WorldWideScience

Sample records for aminofluorene-modified dg adduct

  1. ACCUMULATION OF M1DG DNA ADDUCTS AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO PCBS, BUT NOT FROM ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage is one of the key events leading to mutation and cancer. The present study examined the accumulation of M1dG DNA adducts, 3-(2’-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-a]-purin-10(3H)-one, after single or yearly exposur...

  2. Monitoring in vivo metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, M1dG (3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one), by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Charles G.; Skipper, Paul L.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the in vitro and in vivo metabolic processing of endogenously formed DNA adducts as a means of evaluating candidate urinary biomarkers. In particular, we have focused our studies on the metabolism and disposition of the peroxidation-derived pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) and its principal metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. We now report the metabolic processing of M1dG at concentrations 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower in concentration than previously analyzed, by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry analysis. Administration of 2.0 nCi/kg [14C]M1dG resulted in 49% of the 14C recovered in urine whereas 51% was recovered in feces. In urine samples, approximately 40% of the 14C corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Following iv administration of 0.5 and 54 pCi/kg [14C]M1dG, approximately 25% of the urinary recovery corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Thus, upon administration of trace amounts of M1dG, a significant percentage of 6-oxo-M1dG was produced suggesting that 6-oxo-M1dG maybe a useful urinary marker of exposure to endogenous oxidative damage. PMID:18461974

  3. Monitoring in vivo metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, M1dG {3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one}, by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Charles G; Skipper, Paul L; Liberman, Rosa G; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2008-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the in vitro and in vivo metabolic processing of endogenously formed DNA adducts as a means of evaluating candidate urinary biomarkers. In particular, we have focused our studies on the metabolism and disposition of the peroxidation-derived pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-R]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG), and its principal metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. We now report the metabolic processing of M1dG at concentrations 4-8 orders of magnitude lower in concentration than previously analyzed, by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry analysis. Administration of 2.0 nCi/kg [14C]M1dG resulted in 49% of the 14C recovered in urine, whereas 51% was recovered in feces. In urine samples, approximately 40% of the 14C corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Following iv administration of 0.5 and 54 pCi/kg [14C]M1dG, approximately 25% of the urinary recovery corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Thus, upon administration of trace amounts of M1dG, a significant percentage of 6-oxo-M1dG was produced, suggesting that 6-oxo-M1dG maybe a useful urinary marker of exposure to endogenous oxidative damage.

  4. How Y-Family DNA polymerase IV is more accurate than Dpo4 at dCTP insertion opposite an N2-dG adduct of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholder, Gabriel; Creech, Amanda; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    To bypass DNA damage, cells have Y-Family DNA polymerases (DNAPs). One Y-Family-class includes DNAP κ and DNAP IV, which accurately insert dCTP opposite N(2)-dG adducts, including from the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP). Another class includes DNAP η and DNAP V, which insert accurately opposite UV-damage, but inaccurately opposite BP-N(2)-dG. To investigate structural differences between Y-Family-classes, regions are swapped between DNAP IV (a κ/IV-class-member) and Dpo4 (a η/V-class-member); the kinetic consequences are evaluated via primer-extension studies with a BP-N(2)-dG-containing template. Four key structural elements are revealed. (1) Y-Family DNAPs have discreet non-covalent contacts between their little finger-domain (LF-Domain) and their catalytic core-domain (CC-Domain), which we call "non-covalent bridges" (NCBs). Arg37 and Arg38 in DNAP IV's CC-Domain near the active site form a non-covalent bridge (AS-NCB) by interacting with Glu251 and Asp252, respectively, in DNAP IV's LF-Domain. Without these interactions dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions increase. DNAP IV's AS-NCB suppresses misinsertions better than Dpo4's equivalent AS-NCB. (2) DNAP IV also suppresses dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions via a second non-covalent bridge, which is ∼8Å from the active site (Distal-NCB). Dpo4 has no Distal-NCB, rendering it inferior at dATP/dGTP/dTTP suppression. (3) dCTP insertion is facilitated by the larger minor groove opening near the active site in DNAP IV versus Dpo4, which is sensible given that Watson/Crick-like [dCTP:BP-N(2)-dG] pairing requires the BP-moiety to be in the minor groove. (4) Compared to Dpo4, DNAP IV has a smaller major groove opening, which suppresses dGTP misinsertion, implying BP-N(2)-dG bulk in the major groove during Hoogsteen syn-adduct-dG:dGTP pairing. In summary, DNAP IV has a large minor groove opening to enhance dCTP insertion, a plugged major groove opening to suppress dGTP misinsertion, and two non-covalent bridges (near and distal

  5. Dgroup: DG00795 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tanil hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioi

  6. Conformational studies of the (+)-trans, (-)-trans, (+)-cis, and (-)-cis adducts of anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide to N2-dG in duplex oligonucleotides using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Myungkoo; Ariese, Freek; Small, Gerald J.; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Liu, Tong Ming; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    1995-01-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and low-temperature, laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and non-line narrowing (NLN) spectroscopic methods, the conformational characteristics of stereochemically defined and site-specific adducts derived from the binding of

  7. Dgroup: DG00793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anil citrate (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor a...gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics ATC code: N01AH03 General anesthetics OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01377 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG01567 ... GABA-A receptor agonist ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... Ba

  9. Dgroup: DG00794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ridine hydrochloride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ATC code: N01AH05 General anesthetics ...

  10. Dgroup: DG02025 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02025 DGroup Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG00789 ... Methohexital ... D04985 ... Methohexit...iamylal sodium (JP17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AF General anesthetics ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00999 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs fo...r addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp substrate ... DG0163

  12. Dgroup: DG01002 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01633

  13. Dgroup: DG00790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP17/USP/INN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... D...G02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics... ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ATC code: N01AF03 N05CA19 General anesthetics ...

  14. Dgroup: DG00789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hohexital sodium (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01837 ... Barbiturate sedative-hypnotics ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG020...25 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ... DG02025 ... Barbiturate anesthetics ATC code: N01AF01 N05CA15 General anesthetics ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00792 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02026 ... Opioid anesthetics ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor ...agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist ATC code: N01AH02 General anesthetics OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] Enzyme: CYP3A [HSA:1576 1577 1551] ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01631 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01631 Chemical ... DGroup Trenbolone ... D08627 ... Trenbolone (INN) D06211 ... Trenbolone ...acetate (USP) Other ... DG01590 ... Androgen receptor agonist ... DG01605 ... Anabolic steroid ... Anabolic ...

  17. Dgroup: DG00102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hentermine hydrochloride (USP) ... Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexic ATC code: A08AA01 Phenethylamine type anorexics ...

  18. Dgroup: DG01685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01685 DGroup Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ... DG00112 ... Phen...litazar (USAN/INN) ... D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... Antidiabetics ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00853 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA03 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian

  20. Dgroup: DG00851 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA01 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian ag

  1. Dgroup: DG00855 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent... ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA05 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  2. Dgroup: DG00833 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raine, ergot alkaloid ATC code: N02CA01 Antimigraine, Va... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01472 ... Dopamine agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimig

  3. Dgroup: DG01683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D05739 ... Rivoglitazone (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma... agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BG Antidiabetic

  4. Dgroup: DG00113 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic... Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code: A10BA02 Biganide antidiabetic

  5. Dgroup: DG00105 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available exfenfluramine hydrochloride (USAN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexic... Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: A08AA04 Serotonin reuptake inhibitor; Phenethylamine type anorexic

  6. Dgroup: DG00121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rex hydrochloride Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexic Unclas...sified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BX06 Antihyperlipidemic; Phenethylamine type anorexics ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00167 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d human fibrinogen ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG02016 ... Hemostatics ... DG02013 ... Blood coagulation factor ... DG02014 ... Blood coagulation... accelerant ... DG02013 ... Blood coagulation factor ATC code: B02BB01 Fibrinogen preparation ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp su

  9. Dgroup: DG00861 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne D1-receptor agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N04BC02 Antiparkinson

  10. Dgroup: DG00687 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 974 ... Fluorouracil sodium salt Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineopla...stic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolit...e ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01935 ... Fluoropyrimidine antineoplastic... ATC code: L01BC02 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite TYMS [HSA:7298] [KO:K00560] Enzyme: DPYD [HSA:1806] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cytarabine ocfosphate hydrate (JAN) ... D03637 ... Cytarabine hydrochloride (USAN) Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nuc...leic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic...acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ATC code: L01BC01 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite DNA polymerase ... ... Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic

  12. Dgroup: DG01684 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01684 DGroup Biguanide antidiabetic -formin DG01684.gif DG00112 ... Phenformin ... D08... hydrochloride (JP17) ... D04103 ... Etoformin hydrochloride (USAN) Antidiabetic agen...t ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BA Antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] ...

  13. Dgroup: DG00170 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00170 Chemical ... DGroup Coagulation factor VIII ... C04001 ... Blood coagulation Facto...r VIIIa D08798 ... Freeze-dried human blood-coagulation factor VIII ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG02016 ... Hemostatics ... DG02013 ... Blood coagu...lation factor ... DG02014 ... Blood coagulation accelerant ... DG02013 ... Blood coagulation factor ATC code: B02BD02 Coagulants ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01718 DGroup Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence ... DG00994 ... Nicotine... ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine

  15. Dgroup: DG01715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01715 DGroup Drugs for nicotine dependence ... DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicoti...ne bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) DG00995 ... Varenicline ... D

  16. Dgroup: DG00834 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimigraine, ergot alkaloid Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate... ATC code: N02CA02 Antimigraine, Vasoconstrictor, Serotonin receptor agonist/anta

  17. Dgroup: DG01729 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01729 DGroup Tetracyclic antidepressant ... DG01729.gif DG00941 ... Maprotiline ... D0256...line ... D08511 ... Setiptiline (INN) ... D02034 ... Setiptiline maleate (JAN) ... D05284 ... Oxaprotiline hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... Antidepressant ...

  18. Dgroup: DG00927 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ressant Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N06AA01 Antidepressants,...ne hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidep

  19. Dgroup: DG01351 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t hydrochloride (USAN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01754 ... Cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist ... Therapeutic agent of obesity CNR1 [HSA:1268] [KO:K04277] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available litazone maleate (JAN/USAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist...44 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01683 ... Thiazolidinedione ATC code: A10BG02 Antidiabetic, th

  1. Dgroup: DG00122 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dapagliflozin propanediol (USAN); Dapagliflozin propylene glycolate hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG0...1794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor ATC code: A10BK01 Antidiabetic

  2. Dgroup: DG01732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN) D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sens...itizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist ... Antidiabetics, PPAR agonist NR1C1 (PPARA)

  3. Dgroup: DG01281 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmegliptin dihydrochloride (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypogl...ycemics ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01283 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available igliptin hydrobromide hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... H...ypoglycemics ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 ... Tolbutamide sodium, sterile Antidiabetic agent ... DG01790 ... Sulfonamide hypoglycemic ... DG01734 ... Sulfonamide ... ... DG01734 ... Sulfonamide type sulfonylurea receptor agonist ATC code: A10BB03 V04CA01 Antidiabetic, sulfonylu

  6. Dgroup: DG00798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66 ... Sodium oxybate (USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AX11 N07XX04 General anesthetics ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00981 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cetam hydrochloride (USAN) D05593 ... Pramiracetam sulfate (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01969 ... Racetam derivative, nootropic... ... DG01972 ... Nootropic ... DG01969 ... Racetam derivative, nootropic ATC code: N06BX16 Nervous system stimulant ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00104 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BAN) D03801 ... Diethylpropion hydrochloride (USP) ... Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexi...c ATC code: A08AA03 Phenethylamine type anorexics ...

  9. Dgroup: DG00852 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA02 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  10. Dgroup: DG00858 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ATC code: N04AA12 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01326 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available son agent ... Antiparkinsonian of dopamin receptor agonist DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ... ...hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01472 ... Dopamine agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01967 ... Antiparkin

  12. Dgroup: DG00486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agonist ... DG01467 ... Dopamine D1-receptor agonist ... DG01468 ... Dopamine D2-receptor agonist ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson... agent ATC code: G04BE07 N04BC07 Antiparkinsonian, Emetic, Dopamine receptor

  13. Dgroup: DG00864 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se B inhibitor ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substr...ate ATC code: N04BD01 Antidepressant, Antiparkinsonian, Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-

  14. Dgroup: DG00859 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eceptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkins...on agent ATC code: N04AC01 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinson

  15. Dgroup: DG01764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01764 DGroup Emollient laxative ... DG00067 ... Liquid paraffin ... D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin... (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, light (NF) DG01771 ... Doc

  16. Dgroup: DG01770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01770 DGroup Laxative ... DG01764 ... Emollient laxative ... DG00067 ... Liquid paraffin ... ...D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, li

  17. Dgroup: DG00995 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne tartrate (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01571 ... Nicotinic cholinergic receptor partial agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence ATC code: N07BA03 Nicoti

  18. Dgroup: DG00996 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te calcium (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ATC code: N07BB03 Antialcohol dependence, NMDA r

  19. Dgroup: DG00702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rubicin hydrochloride ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomerase... inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB08 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG01717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available USAN) DG01001 ... Lofexidine ... D08141 ... Lofexidine (INN) ... D04765 ... Lofexidine hydrochloride (USAN) DG01002 ... Levomethadone ... D08121 ... Levometh...adone (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride DG01003 ... Diamorphine ... D07286 ... Diam

  1. Dgroup: DG01953 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01953 DGroup Thyroid preparation ... DG01608 ... Thyroid hormone ... DG00510 ... Levothyroxine ... D08125 ... Levothyrox...ine (BAN) ... C08212 ... Levothyroxine sodium anhydrous ... D01010 ... Levothyroxine sodium (USP); Levothyrox

  2. Dgroup: DG00868 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-Adrenergic receptor antagonist Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dop...ibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N05AA02 Phenothiazine antipsychotics

  3. Dgroup: DG00902 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ide hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagon...ist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AL04 Antipsychotic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagon

  4. Dgroup: DG00112 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00112 Chemical ... DGroup Phenformin ... D08351 ... Phenformin (BAN) D08352 ... Phenformin hydrochloride Antidiabeti...c agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Cyp substrat...e ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code...: A10BA01 Biganide antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne phosphate (JAN/USP) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabin...ofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimet...abolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplasti...c ATC code: L01BB05 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite RRM [HSA:6240 6241 50484] [KO:K10807 K10808] DNA polymerase RNA polymerase ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itabine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... D10222 ... Gemcitabine elaidate (USAN/INN) Antineoplastic ... DG01958 ... Nucleic... acid derivative, antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic...ic ... DG01439 ... Arabinofuranosyl type antineoplastic ATC code: L01BC05 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite RRM1 [HSA:6240] [KO:K10807] ... ... Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabolite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplast

  7. Dgroup: DG00835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thysergide maleate (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01483 ... 5-HT1A-receptor agonist ... DG01964 ... Ergot alkaloid ... DG01982 ... Antimigraine...agonist ... DG01518 ... 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonist ATC code: N02CA04 Vasoconstrictor, Antimigraine

  8. Dgroup: DG01284 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liptin succinate (JAN/USAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Cyp inhibitor ... DG01915 ... CYP3A5 i...nhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ...

  9. Dgroup: DG00114 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ydrochloride (JP17) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Unc...lassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ATC code: A10BA03 Biganide antidiabetics AMPK (PRKAA) [HSA:5562 5563] [KO:K07198] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01282 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor ... DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] ... ...tin tartrate (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01... DG01282 Chemical ... DGroup Dutogliptin ... D09333 ... Dutogliptin (USAN) D09334 ... Dutoglip

  11. Dgroup: DG00854 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA04 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ... ...idine hydrochloride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG017

  12. Dgroup: DG00856 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mide hydrochloride Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinso...n agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agen...t ATC code: N04AA08 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ...

  13. Dgroup: DG01272 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ... Anticholinergics, antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ... ...ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01491 ... Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist ... DG017

  14. Dgroup: DG00171 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 259 ... Coagulation Factor IXa D08794 ... Human blood-coagulation factor IX complex, dried ... D08797 ... Freeze-dried human blood-coagulation... factor IX ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG02016 ... Hemostatics ... DG02013 ... Blood coagulation... factor ... DG02014 ... Blood coagulation accelerant ... DG02013 ... Blood coagulation factor ATC code: B02BD04 Coagulants ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00684 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00684 Chemical ... DGroup Tioguanine ... D08603 ... Tioguanine (INN) D06109 ... Thioguanine (USP) ... Antineoplastic... ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic Unclassified ... DG02018 ... Antimetabo...lite ... DG01958 ... Nucleic acid derivative, antineoplastic ATC code: L01BB03 Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite ...

  16. Dgroup: DG00982 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ATC code: N06DA01 Anti-Alzheimer...ride (USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01595 ... Cholinesterase inhibitor ... DG01593 ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibit

  17. Dgroup: DG01456 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onist ... DG01448 ... alpha1-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline...nergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00...606 ... Prenalterol hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (J...1453 ... beta3-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline ...edrine saccharinate (JAN) ... DG01452 ... beta2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrena

  18. Dgroup: DG00994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00994 Chemical ... DGroup Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine bit...artrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cyp inducer ... DG01637 ... CYP1A2 inducer ATC code: N07BA01 Nicoti...ne dependence agent ... Enzyme: CYP2A6 [HSA:1548] CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  19. Dgroup: DG01197 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01197 DGroup Tetracycline antibiotic -cycline DG01197.gif DG00005 ... Tetracycline ... D00201 ... Tetracycline... (JAN/USP/INN) ... D02122 ... Tetracycline hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... D06098 ... Tetracycline ...metaphosphate (JAN) DG00007 ... Chlortetracycline ... D07689 ... Chlortetracycline (INN) ... D02255 ... Chlortetracycline h...ydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... D03477 ... Chlortetracycline bisulfate (USP) DG00008 ... Doxycycline ... D07876 ... Doxycyclin...e (INN) ... D00307 ... Doxycycline (USP) ... D02129 ... Doxycycline hyclate (USP); Doxycycline

  20. Dgroup: DG01637 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dium for injection (JP17) ... DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine... bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) DG01066 ... Montelukast ... D08229 ... Montelukas

  1. Dgroup: DG00865 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00865 Chemical ... DGroup Rasagiline ... D08469 ... Rasagiline (USAN/INN) D02562 ... Rasagiline mesylate (USAN); Ras...agiline mesilate (JAN) ... D10829 ... Rasagiline tartrate Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG015

  2. Dgroup: DG01512 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line (USAN/INN) ... D00785 ... Selegiline hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00865 ... Rasagiline ... D08469 ... Rasagiline (USAN/INN) ... D02562 ... Rasagil...ine mesylate (USAN); Rasagiline mesilate (JAN) ... D10829 ... Rasagiline tartrate DG01

  3. Dgroup: DG00938 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepress...ant ATC code: N06AA14 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ...

  4. Dgroup: DG00939 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yline hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepres...sant ATC code: N06AA15 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00933 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepress...ant ATC code: N06AA08 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00936 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepressant ATC code: N06AA11 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... ...iptyline hydrochloride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor

  7. Dgroup: DG01231 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or antagonist Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01729 ... Tetracyclic antidepressant ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepress...ant ... Tetracyclic antidepressant ADRA1 [HSA:148 147 146] [KO:K04135 K04136 K04137] AD

  8. Dgroup: DG00932 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepressant ATC code: N06AA07 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibi...ne hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ...

  9. Dgroup: DG01639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Escitalopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram... (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00951 ... Mianserin

  10. Dgroup: DG01645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available italopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... D...DG00945 ... Sertraline ... D02360 ... Sertraline (INN) ... D00825 ... Sertraline hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Esc

  11. Dgroup: DG01633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available voxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Escitalopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram... (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00951 ... Mianserin ... D08216 ... Mianseri

  12. Dgroup: DG01918 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1360 ... Cediranib ... D08881 ... Cediranib (USAN/INN) ... D08883 ... Cediranib maleate (JAN/USAN) ... DG01375 ... Tivozanib ... D09683 ... Tivoz...anib (USAN/INN) ... D10190 ... Tivozanib hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG01262 ... M

  13. Dgroup: DG00801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00801 Chemical ... DGroup Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine... hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01592 ... C

  14. Dgroup: DG01673 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bup...ivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... DG00802 ...

  15. Dgroup: DG01461 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erol (INN) ... D01373 ... Formoterol fumarate (USAN) ... D05277 ... Formoterol fumarate hydrate (JP17) ... DG01053 ... Clenbuterol ... D07713 ... Clenbu...terol (INN) ... D01360 ... Clenbuterol hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01054 ... Reproterol ... D0

  16. Dgroup: DG01619 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN) ... D06245 ... Trioxifene mesylate (USAN) ... D06551 ... Afimoxifene (USAN/INN) ... D09380 ... Sivifene (USAN/INN) DG01621 ... Cloimifene-type osteopo...rosis agent ... DG00476 ... Raloxifene ... D08465 ... Raloxifene (I

  17. Dgroup: DG02236 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02236 Chemical ... DGroup Tazanolast ... D01669 ... Tazanolast (JAN/INN) Anti-allergic agent ... DG01805 ... Medi...ator release inhibitor ... Antiallergic, Mediator release inhibitor ...

  18. Dgroup: DG02231 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02231 Chemical ... DGroup Repirinast ... D01890 ... Repirinast (JAN/USAN/INN) Anti-allergic agent ... DG01805 ... Medi...ator release inhibitor ... Antiallergic, Antiasthmatic, Mediator release inhibitor ...

  19. Dgroup: DG02574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available derivative ... DG01961 ... Prostaglandin derivative ... DG01960 ... Prostaglandin F derivative ATC code: S01EE01 Antiglaucoma, Prostaglandin F receptor agonist PTGFR [HSA:5737] [KO:K04262] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG01704 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05454 ... Phenmetrazine hydrochloride (USP) D07114 ... Etilamfetamine (INN) D07115 ... Clobenzorex (INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AA Anoretics ...

  1. Dgroup: DG01970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylphenidate (USAN/INN) ... D01296 ... Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00970 ... Atom...oxetine ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00972 ... De

  2. Dgroup: DG01478 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NN) ... D01548 ... Mosapramine hydrochloride (JAN) ... DG00907 ... Paliperidone ... D05339 ... Paliperidone... (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05340 ... Paliperidone palmitate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00930 ... Opipramol ... D08297

  3. Dgroup: DG01474 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (INN) ... D01548 ... Mosapramine hydrochloride (JAN) ... DG00907 ... Paliperidone ... D05339 ... Paliperidone (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05340 ... Paliperido...ne palmitate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00930 ... Opipramol ... D08297 ... Opipramol (INN) ... D01477 ... Opi

  4. Dgroup: DG00674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00674 Chemical ... DGroup Influenza, inactivated, whole virus ... D04536 ... Influenza virus vaccine... (USP) D05182 ... Influenza HA vaccine (JP17) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine ATC code: J07BB01 Vaccines ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00362 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00362 Chemical ... DGroup Lomitapide ... D09637 ... Lomitapide (USAN/INN) D09638 ... Lomita...pide mesylate (USAN); Lomitapide mesilate (JAN) ... Cardiovascular agent ... DG01946 ... Hypolipidemic agent ATC co

  6. Dgroup: DG01613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01613 DGroup Xantine-type antiparkinsonian agent -fylline ... D02964 ... Apaxifylline ...(USAN/INN) D04641 ... Istradefylline (JAN/USAN/INN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00067 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00067 Chemical ... DGroup Liquid paraffin ... D05042 ... Mineral oil (USP); Liquid paraffin... (JP17) ... D05043 ... Light liquid paraffin (JP17); Mineral oil, light (NF) Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01770

  8. Dgroup: DG01498 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne ... D08195 ... Methadone (BAN) ... D02102 ... Methadone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01002 ... Levomethadone ... D08121 ... Levomethadone... (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride DG01078 ... Dextromethorphan

  9. Dgroup: DG01984 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ride (USAN) DG01002 ... Levomethadone ... D08121 ... Levomethadone (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride DG01003...one hydrochloride (USP) ... D06268 ... Trimeperidine (INN) D07384 ... Normethadone (INN) D02611 ... Phenoperidine (INN

  10. Dgroup: DG00109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00109 Chemical ... DGroup Diastase ... D03329 ... Diastase (JP17) ... D08705 ... Digestive e...nzyme derived from aspergillus ... Gastrointestinal agent ... DG01744 ... digestive enzyme ATC code: A09AA01 Digestive enzyme ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01608 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01608 DGroup Thyroid hormone ... DG00510 ... Levothyroxine ... D08125 ... Levothyroxine (BAN) ... C08212 ... Levothyrox...ine sodium anhydrous ... D01010 ... Levothyroxine sodium (USP); Levothyroxine sodium hydrate

  12. Dgroup: DG00986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (JAN/USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer...-type dementia ATC code: N06DX01 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesterase agent GRIN (NMDAR) [HSA:290

  13. Dgroup: DG01448 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine... DG01448 DGroup alpha1-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01449 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine... DG01449 DGroup alpha2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ...

  15. Dgroup: DG01452 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available enaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine ... DG01452 DGroup beta2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adr

  16. Dgroup: DG00767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00767 Chemical ... DGroup Tubocurarine ... C07547 ... Tubocurarine D02207 ... Tubocurarine chloride (USP); Tuboc...urarine chloride hydrate (JAN) D08655 ... Tubocurarine chloride (INN) Other ... DG02029 ... Musc

  17. Dgroup: DG01727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01727 DGroup Anthraquinone antineoplastic -antrone DG01727.gif DG00701 ... Mitoxantrone ... D08224 ... Mitoxantron...e (INN) ... D02166 ... Mitoxantrone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00704 ... Pixantrone ... D05522 ... Pixantron...e (USAN/INN) ... D09654 ... Pixantrone dimaleate (USAN) D02894 ... Ametantrone acetate (USAN) D04685 ... Ledoxantron...e trihydrochloride (USAN) D04783 ... Losoxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D05510 ... Piroxantron...e hydrochloride (USAN) D06059 ... Teloxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D06190 ... Topixantrone (USAN/IN

  18. Dgroup: DG00460 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00460 Chemical ... DGroup Testosterone ... D00075 ... Testosterone (JAN/USP) ... D00957 ... Testosterone... cypionate (USP) ... D00958 ... Testosterone enanthate (JP17/USP) ... D00959 ... Testosterone propionate... (JP17/USP) ... D06085 ... Testosterone ketolaurate (USAN/INN) D06086 ... Testosterone phenylacetate (USAN) D06087 ... Testosterone... undecanoate (USAN) ... D08573 ... Testosterone decanoate D08574 ... Testosterone... phenylpropionate Other ... DG01590 ... Androgen receptor agonist ... DG02006 ... Testosterone Cyp substrate ... DG01

  19. Dgroup: DG01568 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JAN/USP) ... DG00865 ... Rasagiline ... D08469 ... Rasagiline (USAN/INN) ... D02562 ... Rasagiline mesylate (USAN); Rasagiline... mesilate (JAN) ... D10829 ... Rasagiline tartrate ... DG01259 ... Lazabemide ... D04...dase B inhibitor ... DG00864 ... Selegiline ... D03731 ... Selegiline (USAN/INN) ... D00785 ... Selegiline hydrochloride

  20. Dgroup: DG00937 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ride (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01730 ... Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ... DG01728 ... Tricyclic antidepress...ant Cyp inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N06AA12 Antidepressants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor ...

