six patients without drug-related hypersensitivities had either a single drug-derived adduct or one of five combinations of 2–8 adducts from among seven diclofenac N-acylations and three AG glycations on seven of the protein’s 59 lysines. Only acylations were found in every patient. We present evidence that HSA modifications by diclofenac in vivo are complicated and variable, that at least a fraction of these modifications are derived from the drug’s AG metabolite, and that albumin adduction is not inevitably a causation of hypersensitivity to carboxylate drugs or a coincidental association. PMID:24902585

  8. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-25

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the (32)P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17+/-0.17 (SE) adducts/10(8) nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19+/-0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87+/-0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85+/-0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53+/-0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (pindustrial air pollution can experiment an excess of DNA adduct formation. The emissions from the MIE complex are the main source of air pollution in this area and can be the cause of such increment in the levels of DNA damage.

  9. Amino acid-based dithiazines: synthesis and photofragmentation of their benzaldehyde adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Alexei N; Kutateladze, Andrei G

    2002-11-14

    Alpha-amino acids and GABA are functionalized with dithiazine rings via reaction with sodium hydrosulfide in aqueous formaldehyde. The resulting dithiazines are lithiated at -78 degrees C and reacted with benzaldehyde furnishing amino acid-based 2,5-bis-substituted dithiazines. These adducts undergo externally sensitized photofragmentation with quantum efficiency comparable to that of the parent dithiane adducts, thus offering a novel approach to amino acid-based photolabile tethers. [reaction: see text

  10. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2a and Biological Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  11. Chemistry and Chemical Equilibrium Dynamics of BMAA and Its Carbamate Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Parga, Pedro; Goto, Joy J; Krishnan, V V

    2018-01-01

    Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions. The formation of carbamate adducts from BMAA and bicarbonate is similar to the formation of carbamate adducts from non-proteinogenic amino acids. Structural, chemical, and biological information related to non-proteinogenic amino acids provide insight into the formation of and possible neurological action of BMAA. This article reviews the carbamate formation of BMAA in the presence of bicarbonate ions, with a particular focus on how the chemical equilibrium of BMAA carbamate adducts may affect the molecular mechanism of its function. Highlights of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based studies on the equilibrium process between free BMAA and its adducts are presented. The role of divalent metals on the equilibrium process is also explored. The formation and the equilibrium process of carbamate adducts of BMAA may answer questions on their neuroactive potency and provide strong motivation for further investigations into other toxic mechanisms.

  12. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  13. Single d(ApG)/cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnouf, D.; Fuchs, R.P.P.; Gauthier, C.; Chottard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mutation spectrum induced by the widely used antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) showed that cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts, although they account for only 25% of the lesions formed are ∼5 times more mutagenic than the major GG adduct. The authors report the construction of vectors bearing a single cisDDP[d(ApG)] lesion and their use in mutagenesis experiments in Escherichia coli. The mutagenic processing of the lesion is found to depend strictly on induction of the SOS system of the bacterial host cells. In SOS-induced cells, mutation frequencies of 1-2% were detected. All these mutations are targeted to the 5' base of the adduct. Single A → T transversions are mainly observed (80%), whereas A → G transitions account for 10% of the total mutations. Tandem base-pair substitutions involving the adenine residue and the thymine residue immediately 5' to the adduct occur at a comparable frequency (10%). No selective loss of the strand bearing the platinum adduct was seen, suggesting that, in vivo, cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts are not blocking lesions. The high mutation specificity of cisDDP-[d(ApG)]-induced mutagenesis is discussed in relation to structural data

  14. Scavenging of Toxic Acrolein by Resveratrol and Hesperetin and Identification of Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Qi, Yajing; Rocca, James R; Sarnoski, Paul J; Jia, Aiqun; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of resveratrol and hesperetin to scavenge acrolein at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. About 6.4 or 5.2% of acrolein remained after reaction with resveratrol or hesperetin for 12 h at equimolar concentrations. An acrolein-resveratrol adduct and two acrolein-hesperetin adducts were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Acrolein reacted with resveratrol at the C-2 and C-3 positions through nucleophilic addition and formed an additional heterocyclic ring. Two similar monoacrolein-conjugated adducts were identified for hesperetin. Spectroscopic data suggested each acrolein-hesperetin adduct was a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the existence of two chiral carbon atoms. Yield of adducts was low at pH 5.4 but increased at pH 7.4 and 8.4. Higher pH also promoted the formation of diacrolein adducts. Results suggest that resveratrol and hesperetin exert health benefits in part through neutralizing toxic acrolein in vivo.

