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Sample records for aminodifluorosulfinium salts selective

  1. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  2. Overview of ONWI'S Salt site selection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madia, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the past year, activities in the salt site selection program of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) have focused on narrowing the number and size of areas under consideration as candidate repository sites. The progressive focusing is illustrated. Bedded salt, in the Permian Basin of West Texas and the Paradox Basin of Utah, and salt domes in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region (including parts of East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi) have been the subjects of geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic characterization of progressively greater detail as the screening process has proceeded. Detailed, field-oriented research and testing have superceded broad-based studies relying heavily on literature and other existing data. Coinciding with the increased field activities has been the publication of results and recommendations resulting from earlier program efforts

  3. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.

    1997-01-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Salt Selection for the LS-VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Clarno, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Molten fluorides were initially developed for use in the nuclear industry as the high temperature fluid-fuel for a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). The Office of Nuclear Energy is exploring the use of molten fluorides as a primary coolant (rather than helium) in an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design, also know as the Liquid-Salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This paper provides a review of relevant properties for use in evaluation and ranking of candidate coolants for the LS-VHTR. Nuclear, physical, and chemical properties were reviewed and metrics for evaluation are recommended. Chemical properties of the salt were examined for the purpose of identifying factors that effect materials compatibility (i.e., corrosion). Some preliminary consideration of economic factors for the candidate salts is also presented. (authors)

  6. Cum grano salis - NAA of selected salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trace element concentrations of salt samples from different regions, in particular Austria, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Investigated types of salt were Rock-, Sea-, Lake-, and Evaporated Salt. The main objective was to find out whether the consumption of salt can contribute significantly to the daily human requirements of trace elements. Therefore, trace element concentrations in the untreated samples were compared to those of specially treated samples, simulating digestive uptake using a simple model. Salt is a non-trivial matrix for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) because of very high background activities from 38 Cl and 24 Na, as well as the bremsstrahlung of 32 P (originating from 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P). Because of this fact, detection limits in salt are higher compared to other matrices. Nevertheless, several elements could be detected, namely Al, Ba, Br, (Ca), Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn, some of them only in single samples. In most samples the concentrations of trace elements in salt were too low to show biological effects. Salt can therefore only significantly contribute the essential elements sodium, chlorine, and, if added on purpose, fluorine and iodine to human nutrition. The contribution of all other traces in salt to the average daily human requirements can be neglected. Thus, from an analytical point of view, there is no health reason to use unpurified salt. There are, however, a few drawbacks to the use of unpurified salt, as hygroscopic compounds like MgCl 2 , and even toxic heavy metals like chromium or thorium. Especially rare earth element (REE) concentrations can often be used to obtain a chemical fingerprint, which can be used to identify the origin of an unknown sample. In the case of this study, the sample number from each region was too small to collect significant data. Therefore more analytical information is needed

  7. Molten salt oxidation as a technique for decommissioning: selection of low melting point salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Garcia, Vitor F.; Benvegnu, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    During the 70 and 80 years, IPEN built several facilities in pilot scale, destined to the technological domain of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In the nineties, radical changes in the Brazilian nuclear policy determined the interruption of the activities and the shut-down of pilot plants. Nowadays, IPEN has been facing the problem of the dismantling and decommissioning of its Nuclear Fuel Cycle old facilities. The facility CELESTE-I of the IPEN is a laboratory where reprocessing studies were accomplished during the decade of 80 and in the beginning of the 90s. The last operations occurred in 92-93. The research activities generated radioactive wastes in the form of organic and aqueous solutions of different compositions and concentrations. For the treatment of these liquid wastes it was proposed a study of waste thermal decomposition based on the molten salt oxidation process.Decomposition tests of different organic wastes have been performed in laboratory equipment developed at IPEN, in the range of temperatures of 900 to 1020 deg C, demonstrating the complete oxidation of the compounds. The reduction of the process temperatures would be of crucial importance. Besides this, the selection of lower melting point salt mixtures would have an important impact in the reduction of equipment costs. Several experiments were performed to determine the most suitable salt mixtures, optimizing costs and melting temperatures as low as possible. This paper describes the main characteristics of the molten salt oxidation process, besides the selection of salt mixtures of binary and ternary compositions, respectively Na 2 CO 3 - NaOH and Na 2 CO 3 - K 2 CO 3 -Li 2 CO 3 . (author)