  1. Dgroup: DG01248 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liflozin L-proline (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemic...s ... DG01794 ... SGLT2 inhibitor ... Antidiabetics, SGLT2 inhibitors SLC5A2 (SGLT2) [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01803 DGroup Antidiabetic, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor -bose ... D00216 ... Acarbose (...e (USAN) D09779 ... Emiglitate (JAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01663 ... alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BF Antidiabetics GAA [HSA:2548] [KO:K12316] GANC [HSA:2595] [KO:K12317] MGAM [HSA:8972] [KO:K12047] ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00117 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available azone hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agon...s ... DG01683 ... Thiazolidinedione ATC code: A10BG03 Antidiabetic, thiazolidene NR1C3 (PPARG) [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG00738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00738 Chemical ... DGroup BCG vaccine ... D03063 ... BCG vaccine (USP) ... D06466 ... Freeze-dried BCG vaccine... (for percutaneous use) (JP17) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine ATC code: L03AX03 Immunoregulators; Vaccines ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00464 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00464 Chemical ... DGroup Estrone ... D00067 ... Estrone (JAN/USP/INN) D00312 ... Estrone sodium sulfate D00948 ... Est...ropipate (USP) ... Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA07 G03CC04 Est

  6. Dgroup: DG00463 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00463 Chemical ... DGroup Estriol ... D00185 ... Estriol (JP17/USP) ... D01986 ... Estriol t...ripropionate (JAN) ... D01989 ... Estriol diacetate benzoate (JAN) D07920 ... Estriol succinate D07921 ... Estriol sod...ium succinate (BAN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA04 G03CC06 Estr

  7. Dgroup: DG01260 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on agent ATC code: N04BD03 MAO-B inhibitor, Antiparkinsonian agent MAOB [HSA:4129] [KO:K00274] ... ...mide mesylate (USAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01568 ... MAO inhibitor ... DG01512 ... Monoamine oxidase B inhibitor ... DG01967 ... Antiparkins

  8. Dgroup: DG01716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01716 DGroup Drugs for alcohol dependence ... DG00996 ... Acamprosate ... D07058 ... Acampr...31 ... Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN) ... D03288 ... Calcium carbimide (INN) Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ATC code: N07BB Drugs of addictive disorder ...

  9. Dgroup: DG00997 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available trexone hydrochloride (USP) ... Analgesic ... DG01586 ... Opioid receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addi...ctive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ATC code: N07BB04 Alcoholic agent OPRM1 [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] OPRK1 [HSA:4986] [KO:K04214] OPRD1 [HSA:4985] [KO:K04213] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG00006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate (USP) Antiparasitic ... DG01884 ... Imidazole antiprotozoal Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cyp inhib...itor ... DG01643 ... CYP2C9 inhibitor ATC code: A01AB17 D06BX01 G01AF01 J01XD01 P01AB01 Antiprotozoa

  11. Dgroup: DG00698 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17/USAN) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisome...rase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB03 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  12. Dgroup: DG00700 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01682 ... Anthracycline antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomer...ase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase II inhibitor ATC code: L01DB06 Antineoplastic antibiotics TOP2 [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] ...

  13. Dgroup: DG00983 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sterase inhibitor ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ... DG0...1633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N06DA02 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesteras

  14. Dgroup: DG00900 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonis...t ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AL02 Antipsychotic, Neuroleptic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Benzamide derivative DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00871 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 ... Triflupromazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG...01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AA05 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  16. Dgroup: DG00882 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oridazine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478...p inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N05AC02 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  17. Dgroup: DG00877 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB06 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ... ...rifluoperazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... D01448 ... Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01

  18. Dgroup: DG00901 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hloride (JP17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... D...G01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AL03 Benzamide antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00879 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hioproperazine mesilate (JAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopami...ne antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB08 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  20. Dgroup: DG00876 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available orperazine edisylate (USP) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ... DG01478 ... Dopami...ne antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AB04 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  1. Dgroup: DG00905 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01942 ... Iminobenzyl antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine anta...gonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist ATC code: N05AX10 Antipsychotics HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157] DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01740 DGroup Curare alkaloid -cura- ... DG00767 ... Tubocurarine ... C07547 ... Tubocurarine ... D02207 ... Tubocurarine... chloride (USP); Tubocurarine chloride hydrate (JAN) ... D08655 ... Tubocurarine chloride (I...NN) D01215 ... Alcuronium chloride (JAN/USAN/INN) D07272 ... Dimethyltubocurarine (BAN) Other ... DG02029 ... Muscle rel

  3. Dgroup: DG00015 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00015 Chemical ... DGroup Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspiri...n aluminum (JP17) D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) D07581 ... Aspirin... magnesium salt D07582 ... Aspirin sodium Cardiovascular agent ... DG01712 ... Antiplatelet agent ... DG01950

  4. Dgroup: DG01712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available salicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin... calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin sodium DG0... DG01712 DGroup Antiplatelet agent Platelet aggregation inhibitor ... DG00015 ... Acetyl

  5. Dgroup: DG01600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01600 DGroup Bisphosphonate -dronic acid, -dronate ... DG00780 ... Etidronic acid ... D02373 ... Etidron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D00314 ... Etidronate disodium (JP17/USP) ... DG00781 ... Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D03544 ... Clodronate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) ... D07720 ... Clodron...ic acid disodium salt DG00782 ... Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) ... D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... DG00783 ... Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendron

  6. Dgroup: DG00962 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r ATC code: N06AX21 Antidepressants SLC6A4 (HTT) [HSA:6532] [KO:K05037] SLC6A2 (NAT1) [HSA:6530] [KO:K05035] Enzyme: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544], CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ... ... Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate Cyp inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibito

  7. Dgroup: DG01584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01584 DGroup Estrogen receptor agonist -estr- ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554... ... Ethinyl estradiol (USP); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estrad...iol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol a...cetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradio

  8. Dgroup: DG00875 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ide ... D08341 ... Perphenazine decanoate D08342 ... Perphenazine enantate Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsycho...5AB03 Phenothiazine antipsychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] Genomic biomarker: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...or antagonist Cyp substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate Cyp inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N0

  9. Dgroup: DG01526 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in (USAN/INN) ... D01911 ... Aclarubicin hydrochloride (JP17) ... DG00725 ... Topotecan ... D08618 ... Topotecan (BAN) ... D02168 ... Topotec...an hydrochloride (USAN); Nogitecan hydrochloride (JAN) ... DG00726 ... Irinotecan ... D08086 ... Irinotecan (INN) ... D01061 ... Irinotec...an hydrochloride (USAN); Irinotecan hydrochloride hydrate... (JAN) ... D10642 ... Irinotecan sucrosofate (USAN) DG01267 ... Etirinotecan pegol ... D10367 ... Etirinotecan pegol (US...AN/INN) ... D10422 ... Etirinotecan pegol tetrahydrochloride (USAN) ... D10427 ... Etirinotecan pegol tetratriflutate (USAN) D01432 ... Exatec

  10. Dgroup: DG01908 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01908 DGroup Antiinflammatory drug, propionic acid derivatives ... DG00245 ... Ibuprofen ... D00126 ... Ibuprofen... (JP17/USP/INN) ... D01122 ... Ibuprofen piconol (JP17/USAN) ... D04490 ... Ibuprofen aluminum (USAN) ... D06606 ... Ibupro...fen lysine (USAN); Ibuprofen L-lysine (JAN) ... D08058 ... Ibuprofen arginine salt ... D08059 ... Ibuprofen... sodium ... D09760 ... Ibuprofen sodium (USAN) DG00455 ... Naproxen ... D00118

  11. Dgroup: DG00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00462 Chemical ... DGroup Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estradiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estr...adiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) D04061 ... Estr...adiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) D04065 ... Estr...adiol undecylate (USAN/INN) D07918 ... Estradiol hemihydrate D07919 ... Estr...adiol 17 beta-hemisuccinate Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG0

  12. Dgroup: DG00234 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00234 Chemical ... DGroup Carbocromen ... D07619 ... Carbocromen (INN) D01812 ... Chromonar... hydrochloride (USAN); Carbocromen hydrochloride (JAN) ... ATC code: C01DX05 Coronary vasodilator ...

  13. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  14. Dgroup: DG02235 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02235 Chemical ... DGroup Amlexanox ... D01828 ... Amlexanox (JP17/USAN/INN) ... Anti-allergic agent ... DG01805 ... Med...iator release inhibitor ATC code: A01AD07 R03DX01 Antiallergic, Mediator release inhibitor ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00928 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01639 ... CYP2C19 substrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N06AA02 Antidepres...sants, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor Active form of prodrug: Desiprami

  16. Dgroup: DG01754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Taranabant (USAN/INN) D09349 ... Ibipinabant (USAN/INN) D10314 ... Giminabant (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity... ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AX Antiobesity agents CNR1 [HSA:1268] [KO:K04277] ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eutral (USAN); Neutral insulin injection (INN) D04550 ... Insulin zinc, prompt (USP) Antidiabetic... agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AB Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  18. Dgroup: DG01800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulin human zinc (USP) D04543 ... Insulin human zinc, extended (USP) D05622 ... Proinsulin human (USAN) Antidiabetic... agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AE Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  19. Dgroup: DG01799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (USP) D04547 ... Insulin, isophane (USP); Isophane insulin injection (aqueous suspension) (JAN) Antidiabetic ...agent ... DG01636 ... Insulin and analogue ... DG01802 ... Human insulin ATC code: A10AC Antidiabetics INSR (CD220) [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] ... CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544

  20. Dgroup: DG01663 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01663 DGroup alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor -bose, -glustat ... DG01803 ... Antidiabetic,...at ... D09605 ... Duvoglustat (USAN/INN) ... D09606 ... Duvoglustat hydrochloride (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... alpha-glucosidase [KO:K12316 K12317 K12047] ...

  1. Dgroup: DG01688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01688 DGroup Oral live vaccine ... D05544 ... Live oral polimyelitis vaccine (JP17) D06261 ... Typhoid vaccine... D10193 ... Live attenuated human rota virus vaccine, oral ... D10211 ... Rotavirus vaccine, ...live, oral, pentavalent ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ATC code: J07 Vaccine ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ta-1a (USAN); Interferon beta-1a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... Antineoplastic ... DG01752 ... Interferone ... Immunostimulants, Antineoplastics ... ... DG01751 Chemical ... DGroup Interferon beta ... D00746 ... Interferon beta-1b (USAN/INN); Interferon beta-1b (genet...ical recombination) (JAN) ... D03304 ... Interferon beta (JAN) ... D04554 ... Interferon be

  3. Dgroup: DG01630 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01630 DGroup beta-Estrogen receptor agonist -berel ... D06631 ... Prinaberel (USAN/INN...) D09899 ... Erteberel (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... NR3A2 (ESR2) [HSA:2100] [KO:K08551] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01923 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01923 DGroup Renin inhibitor -kiren ... D09038 ... Remikiren (INN) DG00352 ... Aliskiren ... D03208 ... Aliskir...en (USAN/INN) ... D06412 ... Aliskiren fumarate (JAN/USAN) ... D03738 ... Enalkiren (USAN/INN) D03741 ... Ditekir...en (USAN) D03743 ... Terlakiren (USAN/INN) D03745 ... Zankiren hydrochloride (USAN) Cardiovascular agent ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00857 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ... DG01745 ... Anticholinergic antiparkinson... agent ATC code: N04AA10 Anticholinergics, Antiparkinsonian agent CHRM [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00785 Chemical ... DGroup Ibandronic acid ... D08056 ... Ibandronic acid (INN) D04486 ... Ibandron...ate sodium (USAN); Ibandronate sodium hydrate (JAN) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA06 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG00783 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00783 Chemical ... DGroup Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendronic acid (INN) D00939 ... Alendron...ate sodium (USAN); Alendronate sodium hydrate (JP17) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA04 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  8. Dgroup: DG00782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00782 Chemical ... DGroup Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA03 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  9. Dgroup: DG00787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00787 Chemical ... DGroup Zoledronic acid ... D08689 ... Zoledronic acid (INN) D01968 ... Zoledron...ic acid (USAN); Zoledronic acid hydrate (JAN) ... D06378 ... Zoledronate disodium (USAN) D06379 ... Zoledron...ate trisodium (USAN) D10515 ... Zoledronic acid hemipentahydrate (JAN) Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA08 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG00781 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00781 Chemical ... DGroup Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodronic acid (USAN/INN) D03544 ... Clodron...ate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) D07720 ... Clodronic acid disodium salt Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA02 Bisphosphonates ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00786 Chemical ... DGroup Risedronic acid ... D08484 ... Risedronic acid (INN) D00942 ... Risedron...ate sodium (USP) ... D03234 ... Sodium risedronate hydrate (JP17) ... Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA07 Bisphosphonates FDPS [HSA:2224] [KO:K00787] ...

  12. Dgroup: DG01001 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ific agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for op...ioid dependence ATC code: N07BC04 Alpha2b-adrenergic receptor agonist, Drugs used in opioid dependence, Antihypertensives ADRA2B [HSA:151] [KO:K04139] ...

  13. Dgroup: DG01501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) ... D03077 ... Benazeprilat (USAN/INN) D03440 ... Ceronapril (USAN/INN) D03756 ... Indolapril hydrochloride (USAN) ... (USAN) ... D00383 ... Trandolapril (JAN/INN) ... DG00342 ... Spirapril ... D08529 ... Spirapril (INN) ... D03765 ... Spirapril ...USAN); Cilazapril hydrate (JP17) ... DG00341 ... Fosinopril ... D07992 ... Fosinopril (INN) ... D00622 ... Fosinopril sodium

  14. Dgroup: DG00984 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available linesterase inhibitor ... DG01594 ... Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor ... DG01968 ... Agents for Alzheimer-type dementi...a ATC code: N06DA03 Anti-Alzheimer's agent, Anticholinesterase agent ACHE [HSA:43] [KO:K01049] BCHE [HSA:590] [KO:K01050] ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00874 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN/USP) ... D02163 ... Fluphenazine maleate (JAN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychoti...ubstrate ... DG01644 ... CYP2D6 substrate ATC code: N05AB02 Antipsychotic, Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Phenothiazine derivative DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G01740 ... Curare alkaloid ... DG00767 ... Tubocurarine ... C07547 ... Tubocurarine ... D02207 ... Tubocurarine chloride (USP); Tubocurarine... chloride hydrate (JAN) ... D08655 ... Tubocurarine chloride (INN) ... D0121...5 ... Alcuronium chloride (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D07272 ... Dimethyltubocurarine (BAN) DG01742 ... Quaternary ammonium compo

  17. Dgroup: DG01504 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory drug, salicylic acid derivatives ... DG00015 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin... aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin... magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin sodium ... DG00099 ... Olsalazine ... D0

  18. Dgroup: DG01909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available salazide DG01909.gif DG00015 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin... aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspiri

  19. Dgroup: DG00890 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antagonist ... DG01474 ... Dopamine D2-receptor antagonist Cyp substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate ATC code: N05AD06 Butyrophenone antips...ychotics DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] ...

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of the general-acid-catalyzed ring-closure of the malondialdehyde-DNA adduct, N2-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)deoxyguanosine (N2OPdG-), to 3-(2'-Deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin- 10(3H)-one (M1dG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, James N; Pratt, Derek A; Voehler, Markus; Daniels, J Scott; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2004-09-01

    3-(2'-Deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) is the major product of the reaction of deoxyguanosine with malondialdehyde (MDA). M1dG blocks replication by DNA polymerases in vitro and is mutagenic in vivo. M1dG reacts with hydroxide to form the N2-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)deoxyguanosine anion (N2OPdG-). This reaction is pH-dependent and reverses under neutral and acidic conditions to form M1dG. Here we describe the kinetics and mechanism of the ring-closure reaction in both the nucleoside and oligonucleotides. Kinetic analysis of absorbance and fluorescence changes demonstrates that ring-closure is biphasic, leading to the rapid formation of an intermediate that slowly converts to M1dG in a general-acid-catalyzed reaction. The dependence of the rate of the rapid phase on pH reveals the pKa for protonated N2OPdG is 6.9. One-dimensional 1H NMR and DQF-COSY experiments identified two distinct intermediates, N2OPdG-H and 8-hydroxy-6,7-propenodeoxyguanosine (HO-Prene-dG), that are formed upon acidification of N2OPdG-. Characterization of ring-closure in single-stranded and in melted duplex oligonucleotides shows M1dG formation is also acid-catalyzed in single-stranded oligonucleotides and that the denaturation of an oligonucleotide duplex enhances ring-closure. This work details the complexity of ring-closure in the nucleoside and oligonucleotides and provides new insight into the role of duplex DNA in catalyzing ring-opening and ring-closing of M1dG and N2OPdG. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  1. Dgroup: DG01986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01986 DGroup Estrogen ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554 ... Ethinyl estradiol (US...P); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estr...adiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estr...adiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradiol undecylate (USAN/INN) ... D07918 ... Estr

  2. Dgroup: DG01638 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Pilocarpine nitrate (USP) ... D08376 ... Pilocarpine borate DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine... bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) D00139 ... Metho

  3. Dgroup: DG00760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00760 Chemical ... DGroup Glucosamine ... D04334 ... Glucosamine (USAN/INN) D08022 ... Glucosa...mine hydrochloride D08023 ... Glucosamine sulfate ... ATC code: M01AX05 Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, Antirheumatics ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01967 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line ... D03731 ... Selegiline (USAN/INN) ... D00785 ... Selegiline hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00865 ... Rasagiline ... D08469 ... Rasagiline... (USAN/INN) ... D02562 ... Rasagiline mesylate (USAN); Rasagiline mesilate (JAN) ... D10829 ... Rasagiline

  5. Dgroup: DG02612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02612 Chemical ... DGroup Rituximab ... D02994 ... Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (gene...tical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... ATC code:

  6. Dgroup: DG02487 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02487 Chemical ... DGroup Mirtazapine ... D00563 ... Mirtazapine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... ATC code: N06AX11 Antidepress...ant, Serotonin receptor antagonist NaSSA: Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepress

  7. Dgroup: DG00637 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00637 Chemical ... DGroup Micafungin ... D08218 ... Micafungin (INN) D02465 ... Micafungin ...sodium (JAN/USAN) ... D11010 ... Micafungin sodium hydrate (JAN) ... ATC code: J02AX05 Antibiotics ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01675 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aine ... D01152 ... Oxethazaine (JP17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupiva...caine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochl

  9. Dgroup: DG02590 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02590 Chemical ... DGroup Laropiprant ... D08940 ... Laropiprant (INN/USAN) ... Anti-atherosclerotic, Antidyslipide...mia, Prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist Target: PTGDR [HSA:5729] [KO:K04332] ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01846 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tat sodium (USAN) ... Antidyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemic), Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor DGAT1 [HSA:8694] [KO:K11155] ... ... DG01846 Chemical ... DGroup Pradigastat ... D10664 ... Pradigastat (USAN) D10657 ... Pradigas

  11. Dgroup: DG00849 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available valproex sodium (USP); Valproate semisodium (INN) ... D00710 ... Valproate sodium (USAN); Sodium valproate (JP17... DG00849 Chemical ... DGroup Valproic acid ... D00399 ... Valproic acid (USP) ... D00304 ... Di

  12. Dgroup: DG00943 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATC code: N06AB04 Antidepressants, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SLC6A4 (HTT) [HSA:6532] [KO:K0503...01933 ... CYP2C19 inhibitor Transporter substrate ... DG01665 ... P-glycoprotein substrate

  13. Dgroup: DG00957 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rochloride (JAN/USP) ... D07938 ... Bupropion hydrobromide (USAN) ... Cyp inhibitor ... DG01645 ... CYP2D6 inhibitor ATC code: N06AX12 Antidepressants ... Enzyme: CYP2B6 [HSA:1555] ...

  14. Dgroup: DG00694 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00694 Chemical ... DGroup Docetaxel ... D07866 ... Docetaxel (JAN/INN) ... D02165 ... Docetaxel (USAN); Doc...etaxel hydrate (JP17); Docetaxel injection (JP17); Docetaxel for injection (JP17) ... Cyp subs

  15. Dgroup: DG01771 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01771 Chemical ... DGroup Docusate ... D00305 ... Docusate sodium (USP); Sodium dioctyl ...sulfosuccinate (INN); Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (JAN) ... D03885 ... Docusate calcium (USP) D03886 ... Docusate

  16. Dgroup: DG00051 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00051 Chemical ... DGroup Silicone ... C06263 ... Silicon D06521 ... Light anhydrous silicic acid (JP17); Silicon... dioxide (NF) D06522 ... Silicon dioxide, colloidal (NF) ... ATC code: A03AX13 Pharmaceutic aid, suspending agent ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01132 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ucoma agents; Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia ACHE [HSA:43] [KO:K01049] ... ...esterase inhibitor ... DG01593 ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ATC code: S01EB05 V03AB19 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, Antigla

  18. Dgroup: DG02379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02379 Chemical ... DGroup Brinzolamide ... D00652 ... Brinzolamide (JAN/USP/INN) ... ATC code: S01EC04 Antiglauco...ma, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor CA2 [HSA:760] [KO:K18245] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01439 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... Cytarabine ... D00168 ... ...tabine hydrochloride (JAN) D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN) D06100 ... Tezacitabi

  20. Dgroup: DG01958 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available USP) ... D03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG...Enocitabine (JAN/INN) ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flu

  1. Dgroup: DG02018 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... C... ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN)

  2. Dgroup: DG01356 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01356 Chemical ... DGroup Saccharin ... D01085 ... Saccharin (JP17/NF) D02192 ... Saccharin sodium (USP); Sacch...arin sodium hydrate (JP17) ... D05781 ... Saccharin calcium (USP) D08500 ... Saccharin sodium ...

  3. Dgroup: DG01987 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01987 Chemical ... DGroup Eglumegad Eglumetad ... D08908 ... Eglumegad (INN) D03966 ... Eglumetad (USAN) ... Antianxie...ty, Smoking cessation ajunct GRM2 [HSA:2912] [KO:K04605] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG02007 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02007 DGroup Antianxiety, carbamate derivatives ... D00376 ... Meprobamate (JAN/USP/I...NN) ... D07317 ... Emylcamate (INN) D01807 ... Mebutamate (JAN/USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... Antianxiety ...

  5. Dgroup: DG01794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rtugliflozin (USAN/INN) D10669 ... Sotagliflozin (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent Uncla...ssified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BK Antidiabetics SLC5A2 (SGLT2) [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available glinide (JP17/USAN/INN) ... D01854 ... Mitiglinide calcium hydrate (JP17) ... Antidiabetic agent Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... Antidiabetics ABCC8 (SUR1) [HSA:6833] [KO:K05032] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG01644 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0967 ... Dexamfetamine ... D03740 ... Dextroamphetamine (USAN); Dexamfetamine (INN) ... D02078 ... Dextroamphetamine sulfate (USP) ... DG00970 ... Atom...oxetine ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxeti

  8. Dgroup: DG01147 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01147 Chemical ... DGroup Rose bengal sodium ... D05762 ... Rose bengal sodium I 125 (US...AN) D05763 ... Rose bengal sodium I 131 (USP) ... ATC code: S01JA02 Ophthalmic diagnostic agents ...

  9. Dgroup: DG01789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) DG01442 ... Tedizolid ... D09685 ... Tedizolid (USAN/INN) ... D09686 ... Tedizolid phosphate (JAN/USAN) ... D10167 ... Sutezolid (USAN/INN) Antibacterial ... Antibiotics 50S ribosomal subunit ...

  10. Dgroup: DG01676 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) D05912 ... Spiroxasone (USAN/INN) Cardiovascular agent ... DG01885 ... Potassium-sparing diuretic ATC code: C03DA Diuretics; Antihypertensives NR3C2 (MR) [HSA:4306] [KO:K08555] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG00431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00431 Chemical ... DGroup Aluminium chlorohydrate ... D02852 ... Aluminum chlorohydrate (USP) D02856 ... Aluminum... dichlorohydrate (USP) D02863 ... Aluminum sesquichlorohydrate (USP) ... ATC code: D09AA08 M05BX02 Anhidrotics ...

  12. Dgroup: DG01872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01872 Chemical ... DGroup Aluminum silicate ... D03236 ... Synthetic aluminum silicate (JP17); Aluminum... silicate, synthetic (JAN) ... D03237 ... Natural aluminum silicate (JP17); Aluminum silicate, natural (JAN) ... Antacids ...

  13. Dgroup: DG01680 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01680 DGroup Aluminum compounds ... D02416 ... Aluminum hydroxide (USP); Aluminum hyd... ... D02807 ... Algeldrate (USAN/INN) D02862 ... Aluminum phosphate (USP) D03827 ... Dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate

  14. Dgroup: DG02629 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02629 Chemical ... DGroup Ibritumomab ... D04489 ... Ibritumomab tiuxetan (USAN/INN); Ibritumomab tiuxetan (genet...ical recombination) (JAN) ... ATC code: V10XX02 Antineoplastic, Radioactive agent,

  15. Dgroup: DG01358 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01358 Chemical ... DGroup Trastuzumab ... D03257 ... Trastuzumab (INN); Trastuzumab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D09980 ... Trastuzumab emtansine (USAN/INN); Trastuzumab emtansine (genetical re

  16. Dgroup: DG02648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02648 Chemical ... DGroup Infliximab ... D02598 ... Infliximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetica

  17. Dgroup: DG01750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical recombination) (JAN) D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... DG01750 Chemical ... DGroup Interferon alpha ... D00745 ... Interferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (gene

  18. Dgroup: DG02658 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02658 Chemical ... DGroup Cysteamine Mercaptamine ... D03634 ... Cysteamine (USAN); Merc...aptamine (INN) D03635 ... Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN) ... D10468 ... Cysteamine bitartrate (JAN) ... Cystine concentration-lowering agent ...

  19. Dgroup: DG01654 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line ... D08322 ... Oxymetazoline (INN) ... D01022 ... Oxymetazoline hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... ...0224 ... Midodrine ... D08220 ... Midodrine (INN) ... D01307 ... Midodrine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... DG01029 ... Oxymetazo

  20. Dgroup: DG01196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01196 Chemical ... DGroup Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam ... D08504 ... Samarium (153Sm) lexidron...am (INN) D05795 ... Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium (USAN); Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam sodium (JA

  1. Dgroup: DG02090 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02090 Chemical ... DGroup Mirogabalin ... D10790 ... Mirogabalin besylate (USAN); Miroga...balin besilate (JAN) ... Pain relief CACNA2D1 [HSA:781] [KO:K04858] CACNA2D2 [HSA:9254] [KO:K04859] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01554 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01554 DGroup 5-Nitrofuran antiprotozoal nifur- ... D00830 ... Furazolidone (USP/INN) D... Nifuroxime (INN) D04714 ... Levofuraltadone (USAN/INN) D05165 ... Nifursemizone (USAN/INN) D05166 ... Nifursol (USAN) Antiparasitic ... Antiprotozoals ...

  3. Dgroup: DG01417 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01417 Chemical ... DGroup Volasertib ... D10182 ... Volasertib (USAN) D10183 ... Volasertib... trihydrochloride (USAN); Volasertib hydrochloride (JAN) ... Antineoplastics PLK1 [HSA:5347] [KO:K06631] ...

  4. Dgroup: DG02008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP17/INN) ... D01611 ... Polaprezinc (JAN/INN) ... DG01871 ... Irsogladine ... D08087 ... Irsogladine (INN) ... D01658 ... Irs... D00015 ... Glutamine (USP); L-Glutamine (JP17) ... D02706 ... Sodium gualenate hydrate (JAN) ... D01121 ... Rebamipide

  5. Dgroup: DG00510 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00510 Chemical ... DGroup Levothyroxine ... D08125 ... Levothyroxine (BAN) C08212 ... Levothyrox...ine sodium anhydrous D01010 ... Levothyroxine sodium (USP); Levothyroxine sodium hydrate (JP17) ... Other ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01495 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (USAN/INN) ... D00626 ... Candesartan cilexetil (JP17/USAN) ... D00627 ... Telmisartan (JP17/USAN/INN); Telmisartan tablet...N); Olmesartan medoxomil tablets (JP17) ... DG00351 ... Azilsartan ... D08864 ... Azilsarta

  7. Dgroup: DG01720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17); Cyclophosphamide tablets (JP17) ... DG01514 ... Palifosfamide ... D09364 ... Palifosfamide (USAN/INN) ... D10373 ... P...yclophosphamide ... D07760 ... Cyclophosphamide (INN) ... D00287 ... Cyclophosphamide (USP); Cyclophosphamide hydrate (J

  8. Dgroup: DG02469 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02469 Chemical ... DGroup Naftopidil ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablet...s (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... Antidysuria, alpha1-Adrenergic receptor a

  9. Dgroup: DG01466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D... ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablet

  10. Dgroup: DG00906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00906 Chemical ... DGroup Aripiprazole ... D01164 ... Aripiprazole (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D10355 ... Aripip...razole cavoxil (USAN) D10364 ... Aripiprazole lauroxil (USAN) ... D10516 ... Aripiprazole hydrate (JAN)

  11. Dgroup: DG01450 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephri...inephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epineph

  12. Dgroup: DG01071 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01071 Chemical ... DGroup Carbocisteine ... D06393 ... Carbocysteine (USAN); Carbocisteine (INN) D00175 ... L-Carboc...isteine (JP17) ... D07618 ... Carbocisteine sodium salt ... ATC code: R05CB03 Mucolytics, Cysteines expectorants ...