  15. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-05-01

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  17. A fluorescent-based HPLC assay for quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts in Escherichia coli-derived proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Brian D; Tam, Lei-Ting T; Lu, Hsieng S; Valladares, Violeta G

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are often produced as unfolded, inactive forms accumulated in inclusion bodies. Redox-coupled thiols are typically employed in the refolding process in order to catalyze the formation of correct disulfide bonds at maximal folding efficiency. These thiols and the recombinant proteins can form mixed disulfide bonds to generate thiol-protein adducts. In this work, we apply a fluorescent-based assay for the quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts as observed in E. coli-derived proteins. The thiols are released by reduction of the adducted protein, collected and labeled with a fluorescent reagent, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The derivatized thiols are separated by reversed-phase HPLC and can be accurately quantified after method optimization. The estimated thiol content represents total amount of adducted forms present in the analyzed samples. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established; specifically, the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteine adduction is 30 picograms and the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteamine adduction is 60 picograms. The assay is useful for quantification of adducts in final purified products as well as in-process samples from various purification steps. The assay indicates that the purification process accomplishes a decrease in cysteine adduction from 0.19 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.03 nmol adduct/nmol protein as well as a decrease in cysteamine adduction from 0.24 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.14 nmol adduct/nmol protein. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    . However, the converter-based DG interface is subjected to the unexpected uncertainties, which highly influence performance of control loop of DG unit and operation of interfaced converter. The interfacing impedance seen by interfaced VSC may considerably vary in power grid, and the stability of interfaced...... converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... impedance. A fractional sliding surface, which demonstrates the desired dynamics of system is developed and then, the controller is designed in two phases as sliding and reaching phases to keep the control loop stable. Stability issues of the control method are discussed in details and the conditions...

  19. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  20. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the 32 P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17 ± 0.17 (SE) adducts/10 8 nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19 ± 0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87 ± 0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85 ± 0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53 ± 0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (p < 0.05). In the groups of occupationally exposed workers, the highest levels of DNA adducts were found among the workers experiencing an occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. the steel factory and refinery workers. When we have evaluated if the levels of DNA adducts of the PAH exposed workers were different from those of the MIE residents, a statistical significantly difference was found (p < 0.05). Our present study indicates that people living near point sources of industrial air

  1. Effects of thiourea and ammonium bicarbonate on the formation and stability of bifunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts : consequences for the accurate quantification of adducts in (cellular) DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Dijt, F.J.; Velde-Visser, S.D. van der; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cisplatin reacts with DNA by forming mainly bifunctional adducts via reactive monofunctional intermediates. When freshly platinated DNA was postincubated with thiourea (10 mM, at 23 or 37°C) for periods of up to 24 h, followed by determination of mono- and diadducts, a rapid initial decrease was

  2. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...

  3. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION FOR POROELASTICITY AND ELASTICITY WITH DG JUMPS AND MORTARS

    KAUST Repository

    GIRAULT, V.

    2011-01-01

    We couple a time-dependent poroelastic model in a region with an elastic model in adjacent regions. We discretize each model independently on non-matching grids and we realize a domain decomposition on the interface between the regions by introducing DG jumps and mortars. The unknowns are condensed on the interface, so that at each time step, the computation in each subdomain can be performed in parallel. In addition, by extrapolating the displacement, we present an algorithm where the computations of the pressure and displacement are decoupled. We show that the matrix of the interface problem is positive definite and establish error estimates for this scheme. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormena, Claudio F.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Oliveira, Kleber T. de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  5. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormena, Claudio F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Kleber T. de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas

    2010-07-01

    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  6. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide...