  13. Dgroup: DG00425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00425 Chemical ... DGroup Iodine ... D00108 ... Iodine (JP17/USP) ... D04470 ... Dilute iodi...ne tincture (JP17) ... D04723 ... Iodine tincture (JP17) ... ATC code: D08AG03 Disinfectant ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01975 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... D00422 ... Ranitidine (USAN/INN) ... D00673 ... Ranitidine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... D05699 ... Ranitidine bis...muth citrate (USAN) ... DG00019 ... Roxatidine ... D08494 ... Roxatidine (INN) ... D01467 ... Roxat

  15. Dgroup: DG01952 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available essin (JP17/USP) ... D09820 ... Vasopressin tannate (JAN) DG00497 ... Desmopressin ... D00291 ... Desmopressin (INN) ... D0...N) D07227 ... Ornipressin (INN) D02983 ... Argipressin tannate (USAN) D04137 ... Felypressin (USAN/INN) Cardiovascular agent ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01957 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0403 ... Eluxadoline (USAN) ... D03339 ... Albumin tannate (JP17) ... D08464 ... Racecadotril (INN) DG01773 ... Berberine ... C00757 ... Berberine ... D01250 ... Berberine chloride hydrate (JP17) ... D03258 ... Berberine tannate (JP17) ... D03293 ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01721 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01721 DGroup Methanesulfonate derivative -sulfan ... D00248 ... Busulfan (JP17/USP/INN) ... D01497 ... Improsulfan... tosilate (JAN) D05487 ... Piposulfan (USAN/INN) D07071 ... Mannosulfan (INN) D07253 ... Treosulfan

  18. Dgroup: DG01455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Ep...pinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrenaline (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... ...ephedrine saccharinate (JAN) DG01452 ... beta2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG00013 ... Epinephrine ... D00095 ... Epinephrine (USP/INN); Adrena...line (JP17) ... D00996 ... Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine b

  19. Dgroup: DG01152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01152 Chemical ... DGroup Edetate ... D00052 ... Edetic acid (NF/INN) D00571 ... Edetate calcium disodium... anhydrous (USP) D01802 ... Edetate disodium (USP); Disodium edetate hydrate (JP17) D03943 ... Edetate calcium disodium... (USP); Calcium sodium edetate hydrate (JP17); Sodium calcium edetate (INN) ... D03944 ... Ed...etate dipotassium (USAN) D03945 ... Disodium edetate D03946 ... Edetate sodium (USAN) D03947 ... Edetate trisodium... (USAN) D07934 ... Edetate calcium disodium D07935 ... Dicobalt edetate (INN) Other ... DG01692 ... Chelator ATC code: V03AB03 Antidotes, Chelating agents ...

  20. Dgroup: DG01686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01686 DGroup Inactivated vaccine ... DG00674 ... Influenza, inactivated, whole virus ... D04536 ... Influenza virus vaccine (USP) ... D05182 ... Influenza HA vaccine (JP17) ... D03530 ... Cholera vaccine (JP17...) D04432 ... Hepatitis B virus vaccine inactivated (USP XXX) ... D05248 ... Freeze-dried inactivated tissue culture ravies vaccine...5313 ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JP17); Freeze-dried japanese encephalitis vaccine (JP17) ... D05324 ... Adsorbed hepatitis B vaccine... (huGK-14 cell origin) (JAN) D05330 ... Weil's disease and akiyami combined vaccine (J

  1. Dgroup: DG02006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02006 DGroup Testosterone ... D00327 ... Fluoxymesterone (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00408 ... Me...thyltestosterone (JP17/USP/INN) ... DG00460 ... Testosterone ... D00075 ... Testosterone (JAN/USP) ... D00957 ... Testosterone... cypionate (USP) ... D00958 ... Testosterone enanthate (JP17/USP) ... D00959 ... Testosterone propionate (JP17/USP) ... D06085 ... Testos...terone ketolaurate (USAN/INN) ... D06086 ... Testosterone phen...ylacetate (USAN) ... D06087 ... Testosterone undecanoate (USAN) ... D08573 ... Testosterone decanoate ... D08574 ... Testosterone phenylpropionate Other ATC code: G03BA ...

  2. Dgroup: DG01592 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (INN) ... D00633 ... Dopamine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine... hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... D00059 ... Levodopa (JP17/USP/INN) ... Cardiovascular agent ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00098 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lisetil hydrochloride (JAN) Anti-allergic agent ... DG01805 ... Mediator release inhibitor ATC code: A07EB01 D11AH03 R01AC01 R03BC01 S01GX01 chemical mediator release inhibitor ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01667 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01667 DGroup Progesterone receptor antagonist -pristone ... D00585 ... Mifepristone (J...AN/USAN/INN) ... D07096 ... Aglepristone (INN) D09571 ... Onapristone (INN) D09972 ... Telapristone acetate (USAN) D10016 ... Lonaprisan (USAN/INN) Other ... NR3C3 (PGR) [HSA:5241] [KO:K08556] ...

  5. Dgroup: DG00119 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in hydrate (JAN/USAN) ... D10262 ... Saxagliptin hydrochloride ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibitor T...4 inhibitor ATC code: A10BH03 Antidiabetic, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243] ...

  6. Dgroup: DG00118 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gliptin phosphate (USAN); Sitagliptin phosphate hydrate (JAN) ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01601 ... DPP-4 inhibito...PP-4 inhibitor ATC code: A10BH01 DPP4 inhibitor, antidiabetics DPP4 [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243], SLC22A8 [HSA:9376] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG01796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01796 DGroup Insulin analogue, fast-acting ... D04477 ... Insulin lispro (USP/INN); Insulin lispro (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D04475 ... Insulin aspart (USAN/INN); Insulin aspart (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D04540 ... Insulin glulisine (USAN/INN); Insulin glulisine (genetical recombination)

  8. Dgroup: DG00108 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etic ... DG01704 ... Phenethylamine anorexic ATC code: A08AA10 Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI...); Phenethylamine type anorexics SLC6A2 (NAT1) [HSA:6530] [KO:K05035] SLC6A3 (DAT1) [HSA:6531] [KO:K05036] SLC6A4 (HTT) [HSA:6532] [KO:K05037] ...

  9. Dgroup: DG01190 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01190 Chemical ... DGroup Technetium (99mTc) medronic acid ... D02029 ... Technetium Tc 99m medron...ate (USP) ... D06038 ... Technetium Tc 99m medronate disodium (USP) ... ATC code: V09BA02 Radioactive dia

  10. Dgroup: DG01524 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01524 DGroup Triazole antineoplastic -rozole ... D00960 ... Anastrozole (JAN/USAN/INN)... ... D00964 ... Letrozole (JAN/USP/INN) ... D03786 ... Vorozole (USAN/INN) Antineoplastic ... CYP19A1 (ARO) [HSA:1588] [KO:K07434] ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01925 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07992 ... Fosinopril (INN) ... D00622 ... Fosinopril sodium (USAN) ... D00383 ... Trandolapril (JAN/INN) ... DG00342 ...NN) ... D03440 ... Ceronapril (USAN/INN) ... D03756 ... Indolapril hydrochloride (USAN) ... D03758 ... Libenzapril (USAN/INN) ... mixt ... D10281 ... Moexipril hydrochloride - hydrochlorothiazide mixt ... D10282 ... Trandolapril - verapamil hydr

  12. Dgroup: DG01457 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fine granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D0...zide (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17...); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... D01965 ... Silodosin (JP17/INN) ... D02995 ... Asenapine male

  13. Dgroup: DG02597 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02597 Chemical ... DGroup Brexpiprazole ... D10309 ... Brexpiprazole (JAN/USAN/INN) ... ATC code: N05AX16 Antipsy...chotic DRD2 [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145] HTR1A [HSA:3350] [KO:K04153] HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157] HTR7 [HSA:3363] [KO:K04163] ...

  14. Dgroup: DG01689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 ... Freeze-dried live attenuated mumps vaccine (JP17) ... D04866 ... Freeze-dried live attenuated measles vaccin...04 ... Freeze-dried live attenuated measles-rubella combined vaccine ... DG01688 ... Oral live vaccine ... D05544 ... Liv

  15. Dgroup: DG01693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01693 DGroup Iodine preparation -iod- ... D00108 ... Iodine (JP17/USP) ... D00863 ... Povidone-Iodine... (JP17/USP) ... D01910 ... Iodoform (JP17/USP) ... D04470 ... Dilute iodine tincture (JP17) ... D04723 ... Iodine tincture (JP17) ... Other ATC code: D08AG Disinfectants ...

  16. Dgroup: DG00245 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00245 Chemical ... DGroup Ibuprofen ... D00126 ... Ibuprofen (JP17/USP/INN) ... D01122 ... Ibuprofen... piconol (JP17/USAN) ... D04490 ... Ibuprofen aluminum (USAN) D06606 ... Ibuprofen lysine (USAN); Ibuprofen... L-lysine (JAN) ... D08058 ... Ibuprofen arginine salt D08059 ... Ibuprofen sodium D09760 ... Ibuprofen sodium (USAN)

  17. Dgroup: DG01482 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JAN) ... D04034 ... Chlorpromazine phenolphthalinate (JAN) ... D09819 ... Chlorpromazine tannate (JAN) DG00898 ... Olan...03285 ... Diphenhydramine tannate (JP17) ... D03360 ... Diphenhydramine laurylsulfate (JAN...17/INN) ... D00669 ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... D02419 ... Diphenhydramine salicylate (JAN) ... D

  18. Detection of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in human colorectal mucosa: relationship with diet and the presence of adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuratti, Chiara; Watson, Mark A; Deag, Eliot J; Welch, Ailsa; Singh, Rajinder; Gottschalg, Elke; Marnett, Lawrence J; Atkin, Wendy; Day, Nicholas E; Shuker, David E G; Bingham, Sheila A

    2002-03-01

    Colorectal biopsies from normal mucosa of participants in the United Kingdom Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial and European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC; n = 162) were analyzed for the presence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M(1)-dG), a DNA adduct derived from lipid peroxidation. The aim was to investigate whether dietary factors can modulate M(1)-dG levels and whether M(1)-dG in normal mucosa is a risk factor for colorectal adenomas. Samples were analyzed using a sensitive immunoblot blot assay. This study has shown for the first time that M(1)-dG is present in human colorectal tissue. M(1)-dG levels ranged from undetectable (n = 13) to 12.23 per 10(7) total bases. Mean levels were 4.3 +/- 3 and 4.6 +/- 2.9 per 10(7) total bases in men and women, respectively. In men, there were positive associations of adduct levels with height and age, and inverse associations with body mass index. Legumes, fruit, salad, and whole meal bread were inversely associated with M(1)-dG adducts, whereas consumption of offal, white meat, beer, and alcohol were positively associated with elevated levels. In women, there was an inverse association of the adduct with the ratio of polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acids (P = 0.019) and a weak positive correlation with saturated fat (P < 0.061). When levels of adducts were compared in individuals with and without adenomas, there was a trend for higher levels in individuals presenting with adenomas especially in the highest category of M(1)-dG adducts (P < 0.005).

  19. Dgroup: DG01954 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m silicate ... D03271 ... Magnesium trisilicate (USP) ... D04839 ... Magnesium silicate (JP17/NF) DG01680 ... Aluminum compounds ... D02416 ... Aluminum... hydroxide (USP); Aluminum hydroxide, dried (USP); Dried a...luminum hydroxide gel (JP17); Dried aluminum hydroxide gel fine granules (JP17) ... D02807 ... Algeldrate (USAN/INN) ... D02862 ... Aluminum...odium bicarbonate (JP17/USP) ... D03236 ... Synthetic aluminum silicate (JP17); Aluminum... silicate, synthetic (JAN) ... D04393 ... Aluminum hydroxide, dried - magnesium hydroxide mixt ... D02844 ... Aluminum

  20. Dgroup: DG01936 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01936 DGroup TNF inhibitor ... D00742 ... Etanercept (USAN/INN); Etanercept (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Etanercept (genetical recombination) [etanercept biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... D02598 ... Infl...iximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Inflixi...mab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimil...ar2] (JAN) ... D07436 ... Afelimomab (INN) D02597 ... Adalimumab (USAN/INN); Adalimumab (genetical recombination) (

  1. Dgroup: DG00177 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00177 Chemical ... DGroup Erythropoietin ... D03231 ... Epoetin alfa (USAN/INN); Epoetin alfa (genetica...l recombination) (JP17) ... D03232 ... Epoetin beta (USAN/INN); Epoetin beta (genetical recombina...tion) (JP17) ... D04032 ... Epoetin delta (USAN) D09737 ... Epoetin kappa (INN); Epoetin kappa (genetical recombina...tion) (Epoetin alfa biosimilar 1) (JAN) ... D09998 ... Epoetin beta pegol (genetical ...recombination) (JAN) ... D10000 ... Epoetin epsilon (INN); Epoetin epsilon (genetical recombination) (JAN) D1084

  2. Dgroup: DG01797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical recombination) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (J...P17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination [Insulin glargin biosimilar 1] (JAN); Insulin glargine (genetica...mir (USAN/INN); Insulin detemir (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D09727 ... Insulin degludec (USAN/INN); Insulin degludec (genetica... DG01797 DGroup Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genet

  3. Dgroup: DG01636 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available analogue, fast-acting ... D04477 ... Insulin lispro (USP/INN); Insulin lispro (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... ... ... D04475 ... Insulin aspart (USAN/INN); Insulin aspart (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D04540 ... Insulin glu...lisine (USAN/INN); Insulin glulisine (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... DG01797 ... Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genetical recombinat...ion) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recomb

  4. Dgroup: DG01664 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D06070 ... Tenecteplase (USAN/INN) ... D05412 ... Monteplase (INN); Monteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN...) ... D05410 ... Pamiteplase (INN); Pamiteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D0825...6 ... Nateplase (INN) D03695 ... Desmoteplase (USAN/INN) D04665 ... Lanoteplase (USAN/INN); Lanoteplase (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D09814 ... Silteplase (INN); Silteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D09823 ... Duteplase (INN); Duteplase (genetica... DG01664 DGroup Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) -teplase ... D02837 ... Alteplase (USP/INN); Alteplase (geneti

  5. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P. (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-18

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves

  6. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Myungkoo.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ∼ 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G 2 or G 3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N 2 -dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N 2 -dG

  7. Dgroup: DG01752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... Interferon alfa-n3 (USAN) DG01751 ... Interferon beta ... D00746 ... Interferon beta-1b (USAN/INN); Interferon beta-1b (genetica...D00747 ... Interferon gamma-1b (USAN/INN) ... D03357 ... Interferon gamma-1a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D...08805 ... Interferon gamma-n1 (JAN) D02744 ... Interferon alfacon-1 (USAN/INN); Interferon alfacon-1 (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D02747 ... Peginterferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Peginterferon alfa-2a (genetica

  8. DNA adducts as molecular dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that DNA adducts play an important role in the actions of many pulmonary carcinogens. During the last ten years sensitive methods (antibodies and 32 P-postlabeling) have been developed that permit detection of DNA adducts in tissues of animals or humans exposed to low levels of some genotoxic carcinogens. This capability has led to approaches designed to more reliably estimate the shape of the dose-response curve in the low dose region for a few carcinogens. Moreover, dosimetry comparisions can, in some cases, be made between animals and humans which help in judging the adequacy of animal models for human risk assessments. There are several points that need to be considered in the evaluation of DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. For example, DNA adduct formation is only one of many events that are needed for tumor development and some potent carcinogens do not form DNA adducts; i.e., TCDD. Other issues that need to be considered are DNA adduct heterogeneity, DNA repair, relationship of DNA adducts to somatic mutation and cell specificity in DNA adduct formation and persistence. Molecular epidemiology studies often require quantitation of adducts in cells such as lymphocytes which may or may not be reliable surrogates for adduct concentrations in target issues. In summary, accurate quantitation of low levels of DNA adducts may provide data useful in species to species extrapolation of risk including the development of more meaningful human monitoring programs

  9. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  10. Isolevuglandin adducts in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Robert G; Bi, Wenzhao

    2015-06-20

    A diverse family of lipid-derived levulinaldehydes, isolevuglandins (isoLGs), is produced by rearrangement of endoperoxide intermediates generated through both cyclooxygenase (COX) and free radical-induced cyclooxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their phospholipid esters. The formation and reactions of isoLGs with other biomolecules has been linked to alcoholic liver disease, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, atherosclerosis, cardiac arythmias, cancer, end-stage renal disease, glaucoma, inflammation of allergies and infection, mitochondrial dysfunction, multiple sclerosis, and thrombosis. This review chronicles progress in understanding the chemistry of isoLGs, detecting their production in vivo and understanding their biological consequences. IsoLGs have never been isolated from biological sources, because they form adducts with primary amino groups of other biomolecules within seconds. Chemical synthesis enabled investigation of isoLG chemistry and detection of isoLG adducts present in vivo. The first peptide mapping and sequencing of an isoLG-modified protein present in human retina identified the modification of a specific lysyl residue of the sterol C27-hydroxylase Cyp27A1. This residue is preferentially modified by iso[4]LGE2 in vitro, causing loss of function. Adduction of less than one equivalent of isoLG can induce COX-associated oligomerization of the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. Adduction of isoLGE2 to phosphatidylethanolamines causes gain of function, converting them into proinflammatory isoLGE2-PE agonists that foster monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Among the remaining questions on the biochemistry of isoLGs are the dependence of biological activity on isoLG isomer structure, the structures and mechanism of isoLG-derived protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-link formation, and its biological consequences.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of an N2-guanine adduct derived from the tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: impact of adduct stereochemistry, size, and local DNA sequence on solution conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fabián A; Liu, Zhi; Lin, Chin H; Ding, Shuang; Cai, Yuqin; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-03-25

    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide-DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14R trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N(2)-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5'-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure-function relationship in NER.

  12. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  13. DG CONNECT’s stakeholder engagement strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyden, M.; Glidden, J.; Shahin, J.

    2013-01-01

    How do we ensure that public policy represents the interests of all, rather than a select few? How will we ensure it draws upon the best insights and talents of key stakeholders? The European Commission’s DG CONNECT recently announced the results of its Stakeholder Engagement Survey, which is

  14. Translesion Synthesis Past Acrolein-derived DNA Adducts by Human Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase γ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiviswanathan, Rajesh; Minko, Irina G.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Copeland, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, is produced endogenously by lipid peroxidation and exogenously by combustion of organic materials, including tobacco products. Acrolein reacts with DNA bases forming exocyclic DNA adducts, such as γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2′-deoxyguanosine (γ-HOPdG) and γ-hydroxy-1,N6-propano-2′-deoxyadenosine (γ-HOPdA). The bulky γ-HOPdG adduct blocks DNA synthesis by replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by translesion synthesis polymerases in the nucleus. Although acrolein-induced adducts are likely to be formed and persist in mitochondrial DNA, animal cell mitochondria lack specialized translesion DNA synthesis polymerases to tolerate these lesions. Thus, it is important to understand how pol γ, the sole mitochondrial DNA polymerase in human cells, acts on acrolein-adducted DNA. To address this question, we investigated the ability of pol γ to bypass the minor groove γ-HOPdG and major groove γ-HOPdA adducts using single nucleotide incorporation and primer extension analyses. The efficiency of pol γ-catalyzed bypass of γ-HOPdG was low, and surprisingly, pol γ preferred to incorporate purine nucleotides opposite the adduct. Pol γ also exhibited ∼2-fold lower rates of excision of the misincorporated purine nucleotides opposite γ-HOPdG compared with the corresponding nucleotides opposite dG. Extension of primers from the termini opposite γ-HOPdG was accomplished only following error-prone purine nucleotide incorporation. However, pol γ preferentially incorporated dT opposite the γ-HOPdA adduct and efficiently extended primers from the correctly paired terminus, indicating that γ-HOPdA is probably nonmutagenic. In summary, our data suggest that acrolein-induced exocyclic DNA lesions can be bypassed by mitochondrial DNA polymerase but, in the case of the minor groove γ-HOPdG adduct, at the cost of unprecedented high mutation rates. PMID:23543747

  15. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politica, Dustin A; Malik, Chanchal K; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P

    2015-12-21

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N(2)-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, in which it is oriented in the minor groove toward the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-d

  16. CONTEMPT-DG containment analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deem, R.E.; Rousseau, K.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of hydrogen burning in a containment building during a degraded core event requires a knowledge of various system responses. These system responses (i.e. heat sinks, fan cooler units, sprays, etc.) can have a marked effect on the overall containment integrity results during a hydrogen burn. In an attempt to properly handle the various system responses and still retain the capability to perform sensitivity analysis on various parameters, the CONTEMPT-DG computer code was developed. This paper will address the historical development of the code, its various features, and the rationale for its development. Comparisons between results from the CONTEMPT-DG analyses and results from similar MARCH analyses will also be given

  17. Susceptibility of the Tomato Mutant High Pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Charnikhova, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Kohlen, W.; Bino, R.J.; Levin, I.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2dg is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as

  18. Susceptibility of the tomato mutant high pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Mulder, Patrick; Kohlen, Wouter; Bino, Raoul; Levin, Ilan; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2008-08-13

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2 ( dg ) is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as lycopene rich tomatoes (LRT) because of their enhanced fruit pigmentation, attributed to higher levels of carotenoids, including lycopene. Strigolactones are signaling compounds that mediate host finding in root parasitic plants and are biosynthetically derived from carotenoids. Considering the high carotenoid content of the hp-2 ( dg ) mutant, we studied its susceptibility to the root parasite Orobanche. In a field experiment, the average number of Orobanche aegyptiaca plants growing on hp-2 ( dg ) was surprisingly significantly reduced compared with its isogenic wild-type counterpart. In vitro assays and LC-MS/MS analysis showed that this reduction was associated with a lower production of strigolactones, which apparently renders the high-carotenoid hp-2 ( dg ) mutant less susceptible to Orobanche.

  19. Mass spectrometry investigation of DNA adduct formation from bisphenol A quinone metabolite and MCF-7 cell DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongzhi; Wei, Juntong; Xiang, Li; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used additive in the plastic industry and has been reported to have genotoxicity. A hypothesis that BPA may enhance breast cancer risk through the formation of its metabolic intermediate or DNA adduct has been proposed. In this study, breast cancer cell MCF-7 was cultured and the cellular DNA was extracted from the cells. The adducts of bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), calf thymus DNA and MCF-7 cell DNA were investigated. DNA adducts were characterized by using electrospray ionization Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The BPA-DNA adducts of BPAQ with dG, calf thymus and MCF-7 cell DNA were identified as 3-hydroxy-bisphenol A-N7-guanine (3-OH-BPA-N7Gua). The MS/MS fragmentation pathway of 3-OH-BPA-N7Gua was proposed based on obtained accurate mass data. BPA quinone metabolites can react with MCF-7 cell DNA in vitro. The findings provide evidence that BPA might covalently bind to DNA in MCF-7 cells mediated by quinone metabolites, which may increase our understanding of health risk associated with BPA exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer assisted analysis of 2-DG autoradiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Piner, C T; Allen, T O; Adler, N T; Yadin, E; Negin, M

    1982-01-01

    A computerized image processing system is described that assists the neurobiologists in analyzing data from 2-DG autoradiography by providing for: (1) Rapid fine-scale digitization of gray levels using a TV camera (2) The recognition of and verification of subtle differences in optical density with the aid of color windows (3) the superimposition of the autoradiographic image upon the histological image, so that the activity seen in the autoradiograph can be accurately assigned to anatomically defined structures (4) The production of numerical data suitable for statistical analysis and line drawings suitable for black on white publication (5) The relating of local gray level to a norm for the image as a whole, so as to remove the variability introduced by variations in section thickness, in the amount of 2-DG seen by the brain during incorporation, in level of anesthesia, etc. If the localized darkening in autoradiographic images is being used as an index of localized functional activity rather than as a measure of metabolism, normalization obviates the need to obtain arterial blood samples. These routines permit anatomically accurate numerical analysis of autoradiographs without any constraints on the experimental situation.

  1. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid...... integration. Using DLC technique in DG technology can provide the continuous injection of maximum active power in fundamental frequency from the DG source to the grid, compensating all reactive power and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads through the integration of DG link into the grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  2. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  3. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2′-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politica, Dustin A.; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Stone, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N2-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, which oriented in the minor groove towards the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-dG-ABA and

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Dark Ground Buffy Coat Technique (DG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of typanosome infection in 65 cattle reared under expensive system of management was determined using the dark ground buffy coat (DG) technique and the enzyme-linkedimmunisorbent assay (ELISA). The DG technique showed that there were 18 positive cases (27.69%) of total number of animals, made ...

  5. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A DG INTEGRATED SYSTEM: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. V. S. S. SAILAJA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation is capable of meeting the load of the consumers partially or completely. Depending on the type of DG involved it can be operated in interconnected mode and islanded mode. The availability of numerous alternatives present for the DG technologies and large initial investments necessitates a detailed cost benefit analysis for the implementation of DG technologies. In this work an attempt has been made to study the costs involved in implementing the DG technologies. A practical system having two kinds of distributed generation i.e., Diesel Generator and solar photovoltaic system for its back up purpose is considered. A detailed cost analysis of the two DG technologies is carried out.

  6. Biomonitoring DNA Adducts of Cooked Meat Carcinogens in Human Prostate by Nano Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Identification of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine DNA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shun; Guo, Jingshu; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Villalta, Peter W; Krishna, Suprita; Tejpaul, Resha; Murugan, Paari; Weight, Christopher J; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-12-20

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between frequent consumption of well-done cooked meats and prostate cancer risk. However, unambiguous physiochemical markers of DNA damage from carcinogens derived from cooked meats, such as DNA adducts, have not been identified in human samples to support this paradigm. We have developed a highly sensitive nano-LC-Orbitrap MS n method to measure DNA adducts of several carcinogens originating from well-done cooked meats, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollution, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the major deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of these carcinogens ranged between 1.3 and 2.2 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides per 2.5 μg of DNA assayed. The DNA adduct of PhIP, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) was identified in 11 out of 35 patients, at levels ranging from 2 to 120 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides. The dG-C8 adducts of AαC and MeIQx, and the B[a]P adduct, 10-(deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N 2 -B[a]PDE) were not detected in any specimen, whereas N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-ABP (dG-C8-4-ABP) was identified in one subject (30 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides). PhIP-DNA adducts also were recovered quantitatively from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, signifying FFPE tissues can serve as biospecimens for carcinogen DNA adduct biomarker research. Our biomarker data provide support to the epidemiological observations implicating PhIP, one of the most mass-abundant heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in well-done cooked meats, as a DNA-damaging agent that may contribute to the etiology of prostate cancer.

  7. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    changes and the redshift favor the Z OH group, matching the results of NBO and AIM calculations. This reflects that the thermochemistry of adduct formation is not a good measure of the hydrogen bond strength in charged adducts, and that the ionic interactions in the E and Z adducts of protonated...

  8. Impact of DG different types on the grid performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abd-rabou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG is playing an important role in power system to improve the grid performance. Optimizing the locations of DGs is necessary to enhance the Grid performance and to avoid the degradation of the power system networks. The type of DG directly influences the penetration level and the placement of DG. In this study, genetic algorithm (GA technique is proposed to find the optimum location for three different types of distributed generation, these types are synchronous generator, wind turbine and photovoltaic. The obtained results are also validated using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. Three different types of DGs will be penetrated individually to find their optimum location and investigate their impact on the grid performance. This approach will be applied on IEEE 13 bus system which is simulated using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD and Matlab software. GA and PSO are used to find the optimum solution of multi-objective function; the objective function combines the overall number of buses experience voltage sag, the number of buses experience voltage drop, the number of buses experience voltage less than 10%, the overall number of buses experience voltage swell and network power loss. Finally, results are analyzed, discussed and validated which show that the optimum locations of each DG will vary according to the type of DG but all of them will be around the load center. In the mean time, results showed that the highest grid overall performance was for synchronous generator DG and the lowest for photovoltaic DG.

  9. Acetaminophen protein adducts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall

    2009-01-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the clinical and legal implications of 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen, the protein degradation product of acetaminophen protein adducts. Versions of this test have been used for several years in animal research to help understand acetaminophen toxicity. As human research papers have appeared, the allegation has been made that the presence of 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen in a patient with hepatic injury proves causal association of acetaminophen with the injury. It has also been suggested that quantitative adduct assays can guide the management of acute overdose or repeated supra-therapeutic use of acetaminophen by determining the need for initiating therapy and the timing of the end of therapy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the nature of this molecule and the detection assay, the animal research linking it with injury, and to evaluate the human research--specifically the evidence regarding causality and clinical utility. At the current time there is inadequate evidence for the test alone to prove causal association between acetaminophen and hepatic injury. Also, since quantitative 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen assays parallel other markers of liver injury, it is not clear that assays alone will guide therapy unless quantitative assay markers can be shown to precede other markers (in elevation or decline) or provide more specificity than the Rumack-Matthew risk categorization nomogram. These advantages have not been demonstrated.

  10. DIFFERENT METHODS FOR DG ANTI-ISLANDING PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti Jawalbankar*; Prof.K.Chandra obula Reddy

    2016-01-01

    For better power quality and reliability, the power industry are focusing to distributed generations i.e. DG. New technology like photo voltaic (PV), fuel cell, wind turbine, and new innovation in power electronics generating powers but cannot provide quality and reliability and customer required both. Hence distributed generation (DG) is advance research area in the power industry due to market deregulations and environmental concerns. This paper provides the overview on existing Different ...

  11. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  12. Hydrogen abstraction reactions by amide electron adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Sevilla, C.L.; Swarts, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron reactions with a number of peptide model compounds (amides and N-acetylamino acids) in aqueous glasses at low temperature have been investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The radicals produced by electron attachment to amides, RC(OD)NDR', are found to act as hydrogen abstracting agents. For example, the propionamide electron adduct is found to abstract from its parent propionamide. Electron adducts of other amides investigated show similar behavior except for acetamide electron adduct which does not abstract from its parent compound, but does abstract from other amides. The tendency toward abstraction for amide electron adducts are compared to electron adducts of several carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and esters. The comparison suggests the hydrogen abstraction tendency of the various deuterated electron adducts (DEAs) to be in the following order: aldehyde DEA > acid DEA = approximately ester DEA > ketone DEA > amide DEA. In basic glasses the hydrogen abstraction ability of the amide electron adducts is maintained until the concentration of base is increased sufficiently to convert the DEA to its anionic form, RC(O - )ND 2 . In this form the hydrogen abstracting ability of the radical is greatly diminished. Similar results were found for the ester and carboxylic acid DEA's tested. (author)

  13. A comparative study of the DG-OMEGA (DG Omega), DGII, and GAT method for the structure elucidation of a methylene-acetal linked thymine dinucleotide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, A. H. C.; Beckers, M. L. M.; Buydens, L. M. C.

    1997-01-01

    This research continues the investigation of the properties of the recently developed structure elucidation method DG-OMEGA (DG Omega). Towards this end it was applied for the structure determination of a methylene-acetal linked thymine dinucleotide. The performance of DG Omega was compared to the

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the detection and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Chou, Ming W; Churchwell, Mona; Wang, Yuping; Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Marques, M Matilde; Beland, Frederick A; Doerge, Daniel R

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolism to exert their genotoxicity and tumorigenicity. We have determined that the metabolism of a series of tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vitro or in vivo generates a common set of (+/-)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts that are responsible for tumor induction. The identification and quantitation of the DHP-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo and in vitro were accomplished previously by (32)P-postlabeling/HPLC methodology. In this article, we report the development of a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS) method to detect DHP-derived DNA adducts formed in vitro and in vivo. The method is used to quantify the levels of DHP-2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and DHP-2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) adducts by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis in the presence of known quantities of isotopically labeled DHP-dG and DHP-dA internal standards. This HPLC-ES-MS/MS method is accurate and precise. When applied to liver samples from rats treated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids riddelliine and monocrotaline, the method provided significant new information regarding the mechanism of DNA adduct formation.

  15. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  16. CERN High School Teachers Training Programme meets DG

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    CERN's DG Rolf Heuer met with the participants of the High School Teachers Training Programme on 23 July 2014 for a Q&A Session. Following the interaction, he met with the HST Working Group collaborating on a lesson plan for teaching SESAME in high schools.

  17. Fruit and vegetable and fried food consumption and 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α] purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine adduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Giese, Roger W; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo; Srivatanakul, Petcharin

    2012-01-01

    Diet has been shown to modulate M(1)dG adduct, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Thus, we analysed the association between diet and M(1)dG in 120 controls and 67 Map Ta Phut industrial estate workers in Rayong, Thailand, to evaluate the influence of fruit and vegetables, and fried and charcoal-grilled/barbecued food consumption on M(1)dG. M(1)dG was decreased in controls reporting to consume 14-17 servings/week of fruit and vegetables (mean ratio [MR]= 0.35, CI 0.18-0.69, p< 0.05). Conversely, a non-statistically significant M(1)dG increment was detected in controls consuming 9-18 servings/week of fried food (MR = 1.33, CI 0.88-2.00, p = 0.168). No effect of charcoal-grilled/barbecued food was found. No effect of diet was observed in workers. An association with smoking was observed in controls (MR = 1.88, CI 1.14-3.10, p < 0.05), but not in workers. M(1)dG can induce mutations and/or methylation changes within the promoter regions of cancer-related genes, thus promotion of healthy eating practices should be recommended. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  18. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly

  19. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  20. Lewis acid adducts of [PCl2N]3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heston, Amy J; Panzner, Matthew J; Youngs, Wiley J; Tessier, Claire A

    2005-09-19

    Reaction of aluminum trichloride or gallium trichloride with the extremely weak base hexachlorotriphosphazene gives adducts in which the group 13 element is bound to a phosphazene nitrogen atom. In solution, the adducts exhibit fluxional behavior. The phosphazene ring of the adducts is distorted into a slight chair conformation.

  1. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  2. 129I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masanobu; Maeda, Yutaka

    1994-01-01

    A 129 I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  3. Structure of the 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct in duplex DNA at pH 8.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Goodenough, Angela K; Kozekov, Ivan D; Guengerich, F Peter; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Stone, Michael P

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) adduct, arising from the reaction of vinyl chloride with dG, was determined in the oligonucleotide duplex 5'-d(CGCATXGAATCC)-3'.5'-d(GGATTCCATGCG)-3' (X=1,N(2)-epsilondG) at pH 8.6 using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The exocyclic lesion prevented Watson-Crick base-pairing capability at the adduct site and resulted in an approximately 17 degrees C decrease in Tm of the oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. At neutral pH, conformational exchange resulted in spectral line broadening near the adducted site, and it was not possible to determine the structure. However, at pH 8.6, it was possible to obtain well-resolved (1)H NMR spectra. This enabled a total of 385 NOE-based distance restraints to be obtained, consisting of 245 intra- and 140 inter-nucleotide distances. The (31)P NMR spectra exhibited two downfield-shifted resonances, suggesting a localized perturbation of the DNA backbone. The two downfield (31)P resonances were assigned to G(7) and C(19). The solution structure was refined by molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints, using a simulated annealing protocol. The generalized Born approximation was used to simulate solvent. The emergent structures indicated that the 1,N(2)-epsilondG-induced structural perturbation was localized at the X(6).C(19) base pair, and its 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20). Both 1,N(2)-epsilondG and the complementary dC adopted the anti conformation about the glycosyl bonds. The 1,N (2)-epsilondG adduct was inserted into the duplex but was shifted towards the minor groove as compared to dG in a normal Watson-Crick C.G base pair. The complementary cytosine was displaced toward the major groove. The 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20) base pair was destabilized with respect to Watson-Crick base pairing. The refined structure predicted a bend in the helical axis associated with the adduct site.

  4. DNA Adducts aand Human Atherosclerotis Lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strejc, Přemysl; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2001), s. 662 ISSN 0008-5472. [Annual Meeting of Proceedings /92./. 24.03.2001-28.03.2001, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA MZd NM10 Keywords : DNA adducts * LDL cholesterol Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  5. New adducts of Lapachol with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirelly D.F.; Litivack-Junior, Jose T.; Antunes, Roberto V.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ccelso@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    New adducts of lapachol with neat primary aliphatic amines were obtained in a solvent-free reaction in good to reasonable yields (52 to 88%), at room temperature. The new compounds containing a phenazine moiety were obtained from suitable functionalized aminoalkyl compounds, including ethanolamine, 3-propanolamine, 2-methoxy-ethylamine, 3-methoxy-propylamine, n-butylamine and 2-phenetylamine. (author)

  6. Hybrid DG/FV schemes for magnetohydrodynamics and relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Rosa, Jonatan; Munz, Claus-Dieter

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a high order hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/finite volume scheme for solving the equations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and of the relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) on quadrilateral meshes. In this approach, for the spatial discretization, an arbitrary high order discontinuous Galerkin spectral element (DG) method is combined with a finite volume (FV) scheme in order to simulate complex flow problems involving strong shocks. Regarding the time discretization, a fourth order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method is used. In the proposed hybrid scheme, a shock indicator is computed at the beginning of each Runge-Kutta stage in order to flag those elements containing shock waves or discontinuities. Subsequently, the DG solution in these troubled elements and in the current time step is projected onto a subdomain composed of finite volume subcells. Right after, the DG operator is applied to those unflagged elements, which, in principle, are oscillation-free, meanwhile the troubled elements are evolved with a robust second/third order FV operator. With this approach we are able to numerically simulate very challenging problems in the context of MHD and SRHD in one, and two space dimensions and with very high order polynomials. We make convergence tests and show a comprehensive one- and two dimensional testbench for both equation systems, focusing in problems with strong shocks. The presented hybrid approach shows that numerical schemes of very high order of accuracy are able to simulate these complex flow problems in an efficient and robust manner.

  7. A novel family of DG methods for diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We describe and demonstrate a novel family of numerical schemes for handling elliptic/parabolic PDE behavior within the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) framework. Starting from the mixed-form approach commonly applied for handling diffusion (examples include Local DG and BR2), the new schemes apply the Recovery concept of Van Leer to handle cell interface terms. By applying recovery within the mixed-form approach, we have designed multiple schemes that show better accuracy than other mixed-form approaches while being more flexible and easier to implement than the Recovery DG schemes of Van Leer. While typical mixed-form approaches converge at rate 2p in the cell-average or functional error norms (where p is the order of the solution polynomial), many of our approaches achieve order 2p +2 convergence. In this talk, we will describe multiple schemes, including both compact and non-compact implementations; the compact approaches use only interface-connected neighbors to form the residual for each element, while the non-compact approaches add one extra layer to the stencil. In addition to testing the schemes on purely parabolic PDE problems, we apply them to handle the diffusive flux terms in advection-diffusion systems, such as the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  8. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  9. An ammonium bicarbonate-enhanced stable isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS method for sensitive and accurate quantification of acrolein-DNA adducts in human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruichuan; Liu, Shengquan; Zhao, Chao; Lu, Meiling; Tang, Moon-shong; Wang, Hailin

    2013-03-19

    Acrolein (Acr), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can react directly with genomic DNA to form mutagenic adducts without undergoing metabolic activation. To sensitively and accurately quantify Acr-DNA adducts (including structural isomers and stereoisomers) in human leukocytes, we developed an enhanced stable isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which is thermally unstable and degrades readily to carbon dioxide and ammonia in heated gas phase. Interestingly, ammonium bicarbonate (as an additive to the mobile phase) not only improves the protonation of AcrdG adducts but also suppresses the formation of MS signal-deteriorating metal-AcrdG complexes during electrospray ionization, leading to the enhancement of their MS detection by 2.3-8.7 times. In contrast, routinely used ammonium salts (ammonium acetate and ammonium formate) and formic acid do not show similar enhancement. The developed method is potentially useful for enhancing ESI-MS detection of other modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides that have difficulty in protonation and may form excess metal complexes during electrospray ionization. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) are estimated to be about 40-80 amol. By the use of the developed method, we found that the Acr adducts of three nucleotides (dG, dA, and dC) can be detected in human leukocytes. In addition to the known γ-AcrdG, α-AcrdA is also identified as an Acr-adduct of high abundance (2.5-20 adducts per10(8) nts).

  10. A modified immuno-enriched 32P-postlabeling method for analyzing the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)- pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)one in human tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Nair, Jagadeesan; Bartsch, Helmut

    2004-02-01

    The malondialdehyde-modified DNA adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)one (M1dG) has been detected in human tissues and is considered to be a promising biomarker for estimating lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage. With the aim to analyze the M1dG in small amounts of DNA (<10 microg) and to improve the sensitivity, we have developed an immuno-enriched 32P-postlabeling HPLC method. The main modifications included the following steps: (i) an optimization of the immunoenrichment conditions using a monoclonal antibody (MAb D 10A1), (ii) a single labeling step of the purified M1dG 3'-monophosphate to its 5'-monophosphate at pH 6.8, (iii) the addition of O4-ethylthymidine 3'-monophosphate as an internal standard, and (iv) a prepurification of the labeled adduct on a polyethyleneimine minicolumn before HPLC analysis. With this protocol, the percent recovery of M1dG was found to be approximately 70 +/- 20; the detection limit in biological samples was approximately 200 amol M1dG from 10 microg of DNA, corresponding to 6 adducts/10(9) nucleotides. In conclusion, our modified method shows a high sensitivity and specificity; when applied to human breast and liver tissue samples, background levels of the M1dG could be reproducibly detected. This ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  11. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  12. Overcurrent protection issues due to the DG connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.C.; Tourn, D.H.; Amatti, J.C. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], E-mail: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The present energy crisis drives to carry to an extreme the use of all the available energy sources, which need to be connected to the network in their closest point. Traditional electric systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation, and especially on protection methodologies. The new protection problems of the different parts of the system are explained. The solution presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the customer in different ways. A revision about interconnection international standards is presented. The contributions of generators to short circuit currents is analyzed, especially the double fed generator. Philosophy changes are studied, such as: fault current bi directionality, modification of the protection reach, failures of the overcurrent coordination due to current share, etc. Solicitations to DG due to the normal unbalance of distribution systems are also studied. It is analyzed the discrepancy between the customers and utilities regarding the 'islanding operation', presenting the semi-rigid connection. The changes in the coordination methodology fusible-recloser are also studied, proposing a new methodology to check this coordination. Experimental results on 13.2 kV are presented that relate the deionization without zero current, with arc length and with 'network power to DG power ratio'. It is concluded that DG application offers technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user; and that the technology for these new protection approaches is already available, requiring of investments whose justification needs of a specific analysis for each particular case. (author)

  13. June Council - DG presentation to personnel / Conseil de juin - présentation de la DG au personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the DG presentation will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Kjell Johnsen Auditorium - 30-7-018 Prevessin 864-1-B04 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.  

  14. Molecular characterization and expression of DgZFP1 , a gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single zinc finger protein gene was isolated from chrysanthemum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach and was designated as DgZFP1. The DgZFP1 encodes a protein of 168 amino acids residues with a calculated molecular mass of 18.1 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point is 4.71. DgZFP1 contains ...

  15. Overview on extraction kinetics of metal adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Daoud, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A overview of extraction kinetics solvent extraction of metal adducts is given. A kinetic regime, diffusional regime, and mixed diffusional-kinetic regime are analysed. The practical applications of kinetics of solvent extraction processes in connection with technical processes and counter-current modelling is discussed. Kinetic studies are essential for the development of new processes and the knowledge of factors governing the mass transfer and mechanism of extraction of metal ions is of major importance in the design, operation, control and optimization of reactors in chemical industry. 23 refs

  16. GPU Accelerated DG-FDF Large Eddy Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkarbekov, Medet; Aitzhan, Aidyn; Sammak, Shervin; Givi, Peyman; Kaltayev, Aidarkhan

    2017-11-01

    A GPU accelerated simulator is developed and implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. The filtered density function (FDF) is utilized for modeling of the subgrid scale quantities. The filtered transport equations are solved via a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the FDF is simulated via particle based Lagrangian Monte-Carlo (MC) method. It is demonstrated that the GPUs simulations are of the order of 100 times faster than the CPU-based calculations. This brings LES of turbulent flows to a new level, facilitating efficient simulation of more complex problems. The work at Al-Faraby Kazakh National University is sponsored by MoES of RK under Grant 3298/GF-4.

  17. Large-Signal DG-MOSFET Modelling for RFID Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the undoped DG-MOSFETs capability for the operation of rectifiers for RFIDs and Wireless Power Transmission (WPT at microwave frequencies. For this purpose, a large-signal compact model has been developed and implemented in Verilog-A. The model has been numerically validated with a device simulator (Sentaurus. It is found that the number of stages to achieve the optimal rectifier performance is inferior to that required with conventional MOSFETs. In addition, the DC output voltage could be incremented with the use of appropriate mid-gap metals for the gate, as TiN. Minor impact of short channel effects (SCEs on rectification is also pointed out.

  18. Mutagenic Spectra Arising from Replication Bypass of the 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-N5-methyl Formamidopyrimidine Adduct in Primate Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Lauriel F.; Minko, Irina G.; Christov, Plamen P.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    DNA exposures to electrophilic methylating agents that are commonly used during chemotherapeutic treatments cause diverse chemical modifications of nucleobases, with reaction at N7-dG being the most abundant. Although this base modification frequently results in destabilization of the glycosyl bond and spontaneous depurination, the adduct can react with hydroxide ion to yield a stable, ring-opened MeFapy-dG and this lesion has been reported to persist in animal tissues. Results from prior in vitro replication bypass investigations of the MeFapy-dG adduct had revealed complex spectra of replication errors that differed depending on the identity of DNA polymerase and the local sequence context. In this study, a series of nine site-specifically modified MeFapy-dG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides were engineered into a shuttle vector and subjected to replication in primate cells. In all nine sequence contexts examined, MeFapy-dG was shown to be associated with a strong mutator phenotype, predominantly causing base substitutions, with G to T transversions being most common. Single and dinucleotide deletions were also found in a subset of the sequence contexts. Interestingly, single-nucleotide deletions occurred not only at the adducted site, but also one nucleotide downstream of the adduct. Standard models for primer-template misalignment could account for some, but not all mutations observed. These data demonstrate that in addition to mutagenesis predicted from replication of DNAs containing O6-Me-dG and O4-Me-dT, the MeFapy-dG adduct likely contributes to mutagenic events following chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:23763662

  19. Nontargeted Identification of Reactive Metabolite Protein Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Michael G; Donald, William A; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2017-06-06

    Metabolic bioactivation of many different chemicals results in the formation of highly reactive compounds (chemically reactive metabolites, CRMs) that can lead to toxicity via binding to macromolecular targets (e.g., proteins or DNA). There is a need to develop robust, rapid, and nontargeted analytical techniques to determine the identity of the protein targets of CRMs and their sites of modification. Here, we introduce a nontargeted methodology capable of determining both the identity of a CRM formed from an administered compound as well as the protein targets modified by the reactive metabolite in a single experiment without prior information. Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) and 13 C 6 -APAP were incubated with rat liver microsomes, which are known to bioactivate APAP to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). Global tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) analysis was used to locate "twin" ion peaks of peptides adducted by NAPQI and for shotgun proteomics via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). By the development of blended data analytics software called Xenophile, the identity of the amino acid residue that was adducted can be established, which eliminates the need for specific parametrization of protein database search algorithms. This combination of experimental design and data analysis software allows the identity of a CRM, the protein target, and the amino acid residues that are modified to be rapidly established directly from experimental data. Xenophile is freely available from https://github.com/mgleeming/Xenophile .

  20. Adduct Formation in ESI/MS by Mobile Phase Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl

    2017-05-01

    Adduct formation is a common ionization method in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). However, this process is poorly understood and complicated to control. We demonstrate possibilities to control adduct formation via mobile phase additives in ESI positive mode for 17 oxygen and nitrogen bases. Mobile phase additives were found to be a very effective measure for manipulating the formation efficiencies of adducts. An appropriate choice of additive may increase sensitivity by up to three orders of magnitude. In general, sodium adduct [M + Na] + and protonated molecule [M + H] + formation efficiencies were found to be in good correlation; however, the former were significantly more influenced by mobile phase properties. Although the highest formation efficiencies for both species were observed in water/acetonitrile mixtures not containing additives, the repeatability of the formation efficiencies was found to be improved by additives. It is concluded that mobile phase additives are powerful, yet not limiting factors, for altering adduct formation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. A New DG Multiobjective Optimization Method Based on an Improved Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxing Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution generation (DG multiobjective optimization method based on an improved Pareto evolutionary algorithm is investigated in this paper. The improved Pareto evolutionary algorithm, which introduces a penalty factor in the objective function constraints, uses an adaptive crossover and a mutation operator in the evolutionary process and combines a simulated annealing iterative process. The proposed algorithm is utilized to the optimize DG injection models to maximize DG utilization while minimizing system loss and environmental pollution. A revised IEEE 33-bus system with multiple DG units was used to test the multiobjective optimization algorithm in a distribution power system. The proposed algorithm was implemented and compared with the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 (SPEA2, a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NGSA-II. The comparison of the results demonstrates the validity and practicality of utilizing DG units in terms of economic dispatch and optimal operation in a distribution power system.

  2. Restoration of Low-Voltage Distribution Systems with Inverter-Interfaced DG Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietmannsberger, Markus; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    -area voltage collapse. This paper proposes a restoration strategy from zero voltage conditions for inverter-interfaced DG under islanded conditions. In the approach, a flexible and scalable Master DG inverter concept is introduced for distributed generations, where no communication is needed and an outage......The increasing share of distributed generation (DG) offers new chances in grid restoration of low-voltage distribution grids. Instead of relying on the transmission or high- and medium-voltage levels, establishing islanding operation in low-voltage grids might be a good option after a wide...... of the Master can be balanced by other DG inverters. The control strategy ensures the tracking of nominal values of the system voltage and frequency without zero steady-state error. The influences of non-controllable DG are also taken into account in the strategy with an effective countermeasure developed...

  3. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. PURPOSE......: To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized...... into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint...

  4. Biocatalytic Reductions of Baylis - Hillman Adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Walton; W Conerly; Y Pompeu; B Sullivan; J Stewart

    2011-12-31

    Baylis-Hillman adducts are highly useful synthetic intermediates; to enhance their value further, we sought enantiocomplementary alkene reductases to introduce chirality. Two solutions emerged: (1) a wild-type protein from Pichia stipitis (OYE 2.6), whose performance significantly outstrips that of the standard enzyme (Saccharomyces pastorianus OYE1), and (2) a series of OYE1 mutants at position 116 (Trp in the wild-type enzyme). To understand how mutations could lead to inverted enantioselectivity, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the Trp116Ile OYE1 variant complexed with a cyclopentenone substrate. This revealed key protein-ligand interactions that control the orientation of substrate binding above the FMN cofactor.

  5. Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-yu; Zhu, Mao-xiang; Xie, Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein mutagenicity relies on DNA adduct formation. Reaction of acrolein with deoxyguanosine generates alpha-hydroxy-1, N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (alpha-HOPdG) and gamma-hydroxy-1, N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (gamma-HOPdG) adducts. These two DNA adducts behave differently in mutagenicity. gamma-HOPdG is the major DNA adduct and it can lead to interstrand DNA-DNA and DNA-peptide/protein cross-links, which may induce strong mutagenicity; however, gamma-HOPdG can be repaired by some DNA polymerases complex and lessen its mutagenic effects. alpha-HOPdG is formed much less than gamma-HOPdG, but difficult to be repaired, which contributes to accumulation in vivo. Results of acrolein mutagenicity studies haven't been confirmed, which is mainly due to the conflicting mutagenicity data of the major acrolein adduct (gamma-HOPdG). The minor alpha-HOPdG is mutagenic in both in vitro and in vivo test systems. The role of alpha-HOPdG in acrolein mutagenicity needs further investigation. The inconsistent result of acrolein mutagenicity can be attributed, at least partially, to a variety of acrolein-DNA adducts formation and their repair in diverse detection systems. Recent results of detection of acrolein-DNA adduct in human lung tissues and analysis of P53 mutation spectra in acrolein-treated cells may shed some light on mechanisms of acrolein mutagenicity. These aspects are covered in this mini review.

  6. Roles of DgD14 in regulation of shoot branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Xi, Lin; Gao, Bin; Wang, Keyong; Lv, Suhui; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2015-11-01

    Shoot branching plays an important role in determining plant architecture. Strigolactones (SLs) negatively regulate shoot branching, and can respond to conditions of low or absent phosphate or nitrogen. The D14 gene is a probable candidate as an SL receptor in rice, petunia, and Arabidopsis. To investigate the roles of D14 in shoot branching of chrysanthemum, we isolated the D14 homolog DgD14. Functional analysis showed that DgD14 was a nuclear-localized protein, and restored the phenotype of Arabidopsis d14-1. Exogenous SL (GR24) could down-regulate DgD14 expression, but this effect could be overridden by apical auxin application. Decapitation could down-regulate DgD14 expression, but this effect could be restored by exogenous auxin. In addition, DgD14 transcripts produced rapid responses in shoot and root under conditions of phosphate absence, but only a mild variation in bud and stem with low nitrogen treatment. Indistinct reductions of P levels in shoot were observed in plants grown under low nitrogen conditions. The absence of phosphate and low levels of nitrogen negatively affected plant growth. These results demonstrate that P levels in shoot had a close relationship with phosphate, whereas nitrogen did not directly regulate DgD14 expression in shoot. Taken together, these results demonstrated that DgD14 was the functional strigolactone signaling component in chrysanthemum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 45677 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1216,”Plant-Specific Applicability of Transition Break Size Specified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1216,''Plant-Specific Applicability of Transition Break Size Specified... . The Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1216, ``Plant- Specific Applicability of Transition Break Size... availability of Draft Regulatory Guide DG-1216, ``Plant-Specific Applicability of Transition Break Size...