  7. Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for flat-panel CT breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, Samta C; Glick, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging will require investigation of optimal camera design parameters and optimal imaging acquisition parameters. In optimizing these acquisition protocols and imaging systems it is important to have knowledge of the radiation dose to the breast. This study presents a methodology for estimating the normalized glandular dose to the uncompressed breast using the geometry proposed for flat-panel CT breast imaging. The simulation uses the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the breast phantom. The Monte Carlo software was validated for breast dosimetry by comparing results of the normalized glandular dose (DgN) values of the compressed breast to those reported in the literature. The normalized glandular dose was then estimated for a range of breast diameters from 10 cm to 18 cm using an uncompressed breast model with a homogeneous composition of adipose and glandular tissue, and for monoenergetic x-rays from 10 keV to 120 keV. These data were fit providing expressions for the normalized glandular dose. Using these expressions for the DgN coefficients and input variables such as the diameter, height and composition of the breast phantom, the mean glandular dose for any spectra can be estimated. A computer program to provide normalized glandular dose values has been made available online. In addition, figures displaying energy deposition maps are presented to better understand the spatial distribution of dose in CT breast imaging

  8. DG TO FT - AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION OF DIGRAPH TO FAULT TREE MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Fault tree and digraph models are frequently used for system failure analysis. Both types of models represent a failure space view of the system using AND and OR nodes in a directed graph structure. Each model has its advantages. While digraphs can be derived in a fairly straightforward manner from system schematics and knowledge about component failure modes and system design, fault tree structure allows for fast processing using efficient techniques developed for tree data structures. The similarities between digraphs and fault trees permits the information encoded in the digraph to be translated into a logically equivalent fault tree. The DG TO FT translation tool will automatically translate digraph models, including those with loops or cycles, into fault tree models that have the same minimum cut set solutions as the input digraph. This tool could be useful, for example, if some parts of a system have been modeled using digraphs and others using fault trees. The digraphs could be translated and incorporated into the fault trees, allowing them to be analyzed using a number of powerful fault tree processing codes, such as cut set and quantitative solution codes. A cut set for a given node is a group of failure events that will cause the failure of the node. A minimum cut set for a node is any cut set that, if any of the failures in the set were to be removed, the occurrence of the other failures in the set will not cause the failure of the event represented by the node. Cut sets calculations can be used to find dependencies, weak links, and vital system components whose failures would cause serious systems failure. The DG TO FT translation system reads in a digraph with each node listed as a separate object in the input file. The user specifies a terminal node for the digraph that will be used as the top node of the resulting fault tree. A fault tree basic event node representing the failure of that digraph node is created and becomes a child of the terminal

  9. DNA adduct formation by the ubiquitous environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Volker M.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Osborne, Martin; Hewer, Alan; Seidel, Albrecht; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumours in animals and is suspected of being carcinogenic in humans. Of the compounds found in diesel exhaust, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen forming multiple DNA adducts in vitro. 3-Aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), 3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (3-Ac-ABA), and N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) were identified as 3-NBA metabolites. In order to gain insight into the pathways of metabolic activation leading to 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts we treated Wistar rats intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA, or N-Ac-N-OH-ABA and compared DNA adducts present in different organs. With each compound either four or five DNA adduct spots were detected by TLC in all tissues examined (lung, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and colon) using the nuclease P1 or butanol enrichment version of the 32 P-postlabelling method, respectively. Using HPLC co-chromatographic analysis we showed that all major 3-NBA-DNA adducts produced in vivo in rats are derived from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases and lack an N-acetyl group. Our results indicate that 3-NBA metabolites (3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA and N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) undergo several biotransformations and that N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-ABA) appears to be the common intermediate in 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formation. Therefore, 3-NBA-DNA adducts are useful biomarkers for exposure to 3-NBA and its metabolites and may help to identify enzymes involved in their metabolic activation

  10. Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in a Study Population Nested within a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Autrup, H.

    2010-01-01

    Danish cohort. At enrollment, blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle, including dietary and smoking habits, obtained. Previously, bulky DNA adducts were measured in 245 individuals who developed lung cancer and 255 control members of the cohort. Of these 500 individuals, data on 375...... of bulky DNA adduct levels were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Women tended to have higher adduct levels than men. Living in central Copenhagen and surface darkness of fried meat and fish were associated with quantitative higher adduct levels. No significant associations were...