  9. Physiological controls of chrysanthemum DgD27 gene expression in regulation of shoot branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Zhao, Qingcui; Nie, Jing; Liu, Guoqin; Shen, Lin; Cheng, Chenxia; Xi, Lin; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2016-05-01

    DgD27 was cloned from D. grandiflorum for the first time and played an important role in shoot branching of chrysanthemum. Shoot branching plays an important role in determining plant architecture. D27 was previously proven to be involved in the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway in rice, Arabidopsis, and Medicago. To investigate the role of D27 in shoot branching of chrysanthemum, we isolated the D27 homolog DgD27. Functional analysis showed that DgD27 was a plastid-localized protein that restored the phenotype of Arabidopsis d27-1. Gene expression analysis revealed that DgD27 was expressed at the highest levels in stem, and was up-regulated by exogenous auxin. Decapitation could down-regulate DgD27 expression, but this effect could be restored by exogenous auxin. DgD27 expression was significantly down-regulated by dark treatment in axillary buds. In addition, DgD27 transcripts produced rapid responses in shoots and roots under conditions of phosphate absence, but only mild variation in responses in buds, stems, and roots with low nitrogen treatment. DgBRC1 transcripts also showed the same response in buds under low nitrogen conditions. Under phosphate deficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels increased, zeatin riboside levels decreased, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels increased in the shoot, while both IAA and ABA levels increased in the shoot under low nitrogen treatments. Gibberellin acid levels were unaffected by phosphate deficiency and low nitrogen treatments. Taken together, these results demonstrated the diverse roles of DgD27 in response to physiological controls in chrysanthemum shoot branching.

  10. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  11. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  12. Sensitivity analysis of smart grids reliability due to indirect cyber-power interdependencies under various DG technologies, DG penetrations, and operation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi-Dezaki, Hamed; Agah, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Haeri-Khiavi, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel risk assessment method considering the ICPIs is proposed. • The protection and monitoring system as the ICPIs applications are studied. • The uncertainty of results is analyzed in addition to expected average results. • ICPIs impacts due to DG penetrations under various DG technologies are analyzed. • The well-being criteria have been provided in addition to reliability indices. - Abstract: The cyber failures such as failures in protection and monitoring systems will not stop the operation or change the behavior of the power system instantly but will adversely affect the performance of the power system against the potential failure. Such indirect cyber-power interdependencies (ICPIs) may either intensify the probability of future failures or postpone the repercussion to the present failure of the power elements. The much less effort has been devoted in literature to investigate the ICPIs impacts, particularly in stochastic simulating space. In this paper, a novel stochastic-based reliability evaluation method which considers the ICPIs impacts under various uncertain parameters is proposed. The consideration of uncertainty regarding the renewable distributed generation (DG) units, consumption patterns, power and cyber elements, and ICPIs is one of the most important contributions of the proposed method. Further, a novel stochastic-based state upgrading is introduced to concern the ICPIs of protection and monitoring systems. By using the proposed state upgrading methodology, it is possible to evaluate the reliability of smart grid based on ICPIs by using conventional reliability evaluation methods. The proposed risk assessment methodology is applied to an actual distribution grid. The several sensitivity studies are performed to gain insight into how the penetration level of DG units under various DG technology scenarios can affect the ICPIs impacts on the risk level of smart grid. The test results show that regardless of the DG

  13. Passivity-based control technique for integration of DG resources into the power grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Adabi, M. Ebrahim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a control method for integration of Distributed Generation (DG) sources to the power grid. The proposed control strategy has been designed based on passivity technique and provides compensation for the active, reactive, and harmonic current components of loads during...... for the d and q axis in the control loop of DG, which are defined based on the objectives of proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is validated with injection of maximum available power from the DG resources to the power grid, correction of power factor between the grid current...... the connection of DG link to the grid. The proper switching functions of interfaced converter have been defined based on the passivity method through the achieving space equations and suitable series damping injection. The proposed control plan is completed by setting suitable reference current components...

  14. A control technique for integration of DG units to the electrical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Miguel-Espinar, Carlos; Massot-Campos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a multiobjective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid....... The dynamic model of the proposed system is first elaborated in the stationary reference frame and then transformed into the synchronous orthogonal reference frame. The transformed variables are used in control of the voltage source converter as the heart of the interfacing system between DG resources...... and utility grid. By setting an appropriate compensation current references from the sensed load currents in control circuit loop of DG, the active, reactive, and harmonic load current components will be compensated with fast dynamic response, thereby achieving sinusoidal grid currents in phase with load...

  15. An improved current control scheme for grid-connected DG unit based distribution system harmonic compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate distribution system harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach. It seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current...... the fundamental current reference. The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. Experimental results from a single...... controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, phase-locked loops (PLL) and system harmonic component extractions can be avoided during system harmonic compensation. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is also employed to derive...

  16. [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bożena

    2015-06-12

    In the living and working environments more and more new substances of anthropogenic origin exerting toxic properties appear. Simultaneously, the evaluation of human exposure is assessed. For many years adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) have been useful markers of the exposure of humans to various xenobiotics. These adducts are also termed biologically effective dose biomarkers. This paper focuses on a review of literature, mainly from the years 2010-2014, which refers to the hemoglobin adducts of toxic compounds with electrophilic properties. In the interactions of xenobiotics with hemoglobin, groups such as thiol, amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl of this hemoprotein are involved. These combinations occur most often in the reaction of xenobiotics with an N-terminal amino group of valine in Hb, imidazole nitrogen of histidine and cysteine sulfhydryl β93. Hb adducts are characterized by high availability, a long period of occurrence (up to 120 days) in the circulatory system, and high durability, and they have contact with all cells of the body. The measurement of hemoglobin adducts can be potentially used in the assessment of exposure to many xenobiotics such as acrylamide; substances present in tobacco smoke, e.g. benzo(α)pyrene and benzanthracene, ethylene oxide, aryl amines; and substances used on a large scale in industry such as glycidol and naphthalene and its derivatives. Recently the possibility of determination of hemoglobin adducts with estrogen metabolites has been postulated as indicators informing about heightened risk of breast cancer. Protein adducts are used as an alternative to DNA adducts for different classes of electrophilic substances.

  17. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts in laminating adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Roland E. Kreibich

    1985-01-01

    A condensed tannin-resorcinol adduct made by co-reaction of an extract from southern pine bark with resorcinol at a 2 to 1 weight ratio was used to prepare a laminating resin in which the entire amount of resorcinol normally used was replaced by this adduct. The resin was formulated into a room temperature setting adhesive that meets the basic criteria of product...

  18. Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xueqian; Chen, Haoyong; Cai, Runqing; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme

  19. A Novel Voltage Sensitivity Approach for the Decentralized Control of DG Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zedong; Ochoa, Luis(Nando); Valverde, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable distributed generation (DG) is likely to be actively controlled in future distribution networks to mitigate voltage issues resulting from high penetrations. This requires understanding the corresponding dependencies between voltage magnitudes and DG active/reactive power outputs. One approach to compute these dependencies is to use classical sensitivity methods such as those based on the Jacobian matrix inverse. However, updating the latter involves extensive remote monitoring. This...

  20. Mass spectrometric analysis of sulfur mustard-induced biomolecular adducts: Are DNA adducts suitable biomarkers of exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubel, Tabea; Bürkle, Alexander; Mangerich, Aswin

    2017-12-23

    The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models. As DNA adducts are mechanism-based biomarkers for SM exposure, results from such studies provide a deeper understanding of the etiology of SM-induced pathologies, especially of long-term effects such as cancer formation. As a result, medical treatment of SM-exposed individuals might be improved. Yet, despite the progress that has been made during the last years, there is still a need for advanced methods of ID-LC-MS/MS for the detection and quantitation of SM adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partitioning of knee joint internal forces in gait is dictated by the knee adduction angle and not by the knee adduction moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2014-05-07

    Medial knee osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease. Surgical and conservative interventions are performed to manage its progression via reduction of load on the medial compartment or equivalently its surrogate measure, the external adduction moment. However, some studies have questioned a correlation between the medial load and adduction moment. Using a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity driven by kinematics-kinetics of asymptomatic subjects at gait midstance, we aim here to quantify the relative effects of changes in the knee adduction angle versus changes in the adduction moment on the joint response and medial/lateral load partitioning. The reference adduction rotation of 1.6° is altered by ±1.5° to 3.1° and 0.1° or the knee reference adduction moment of 17Nm is varied by ±50% to 25.5Nm and 8.5Nm. Quadriceps, hamstrings and tibiofemoral contact forces substantially increased as adduction angle dropped and diminished as it increased. The medial/lateral ratio of contact forces slightly altered by changes in the adduction moment but a larger adduction rotation hugely increased this ratio from 8.8 to a 90 while in contrast a smaller adduction rotation yielded a more uniform distribution. If the aim in an intervention is to diminish the medial contact force and medial/lateral load ratio, a drop of 1.5° in adduction angle is much more effective (causing respectively 12% and 80% decreases) than a reduction of 50% in the adduction moment (causing respectively 4% and 13% decreases). Substantial role of changes in adduction angle is due to the associated alterations in joint nonlinear passive resistance. These findings explain the poor correlation between knee adduction moment and tibiofemoral compartment loading during gait suggesting that the internal load partitioning is dictated by the joint adduction angle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cisplatin adducts on a GGG sequence within a DNA duplex studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téletchéa, Stéphane; Skauge, Tormod; Sletten, Einar; Kozelka, Jirí

    2009-11-16

    The antitumor drug cisplatin(cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]) reacts with cellular DNA to form GG intrastrand adducts between adjacent guanines as predominant lesions. GGG sites have been shown to be hotspots of platination. To study the structural perturbation induced by binding of cisplatin to two adjacent guanines of a GGG trinucleotide,we examined here the decanucleotide duplex d[(G1C2C3G*4 G*5 G6T7-C8G9C10).d(G11C12G13A14C15C16C17G18-G19C20)] (dsCG*G*G) intrastrand cross-linked at the G* guanines by cis-{Pt(NH3)2}2+ using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.The NMR spectra of dsCG*G*G were found to be similar to those of previously characterized DNA duplexes cross-linked by cisplatin at apyG*G*X site (py=pyrimidine; X=C,T, A). This similarity of NMR spectra indicates that the base at the 3'-side of the G*G*-Pt cross-link does not affect the structure to a large extent. An unprecedented reversible isomerization between the duplex dsCG*G*G (bearing a G*4 G*5 -Pt chelate) and duplex dsGG*G*T (bearing a G*5 G*6 -Pt chelate)was observed, which yielded a 40:60 equilibrium between the two intrastrand GG-Pt cross-links. No formation of interstrand cross-links was observed.NMR spectroscopic data of dsCG*G*G indicated that the deoxyribose of the 5'-G* adopts an N-type conformation, and the cytidines C3, C15,and C16 have average phase angles intermediate between S and N. The NMR spectroscopic chemical shifts of dsGG*G*T showed some fundamental differences to those of pyG*G*-platinum adducts but were in agreement with the NMR spectra reported previously for the DNA duplexes crosslinked at an AG*G*C sequence by cisplatin or oxaliplatin. The presence of apurine instead of a pyrimidine at the 5'-side of the G*G* cross-link seems therefore to affect the structure of the XG* step significantly.

  3. Multi-objective simultaneous placement of DG and DSTATCOM using novel lightning search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvaraj Thangaraj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this proposed study, a new long term scheduling is proposed for simultaneous placement of Distributed Generation (DG and Distribution STATic COMpensator (DSTATCOM in the radial distribution networks. The proposed work has a unique multi-objective function which consists of minimizing power loss, and total voltage deviation (TVD, as well as maximizing the voltage stability index (VSI subject to equality and inequality system constraints. The multi-objective problem has been solved by a novel metaheuristic optimization algorithm called as lightning search algorithm (LSA. In the proposed approach, the feeder loads are varied linearly from light load (0.5 to peak load (1.6 with a step size of 1%. In each load step, the optimal sizing for DG and DSTATCOM are calculated by LSA. Through curve fitting technique (CFT, the optimal sizing for both DG and DSTATCOM per load level is formulated in the form of generalized equation. The proposed generalized equation will help the distribution network operators (DNOs to select the DG and DSTATCOM sizes according to the load changes. The proposed method is tested on two test systems of 33-bus and 69-bus in different cases. Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG, Distribution STATic COMpensator (DSTATCOM, Lightning search algorithm (LSA, Voltage stability index (VSI, Curve fitting technique (CFT, Distribution network operators (DNOs

  4. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yin-Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qin; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Qian-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-01-01

    High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF) family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT). Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2−) than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding. PMID:28959270

  5. Molecular species analysis of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DG) in rat mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennerly, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of DG, PA and PI were studied in purified rat mast cells to determine whether generally accepted pathways of PI metabolism could explain the pattern of fatty acids seen in these intermediates. A method was developed to separate and quantitate by mass (for DG) or endogenous labeling (for PA and PI) the different molecular species of each lipid that are defined by their component fatty acids. The resultant molecular species fingerprint for each lipid was examined to see if it was similar to other intermediates in the PI cycle. For each class of compounds the percent in a given subclass was recorded. Stimulation caused a reduction of more saturated subclasses and/or an increase in AA containing compounds in PA, PI and DG. The relative similarity of subclasses of 32 P-PA and 32 P-PI supports the view that they are metabolically related. The relative absence of AA-containing species of DG suggests that most of the stimulated increase of DG was not produced by PI hydrolysis

  6. Reactive power and voltage control strategy based on dynamic and adaptive segment for DG inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jianwei; Lin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    The inverter of distributed generation (DG) can support reactive power to help solve the problem of out-of-limit voltage in active distribution network (ADN). Therefore, a reactive voltage control strategy based on dynamic and adaptive segment for DG inverter is put forward to actively control voltage in this paper. The proposed strategy adjusts the segmented voltage threshold of Q(U) droop curve dynamically and adaptively according to the voltage of grid-connected point and the power direction of adjacent downstream line. And then the reactive power reference of DG inverter can be got through modified Q(U) control strategy. The reactive power of inverter is controlled to trace the reference value. The proposed control strategy can not only control the local voltage of grid-connected point but also help to maintain voltage within qualified range considering the terminal voltage of distribution feeder and the reactive support for adjacent downstream DG. The scheme using the proposed strategy is compared with the scheme without the reactive support of DG inverter and the scheme using the Q(U) control strategy with constant segmented voltage threshold. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method has a significant improvement on solving the problem of out-of-limit voltage, restraining voltage variation and improving voltage quality.

  7. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  8. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.B.; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10 12 nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [ 14 C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [ 14 C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing 32 P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens

  9. Active and Reactive Power Optimal Dispatch Associated with Load and DG Uncertainties in Active Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J. F.; Zhao, S. S.; Ma, W. Q.; Jia, Z. Y.

    2017-05-01

    In order to reduce the adverse effects of uncertainty on optimal dispatch in active distribution network, an optimal dispatch model based on chance-constrained programming is proposed in this paper. In this model, the active and reactive power of DG can be dispatched at the aim of reducing the operating cost. The effect of operation strategy on the cost can be reflected in the objective which contains the cost of network loss, DG curtailment, DG reactive power ancillary service, and power quality compensation. At the same time, the probabilistic constraints can reflect the operation risk degree. Then the optimal dispatch model is simplified as a series of single stage model which can avoid large variable dimension and improve the convergence speed. And the single stage model is solved using a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and point estimate method (PEM). Finally, the proposed optimal dispatch model and method is verified by the IEEE33 test system.

  10. Impacts on the Voltage Profile of DC Distribution Network with DG Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, J. J.; Yin, Z. D.

    2017-07-01

    With the development of electronic, more and more distributed generations (DGs) access into grid and cause the research fever of direct current (DC) distribution network. Considering distributed generation (DG) location and capacity have great impacts on voltage profile, so use IEEE9 and IEEE33 typical circuit as examples, with DGs access in centralized and decentralized mode, to compare voltage profile in alternating and direct current (AC/DC) distribution network. Introducing the voltage change ratio as an evaluation index, so gets the general results on voltage profile of DC distributed network with DG access. Simulation shows that, in the premise of reasonable location and capacity, DC distribution network is more suitable for DG access.

  11. Design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeffal, F. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)], E-mail: faycaldzdz@hotmail.com; Dibi, Z. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)], E-mail: zohirdibi@univ-batna.dz; Hafiane, M.L.; Arar, D. [LEA, Department of Electronics, University of Batna 05000 (Algeria)

    2007-09-15

    The double gate (DG) MOSFET has received great attention in recent years owing to the inherent suppression of short channel effects (SCEs), excellent subthreshold slope (S), improved drive current (I{sub ds}) and transconductance (gm), volume inversion for symmetric devices and excellent scalability. Therefore, simulation tools which can be applied to design nanoscale transistors in the future require new theory and modeling techniques that capture the physics of quantum transport accurately and efficiently. In this sense, this work presents the applicability of the artificial neural networks (ANN) for the design and simulation of a nanoelectronic DG MOSFET current source. The latter is based on the 2D numerical Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of an undoped symmetric DG MOSFET. Our results are discussed in order to obtain some new and useful information about the ULSI technology.

  12. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    of network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...... reduce the current output from the converters during faults so as to mitigate the influence on protection coordination. However, converter current reduction may not be necessary for all types of faults. This paper proposes a converter control strategy with adaptivity to different fault types and also non......Distributed generation (DG) is increasingly integrated into distribution systems due to its flexible onsite characteristic and low carbon emission. However, DG integration may change the fault current pattern in distribution systems, which may in turn degrade the performance and coordination...

  13. Possible rare congenital dysinnervation disorder: congenital ptosis associated with adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Sílvia; Beselga, Diana; Campos, Sónia; Neves, Arminda; Campos, Joana; Carvalho, Sílvia; Silva, Eduardo; Castro Sousa, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Ptosis is defined as an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid margin. It can be congenital or acquired, uni or bilateral, and isolated or associated with other ocular and nonocular defects. We report a case of a female child, aged 8 years, with congenital right ptosis increased on right adduction and with left ptosis on left adduction. There was no horizontal ocular movement limitation. Apparent underaction of the right inferior oblique muscle was also present. We believe that within the possible mechanisms it is more likely that it is a congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome (CID)/congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD).

  14. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  15. 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine adducts of workers exposed to asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Munnia, Armelle; Ugolini, Donatella; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Neri, Monica; Milić, Mirta; Bonotti, Alessandra; Giese, Roger W; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-03-15

    Asbestos is the commercial name for a group of silicate minerals naturally occurring in the environment and widely used in the industry. Asbestos exposure has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, mesothelioma, and malignancies, which may appear after a period of latency of 20-40 years. Mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic effects of asbestos are still not fully elucidated, although the oxidative stress theory suggests that phagocytic cells produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species, due to their inability to digest asbestos fiber. We have conducted a mechanistic study to evaluate the association between 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M 1 dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and asbestos exposure in the peripheral blood of 327 subjects living in Tuscany and Liguria, Italy, stratified by occupational exposure to asbestos. Adduct frequency was significantly greater into exposed subjects with respect to the controls. M 1 dG per 10 8 normal nucleotides were 4.0±0.5 (SE) in 156 asbestos workers, employed in mechanic, naval, petrochemical, building industries, and in pottery and ceramic plants, versus a value of 2.3±0.1 (SE) in 171 controls (p<0.001). After stratification for occupational history, the effects persisted in 54 current asbestos workers, mainly employed in building renovation industry (2.9±0.3 (SE)), and in 102 former asbestos workers (4.5±0.7 (SE)), with p-values of 0.033, and <0.001, respectively. A significant effect of smoking on heavy smokers was found (p=0.005). Our study gives additional support to the oxidative stress theory, where M 1 dG may reflect an additional potential mechanism of asbestos-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-objective PSO based optimal placement of solar power DG in radial distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing trend of electricity demand, fossil fuel depletion and environmental issues request the integration of renewable energy into the distribution system. The optimal planning of renewable distributed generation (DG is much essential for ensuring maximum benefits. Hence, this paper proposes the optimal placement of probabilistic based solar power DG into the distribution system. The two objective functions such as power loss reduction and voltage stability index improvement are optimized. The power balance and voltage limits are kept as constraints of the problem. The non-sorting pare to-front based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO technique is proposed on standard IEEE 33 radial distribution test system.

  17. 78 FR 46260 - Sorbitan Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...-ethanediyl) derivs., (Z)- (CAS Reg. No 9005-65-6) (also known as ``sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct... residues of sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct. DATES: This regulation is effective July 31, 2013...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  19. [sup 129]I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of metallocene-iodine adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Satoru (Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Sakai, Hiroshi (Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Watanabe, Masanobu (Dept. of Chemistry, Coll. of Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Maeda, Yutaka (Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    A [sup 129]I Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iodine adducts of ferrocenophane, biruthenocene, and osmocene is reported. The spectra show the existence of iodine bonded to the central metals of metallocenes in addition to triiodide anions. The valence state of iron in the ferrocenophane-iodine adduct is the same as those of ruthenium and osmium in their adducts. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2007-01-01

    , a significant positive correlation was found between the AA-Hb adduct concentration and the intake of chips/snacks and crisp bread. GA-Hb adduct did not correlate with consumption of any of the main food groups. Neither AA-Hb nor GA-Hb adduct concentration correlated with total dietary intake of AA...

  1. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bulky DNA adducts reflect genotoxic exposures, have been associated with lower birth weight, and may predict cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We selected factors known or hypothesized to affect in utero adduct formation and repair and examined their associations with adduct levels in neonates....

  2. Formation of BH 3 Adducts with Pyridine-2-Methylaminophosphine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Formation of BH3 Adducts with Pyridine-2-Methylaminophosphine ligands: An experimental and computational study. Harinath Adimulam Dwijendra P Kukri Bhabani S Mallik Tarun K Panda. Regular Articles Volume 128 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 53-60 ...

  3. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  4. Deuteration of triborane(7) adducts with anhydrous deuterium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, A.R.; Kodama, G.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction between triborane(7) adducts and deuterium chloride is reported which involves all the hydrogen atoms in the B 3 H 7 moiety and proceeds rapidly even at low temperatures. The exchange reaction is reported to proceed much faster in dichloromethane solution than in tetrahydrofuran

  5. The fate of H atom adducts to 3'-uridine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ru Bo; Eriksson, Leif A

    2010-07-29

    The stabilities of the adducts deriving from H free radical addition to the O2, O4, and C5 positions of 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'UMP) are studied by the hybrid density functional B3LYP approach. Upon H atom addition at the O2 position, a concerted low-barrier proton-transfer process will initially occur, followed by the potential ruptures of the N-glycosidic or beta-phosphate bonds. The rupture barriers are strongly influenced by the rotational configuration of the phosphate group at the 3' terminal, and are influenced by bulk solvation effects. The O4-H adduct has the highest thermal stability, as the localization of the unpaired electron does not enable cleavage of either the C1'-N1 or the C3'-O(P) bonds. For the most stable adduct, with H atom added to the C5 position, the rate-controlled step is the H2'a abstraction by the C6 radical site, after which the subsequent strand rupture reactions proceed with low barriers. The main unpaired electron densities are presented for the transient species. Combined with previous results, it is concluded that the H atom adducts are more facile to drive the strand scission rather than N-glycosidic bond ruptures within the nucleic acid bases.

  6. Formation of BH3 Adducts with Pyridine-2-Methylaminophosphine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tional theoretical (DFT) calculations were performed on the BH3 adducts 1a and 2a. The results are consistent with the experimental results. Keywords. Pyridine; Borane; DFT calculation; X-ray analysis; HOMO; LUMO. 1. Introduction. Various P-N ligands are often used in organometallic chemistry to achieve well-defined ...

  7. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of external electric fields on the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and alcohol was analyzed in the light of density functional theory (DFT) and density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). Stability of the cyclodextrin-alcohol adducts was measured in terms of DFT based reactivity descriptor, global hardness, ...

  8. Aldehyde and ketone adducts of the gaseous trifluoromethyl cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Morton, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    IR spectra of CF3+ adduct ions are reported for the first time using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). Carbonyl stretches of ketone conjugate acids shift less than do those of ions containing C═OCF3+ groups. Carbonyl absorptions shift in proportion to the empirical softness of the

  9. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.P.; Linder, K.E.; Maheu, L.J.; Patz, M.A.; Thompson, J.S.; Tulip, T.H.; Subramanyam, V.

    1988-01-01

    An method for preparing a coordination complex of isonitrile ligand and a radioisotope of Te, Ru, Co, Pt, Re, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Nb and Ta from a non-radioactive metal adduct of the isonitrile

  10. 2'-Deoxythymidine Adducts from the Anti-HIV Drug Nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matilde Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine (NVP is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI used against HIV-1. Currently, NVP is the most widely used anti-HIV drug in developing countries, both in combination therapy and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Despite its efficacy against HIV, NVP produces a variety of toxic responses, including hepatotoxicity and skin rash. It is also associated with increased incidences of hepatoneoplasias in rodents. In addition, epidemiological data suggest that NNRTI use is a risk factor for non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-positive patients. Current evidence supports the involvement of metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles in NVP toxicity. NVP metabolism includes oxidation to 12-hydroxy-NVP; subsequent Phase II sulfonation produces an electrophilic metabolite, 12-sulfoxy-NVP, capable of reacting with DNA to yield covalent adducts. Since 2’-deoxythymidine (dT adducts from several alkylating agents are regarded as having significant mutagenic/carcinogenic potential, we investigated the formation of NVP-dT adducts under biomimetic conditions. Toward this goal, we initially prepared and characterized synthetic NVP-dT adduct standards using a palladium-mediated Buchwald-Hartwig coupling strategy. The synthetic standards enabled the identification, by LC-ESI-MS, of 12-(2'-deoxythymidin-N3-yl-nevirapine (N3-NVP-dT in the enzymatic hydrolysate of salmon testis DNA reacted with 12-mesyloxy-NVP, a synthetic surrogate for 12-sulfoxy-NVP. N3-NVP-dT, a potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA lesion, was also the only dT-specific adduct detected upon reaction of dT with 12-mesyloxy-NVP. Our data suggest that N3-NVP-dT may be formed in vivo and play a role in the hepatotoxicity and/or putative hepatocarcinogenicity of NVP.

  11. MLN4924 and 2DG combined treatment enhances the efficiency of radiotherapy in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladghaffari, Maryam; Shabestani Monfared, Ali; Farajollahi, Alireza; Baradaran, Behzad; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohammad; Pirayesh Islamian, Jalil

    2017-06-01

    Two-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) causes cytotoxicity in the cancer cells by disrupting the thiol metabolism, and MLN4924 inactivates the SCF E3 ligase and so causes the accumulation of its substrates which trigger apoptosis and hence might enhance the efficiency of radiotherapy and overcame on the radioresistance of the cancer cells. SKBR3 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 500 μM 2DG and/or MLN4924 (30, 100, 200 and 300 nM), and in combination in the presence and absence of 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy gamma irradiation. The effects of the treatments - 2DG, MLN4924, irradiation alone and combined - on MCF-7 and SKBR3 cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay, TUNEL assay, cell death detection, Q-PCR for caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression analysis, and finally clonogenic survival assay. The treatments enhanced the further radio cytotoxicity via inducing the apoptosis cell signaling gene, caspase-3. The 2DG and MLN4924 treatments could act as a radiosensitizer, especially on the SKBR3 cells, and further sensitized the cells with a sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) of 1.41 and 1.27 in SKBR3 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. The combined chemo-radiotherapy might improve the breast cancer treatment outcome.

  12. Performance of Multiple Passive Islanding Detection Technique for Synchronous Type of DG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimie Nadia Ab Salam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Placing DG closer to the load in the system can improve the grid reliability and power quality, however it can lead to some technical issues such as islanding which requires attention from utility and Independent Power Producer (IPP. One of the important issues in power system distribution is islanding detection for protecting the DG when islanding operation occurred. The detection technique is employed so that the islanding event can be detected within the time frame. The main reason of detecting islanding situation at distribution level is to monitor the DG output or system parameters thus can determine the occurrence of islanding situation from the change of these parameters. Therefore, this paper presents the performance of multiple parameters of passive islanding detection technique in distribution system connected with synchronous type of DG. Sixteen passive parameters including rate of change of frequency (df/dt, rate of change of voltage (dv/dt, rate of change of active power (dp/dt, and rate of change of reactive power (dq/dt are evaluated. The sensitivity analysis of these parameters are determined via simulation in terms of variation of loads, fault events and load switching on various events that are islanding and non-islanding events. The analysis indicates that each parameter displays a different pattern of sensitivity towards islanding event.