  11. Aminoazo dye-protein-adduct enhances inhibitory effect on digestibility and damages to Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB, methyl yellow, or butter yellow, a human carcinogen, has been banned for use in foods since 1988. In 2014, DAB adulteration in Tofu occurred in Taiwan. We hypothesize that DAB can form [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct with soybean protein (SBP which could damage Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis. Sprague-Dawley rats gavage fed [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct revealed severely reduced body weight and damaged duodenum, liver, hepatic mitochondria, and spleen. Hepatic levels of glutathione and ATP were severely reduced. Serum GOT and GPT were substantially elevated. Analysis by the adsorption isotherm clearly revealed DAB formed very stable [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct at 1:1 molar ration (Phase A. The equilibrium constant of this colloidal adduct [DAB•SBP]adduct was KeqA = ∝, behaving as the most stable and toxic species. At higher protein concentration (Phase C it formed conjugate [DAB×SBPgross]conjugate, with KeqC = 3.23×10-2 mg/mL, implicating a moderately strong adsorption. The in vitro pepsin digestibility test showed apparently reduced digestibility by 27% (by Ninhydrin assay or 8% (by Bradford assay. Conclusively, this is the first report indicating that [DAB•SBP]adduct potentially is capable to damage the Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

  12. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  13. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  14. Effect of grid disturbances on fault-ride-through behaviour of MV-connected DG-units, in especially CHP-plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster, E.J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the near future a significant amount of the consumed electrical energy will be generated by distributed generation (DG). Because of the small size these units are normally connected to the local distribution grid [1]. Connection of DG changes the operation of the distribution grid. In order to

  15. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Nan; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Heflich, Robert H.; Chen, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by 32 P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the λ Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10 -6 in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10 -6 that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T → T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C → A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control rats. These results indicate that the AA treatment that eventually

  16. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Nan [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: nan.mei@fda.hhs.gov; Arlt, Volker M. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Phillips, David H. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Heflich, Robert H. [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chen, Tao [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the {lambda} Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N {sup 6}-yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N {sup 6}-yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N {sup 2}-yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10{sup -6} in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10{sup -6} that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T {sup {yields}} T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C {sup {yields}} A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control

  17. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to 32 P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C → C x G or G x C → T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria

  18. Gender differences in the knee adduction moment after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie A; Palazzolo, Simon E; Santamaria, Luke J; Feller, Julian A

    2012-04-01

    The external knee adduction moment during gait has previously been associated with knee pain and osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, the knee adduction moment has been shown to be increased following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery and has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the progression of early onset knee OA in this population. No study has investigated the gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction. To examine gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction surgery. 36 subjects (18 females, 18 males) who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction surgery (mean time since surgery 20 months) underwent gait analysis at a self-selected walking speed. Males and females were well matched for age, time since surgery and walking speed. Maximum flexion and adduction angles and moments were recorded during the stance phase of level walking and compared between the male and female groups. The knee adduction moment was 23% greater in the female compared with the male ACL group. No gender differences were seen in the sagittal plane. No differences were seen between the reconstructed and contralateral limb. The higher knee adduction moment seen in females compared with males may suggest an increased risk for the development of OA in ACL-reconstructed females.

  19. Chemical structure of the adducts formed by the oxidation of benzidine in the presence of phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephy, P.D.; Mason, R.P.; Eling, T.

    1982-01-01

    Bioactivation of carcinogens by peroxidases has received increasing attention since the discovery of the oxidation of carcinogens by prostaglandin hydroperoxidase. Benzidine and 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine are oxidized by horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin synthase to two-electron oxidation products (di-imines). Di-imines readily react with the phenolic anti-oxidant butylated hydroxyanisole to form adducts. In this paper, we have studied the oxidation of benzidine by horseradish peroxidase in the presence of phenolic compounds and characterized the resultant benzidine/phenol adducts. A benzidine/2,6-dimethylphenol adduct was isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and high field n.m.r. The reaction of [ 14 C]benzidine in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and phenol yielded only the benzidine/phenol adduct. Our results indicate that the benzidine/phenol adducts are analogous to the indoaniline dyes, differing only in substitution of a biphenyl group for a benzene ring. The reaction of benzidine di-imine with endogenous phenols may represent a new pathway for detoxication, removing potentially harmful metabolites of benzidine

  20. Inhibition of nicotine-DNA adduct formation by polyphenolic compounds in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Li Hongli

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine[3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Some polyphenolic compounds can suppress the DNA adduction, and hence act as the potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three polyphenolic compounds, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) and tea polyphenols, on the nicotine-DNA adduction have been investigated in vitro using radiolabelled nicotine and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Also, the inhibition mechanism of these chemopreventive agents in regard to the activity of the biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome b 5 (CYb 5 ) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), has been studied. The results demonstrated that these three polyphenols induced marked dose-dependent decrease in nicotine-DNA adducts as compared with the controls. The elimination rate of adducts reached above 46% at the highest dose for all the three agents with 51.6% for resveratrol. Correspondingly, three polyphenols all suppressed CYP450 and CYb 5 , whereas curcumin and resveratrol induced GST. The authors may arrive at a point that the three polyphenols are beneficial to prevent the nicotine adduct formation, and thus may be used to block the potential carcinogenesis induced by nicotine. (authors)

  1. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of stable protein-deoxyribonucleic acid adducts in Chinese hamster cell chromatin by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Rall, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv)-light-mediated formation of protein-DNA adducts in Chinese hamster cell chromatin was investigated in an attempt to compare chromatin alterations induced in vitro with those observed in vivo. Three independent methods of analysis indicated stable protein-DNA associations: a membrane filter assay which retained DNA on the filter in the presence of high salt-detergent; a Sepharose 4B column assay in which protein eluted coincident with DNA; and a CsCl density gradient equilibrium assay which showed both protein and DNA banding at densities other than their respective native densities. Treatment of the irradiated chromatin with DNase provided further evidence that protein--DNA and not protein-protein adducts were being observed in the column assay. There is a fluence-dependent response of protein-DNA adduct formation when the chromatin is irradiated at low ionic strength and is linear for protein over the range studied. When the chromatin is exposed to differing conditions of pH, ionic strength, or divalent metal ion concentration, the quantity of adduct formed upon uv irradiation varies. Susceptibility to adduct formation can be partially explained in terms of the condensation state of the chromatin and other factors such as rearrangement, denaturation, and dissociation of the chromatin components. Besides providing information on the biological significance of these types of uv-induced lesions, this technique may be useful as a probe of chromatin structure

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  5. Characterization of model peptide adducts with reactive metabolites of naphthalene by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Pham

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect.

  6. Novel adducts from the reaction of 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one with 2'-deoxyguanosine. Structural characterization and potential as tools to investigate 1,3-butadiene carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Yan; Yu, Ying-Xin; An, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2015-01-25

    1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is a potential reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a carcinogenic air pollutant. To develop tools that may help investigate the role of CBO in BD carcinogenicity and to develop biomarkers that can be used to assess BD exposure, the reaction of CBO with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) under in vitro physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C) was investigated and the products (designated as CG-1, CG-2, CG-3, CG-4, CG-5, and CG-6 based on their retention times on HPLC) were characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopy. The structures of CG-1, CG-2, CG-3, and CG-4 were 1,N2-(3-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, N7-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, N7,8-(3-hydroxy-3-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)guanine and N2-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, respectively. CG-5 and CG-6, a pair of diastereomers, were characterized as 1,N2-(3-hydroxy-3-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine. CG-1 was stable under in vitro physiological conditions, whereas CG-2, CG-3, CG-4, and CG-5/6 were unstable and exhibited the half-lives at CG-2 decomposed primarily via a retro-Michael reaction to produce dG and CBO, with only a small fraction of CG-2 degrading to CG-3. Decomposition of CG-4 proceeded via a cyclization reaction and/or replacement of the chlorine atom by a hydroxyl group to form 1,N2-(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CG-4D1) and N(2)-(4-hydroxy-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CG-4D2), whereas decomposition of CG-5/6 yielded CG-1. Collectively, the newly characterized CBO adducts could be used to investigate the role of CBO in the mechanism of BD carcinogenicity and could also be used to develop biomarkers for BD exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Doppler Guided Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (DG-HAL) & Infrared Coagulation (IRC) in Management of Hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Arshad; Kant, Rama; Gupta, Avneet