  13. CosmosDG: An hp -adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anninos, Peter; Lau, Cheuk [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bryant, Colton [Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois, 60208 (United States); Fragile, P. Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Holgado, A. Miguel [Department of Astronomy and National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, 61801 (United States); Nemergut, Daniel [Operations and Engineering Division, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge–Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  14. CosmosDG: An hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Hyper-resolved Relativistic MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Peter; Bryant, Colton; Fragile, P. Chris; Holgado, A. Miguel; Lau, Cheuk; Nemergut, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We have extended Cosmos++, a multidimensional unstructured adaptive mesh code for solving the covariant Newtonian and general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, to accommodate both discrete finite volume and arbitrarily high-order finite element structures. The new finite element implementation, called CosmosDG, is based on a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation, using both entropy-based artificial viscosity and slope limiting procedures for the regularization of shocks. High-order multistage forward Euler and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integration options complement high-order spatial discretization. We have also added flexibility in the code infrastructure allowing for both adaptive mesh and adaptive basis order refinement to be performed separately or simultaneously in a local (cell-by-cell) manner. We discuss in this report the DG formulation and present tests demonstrating the robustness, accuracy, and convergence of our numerical methods applied to special and general relativistic MHD, although we note that an equivalent capability currently also exists in CosmosDG for Newtonian systems.

  15. Long-term Optical Activity of the Hard X-ray Flaring Star DG CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-04-01

    DG CVn is a young late-type star which displayed an X-ray and optical superflare in 2014. This paper presents an analysis of the long-term activity of this object in the optical band. I used the photographic data from DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard). These measurements from the years 1895-1989 cover the blue spectral region. CCD V-band ASAS data were used for several UV Cet-type stars to place the activity of DG CVn in the context of flaring stars. I show that three large brightenings (flares) of DG CVn by more than 1 mag were detected on the DASCH plates. The character of the long-term activity (regarding the histogram of brightness) of DG CVn is compatible with those of flaring stars UV Cet and V371 Ori. The flares brighter than ˜ 0.4 mag represent less than 1 percent of the observed data in all three objects

  16. Evaluation of modified dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar for enumerating fungi in wheat flour: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Hwang, C A

    1996-04-01

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar base supplemented with 100 micrograms of chloramphenicol ml-1 (DG18 agar) was compared to DG18 agar supplemented with 100 micrograms of Triton X-301 ml-1 (DG18T) and DG18 agar supplemented with 1 microgram of iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methyl-ethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidine- carboxamide] ml-1 (DG18I agar) for enumeration of fungi in ten brands of wheat flour. As the flours contained low fungal populations, all were inoculated with two to four strains of xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens, E. rubrum, E. tonophilum, E. umbrosum and Wallemia sebi), after which counts ranged from 3.87 to 6.37 log10 CFU g-1. Significantly higher populations (p sebi grew well on all three media. DG18T agar was judged to be superior to DG18 and DG18I agars for enumerating fungi in wheat flours.

  17. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard-adducts with DNA and proteins: Exploratory research on adducts with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two modes of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts to DNA in human blood and skin. In the shortened mode data could be generated within 9 h after in vitro exposure of human blood to > 1 μM sulfur mustard. The sensitive mode

  19. Formation of DNA adducts in mouse tissues after 1-nitropyrene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    DNA adducts were isolated and characterized in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of [ 3 H]-1-nitropyrene (1-NP). HPLC analysis of the enzymatically digested DNA indicated the presence of multiple DNA adducts in mouse lung, liver and kidney. These results indicate that DNA adducts of 1-NP are formed in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of 1-NP; the HPLC profiles of the multiple adducts suggests that adducts may be formed via metabolic pathways that involve both nitroreduction and ring-oxidation. 6 references, 1 figure

  20. HiCoDG: A Hierarchical Data-Gathering Scheme Using Cooperative Multiple Mobile Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Van Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study mobile element (ME-based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. Due to the physical speed limits of mobile elements, the existing data-gathering schemes that usemobile elements can suffer from high data-gathering latency. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a new hierarchical and cooperative data-gathering (HiCoDG scheme that enables multiple mobile elements to cooperate with each other to collect and relay data. In HiCoDG, two types of mobile elements are used: the mobile collector (MC and the mobile relay (MR. MCs collect data from sensors and forward them to the MR, which will deliver them to the sink. In this work, we also formulated an integer linear programming (ILP optimization problem to find the optimal trajectories for MCs and the MR, such that the traveling distance of MEs is minimized. Two variants of HiCoDG, intermediate station (IS-based and cooperative movement scheduling (CMS-based, are proposed to facilitate cooperative data forwarding from MCs to theMR. An analytical model for estimating the average data-gathering latency in HiCoDG was also designed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of the IS and CMS variants, as well as a multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP-based approach. The simulation results show that HiCoDG outperformsmTSP in terms of latency. The results also show that CMS can achieve the lowest latency with low energy consumption.

  1. The biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99Tcmm-EC-DG in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Yang Yi; Liu Zengli; Shi Yizhen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the biodistribution of technetium-99m labeled ethylenedicysteine-deoxyglucose ( 99 Tc m -EC-DG) and to calculate its internal radiation absorbed dose in normal volunteers. 740 MBq 99 Tc m -EC-DG was injected into the antecubital vein. 2 ml blood were sampled from the contralateral antecubital vein at different time after the injection, and its radioactivity was measured. The bi-exponential curve of time-radioactivity of blood and the dynamic parameters were obtained by using ORIGIN 5.0. Urine was collected in 24 hours after the injection and the percentage of Radioactivity excreted by urine to the total injected radioactivity was calculated. The anterior and posterior whole body imaging were acquired at different time after the injection of 740 MBq 99 Tc m -EC-DG. The region of interest of these referring organs and tissues was drawn, their radioactivity at different time was calculated. The bi-exponential curve of time-radioactivity of every organ was obtained by using ORIGIN 5.0, and then cumulated radioactivity and retaining time of 99 Tcm-EC-DG were calculated and input into the software MIRDOSE 3.0 to obtain the radiation absorbed dose of every organ and tissue. The heart rate, blood pressure and breathing frequency is normal after the injection. The male volunteer's T1/2α is 39 seconds, T1/2β is 59 minutes and that of female volunteer is 21 seconds and 61 minutes. 99 Tc m -EC-DG imaging is safe, and its characteristic of biodistribution in normal volunteer makes it easy to accumulate in tumor. Brain is not imaged, the uptake of muscle is low. The absorbed dose of every organ is far lower than that of the public annual average limitation. (authors)

  2. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  3. On the use of kinetic energy preserving DG-schemes for large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, David; Gassner, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Recently, element based high order methods such as Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods and the closely related flux reconstruction (FR) schemes have become popular for compressible large eddy simulation (LES). Element based high order methods with Riemann solver based interface numerical flux functions offer an interesting dispersion dissipation behavior for multi-scale problems: dispersion errors are very low for a broad range of scales, while dissipation errors are very low for well resolved scales and are very high for scales close to the Nyquist cutoff. In some sense, the inherent numerical dissipation caused by the interface Riemann solver acts as a filter of high frequency solution components. This observation motivates the trend that element based high order methods with Riemann solvers are used without an explicit LES model added. Only the high frequency type inherent dissipation caused by the Riemann solver at the element interfaces is used to account for the missing sub-grid scale dissipation. Due to under-resolution of vortical dominated structures typical for LES type setups, element based high order methods suffer from stability issues caused by aliasing errors of the non-linear flux terms. A very common strategy to fight these aliasing issues (and instabilities) is so-called polynomial de-aliasing, where interpolation is exchanged with projection based on an increased number of quadrature points. In this paper, we start with this common no-model or implicit LES (iLES) DG approach with polynomial de-aliasing and Riemann solver dissipation and review its capabilities and limitations. We find that the strategy gives excellent results, but only when the resolution is such, that about 40% of the dissipation is resolved. For more realistic, coarser resolutions used in classical LES e.g. of industrial applications, the iLES DG strategy becomes quite inaccurate. We show that there is no obvious fix to this strategy, as adding for instance a sub

  4. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2014-01-01

    traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...... for the adductor longus during eight hip adduction strengthening exercises and peak EMG was normalised (nEMG) using an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) as reference. Furthermore, muscle activation of the gluteus medius, rectus abdominis and the external abdominal obliques was analysed during...... the exercises. RESULTS: There were large differences in peak nEMG of the adductor longus between the exercises, with values ranging from 14% to 108% nEMG (pEMG results for the gluteals...

  5. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  6. A Functional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with PLA-PEG-DG as Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Hu, Ke; Yu, Haoli; Zhou, Lijun; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianping; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Tumor targeting could greatly promote the performance of magnetic nanomaterials as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) agent for tumor diagnosis. Herein, we reported a novel magnetic nanoparticle modified with PLA (poly lactic acid)-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-DG (D-glucosamine) as Tumor-targeted MRI Contrast Agent. In this work, we took use of the D-glucose passive targeting on tumor cells, combining it on PLA-PEG through amide reaction, and then wrapped the PLA-PEG-DG up to the Fe 3 O 4 @OA NPs. The stability and anti phagocytosis of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG was tested in vitro; the MRI efficiency and toxicity was also detected in vivo. These functional magnetic nanoparticles demonstrated good biocompatibility and stability both in vitro and in vivo. Cell experiments showed that Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles exist good anti phagocytosis and high targetability. In vivo MRI images showed that the contrast effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG-DG nanoparticles prevailed over the commercial non tumor-targeting magnetic nanomaterials MRI agent at a relatively low dose. The DG can validly enhance the tumor-targetting effect of Fe 3 O 4 @OA@PLA-PEG nanoparticle. Maybe MRI agents with DG can hold promise as tumor-targetting development in the future.

  7. PHOSPHATO AND PHOSPHONATO ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  8. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  9. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  10. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  11. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  12. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometric analysis of haemoglobin adducts - Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry

  13. Combined effect of CVR and penetration of DG in the voltage profile and losses of lowvoltage secondary distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Abdullah

    Demarcations between traditional distribution power systems and distributed generation (DG) architectures are increasingly evolving as higher DG penetration is introduced in the system. The concerns in existing electric power systems (EPSs) to accommodate less restrictive interconnection policies while maintaining reliability and performance of power delivery have been the major challenge for DG growth. In this dissertation, the work is aimed to study power quality, energy saving and losses in a low voltage distributed network under various DG penetration cases. Simulation platform suite that includes electric power system, distributed generation and ZIP load models is implemented to determine the impact of DGs on power system steady state performance and the voltage profile of the customers/loads in the network under the voltage reduction events. The investigation designed to test the DG impact on power system starting with one type of DG, then moves on multiple DG types distributed in a random case and realistic/balanced case. The functionality of the proposed DG interconnection is designed to meet the basic requirements imposed by the various interconnection standards, most notably IEEE 1547, public service commission, and local utility regulation. It is found that implementation of DGs on the low voltage secondary network would improve customer's voltage profile, system losses and significantly provide energy savings and economics for utilities. In a network populated with DGs, utility would have a uniform voltage profile at the customers end as the voltage profile becomes more concentrated around targeted voltage level. The study further reinforced the concept that the behavior of DG in distributed network would improve voltage regulation as certain percentage reduction on utility side would ensure uniform percentage reduction seen by all customers and reduce number of voltage violations.

  14. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on BP-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, M A; Chacko, M C; Annapurna, V V; Krishnaswamy, K

    1993-03-01

    Many human cancers that are widely prevalent today can be prevented through modifications in life-styles, of which diet appears to be an important agent. Several dietary constituents modulate the process of carcinogenesis and prevent genotoxicity. Many plant constituents including turmeric appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. Therefore the modulatory effects of turmeric and curcumin on the levels of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts in the livers of rats were studied by the newly developed 32P-postlabelling assay method. Turmeric when fed at 0.1, 0.5 and 3% and the active principle of turmeric (curcumin) when fed at a level of 0.03% in the diet for 4 weeks significantly reduced the level of BP-DNA adducts including the major adduct dG-N2-BP, formed within 24 h in response to a single i.p. injection of benzo[a]pyrene. The significance of these effects in terms of the potential anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric is discussed. Further, these results strengthen the various other biological effects of turmeric which have direct relevance to anticarcinogenesis and chemoprevention.

  15. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite, sub-elite and amateur Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Ned; Hopper, Diana; Finucane, Mark; Grisbrook, Tiffany L

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that obtaining an adduction-to-abduction strength ratio of 90-100%, and an adduction strength equal to that of the uninjured side, are suitable clinical milestones for return to sport following groin injury. Little is known about hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in Australian footballers. This study aimed to compare isometric hip adduction and abduction strength profiles between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs in elite, sub-elite and amateur Australian footballers. Cross sectional study 36 elite, 19 sub-elite and 18 amateur Australian footballers, with a mean age of 24, 19 and 23 years respectively, were included. Maximal hip isometric adduction and abduction strength were measured using a hand held dynamometer with external belt fixation. There were no significant differences in isometric hip adduction (p=0.262) or abduction (p=0.934) strength, or the adduction-to-abduction ratio (p=0.163), between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs, regardless of playing level. Elite players had significantly greater isometric hip adduction and abduction strength than both sub-elite (mean difference; adduction=46.01N, pamateur players (mean difference; adduction=78.72N, p<0.001, abduction=59.11N, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the adduction-to-abduction ratio between the playing levels (p=0.165). No significant differences were found between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs across the playing levels for isometric hip adduction, abduction or the adduction-to-abduction ratio. This may have implications for developing groin injury prediction and return to sport criteria in Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetaminophen Adducts Detected in Serum of Pediatric Patients With Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Estella M; James, Laura P; Zhang, Song; Squires, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies in patients with acute liver failure identified acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts in the serum of 12% and 19% of children and adults, respectively, with acute liver failure of indeterminate etiology. This article details the testing of APAP adducts in a subset (n = 393) of patients with varied diagnoses in the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALFSG). Serum samples were available from 393 participants included in the PALFSG registry. Adduct measurement was performed using validated methods. Participants were grouped by diagnostic category as known APAP overdose, known other diagnosis, and indeterminate etiology. Demographic and clinical characteristics and participant outcomes were compared by adduct status (positive or negative) within each group. APAP adduct testing was positive in 86% of participants with known APAP overdose, 6% with other known diagnoses, and 11% with an indeterminate cause of liver failure. Adduct-positive participants were noted to have marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase coupled with total serum bilirubin that was significantly lower than adduct-negative patients. In the indeterminate group, adduct-positive patients had different outcomes than adduct-negative patients (P = 0.03); spontaneous survival was 16 of 21 (76%) in adduct-positive patients versus 75 of 169 (44%) in adduct-negative patients. Prognosis did not vary by adduct status in patients with known diagnoses. Furthermore, study is needed to understand the relation of APAP exposure, as determined by the presence of APAP adducts, to the clinical phenotype and outcomes of children with acute liver failure.

  17. Optimization of a stand-alone Solar PV-Wind-DG Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation at Sagar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. C.; Majumder, A.; Chakraborty, N.

    2010-10-01

    An estimation of a stand-alone solar PV and wind hybrid system for distributed power generation has been made based on the resources available at Sagar island, a remote area distant to grid operation. Optimization and sensitivity analysis has been made to evaluate the feasibility and size of the power generation unit. A comparison of the different modes of hybrid system has been studied. It has been estimated that Solar PV-Wind-DG hybrid system provides lesser per unit electricity cost. Capital investment is observed to be lesser when the system run with Wind-DG compared to Solar PV-DG.

  18. Epilithic and aerophilic diatoms in the artificial environment of Kungsträdgården metro station, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Magnus, Ivarsson; Lundberg, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The Kungsträdgården metro station is an artificial and urban subsurface environment illuminated with artificial light. Its ecosystem is almost completely unknown and as a first step to better understand the biology and rock wall habitats the diatom flora was investigated. A total of 12 species were...... found growing on the rock walls of Kungsträdgården metro station. The results show the diatom flora in Kungsträdgården to be dominated by e.g. Diadesmis contenta, Diadesmis perpusilla, Pinnularia appendiculata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia sinuata and Diploneis ovalis. One species, Caloneis cf...

  19. A teaching learning based optimization technique for optimal location and size of DG in distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaja Mohanty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DGs are placed for the purpose of real power loss minimization and voltage improvement in distribution network system. This paper presents a recent optimization technique, i.e. teaching learning based optimization (TLBO technique for finding the optimal size and location of Distributed generation (DG in radial distribution system (RDS. The optimal location and size of DG is analyzed considering voltage stability index as an objective function. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with GA and PSO methods in RDS. The comparison is done using system performances such as the real power loss and voltage profile of RDS. In this paper, performance analysis is carried out considering IEEE 33 bus and 69 buses as the test system.

  20. Optimal placement and sizing of wind / solar based DG sources in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wanlin; Guo, Niao; Yu, Chunlai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Haiyang; Liu, Zhipeng; Cui, Jiapeng

    2017-06-01

    Proper placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution system can obtain maximum potential benefits. This paper proposes quantum particle swarm algorithm (QPSO) based wind turbine generation unit (WTGU) and photovoltaic (PV) array placement and sizing approach for real power loss reduction and voltage stability improvement of distribution system. Performance modeling of wind and solar generation system are described and classified into PQ\\PQ (V)\\PI type models in power flow. Considering the WTGU and PV based DGs in distribution system is geographical restrictive, the optimal area and DG capacity limits of each bus in the setting area need to be set before optimization, the area optimization method is proposed . The method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Effect of Multi-DG Installation to Loss Reduction in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zahirah Mohd Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since last decade, Artificial Intelligence (AI methods have been used to solve complex DG problems because in most cases, they can provide global or near global solution. The major advantage of the AI methods is that they are relatively versatile for handling various qualitative constraints. AI methods mainly include Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Expert System (ES, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Evolutionary Programming (EP, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The purpose of this paper is to present a new technique, namely Adaptive Embedded Clonal Evolutionary Programming (AECEP. The objective of the study is to employ AECEP optimization techniques for loss minimization. This technique was developed to optimally determine the location and sizing of DG. The IEEE 41- Bus RTS was implemented for testing several cases in terms of loading conditions.

  2. A combined ADER-DG and PML approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains

    KAUST Repository

    Amler, Thomas

    2012-09-19

    In this work, we present a numerical approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains which combines discontinuous Galerkin methods with arbitrary high order time integration (ADER-DG) and a stabilized modification of perfectly matched layers (PML). Here, the ADER-DG method is applied to Bérenger’s formulation of PML. The instabilities caused by the original PML formulation are treated by a fractional step method that allows to monitor whether waves are damped in PML region. In grid cells where waves are amplified by the PML, the contribution of damping terms is neglected and auxiliary variables are reset. Results of 2D simulations in acoustic media with constant and discontinuous material parameters are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.

  3. Chers voisins d'outre-Rhin: Kommt das französische NetzDG?

    OpenAIRE

    Heldt, Amélie

    2018-01-01

    In seiner Neujahrsrede hat der französische Präsident Emmanuel Macron einen Gesetzesentwurf gegen Falschmeldungen im Netz angekündigt, der bis Ende 2018 vorliegen soll. Diese Nachricht kommt zu einem Zeitpunkt, in dem in Deutschland die Umsetzung des Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetzes aufmerksam beobachtet wird. Dieser Beitrag erklärt, welche Ziele Macron mit seinem Gesetzesentwurf erreichen will und wo die Unterschiede beziehungsweise Ähnlichkeiten mit dem NetzDG liegen.

  4. A Discussion of Anti-islanding Protection Schemes Incorporated in a Inverter Based DG

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Mohamed Moin; Basu, Malabika; Gaughan, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is about the local anti-islanding protection techniques that are incorporated in a inverter based DG. The most widely used passive and active techniques along with their suitability to reduce the Non-detection zone (NDZ) are explained here. The most recent work using wavelet transform which actually reduces the NDZ to zero is also introduced in the last section of the paper.

  5. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Bjørkheim, André; Rolstad, Linn E; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2017-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint testing before and after the intervention. Per-protocol analyses were performed, and 12 players were excluded due to low compliance (<67% of sessions completed). The main outcome was eccentric hip adduction strength (N·m/kg). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater increase in eccentric hip adduction strength of 0.29 Nm/kg (8.9%; P = .01) in favor of the group performing the Copenhagen adduction exercise, whereas no within-group change was noted in the group that used the standard FIFA 11+ program (-0.02 N·m/kg [-0.7%]; P = .69). Including the Copenhagen adduction exercise in the FIFA 11+ program increases eccentric hip adduction strength, while the standard FIFA 11+ program does not. Registration: Registration: ISRCTN13731446 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry).

  6. Maximum Permissible Integration Capacity of Renewable DG Units Based on System Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Doğanşahin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for electricity, as well as rising environmental and economic concerns have resulted in renewable energy sources being a center of attraction. Integration of these renewable energy resources into power systems is usually achieved through distributed generation (DG techniques, and the number of such applications increases daily. As conventional power systems do not have an infrastructure that is compatible with these energy sources and generation systems, such integration applications may cause various problems in power systems. Therefore, planning is an essential part of DG integration, especially for power systems with intermittent renewable energy sources with the objective of minimizing problems and maximizing benefits. In this study, a mathematical model is proposed to calculate the maximum permissible DG integration capacity without causing overvoltage problems in the power systems. In the proposed mathematical model, both the minimum loading condition and maximum generation condition are taken into consideration. In order to prove the effectiveness and the consistency of the proposed mathematical model, it is applied to a test system with different case studies, and the results are compared with the results obtained from other models in the literature.

  7. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  8. Decay kinetics of nicotine/NNK-DNA adducts in vivo studied by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.F.; He, L.; Liu, Y.F.; Liu, K.X.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Ma, H.J.; Li, K.

    2000-01-01

    The decay kinetics of nicotine-DNA adducts and NNK-DNA adducts in mice liver after single dosing was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The decay is characterized by a two-stage process. The half-lives of nicotine-DNA adducts are 1.3 d (4-24 h) and 7.0 d (1-21 d), while for NNK-DNA adducts are 0.7 d (4-24 h) and 18.0 d (1-21 d). The relatively faster decay of nicotine-DNA adducts suggests that the genotoxicity of nicotine is weaker than that of NNK. The in vitro study shows that the metabolization of nicotine is necessary for the final formation of nicotine-DNA adducts, and nicotine Δ1'(5') iminium ion is a probable metabolite species that binds to DNA molecule covalently

  9. Fast repair of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiang; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun; Zhu Dayuan

    1999-01-01

    Using pulse radiolytic techniques, it has been demonstrated that the interactions of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), polyA and polyG with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceed via an electron transfer process (k=5-30x10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). In addition, the rates for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP, polyA and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rates for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents. The slower rates for repair of oxidizing OH adducts of dAMP may be the rate determining step during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adducts of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA constituents

  10. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... to confirm the performance and feasibility of the proposed control method in DG technology. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  11. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Bérard, Izabel; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied

  12. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  13. Correlation between Quadriceps Endurance and Adduction Moment in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyuck Lee

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the strength or endurance of thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstring is positively or negatively correlated with the adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees. This study therefore assessed the relationships between the strength and endurance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and adduction moment in osteoarthritic knees and evaluated predictors of the adduction moment. The study cohort comprised 35 patients with unilateral medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity who were candidates for open wedge osteotomy. The maximal torque (60°/sec and total work (180°/sec of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and knee adduction moment were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device and gait analysis system. The total work of the quadriceps (r = 0.429, P = 0.037 and hamstring (r = 0.426, P = 0.045 muscles at 180°/sec each correlated with knee adduction moment. Preoperative varus deformity was positively correlated with adduction moment (r = 0.421, P = 0.041. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps endurance at 180°/sec was the only factor independently associated with adduction moment (β = 0.790, P = 0.032. The adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees correlated with the endurance, but not the strength, of the quadriceps muscle. However, knee adduction moment did not correlate with the strength or endurance of the hamstring muscle.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of the Adducts of Bis(O-ethyldithiocarbonatocopper(II with Substituted Pyridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric five coordinated adducts of bis(O-ethyldithiocarbonatocopper(II of general formula [Cu(C2H5OCS22(L], [L = 2-, 3-, 4-methylpyridines and 2-, 3-, 4-ethylpyridines] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, i.r. and electronic spectroscopy, magnetic and conductivity measurements. Analytical results show that the adducts have 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The adducts were found to be paramagnetic and their magnetic moments at room temperature lie within the 1.81–1.94 B.M. range and this indicates the presence of one unpaired electron. All the adducts have distorted square pyramidal geometry.

  15. Regiochemically Controlled Synthesis of a β-4-β' [70]Fullerene Bis-Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Maira R; Castro, Edison; Neti, Venkata S Pavan K; Dunk, Paul W; Echegoyen, Luis A

    2017-01-20

    A β-4-β' C 70 bis-adduct regioisomer and an uncommon mono-adduct β-malonate C 70 derivative were synthesized by using a Diels-Alder cycloaddition followed by an addition-elimination of bromo-ethylmalonate and a retro-Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. We also report the regioselective synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of C s -symmetric tris- and C 2v -symmetric tetra-adducts of C 70 , which are the precursors of the mono- and bis-adduct final products.

  16. [Effect of 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampal DG on active avoidance learning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng-ze; Lv, Jing; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Hai-ying; Li, Ying-shun; Jin, Qing-hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of serotonin (5-HTIA) receptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) on active avoidance learning in rats. Totally 36 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, antagonist group and agonist group(n = 12). Active avoidance learning ability of rats was assessed by the shuttle box. The extracellular concentrations of 5-HT in the DG during active avoidance conditioned reflex were measured by microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Then the antagonist (WAY-100635) or agonist (8-OH-DPAT) of the 5-HT1A receptors were microinjected into the DG region, and the active avoidance learning was measured. (1) During the active avoidance learning, the concentration of 5-HT in the hippocampal DG was significantly increased in the extinction but not establishment in the conditioned reflex, which reached 164.90% ± 26.07% (P active avoidance learning. (3) The microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT(an agonist of 5-HT1A receptor) into the DG significantly facilitated the establishment process and inhibited the extinction process during active avoidance conditioned reflex. The data suggest that activation of 5-HT1A receptors in hipocampal DG may facilitate active avoidance learning and memory in rats.

  17. In vitro screening of 50 highly prescribed drugs for thiol adduct formation--comparison of potential for drug-induced toxicity and extent of adduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jinping; Ruan, Qian; He, Bing; Zhu, Mingshe; Shyu, Wen C; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2009-04-01

    Reactive metabolite formation has been associated with drug-induced liver, skin, and hematopoietic toxicity of many drugs that has resulted in serious clinical toxicity, leading to clinical development failure, black box warnings, or, in some cases, withdrawal from the market. In vitro and in vivo screening for reactive metabolite formation has been proposed and widely adopted in the pharmaceutical industry with the aim of minimizing the property and thus the risk of drug-induced toxicity (DIT). One of the most common screening methods is in vitro thiol trapping of reactive metabolites. Although it is well-documented that many hepatotoxins form thiol adducts, there is no literature describing the adduct formation potential of safer drugs that are widely used. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the thiol adduct formation potential of 50 drugs (10 associated with DIT and 40 not associated) and document apparent differences in adduct formation between toxic and safer drugs. Dansyl glutathione was used as a trapping agent to aid the quantitation of adducts following in vitro incubation of drugs with human liver microsomes in the presence and absence of NADPH. Metabolic turnover of these drugs was also monitored by LC/UV. Overall, 15 out of the 50 drugs screened formed detectable levels of thiol adducts. There were general trends toward more positive findings in the DIT group vs the non-DIT group. These trends became more marked when the relative amount of thiol adducts was taken into account and improved further when dose and total daily reactive metabolite burdens were considered. In conclusion, there appears to be a general trend between the extent of thiol adduct formation and the potential for DIT, which would support the preclinical measurement and minimization of the property through screening of thiol adduct formation as part of an overall discovery optimization paradigm.