    2013-08-01

    Both Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (DG-HAL) and infrared coagulation (IRC) are well-established techniques in the management of hemorrhoids. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical outcomes of DG-HAL and IRC in the patients with grade 1 and 2 hemorrhoids. A total of 296 patients were registered for the study, but 51 patients were lost in follow-up; hence, finally 245 patients were included in the analysis. Patients were randomized into two groups (mean age, 42 years; range, 19-60 years). Group A (n = 116) was treated with DG-HAL and group B (n = 129) was treated with IRC. Patients were examined at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after the procedure. Mean time taken for HAL was 21 min and for IRC, 12 min. The cost of the DG-HAL procedure was 1,440 rupees ($31.53) and that of IRC was 376 rupees ($8). The mean duration of hospital stay after HAL was 6 h and after IRC, 2 h. Control of symptoms with HAL was 96 %, whereas with IRC, 81 %. Postoperative complication rate for HAL was 2 %, whereas for IRC, 13 %. Requirement of repeat procedure with HAL was 9 % and with IRC, 28 %. Both the procedures are minimally invasive, associated with minimal discomfort, and suitable for day care surgery. IRC requires lesser procedure time, lesser postoperative hospital stay, and has lower procedure cost, whereas DG-HAL is more effective in controlling symptoms of hemorrhoids, has lower post operative complication rate, and has lesser requirement of repeat procedure.

  8. Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judge Bryan S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hepatic injury from non-acetaminophen hepatotoxins have not been well characterized. The objective of this study is to describe APAP-CYS concentrations in these clinical settings as well as to further characterize the concentrations observed following acetaminophen overdose. Methods Samples were collected during three clinical trials in which subjects received 4 g/day of acetaminophen and during an observational study of acetaminophen overdose patients. Trial 1 consisted of non-drinkers who received APAP for 10 days, Trial 2 consisted of moderate drinkers dosed for 10 days and Trial 3 included subjects who chronically abuse alcohol dosed for 5 days. Patients in the observational study were categorized by type of acetaminophen exposure (single or repeated. Serum APAP-CYS was measured using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Trial 1 included 144 samples from 24 subjects; Trial 2 included 182 samples from 91 subjects and Trial 3 included 200 samples from 40 subjects. In addition, we collected samples from 19 subjects with acute acetaminophen ingestion, 7 subjects with repeated acetaminophen exposure and 4 subjects who ingested another hepatotoxin. The mean (SD peak APAP-CYS concentrations for the Trials were: Trial 1- 0.4 (0.20 nmol/ml, Trial 2- 0.1 (0.09 nmol/ml and Trial 3- 0.3 (0.12 nmol/ml. APAP-CYS concentrations varied substantially among the patients with acetaminophen toxicity (0.10 to 27.3 nmol/ml. No subject had detectable APAP

  9. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guengerich, F.P.; Peterson, L.A.; Cmarik, J.L.; Koga, N.; Inskeep, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) can be activated to electrophilic species by either oxidative metabolism or conjugation with glutathione. Although conjugation is generally a route of detoxication, in this case it leads to genetic damage. The major DNA adduct has been identified as S-[2-(N 7 -guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, which is believed to arise via half-mustard and episulfonium ion intermediates. The adduct has a half-life of about 70 to 100 hr and does not appear to migrate to other DNA sites. Glutathione-dependent DNA damage by EDB was also demonstrated in human hepatocyte preparations. The possible relevance of this DNA adduct to genetic damage is discussed

  10. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2-37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r(2) = 0.3, p HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure.

  11. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  12. VIDEO-ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADAPTED SHOES ON KNEE ADDUCTION MOMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Aksenov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of different footwear profiles on knee adduction moment have not been fully studied. Methods. Fifteen healthy volunteer subjects, age 25.3 (±2.73, undertook a series of gait laboratory trials with adapted shoes. Kinematic and kinetic data were collect using 16 Oqus 3+ cameras and the walking speed was controlled using timing gates. High street shoes were adapted to include five different heel heights (varying from a 1.5 cm to 5.5 cm heels, two heel profile conditions (curved and semi-curved heels, three varying apex angles (10, 15, and 20 degrees, and barefoot and 3CR footwear conditions. The baseline shoe had no heel curve, a heel height of 3.5cm, an apex position of 62.5% of the shoe length, an apex angle of 15 deg, and a rigid forepart of the shoe. Results. The shoe with 5.5 cm heel height significantly increased the mean knee adduction moment during 50%–100% of the stance phase compared to the 1.5 cm heel (p = 0.008. The high heel shoe also significantly increased knee adduction impulse (area under the curve versus the 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm heels, and the 10° toe angle and barefoot condition. Ten degrees of toe angle reduced mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase versus 20° and significantly reduced mean knee adduction moment during the late stance phase versus 15° and 20° toe angle footwear conditions. Walking with the curved heel for the healthy subjects increased mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase compared to the heel without curvature (p < 0.0009. Conclusion. Further study is required to investigate those changes in patients with high risk of knee osteoarthritis.

  13. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo.

  14. Effect of adduct formation on valent state of cerium in its. beta. -diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Anufrieva, S.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-04-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the system cerium (III, IV)-..beta..-diketone-additional ligand shows that ..beta..-diketonate ability to adduct formation decreases in the series tenoyltrifluoro-acetonate > acetylacetonate > dibenzoylmethanate > benzoylmethanate. Adduct formation of the cerium (III, IV) ..beta..-diketonates stabilizes cerium in trivalent condition, while oxidation degree 4+ is stable in tetrakis-..beta..-diketonates. The additional ligands are arranged in the series: tributhylphosphate < trioctyl-phosphineoxide < triphenylphosphineoxide < ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl < o-phenanthroline by the effect on cerium (III) stabilization in its ..beta..-diketonates.

  15. Mass spectrometry study of sublimation of rare earth acetylacetonate adducts with hexamethylphosphorustriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Semyannikov, P.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk

    1991-01-01

    Process of vacuum sublimation of MA 3 ·Q adducts (M=Nd,Ho,Er; A - -acetylacetonate-ion; Q-hexamethylphosphorustriamide) was studied by mass-spectrometry method. Composinion of gaseous phase, formed in 20-140 deg C range at 10 -5 mm Hg, was determined. Scheme of MA 3 ·Q sublimation, including Q splitting and transition of MA 3 ·Q adducts and MA 3 and Q products of their thermodestruction to gaseous phase, was suggested. ΔH values of MA 3 ·Q thermodestruction and MA 3 sublimation were calculated

  16. Effect of adduct formation on valent state of cerium in its ν-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Anufrieva, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the system cerium (III, IV)-ν-diketone-additional ligand shows that ν-diketonate ability to adduct formation decreases in the series tenoyltrifluoro-acetonate > acetylacetonate > dibenzoylmethanate > benzoylmethanate. Adduct formation of the cerium (III, IV) ν-diketonates stabilizes cerium in trivalent condition, while oxidation degree 4+ is stable in tetrakis-ν-diketonates. The additional ligands are arranged in the series: tributhylphosphate < trioctyl-phosphineoxide < triphenylphosphineoxide < α, α'-dipyridyl < o-phenanthroline by the effect on cerium (III) stabilization in its ν-diketonates

  17. Quantitative strategies to determine cisplatin adducts with DNA nucleotides in drosofila larvae and tumoral cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sar, D.; Montes-Bayon, M.; Hann, S.; Koellensperger, G.; Blanco-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz-Medel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The antitumoral effect of cisplatin [cis-diamminodichloroplatinum(II)] in mammals is related to its binding to DNA components. A novel sensitive and selective method is proposed to quantify cisplatin-DNA adducts induced in vivo in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster at biologically relevant concentrations. The method uses HPLC-ICPMS in combination with species-specific isotope dilution analysis (cisplatin enriched in 194 Pt). For the first time, a cisplatin-DNA adduct is quantified by this approach. The obtained results show the great potential of this system to advance our molecular understanding of the biological effects of cisplatin. (author)

  18. Identification and quantification of drug-albumin adducts in serum samples from a drug exposure study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Switzar, L.; Kwast, L.M.; Lingeman, H.; Giera, M.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of drug-protein adducts following the bioactivation of drugs to reactive metabolites has been linked to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and is a major complication in drug discovery and development. Identification and quantification of drug-protein adducts in vivo may lead to a better

  19. Measurement of HNE-protein adducts in human plasma and serum by ELISA—Comparison of two primary antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Weber

    2013-01-01

    After modification and validation of the protocol for both antibodies, samples of two groups were analyzed: apparently healthy obese (n=62 and non-obese controls (n=15. Although the detected absolute values of HNE–protein adducts were different, depending on the antibody used, both ELISA methods showed significantly higher values of HNE–protein adducts in the obese group.

  20. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts...... correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAM-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAM-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (r = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p...... in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAM-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, bur not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our...