  18. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1998-09-01

    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  20. NMR studies of the exocyclic 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine adduct (εdA) opposite thymidine in a DNA duplex. Nonplanar alignment of εdA(anti) and dT(anti) at the lesion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakdjian, M.; Patel, D.J.; Eisenberg, M.; Yarema, K.; Basu, A.; Essigmann, J.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional proton NMR studies are reported on the complementary d(C-A-T-G-T-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-εA-C-A-T-G) nonanucleotide duplex (designated εdA·dT 9-mer duplex) containing 1,N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA), a carcinogen-DNA adduct, positioned opposite thymidine in the center of the helix. The authors NMR studies have focused on the conformation of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex at neutral pH with emphasis on defining the alignment at the dT5·εdA14 lesion site. The through-space NOE distance connectivities establish that both dT5 and εdA14 adopt anti glycosidic torsion angles, are directed into the interior of the helix, and stack with flanking Watson-Crick dG4·dC15 and dG6·dC13 pairs. Furthermore, the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) trinucleotide segment centered about the dT5·εdA14 lesion site adopts a right-handed helical conformation in solution. Energy minimization computations were undertaken starting from six different alignments of dT5(anti) and εdA14(anti) at the lesion site and were guided by distance constraints defined by lower and upper bounds estimated from NOESY data sets on the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex. The NMR data are consistent with a nonplanar alignment of εdA14(anti) and dT5(anti) with dT5 displaced toward the flanking dG4·dC15 base pair within the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) segment of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex

  1. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...

  2. Optimal reconfiguration and DG allocation in balanced and unbalanced distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Taher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates feeder reconfiguration in balanced and unbalanced networks and presents an efficient method to optimize practical distribution systems by means of simultaneous reconfiguration and distributed generation (DG allocation. A precise and robust load flow algorithm is applied and a composite multi-objective function is formulated to solve the problem which includes: 1. power loss saving, 2. voltage profile, 3. voltage unbalance, and 4. current unbalance of the system. The genetic algorithm (GA is utilized to search for optimal solution. Results show significant reduction in power loss and number of voltage violations. Moreover, in unbalanced cases, ability of proposed method in three-phase balancing is demonstrated.

  3. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase π. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  4. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  6. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... (smokers and non-smokers). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabelling with the butanol enrichment procedure. The bus drivers answered a comprehensive questionnaire on passive smoking, residential area, diet and other potential confounding variables. A significantly higher adduct level...... was observed in bus drivers working in central Copenhagen (1.214 fmol/microg DNA, n = 49) compared with both those driving in the dormitory (median: 0.507 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.046, n = 16) and suburban (median: 0.585 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.041, n = 25) areas. All three groups had higher adduct levels than...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  8. Distribution of DNA adducts in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Harkema, J.R.; Mauderly, J.L.; Henderson, R.F.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Diesel exhaust, Inhaled chronically at high concentrations, induced tumors that were located exclusively In the peripheral lung of rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in the level of DNA adducts among the regions of the respiratory tract paralleled the site of tumors. Groups of male F344/N rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 day/wk for 12 wk to diesel engine exhaust at a soot concentration of 10 mg/m 3 or were sham-exposed to air. Respiratory tract tissues were dissected and DNA was isolated from the dissected samples and analyzed for the presence of adducts using the 32 P-postlabeling assay. The highest level of total DNA adducts occurred In peripheral lung tissue (∼ 18 adducts per 10 9 bases). About 1/4 to 1/5 the level of DNA adducts was detected in the nasal tissues as in peripheral lung. There were less than 3 adducts per 10 9 bases n each of the regions of the major conducting airways (.e., trachea, bronchi, axial airway). The data from this study indicate that higher levels of total DNA adducts were present In tissues where exhaust-induced tumors were located. These data suggest that DNA adduct levels in discrete locations of the respiratory tract may be good measures of the 'effective dose' of carcinogenic compounds. (author)

  9. Inert Reassessment Document for Poly(oxyethylene) adducts of mixed phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is uncategorized as to list classification status. Based upon the reasonable certainty of no harm safety finding, the List 4B classification for poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is affirmed.

  10. Abundance of DNA adducts of 4-oxo-2-alkenals, lipid peroxidation-derived highly reactive genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshichika; Nuka, Erika

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and their reaction products can damage DNA to form mutagenic lesions. Among the reactive species, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes react with nucleobases and form bulky exocyclic adducts. Many types of aldehyde-derived DNA adducts have been characterized, identified and detected in vitro and in vivo , whereas relative quantitative and pathophysiological contributions of each adduct still remain unclear. In recent years, an abundant class of DNA adducts derived from 4-oxo-2-alkenals have been identified, in addition to classic aldehyde-derived adducts. The presence of 4-oxo-2-alkenal-derived DNA adducts associated with age-related diseases has been revealed in rodents and humans. In vitro studies have demonstrated that 4-oxo-2-alkenals, as compared with other classes of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, are highly reactive with nucleobases. It has been generally recognized that 4-oxo-2-alkenals are generated through oxidative degradation of the corresponding 4-hydroperoxy-2-alkenals, homolytic degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides. Our recent results have also shown an alternative pathway for the formation of 4-oxo-2-alkenals, in which 2-alkenals could undergo the metal-catalyzed autoxidation resulting in the formation of the corresponding 4-oxo-2-alkenals. This review summarizes the basis of the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived genotoxic aldehydes and their covalent adduction to nucleobases, especially focusing on the abundance of 4-oxo-2-alkenal-derived DNA adducts.

  11. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts with keratins in the stratum corneum of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Fidder, A.; Chau, L.F.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a program to develop methods for diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents, we developed immunochemical methods for detection of adducts of sulfur mustard to keratin in human skin. Three partial sequences of keratins containing glutamine or asparagine adducted with a

  12. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  13. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts and their use in wood-laminating adhesives: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; R.E. Kreibich

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of a tannin extract (containing about 30% carbohydrate) from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark (two parts) and resorcinol (one part) at 120°C for 24 h with acetic acid catalyst gave a product containing predominantly oligomeric procyanidin-4-resorcinol adducts (39%), unreacted resorcinol (22%), carbohydrate (20%). the resorcinol adduct...

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  15. Comparison of EMG activity on abdominal muscles during plank exercise with unilateral and bilateral additional isometric hip adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Eui-Ryong; Jung, In-Gui; Seo, Eun-Young; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise on the abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy young men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor the activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), the internal oblique (IO), and the external oblique (EO) muscles. The participants performed three types of plank exercise; the standard plank exercise, the plank exercise with bilateral isometric hip adduction, and the plank exercise with unilateral isometric hip adduction. All abdominal muscle activity was significantly increased during the plank exercise combined with the bilateral and unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the standard plank exercise (pmuscle activity was significantly increased during the unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the bilateral isometric hip adduction (pabdominal muscle activity. In particular, the unilateral isometric hip adduction is a more beneficial exercise than the bilateral isometric hip adduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitation of 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate human serum albumin adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah G. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 4,4′-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4′-MDI is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive individuals. To accurately determine exposure, there has been increasing interest in developing analytical methods to measure internal biomarkers of exposure to MDI. Previous investigators have reported methodologies for measuring MDI diamine metabolites and MDI-Lysine (4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultra performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ID/MS/MS quantitation method via a signature peptide approach to enable biomonitoring of 4,4′-MDI adducted to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma. A murine, anti-4,4′-MDI monoclonal IgM antibody was bound to magnetic beads and utilized for enrichment of the MDI adducted HSA. Following enrichment, trypsin digestion was performed to generate the expected 414 site (primary site of adduction 4,4′-MDI-adducted HSA signature peptide that was quantified by UPLC-ID/MS/MS. An Agilent 6530 UPLC/quadrupole time of flight MS (QTOF system was utilized for intact adducted protein analysis and an Agilent 6490 UPLC/MS/MS system operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode was utilized for quantification of the adducted signature peptide biomarker both for in chemico and worker serum samples. Worker serum samples were initially screened utilizing the previously developed 4,4′-MDI-Lys amino acid method and results showed that 12 samples were identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The signature peptide adduct approach was applied to the 12 worker samples identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. Results indicated no positive results

  17. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)-induced DNA adducts in mouse tissues are different from the adduct induced by the activated form of the Bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R N; O'Connor, P J; Prakash, A S; Shahin, M; Povey, A C

    2001-02-23

    Following treatment with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) extract and bracken spores a number of DNA adducts were detected by (32)P-postlabeling. Three of these adducts have been described previously (Povey et al., Br. J. Cancer (1996) 74, 1342-1348) and in this study, using a slightly different protocol, four new adducts, with higher chromatographic mobility, were detected at levels ranging from 50 to 230% of those previously described. When DNA was treated in vitro with activated ptaquiloside (APT) and analysed by butanol extraction or nuclease P1 treatment, only one adduct was detected by (32)P-postlabeling. This adduct was not present in the DNA from mice treated with bracken fern or spores, suggesting either that bracken contains genotoxins other than ptaquiloside or that the metabolism of ptaquiloside produces genotoxins not reflected by activated ptaquiloside. However, as the ATP-derived adduct has been detected previously in ileal DNA of bracken-fed calves, species-specific differences in the metabolism of bracken genotoxins may exist, thereby leading to differences in their biological outcomes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Myungkoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  19. A load shedding scheme for DG integrated islanded power system utilizing backtracking search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziah Khamis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In a dispersed generation (DG integrated distribution system, several technical issues should be resolved if the grid disconnects and forms an islanded system. The most critical challenge in such a situation is to maintain the stability of the islanded system. The common practice is to reject several loads through a load shedding scheme. This study introduces a development of an optimal load shedding scheme based on backtracking search algorithm (BSA. To handle this optimization problem, a constraint multiobjective function that considers the linear static voltage stability margin (VSM and amount of load curtailment is formulated. It also handles the load priority and various operating conditions of DGs. The performance of the proposed load shedding scheme was evaluated through an extensive test conducted on the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system with four DG units considering several scenarios such as load shedding under various operating points and at various islands using the MATLAB® software. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme was validated by comparing its results with those obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA. The optimization results indicate that the proposed BSA technique is more effective in determining the optimal amount of load to be shed in any islanded system compared with GA.

  20. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  1. Retrospective detection of sulfur mustard exposure by mass spectrometric analysis of adducts to albumin and hemoglobin: An in vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Degenhardt-Langelaan, C.E.A.M.; Hulst, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The persistence in rats of sulfur mustard adducts to albumin and hemoglobin was studied in vivo after exposure (intravenously; 0.3 mg/kg; approximately 0.1 LD50) of rats to sulfur mustard. The albumin adduct (S-HETE)Cys-Pro-Tyr was detectable up to 7 days after the exposure, while the adduct to the

  2. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2010-01-01

    significant amount within 24 h incubation. The accumulation and cytotoxicity of HSA-Pt was compared to 10 µmol L¿¹ cisplatin for which a larger accumulation and cytotoxicity were observed in EATC compared to Lettré. The experiment was performed with cell medium exchange every fourth hour as HSA......-Pt and cisplatin were not stable in RPMI-1640 with 10% serum. The stability was determined using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and after 4 h new platinum peaks were observed. These findings indicate that before conducting cell experiments, the stability......The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any...

  3. Vitamin A-aldehyde adducts: AMD risk and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Janet R

    2016-04-26

    Although currently available treatment options for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited, particularly for atrophic AMD, the identification of predisposing genetic variations has informed clinical studies addressing therapeutic options such as complement inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents. To lower risk of early AMD, recommended lifestyle interventions such as the avoidance of smoking and the intake of low glycemic antioxidant-rich diets have largely followed from the identification of nongenetic modifiable factors. On the other hand, the challenge of understanding the complex relationship between aging and cumulative damage leading to AMD has fueled investigations of the visual cycle adducts that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and are a hallmark of aging retina. These studies have revealed properties of these compounds that provide insights into processes that may compromise RPE and could contribute to disease mechanisms in AMD. This work has also led to the design of targeted therapeutics that are currently under investigation.

  4. Non Covalent Interactions and Internal Dynamics in Adducts of Freons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminati, Walther; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Feng, Gang; Spada, Lorenzo; Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.

    2014-06-01

    The complexation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with atmospheric water and pollutants of the atmosphere affects their reactivity and it seems to accelerate, for example, the decomposition rate of freons in the atmosphere [1]. For this reason we characterized shapes, stabilities, nature of the non-covalent interactions, structures and internal dynamics of a number of complexes of CFCs with water and of their dimers or oligomers by rotational spectroscopy. It has been found that hydrogenated CFCs form adducts with other molecules through weak hydrogen bonds (WHBs). Their C-H groups can act as proton donors, enhanced by the electron withdrawing of the halogen atoms, interacting with the electron rich regions of the partner molecules [2]. Also in adducts or oligomers of hydrogenated CFCs the monomer units are held together by nets of WHBs [3]. When CFCs are perhalogenated, the positive electrostatic region ("σ-hole") can interact electrostatically with negative sites of another, or of the same molecular entity, giving rise, according to IUPAC, to the so called halogen bond (HaB). However, it has been observed that when the perhalogenated CFCs has a Π electron system, a lone pair•••Π interaction (Bürgi-Dunitz) is favoured [4]. We describe here the HaBs that CF4 and CF3Cl form with a variety of partner molecules such as water, ammonia, dimethyl ether, etc. Important spectroscopic features outline strong dynamics effects taking place in this kind of complex. References [1] V. Vaida, H. G. Kjaergaard, K. J. Feierabend, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 22 (2003) 203. [2] See, for example: W. Caminati, S. Melandri, A. Maris, P. Ottaviani, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 2438. [3] G. Feng, L. Evangelisti, I. Cacelli, L. Carbonaro, G. Prampolini, W. Caminati, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 171. [4] Q. Gou, G. Feng, L. Evangelisti, W. Caminati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 (2013) 52 11888.

  5. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  6. Measuring DNA nucleobase adducts using neutral hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Maricar; Rusling, James F

    2005-01-01

    The detection and identification of DNA adducts is important for predicting human cancer risk posed by chemicals and for uncovering potential genotoxicity of new drug and agricultural chemical candidates. For compounds that react with DNA to form N7-guanine and/or N3-adenine adducts, neutral thermal hydrolysis provides a simple procedure for sample preparation. The N7-guanine and N3-adenine adducts are selectively ejected from the DNA chain, resulting in a clean sample matrix enriched in nucleobase adducts. Coupling neutral thermal hydrolysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provides sensitive methods to detect and quantitate DNA adducts, and structural information is provided by MS. Combining these technologies with capillary liquid chromatography sample preconcentration systems can provide exquisitely sensitive detection. In this review, we first summarize the chemistry of nucleobase adduct formation, briefly summarize modern methods to detect DNA adducts, and then describe neutral thermal hydrolysis coupled to LC-MS/MS and some of its applications to DNA damage studies. Finally, we review recent applications of neutral thermal hydrolysis and LC-MS to toxicity screening of chemicals.

  7. Active harmonic filtering using current-controlled, grid-connected DG units with closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    voltage detection are not necessary for the proposed harmonic compensation method. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is employed to directly derive the fundamental current reference without using any phase-locked loops (PLL). The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts...... of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. In addition, this paper also briefly discusses the performance of the proposed method when DG unit is connected to a grid...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Eng, Sybil M.; Abrahamson, Page E.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Bell, Paula; Thomas, Joyce A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment

  9. DNA-nicotine adduction of lung and liver of mice exposed to passive smoking studied by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Sun Hongfang; Shi Jingyuan; Liu Yuanfang; Wang Jianjun; Lu Xiangyang; Li Kun; Zhao Qiang

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the measurement of adduction of mice lung or liver DNA with nicotine by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Mice were exposed in a toxicity infecting chamber filled up with cigarette smoke for a period of time of simulate the exposure of mice to passive smoking. The dose of nicotine inhaled by mice was determined. The results of AMS showed, when the dose of inhaled nicotine ranged from 33 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, the adducts number of lung DNA was 10 3 -10 4 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, and the adducts increased linearly with increasing dose of nicotine; the adducts number of liver DNA reached to 10 4 -10 5 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, when the dose of nicotine ranged from 99 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, and the adducts increased vigorously as dose of nicotine increased. Comparing the DNA adducts levels of the same nicotine dose, liver DNA adducts were more than lung DNA adducts. This study also suggested that the other components of cigarette smoke have synergic effect on the formation of nicotine derived DNA adducts

  10. Replication of acetylaminofluorene-adducted plasmids in human cells: Spectrum of base substitutions and evidence of excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mah, M.C.; Boldt, J.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Culp, S.J. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1991-11-15

    In rats fed the liver carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), the two most abundant types of DNA adduct are N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene and its deacetylated derivative. When plasmids carrying AAF adducts replicate in bacteria, the predominant mutations are frameshifts, whereas with deacetylated (AF) adducts, they are mainly base substitutions, just as the authors found when plasmids carrying AF adducts replicated in human cells. The authors have investigated the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced when a shuttle vector carrying AAF adducts (85% bound to the C8 position of guanine, 15% to the N{sup 2} position) replicated in human cells. The frequency induced per initial AAF adduct was higher than with AF adducts, but the kinds of mutations were similar - i.e., 85% base substitutions, principally G {center dot} C {yields} T {center dot} A transversions. There was good correlation between the hot spots for mutations and hot spots for AAF adduct formation, suggesting that mutational hot spots reflect preferential binding of the carcinogen to DNA. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of the adducts before and after the DNA was transfected of AAF adducts and that 85% of both types of adducts were removed within 3.5 hours, most probably by excision repair.

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies of the interaction of tea polyphenol derivatives with oxidizing OH adduct of thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Li Hucheng; Yao Side; Zuo Zhihua; Wang Zailan; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1996-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions between oxidizing OH adduct of thymine with tea polyphenol derivatives has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The tea polyphenol derivatives are identified as good antioxidants for reduction of oxidizing OH adducts of thymine. From buildup kinetic analysis of radical phenoxyl product, the rate constants for reactions of the N 3 radical with tea polyphenol derivatives have been determined to be (8-9) x 10 9 dm 3 /mol s, while the rate constants of electron transfer from tea polyphenol derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of thymine was obtained to be around 10 9 dm 3 /mol s. Copyright direct C 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  12. Mutagenic replication in human cell extracts of DNA containing site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D C; Veaute, X; Kunkel, T A; Fuchs, R P

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the effects of site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts on the efficiency and frameshift fidelity of bidirectional replication of double-stranded DNA in a human cell extract. Plasmid vectors were constructed containing the simian virus 40 origin of replication and single AAF adducts at one of three guanines in the Nar I sequence GGCGCC in a lacZ reporter gene. The presence of an AAF adduct diminishes replication efficiency in HeLa cell extracts by 70-80%. Replicati...

  13. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION FOR POROELASTICITY AND ELASTICITY WITH DG JUMPS AND MORTARS

    KAUST Repository

    GIRAULT, V.

    2011-01-01

    We couple a time-dependent poroelastic model in a region with an elastic model in adjacent regions. We discretize each model independently on non-matching grids and we realize a domain decomposition on the interface between the regions by introducing DG jumps and mortars. The unknowns are condensed on the interface, so that at each time step, the computation in each subdomain can be performed in parallel. In addition, by extrapolating the displacement, we present an algorithm where the computations of the pressure and displacement are decoupled. We show that the matrix of the interface problem is positive definite and establish error estimates for this scheme. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  14. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...

  15. Overexpression of a chrysanthemum transcription factor gene DgNAC1 improves the salinity tolerance in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhong, Ming; Wu, Yin-Huan; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Qian-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Jia, Yin; Liu, Guang-Li

    2017-04-01

    DgNAC1, a transcription factor of chrysanthemum, was functionally verified to confer salt stress responses by regulating stress-responsive genes. NAC transcription factors play effective roles in resistance to different abiotic stresses, and overexpressions of NAC TFs in Arabidopsis have been proved to be conducive in improving salinity tolerance. However, functions of NAC genes in chrysanthemum continue to be poorly understood. Here, we performed physiology and molecular experiments to evaluate roles of DgNAC1 in chrysanthemum salt stress responses. In this study, DgNAC1-overexpressed chrysanthemum was obviously more resistant to salt over the WT (wild type). Specifically, the transgenic chrysanthemum showed a higher survival rate and lower EC (electrolyte conductivity) than WT under salt stress. The transgenic chrysanthemum also showed fewer accumulations of MDA (malondialdehyde) and reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ), greater activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase), as well as more proline content than WT under salt stress. Furthermore, stress-responsive genes in transgenic chrysanthemum were greater up-regulated than in WT under salinity stress. Thus, all results revealed that DgNAC1 worked as a positive regulator in responses to salt stress and it may be an essential gene for molecular breeding of salt-tolerant plants.

  16. MP3DG-PCC, open source software framework for implementation and evaluation of point cloud compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present MP3DG-PCC, an open source framework for design, implementation and evaluation of point cloud compression algorithms. The framework includes objective quality metrics, lossy and lossless anchor codecs, and a test bench for consistent comparative evaluation. The framework and

  17. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  18. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  19. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  20. Second vowel formant relationship to adduction: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Kevin G.

    The relationship between the vocal tract and the larynx in the formation of vowels has been debated for decades. Vowels were first thought to have been formed in the larynx; then later it was believed that they were formed solely in the vocal tract. In the 1960s Fant formalized this belief into the Source-Filter Theory of Vowel Formation. The theory was interpreted by voice teachers to mean that the larynx had very little to do with the formation of vowels, and this interpretation has dominated voice teaching for decades. Recent research, however, is now suggesting that the larynx and the vocal tract are interactive with each other, meaning that a change of muscular function in the larynx will create a change of resonator function in the vocal tract, and vice versa. This conclusion is drawn mainly on the work of Titze, Story, Laukkanen, et.al. They have found that a relationship exists between laryngeal function and the first vowel formant (F1). When examining research on the second vowel formant (F2), this author discovered that there may be a relationship between F2 and adduction. Therefore, based on present evidence, it was hypothesized that an elevated frequency of F2 corresponded to an increase in adduction. The hypothesis was examined by comparing the resonance output and glottal closure between vowels where F2 was elevated and vowels without modification of F2. Subjects were asked to sing [i], [a], and [u] at a medium dynamic level on D4, G#4, and D5 for the female subjects and an octave below for the male subjects, once using a "generic" version of the vowel, meaning what they considered a "nice, easy, and generic" version of the vowel to be, and then again modifying the vowel to increase the frequency of the upper harmonics. Electroglottogram, pitch, intensity, and formant data were collected and compared. An increase in the frequency of F2 corresponded to an increase in the Closed Quotient (CQ), the length of time the vocal folds are closed, in a few

  1. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Circulating Covalent Protein Adducts Derived from a Drug Acyl Glucuronide Metabolite: Multiple Albumin Adductions in Diclofenac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas G.; Meng, Xiaoli; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Maggs, James L.; Castelazo, Anahi Santoyo; Regan, Sophie L.; Bennett, Stuart N. L.; Earnshaw, Caroline J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Pande, Ira; Kenna, J. Gerry; Stachulski, Andrew V.; Park, B. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Covalent protein modifications by electrophilic acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites are hypothetical causes of hypersensitivity reactions associated with certain carboxylate drugs. The complex rearrangements and reactivities of drug AG have been defined in great detail, and protein adducts of carboxylate drugs, such as diclofenac, have been found in liver and plasma of experimental animals and humans. However, in the absence of definitive molecular characterization, and specifically, identification of signature glycation conjugates retaining the glucuronyl and carboxyl residues, it cannot be assumed any of these adducts is derived uniquely or even fractionally from AG metabolites. We have therefore undertaken targeted mass spectrometric analyses of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from diclofenac patients to characterize drug-derived structures and, thereby, for the first time, have deconstructed conclusively the pathways of adduct formation from a drug AG and its isomeric rearrangement products in vivo. These analyses were informed by a thorough understanding of the reactions of HSA with diclofenac AG in vitro. HSA from six patients without drug-related hypersensitivities had either a single drug-derived adduct or one of five combinations of 2–8 adducts from among seven diclofenac N-acylations and three AG glycations on seven of the protein’s 59 lysines. Only acylations were found in every patient. We present evidence that HSA modifications by diclofenac in vivo are complicated and variable, that at least a fraction of these modifications are derived from the drug’s AG metabolite, and that albumin adduction is not inevitably a causation of hypersensitivity to carboxylate drugs or a coincidental association. PMID:24902585

  2. Synthesis and structural studies of flavin and alloxazine adducts with O-nucleophiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ménová, P.; Eigner, V.; Čejka, J.; Dvořáková, H.; Šanda, Miloslav; Cibulka, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1004, 1/3 (2011), s. 178-187 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1246 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alloxazine adducts * flavin adducts * flavoenzymes * X-ray structural analysis * NMR spectroscopy * UV-VIS spectroscopy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2011

  3. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2aand Biological Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  4. Base-Resolution Analysis of Cisplatin–DNA Adducts at the Genome Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Xiaoting; Xiong, Xushen; Song, Jinghui; He, Chuan; Yi, Chengqi

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, crosslinks DNA and ultimately induces cell death. However, the genomic pattern of cisplatin–DNA adducts has remained unknown owing to the lack of a reliable and sensitive genome-wide method. Herein we present “cisplatin-seq” to identify genome-wide cisplatin crosslinking sites at base resolution. Cisplatin-seq reveals that mitochondrial DNA is a preferred target of cisplatin. For nuclear genomes, cisplatin–DNA adducts are enriched withi...

  5. Correlation of tumors with DNA adducts from methyl eugenol and tamoxifen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, William J; Crooks, Neil H; Carmichael, Paul L

    2004-05-01

    Data on percent tumors in male rats after administration of methyl eugenol, obtained from the National Toxicology Program, or tamoxifen were plotted on a linear scale for percent tumors against the dose on a logarithmic scale. Data on (32)P-postlabelled DNA adducts were plotted on the same graphs for each of these two compounds in order to correlate adduct formation and tumor incidence with dose. The resulting graph for methyl eugenol showed a linear response for both adduct formation and tumor incidence. The threshold dose of administered methyl eugenol for adduct formation (zero adducts) was 10(19.3) molecules of methyl eugenol/kg/day, which compared with a threshold of 10(20.1) molecules of methyl eugenol/kg/day for tumor formation; however, 30 adducts/10(8) nucleotides was the threshold for tumor formation. The dose of tamoxifen for adduct formation fit an exponential plot slightly better than a linear plot, but reached minimal values close to the threshold of 10(18.7) molecules of tamoxifen/kg/day for tumor formation. These data confirm that tumor formation coincides with adduct formation and that both have thresholds, or at least reach minimal values, above levels to which humans are exposed. Although the threshold dose for tumor formation from tamoxifen is only about 10x above the dose received by women at risk for breast cancer, this should be an adequate safety margin. The safety factor for methyl eugenol is several orders of magnitude; therefore, there should be no cause for concern for humans at current levels of exposure.

  6. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles.Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System.There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables, while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84. No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables, indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames.The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment.

  7. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-02-16

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  9. Scavenging of Toxic Acrolein by Resveratrol and Hesperetin and Identification of Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Qi, Yajing; Rocca, James R; Sarnoski, Paul J; Jia, Aiqun; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of resveratrol and hesperetin to scavenge acrolein at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. About 6.4 or 5.2% of acrolein remained after reaction with resveratrol or hesperetin for 12 h at equimolar concentrations. An acrolein-resveratrol adduct and two acrolein-hesperetin adducts were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Acrolein reacted with resveratrol at the C-2 and C-3 positions through nucleophilic addition and formed an additional heterocyclic ring. Two similar monoacrolein-conjugated adducts were identified for hesperetin. Spectroscopic data suggested each acrolein-hesperetin adduct was a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the existence of two chiral carbon atoms. Yield of adducts was low at pH 5.4 but increased at pH 7.4 and 8.4. Higher pH also promoted the formation of diacrolein adducts. Results suggest that resveratrol and hesperetin exert health benefits in part through neutralizing toxic acrolein in vivo.

  10. Chemistry and Chemical Equilibrium Dynamics of BMAA and Its Carbamate Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Parga, Pedro; Goto, Joy J; Krishnan, V V

    2018-01-01

    Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions. The formation of carbamate adducts from BMAA and bicarbonate is similar to the formation of carbamate adducts from non-proteinogenic amino acids. Structural, chemical, and biological information related to non-proteinogenic amino acids provide insight into the formation of and possible neurological action of BMAA. This article reviews the carbamate formation of BMAA in the presence of bicarbonate ions, with a particular focus on how the chemical equilibrium of BMAA carbamate adducts may affect the molecular mechanism of its function. Highlights of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based studies on the equilibrium process between free BMAA and its adducts are presented. The role of divalent metals on the equilibrium process is also explored. The formation and the equilibrium process of carbamate adducts of BMAA may answer questions on their neuroactive potency and provide strong motivation for further investigations into other toxic mechanisms.

  11. Cellulose based hybrid hydroxylated adducts for polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pisapia, Laura; Verdolotti, Letizia; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Di Maio, Ernesto; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid flexible polyurethane foams (HPU) were synthesized by using a hybrid hydroxilated adduct (HHA) based on renewable resources. In particular the HHA was obtained by dispersing cellulose wastes in colloidal silica at room temperature, pressure and humidity. The colloidal silica was selected for its ability of modifying the cellulose structure, by inducing a certain "destructurization" of the crystalline phase, in order to allow cellulose to react with di-isocyanate for the final synthesis of the polyurethane foam. In fact, cellulose-polysilicate complexes are engaged in the reaction with the isocyanate groups. This study provides evidence of the effects of the colloidal silica on the cellulose structure, namely, a reduction of the microfiber cellulose diameter and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polysilicate functional groups and the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose, as assessed by IR spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The HHA was added to a conventional polyol in different percentages (between 5 and 20%) to synthesize HPU in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The mixture was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Thermal analysis, optical microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on the foams. The results highlighted an improvement of thermal stability and a decrease of the cell size with respect neat polyurethane foam. Mechanical tests showed an improvement of the elastic modulus and of the damping properties with increasing HHA amount.

  12. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente; Lambert, Ian Henry; Stürup, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 μmol L⁻¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any significant amount within 24 h incubation. The accumulation and cytotoxicity of HSA-Pt was compared to 10 μmol L⁻¹ cisplatin for which a larger accumulation and cytotoxicity were observed in EATC compared to Lettré. The experiment was performed with cell medium exchange every fourth hour as HSA-Pt and cisplatin were not stable in RPMI-1640 with 10% serum. The stability was determined using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and after 4 h new platinum peaks were observed. These findings indicate that before conducting cell experiments, the stability of the compound in the cell medium should be investigated especially when long exposure times are applied. Furthermore, HSA-Pt was found to be stable in Hanks Balanced Saline Solution (HBSS) and in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) at pH 5.3, 6.1 and 7.4. Thus, the shift in pH when HSA-cisplatin passes from blood (pH 7.4) to tumor tissue (pH 5-6) is not capable of releasing cisplatin from HSA.

  13. Effects of thiourea and ammonium bicarbonate on the formation and stability of bifunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts : consequences for the accurate quantification of adducts in (cellular) DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Dijt, F.J.; Velde-Visser, S.D. van der; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cisplatin reacts with DNA by forming mainly bifunctional adducts via reactive monofunctional intermediates. When freshly platinated DNA was postincubated with thiourea (10 mM, at 23 or 37°C) for periods of up to 24 h, followed by determination of mono- and diadducts, a rapid initial decrease was

  14. Accurate analytical modeling of junctionless DG-MOSFET by green's function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ashutosh; Pandey, Nilesh

    2017-11-01

    An accurate analytical model of Junctionless double gate MOSFET (JL-DG-MOSFET) in the subthreshold regime of operation is developed in this work using green's function approach. The approach considers 2-D mixed boundary conditions and multi-zone techniques to provide an exact analytical solution to 2-D Poisson's equation. The Fourier coefficients are calculated correctly to derive the potential equations that are further used to model the channel current and subthreshold slope of the device. The threshold voltage roll-off is computed from parallel shifts of Ids-Vgs curves between the long channel and short-channel devices. It is observed that the green's function approach of solving 2-D Poisson's equation in both oxide and silicon region can accurately predict channel potential, subthreshold current (Isub), threshold voltage (Vt) roll-off and subthreshold slope (SS) of both long & short channel devices designed with different doping concentrations and higher as well as lower tsi/tox ratio. All the analytical model results are verified through comparisons with TCAD Sentaurus simulation results. It is observed that the model matches quite well with TCAD device simulations.

  15. Dispersion analysis of the Pn -Pn-1DG mixed finite element pair for atmospheric modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Mixed finite element methods provide a generalisation of staggered grid finite difference methods with a framework to extend the method to high orders. The ability to generate a high order method is appealing for applications on the kind of quasi-uniform grids that are popular for atmospheric modelling, so that the method retains an acceptable level of accuracy even around special points in the grid. The dispersion properties of such schemes are important to study as they provide insight into the numerical adjustment to imbalance that is an important component in atmospheric modelling. This paper extends the recent analysis of the P2 - P1DG pair, that is a quadratic continuous and linear discontinuous finite element pair, to higher polynomial orders and also spectral element type pairs. In common with the previously studied element pair, and also with other schemes such as the spectral element and discontinuous Galerkin methods, increasing the polynomial order is found to provide a more accurate dispersion relation for the well resolved part of the spectrum but at the cost of a number of unphysical spectral gaps. The effects of these spectral gaps are investigated and shown to have a varying impact depending upon the width of the gap. Finally, the tensor product nature of the finite element spaces is exploited to extend the dispersion analysis into two-dimensions.

  16. Regulation of iron transport related genes by boron in the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Hobusch, Ashtian R; Schroeder, Kristine J; Amin, Shady A; Hartnett, Andrej D; Barker, Ryan A; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-08-01

    While there has been extensive interest in the use of boron isotope ratios as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the high (0.4 mM) concentration and the depth-independent (conservative or non-nutrient-like) concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the modern ocean. Here we report that boron affects the expression of a number of protein and genes in the "algal-associated" Gram-negative marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Most intriguingly, a number of these proteins and genes are related to iron uptake. In a recent separate publication we have shown that boron regulates one such iron transport related protein, i.e. the periplasmic iron binding protein FbpA via a direct interaction of the metalloid with this protein. Here we show that a number of other iron uptake related genes are also affected by boron but in the opposite way i.e. they are up-regulated. We propose that the differential effect of boron on FbpA expression relative to other iron transport related genes is a result of an interaction between boron and the global iron regulatory protein Fur.

  17. Genetic modifiers of carcinogen DNA adducts in target lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Mark, Eugene J; Wain, John C; Christiani, David C

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of carcinogen DNA adducts in blood has been used as a surrogate for the target lung tissue. We aimed to examine whether genetic polymorphisms in several metabolic pathway genes modify the relation between DNA adducts in target lung and blood. One hundred and thirty-five early-stage lung cancer patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. DNA adducts were measured by the (32)P-postlabeling assay in lung and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in a subset of 53 who had paired blood samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in genes involved in phase II (GSTs, NAT2, EPHX and NQO1), DNA repair (ERCC1, ERCC2 and XRCC1) and DNA methylation (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) pathways. There was a significant correlation between DNA adduct levels in lung and blood within the different genotypes, with one exception. Significant modifications in adducts were found by variants in genes for phase II metabolism [NAT2 (1.51 for rapid versus 0.76 for slow, P = 0.022)], DNA repair [ERCC1 C118T (P = 0.014), ERCC2 (P = 0.003) and XRCC1 (P = 0.025)] and MTHFR [C677T (P = 0.005) and A1298C (P = 0.005)]. The relation between DNA adducts in blood MNCs and target lung tissue was significantly modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the three main pathways. Despite the relatively small sample size, our results suggest that genetic factors may need to be considered when assessing the association of DNA adducts using surrogate tissue in studies of lung cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand their role and the mechanisms.

  18. DNA adduct formation by the ubiquitous environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Volker M.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Osborne, Martin; Hewer, Alan; Seidel, Albrecht; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumours in animals and is suspected of being carcinogenic in humans. Of the compounds found in diesel exhaust, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen forming multiple DNA adducts in vitro. 3-Aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), 3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (3-Ac-ABA), and N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) were identified as 3-NBA metabolites. In order to gain insight into the pathways of metabolic activation leading to 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts we treated Wistar rats intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA, or N-Ac-N-OH-ABA and compared DNA adducts present in different organs. With each compound either four or five DNA adduct spots were detected by TLC in all tissues examined (lung, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and colon) using the nuclease P1 or butanol enrichment version of the 32 P-postlabelling method, respectively. Using HPLC co-chromatographic analysis we showed that all major 3-NBA-DNA adducts produced in vivo in rats are derived from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases and lack an N-acetyl group. Our results indicate that 3-NBA metabolites (3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA and N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) undergo several biotransformations and that N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-ABA) appears to be the common intermediate in 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formation. Therefore, 3-NBA-DNA adducts are useful biomarkers for exposure to 3-NBA and its metabolites and may help to identify enzymes involved in their metabolic activation

  19. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  20. Protonation reactions of electron adducts of acrylamide derivatives. A pulse radiolytic-kinetic spectrophotometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, V.; Lichtin, N.N.; Hayon, E.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption spectra of electron adducts of a number of α,β-unsaturated carboxamides and of methyl methacrylate, as well as of two isomeric types of protonated electron adducts, have been characterized by means of the technique of pulse radiolysis-kinetic absorption spectrophotometry. Spectra of the electron adducts are characterized by bands in the uv (epsilon/sub max/ approximately 10 4 M -1 cm -1 ) and in the visible (epsilon/sub max/ approximately 10 3 M -1 cm -1 ). The position of the uv band shifts 10--30 nm to shorter wavelength upon reversible protonation. Fast reversible protonation of electron adducts takes place at the carbonyl oxygen. The pK/sub a/ values of the electron adducts vary linearly with the pK/sub a/ values of the corresponding carboxylic acids: for acrylamide, 7.9; methacrylamide, 8.0; trans-crotonamide, 8.5; β,β-dimethylacrylamide, 9.5; N,N-dimethylacrylamide, 8.5; trans-cinnamamide, 7.2; methyl methacrylate, approximately7. Slower irreversible protonation of the electron adducts takes place at the β-carbon atom and is subject to general acid catalysis which obeys the Bronsted catalysis law. Uncatalyzed specific rates of β protonation of anion radicals (in units of 10 5 sec -1 ) are: for acrylamide, 1.4; for methacrylamide, 13; for trans-crotonamide, 0.22; for β,β-dimethylacrylamide, 0.21; for N,N-dimethylacrylamide, 3.7; for trans-cinnamamide, less than or equal to approximately .01; for methyl methacrylate, 4.5. The second-order decay of reversibly protonated electron adducts competes with irreversible β protonation. (U.S.)

  1. Comparative synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and 32P-postlabeling analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in human lung and the relationship to TP53 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Åshild; Kure, Elin H.; Nielsen, Per Sabro

    1996-01-01

    )-DNA adducts detected by SFS and the BPDE co-migrating spot detected by 32P-postlabeling. We have also analyzed the relationship between adduct levels and TP53 mutations. By postlabeling diagonal radioactive zone (DRZ) adducts were detected in 37 of 39 (95%) lung tissues from lung cancer patients......Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were studied in human lung from 39 lung cancer patients by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometric (SFS) and 32P-postlabeling assays. Regression analysis of the samples failed to detect any correlation between benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide (BPDE...... and the adduct level ranged from 6.81 to 108.50 adducts/10(8) nucleotide. Thirty-three of 39 (85%) had detectable levels of BPDE-DNA adducts (> 1 adduct/10(9) nucleotide). Current heavy smokers (> 20 cigarettes/day) have significantly higher DRZ adduct levels compared to individuals smoking less than 20...

  2. Reaction of aryne with aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman adducts: Synthesis of 4-quinolones and N-arylation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of aryne with aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman (aza-MBH adducts has been studied. Aryne reacts with aza-MBH adducts through a cascade insertion–cyclization–ene reaction to produce 4-quinolones in 18–44% yields; meanwhile, aza-MBH adducts undergo N-insertion reaction with aryne to afford N-arylation products in 27–77% yields.

  3. Outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty with and without arytenoid adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Schneider, Sarah L; Curtis, James; Langenstein, Jonelyn; Courey, Mark S; Yung, Katherine C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of medialization laryngoplasty (ML) performed alone compared to ML with arytenoid adduction (AA) on glottic gap and voice quality in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. Retrospective case series. UVFP patients treated with ML alone and ML with AA at the University of California San Francisco Voice and Swallowing Center were identified. Demographic information and history of laryngeal procedures were collected. Preoperative and postoperative examinations were digitally analyzed using ImageJ for normalized anterior and posterior glottic gap and voice samples graded with CAPE-V scores. Forty-seven patients underwent ML and 27 patients underwent ML with AA. Normalized anterior gap (AG) improved in both ML (preop: 4.4 pixel units (u), postop: 0.8 u; P < 0.001) and ML with AA groups (preop: 3.3 u, postop 0.6 u; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in normalized AG values between treatment groups. Postoperative normalized posterior gap (PG) improved in the ML with AA group only (preop: 1.8 u, postop: 0.5 u; P = 0.01). Overall severity, roughness, and strain voice parameters had acceptable reliability for analysis. Overall severity improved in ML (preop: 54, postop: 27; P < 0.001) and ML with AA (preop: 44, postop: 24; P = 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in any voice parameter between treatment groups. UVFP patients undergoing ML may benefit from addition of AA when a large posterior glottic gap is present. In this study, ML with AA but not ML alone resulted in statistically significant improvement in PG. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2591-2595, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Novel adducts from the reaction of 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one with 2'-deoxyguanosine. Structural characterization and potential as tools to investigate 1,3-butadiene carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Yan; Yu, Ying-Xin; An, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2015-01-25

    1-Chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is a potential reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a carcinogenic air pollutant. To develop tools that may help investigate the role of CBO in BD carcinogenicity and to develop biomarkers that can be used to assess BD exposure, the reaction of CBO with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) under in vitro physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C) was investigated and the products (designated as CG-1, CG-2, CG-3, CG-4, CG-5, and CG-6 based on their retention times on HPLC) were characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopy. The structures of CG-1, CG-2, CG-3, and CG-4 were 1,N2-(3-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, N7-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, N7,8-(3-hydroxy-3-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)guanine and N2-(4-chloro-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, respectively. CG-5 and CG-6, a pair of diastereomers, were characterized as 1,N2-(3-hydroxy-3-chloromethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine. CG-1 was stable under in vitro physiological conditions, whereas CG-2, CG-3, CG-4, and CG-5/6 were unstable and exhibited the half-lives at <1.0, 4.8±0.1, 6.7±0.3, and 2.7±0.1 h, respectively. CG-2 decomposed primarily via a retro-Michael reaction to produce dG and CBO, with only a small fraction of CG-2 degrading to CG-3. Decomposition of CG-4 proceeded via a cyclization reaction and/or replacement of the chlorine atom by a hydroxyl group to form 1,N2-(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CG-4D1) and N(2)-(4-hydroxy-3-oxobutyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CG-4D2), whereas decomposition of CG-5/6 yielded CG-1. Collectively, the newly characterized CBO adducts could be used to investigate the role of CBO in the mechanism of BD carcinogenicity and could also be used to develop biomarkers for BD exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Market and regulatory incentives for cost efficient integration of DG in the electricity system. IMPROGRES project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M. [Liander, Duiven (Netherlands); Trebolle, D. [Union Fenosa Distribucion, Madrid (Spain); Doersam, B. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Bofinger, S.; Gerhardt, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, IWES, Bremerhaven (Germany); Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Achieving the European target of 20% reduction of greenhouse gases in 2020 relies for a major part on increasing the share of renewable electricity generation, and more efficient fossil fuel based generation in combined heat and power installations. Most of these renewable and CHP generators are smaller in size than conventional power plants and are therefore usually connected to distribution grids instead of transmission grids. Different support schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) have been successfully implemented and have resulted in a rapid growth of distributed generation (DG). IMPROGRES scenario analysis shows that the installed capacity of DG in the EU-25 is expected to increase from 201 GW in 2008 to about 317 GW in 2020. A large part of this increase will be made up of more variable and less controllable renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaics.

  6. Market and regulatory incentives for cost efficient integration of DG in the electricity system. IMPROGRES project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J.; Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T.; Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M.; Trebolle, D.; Doersam, B.; Bofinger, S.; Gerhardt, N.; Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S.; Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K.

    2010-05-01

    Achieving the European target of 20% reduction of greenhouse gases in 2020 relies for a major part on increasing the share of renewable electricity generation, and more efficient fossil fuel based generation in combined heat and power installations. Most of these renewable and CHP generators are smaller in size than conventional power plants and are therefore usually connected to distribution grids instead of transmission grids. Different support schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) have been successfully implemented and have resulted in a rapid growth of distributed generation (DG). IMPROGRES scenario analysis shows that the installed capacity of DG in the EU-25 is expected to increase from 201 GW in 2008 to about 317 GW in 2020. A large part of this increase will be made up of more variable and less controllable renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaics.

  7. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Nan; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Heflich, Robert H.; Chen, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by 32 P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the λ Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10 -6 in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10 -6 that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T → T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C → A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control rats. These results indicate that the AA treatment that eventually

  8. Fenpropathrin biodegradation pathway in Bacillus sp. DG-02 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Chang, Changqing; Deng, Yinyue; An, Shuwen; Dong, Yi Hu; Zhou, Jianuan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2014-03-12

    The widely used insecticide fenpropathrin in agriculture has become a public concern because of its heavy environmental contamination and toxic effects on mammals, yet little is known about the kinetic and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. This study reports the degradation kinetics and metabolic pathway of fenpropathrin in Bacillus sp. DG-02, previously isolated from the pyrethroid-manufacturing wastewater treatment system. Up to 93.3% of 50 mg L(-1) fenpropathrin was degraded by Bacillus sp. DG-02 within 72 h, and the degradation rate parameters qmax, Ks, and Ki were determined to be 0.05 h(-1), 9.0 mg L(-1), and 694.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Analysis of the degradation products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of seven metabolites of fenpropathrin, which suggest that fenpropathrin could be degraded first by cleavage of its carboxylester linkage and diaryl bond, followed by degradation of the aromatic ring and subsequent metabolism. In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, this strain was also found to be capable of degrading a wide range of synthetic pyrethroids including deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin, β-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and permethrin, which are also widely used insecticides with environmental contamination problems with the degradation process following the first-order kinetic model. Bioaugmentation of fenpropathrin-contaminated soils with strain DG-02 significantly enhanced the disappearance rate of fenpropathrin, and its half-life was sharply reduced in the soils. Taken together, these results depict the biodegradation mechanisms of fenpropathrin and also highlight the promising potentials of Bacillus sp. DG-02 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

  9. Changes in Policy and Market and Network Regulation to Increase Power Generation by Renewables and DG in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Van der Welle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance of 'Large scale DER integration' has increased as means to meet the ambitious 2020 EU policy objectives and targets for RES, emissions reductions and energy efficiency. Increasing the role of RES and DG (Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation or DER) in supply is also highly beneficial for reducing EU dependency on gas and oil imports. In this EU context, it is important to review the current barriers, support policies and network regulation for integration of more DG, RES and small scale CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the power systems. Several studies conducted for the EU and led by the ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) reveal that currently, in some, mainly new, Member States, the contribution of RES and DG is still very low. However, in coming decades the share of variable RES-E sources should become much larger in many EU countries. Note that 20% RES in a country in 2020 implies a share of electricity supply by RES of about 30% or more. Currently, countries like Denmark and Spain, already experience such a large contribution of (mostly intermittent type) renewables and this is already negatively impacting power system costs. Now the question arises whether or not we can increase the contribution of RES to the power supply beyond 20-30% without raising system inefficiency and what changes in system conditions and market and network regulation are necessary to efficiently absorb large volumes of so called intermittent RES supply resources. Based on findings from several large EU projects promoting the role of RES and DG in the power supply, the authors discuss and present the different barriers and solutions that should facilitate meeting the ambitious EU policy targets for RES in 2020

  10. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-03-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to /sup 32/P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C ..-->.. C x G or G x C ..-->.. T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria.

  11. Inhibition of nicotine-DNA adduct formation by polyphenolic compounds in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Li Hongli

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine[3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Some polyphenolic compounds can suppress the DNA adduction, and hence act as the potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three polyphenolic compounds, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) and tea polyphenols, on the nicotine-DNA adduction have been investigated in vitro using radiolabelled nicotine and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Also, the inhibition mechanism of these chemopreventive agents in regard to the activity of the biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome b 5 (CYb 5 ) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), has been studied. The results demonstrated that these three polyphenols induced marked dose-dependent decrease in nicotine-DNA adducts as compared with the controls. The elimination rate of adducts reached above 46% at the highest dose for all the three agents with 51.6% for resveratrol. Correspondingly, three polyphenols all suppressed CYP450 and CYb 5 , whereas curcumin and resveratrol induced GST. The authors may arrive at a point that the three polyphenols are beneficial to prevent the nicotine adduct formation, and thus may be used to block the potential carcinogenesis induced by nicotine. (authors)

  12. Formation, Repair, and Genotoxic Properties of Bulky DNA Adducts Formed from Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-(Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN are tobacco-specific nitrosamines present in tobacco products and smoke. Both compounds are carcinogenic in laboratory animals, generating tumors at sites comparable to those observed in smokers. These Group 1 human carcinogens are metabolized to reactive intermediates that alkylate DNA. This paper focuses on the DNA pyridyloxobutylation pathway which is common to both compounds. This DNA route generates 7-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine, O2-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxycytosine, O2-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxythymidine, and O6-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine as well as unstable adducts which dealkylate to release 4-hydroxy-1-{3-pyridyl-1-butanone or depyriminidate/depurinate to generate abasic sites. There are multiple repair pathways responsible for protecting against the genotoxic effects of these adducts, including adduct reversal as well as base and nucleotide excision repair pathways. Data indicate that several DNA adducts contribute to the overall mutagenic properties of pyridyloxobutylating agents. Which adducts contribute to the carcinogenic properties of this pathway are likely to depend on the biochemistry of the target tissue.

  13. Novel approach of medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction performed under general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Nicholas W; Lee, Jennifer W; Cole, Ian E

    2012-02-01

    To objectively assess the voice outcomes of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis treated with medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. Case series of patients who underwent medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. Preoperative and postoperative voice testing was performed and the data were compared by statistical analysis. Tertiary referral teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. All patients had a unilateral vocal fold paralysis, with a large posterior glottic gap and vocal symptoms affecting their quality of life. Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of a unilateral vocal fold paralysis with a large posterior glottic gap, vocal symptoms, and total denervation of the vocal fold underwent medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. The surgery was performed in a novel method under a general anesthetic using a laryngeal mask and with direct intraoperative endoscopic feedback. Preoperative and postoperative measures of voice performance were compared, including acoustic analysis (fundamental frequency, speech intensity against quiet and loud background noise, speech rate) and aerodynamic assessment (airflow, maximum phonation time). Medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction suture significantly improved aerodynamic assessment and phonation duration for both male and female subjects overall. There were 2 of 13 treatment failures. Median follow-up time was 6 months. Preliminary results indicate that in selected patients with vocal fold paralysis, medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction suture leads to significant improvements in objective voice measures. Longer follow-up data are required to further quantify the voice outcomes after this procedure.

  14. Repair capacity for platinum-DNA adducts determines the severity of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzagnidze, Anna; Katsarava, Zaza; Makhalova, Julia; Liedert, Bernd; Yoon, Min-Suk; Kaube, Holger; Limmroth, Volker; Thomale, Juergen

    2007-08-29

    The pronounced neurotoxicity of the potent antitumor drug cisplatin frequently results in the onset of peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP), which is assumed to be initially triggered by platination products in the nuclear DNA of affected tissues. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we analyzed in a mouse model the formation and processing of the main cisplatin-induced DNA adduct (guanine-guanine intrastrand cross-link) in distinct neuronal cell types by adduct-specific monoclonal antibodies. Comparison of the adduct kinetics in cisplatin-injected mice either proficient or deficient for nucleotide excision repair (NER) functions revealed the essential role of this DNA repair pathway in protecting differentiated cells of the nervous system from excessive formation of such lesions. Hence, chronic exposure to cisplatin resulted in an accelerated accumulation of unrepaired intrastrand cross-links in neuronal cells of mice with dysfunctional NER. The augmented adduct levels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells of those animals coincided with an earlier onset of PNP-like functional disturbance of their sensory nervous system. Independently from the respective repair phenotype, the amount of persisting DNA cross-links in DRG neurons at a given cumulative dose was significantly correlated to the degree of sensory impairment as measured by electroneurography. Collectively, these findings suggest a new model for the processing of cisplatin adducts in primary neuronal cells and accentuate the crucial role of effectual DNA repair capacity in the target cells for the individual risk of therapy-induced PNP.

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  17. Differential protein adduction by seven organophosphorus pesticides in both brain and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Wayne G; Tarhoni, Mabruka; Rathbone, Alexandra J; Ray, David E

    2007-04-01

    There is a need for mechanistic understanding of the lasting ill health reported in several studies of workers exposed to organophosphorus (OP) pesticide. Although the acute toxicity is largely explicable by acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the lasting effects of frank poisoning by direct excitotoxicity or indirect consequences of the cholinergic syndrome, effects at lower levels of exposure would not be predicted from these mechanisms. Similarly, reversible interactions with nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in adults would not predict continuing ill health. Many OP pesticides produce protein adduction, and the lasting nature of this makes it a candidate mechanism for the production of continuing ill health. We found significant adduction of partially characterized protein targets in both rat brain and thymus by azamethiphos, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, dichlorvos and malaoxon, in vitro and pirimiphos-methyl in vivo. The diversity in the adduction pattern seen across these agents at low dose levels means that any longer term effects of adduction would be specific to specific organophosphates, rather than generic. This presents a challenge to epidemiology, as most exposures are to different agents over time. However, some adducted proteins are also expressed in blood, notably albumin, and so may provide exposure measures to increase the power of future epidemiological studies.

  18. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of model peptide adducts with reactive metabolites of naphthalene by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Pham

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect.

  20. KINEMATICS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM THE YOUNG STAR DG TAU B: ROTATION IN THE VICINITIES OF AN OPTICAL JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Tafoya, Daniel [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fernández-López, Manuel, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present {sup 12}CO(2-1) line and 1300 μm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array of the young star DG Tau B. We find, in the continuum observations, emission arising from the circumstellar disk surrounding DG Tau B. The {sup 12}CO(2-1) line observations, on the other hand, revealed emission associated with the disk and the asymmetric outflow related with this source. Velocity asymmetries about the flow axis are found over the entire length of the flow. The amplitude of the velocity differences is of the order of 1-2 km s{sup –1} over distances of about 300-400 AU. We interpret them as a result of outflow rotation. The sense of the outflow and disk rotation is the same. Infalling gas from a rotating molecular core cannot explain the observed velocity gradient within the flow. Magneto-centrifugal disk winds or photoevaporated disk winds can produce the observed rotational speeds if they are ejected from a Keplerian disk at radii of several tens of AU. Nevertheless, these slow winds ejected from large radii are not very massive, and cannot account for the observed linear momentum and angular momentum rates of the molecular flow. Thus, the observed flow is probably entrained material from the parent cloud. DG Tau B is a good laboratory to model in detail the entrainment process and see if it can account for the observed angular momentum.