  8. Salt Repository emplacement mode evaluation and selection: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the decision analysis performed to evaluate and compare the emplacement mode for the Salt Repository. The study was commissioned to recommend one emplacement mode to the Salt Repository Project Office using multi-attribute decision analysis. The nature of the decision required analysis of uncertain outcomes and conflicting attributes and offers a high degree of objectivity for these types of decisions since the decision model is structured to allow only the facts to enter into the final decision. The analysis requires an explicit definition of the attributes used to evaluate the alternative (e.g., cost, safety, environmental impact), the definition of a utility function over the attributes which incorporated both risk attitudes and trade-offs between attributes, and the probability distribution over the outcomes that would result from the selection of one alternative over the other. The decision process is described and results are given. A simulation model was developed to evaluate the probability distributions over the attributes. This report documents logic, inputs and results of this model. Final ranking of alternatives is given. Extensive technical backup documentation is included in the appendices to provide the quantitative basis for this decision. 5 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Marker assisted selection and crop management for salt tolerance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Accepted 4 July, 2011. Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints for crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas ... INTRODUCTION. Salt tolerance is ... arid and arid climates (Asch et al.,1997) in general, and.

  10. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

  11. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

  12. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  13. In vitro selection of mutants: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.; Bastola, D.R.; Deutch, C.E.; Pethe, V.V.; Petrusa, L.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of differentially expressed genes in plants may be involved in inducing tolerance to stress. Isogenic salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant alfalfa lines were investigated for molecular differences in their response to salt. The genes, which are differentially induced by salt in the salt-tolerant alfalfa cells and are also regulated by salt at the whole plant level, were cloned. Both transcriptional and post- transcriptional mechanisms influenced salt-induced product accumulation in the salt-tolerant alfalfa. The salt-tolerant plants doubled proline concentration rapidly in roots, while salt-sensitive plants showed a delayed response. To understand the regulatory system in the salt-tolerant alfalfa, two genes that are expressed in roots were studied. Alfin1 encodes a zinc-finger type putative DNA transcription factor conserved in alfalfa, rice and Arabidopsis, and MsPRP2 encodes a protein that serves as a cell wall- membrane linker in roots. Recombinant Alfin1 protein was selected, amplified, cloned and its consensus sequence was identified. The recombinant Alfin1 also bound specifically to fragments of the MsPRP2 promoter in vitro, containing the Alfin1 binding consensus sequence. The results show unambiguously binding specificity of Alfin1 DNA, supporting its role in gene regulation. Alfin1 function was tested in transformed alfalfa in vivo by over-expressing Alfin1 from 35S CaMV promoter. The transgenic plants appeared normal. However, plants harboring the anti-sense construct did not grow well in soil, indicating that Alfin1 expression was essential. Alfin1 over-expression in transgenic alfalfa led to enhanced levels of MsPRP2 transcript accumulation, demonstrating that Alfin1 functioned in vivo in gene regulation. Since MsPRP2 gene is also induced by salt, it is likely that Alfin1 is an important transcription factor for gene regulation in salt-tolerant alfalfa, and an excellent target for manipulation to improve salt tolerance. (author)

  14. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  15. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  16. Selection and genetic relationship of salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Young; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Chul [National Academy of Agriculture and Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Song Joong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Plants have evolved physiological, biochemical and metabolic mechanisms to increase their survival under the adverse conditions. This present study has been performed to select salt tolerant rice mutant lines through in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-rays. For the selection of the salt-tolerant rice mutants, we conducted three times of selection procedure using 1,500 gamma ray mutant lines resulted from an embryo culture of the original rice cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): first, selection in the a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: second, selection under in vitro condition with 171 mM NaCI: and third, selection in a reclaimed saline land. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of the mutant lines, two putative 2 salt tolerant (ST) rice mutant lines, ST-87 and ST-301, were finally selected. The survival rate of the WT, ST-87 and ST-301 were 36.6%, 60% and 66.3% after 7 days in 171 mM NaCI treatment, respectively. The WT and two salt tolerant mutant lines were used to analyze their genetic variations. A total of 21 EcoRI and Msel primer combinations were used to analyze the genetic relationship of among the two salt tolerant lines and the WT using the ABI3130 capillary electrophoresis system. In the AFLP analysis, a total of 1469 bands were produced by the 21 primer combinations, and 700 (47.6%) of them were identified as having polymorphism. The genetic similarity coefficients were ranged from 0.52 between the ST-87 and WT to 0.24 between the ST-301 and the WT. These rice mutant lines will be used as a control plot for physiological analysis and genetic research on salt tolerance.

  17. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  18. Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix.

  19. An approach to selecting routes over which to transport excess salt from the Deaf Smith County Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report presents an approach to be utilized in the identification of rail and/or highway routes for the disposal of waste salt and other salt contaminated material from repository construction. Relevant issues regarding salt transport also are identified. The report identifies a sequence of activities that precede actual route selection, i.e., final selection of a salt disposal method and its location, refined estimates of salt shipment volume and schedule, followed by selection of rail or truck or a combination thereof, as the preferred transport mode. After these factors are known, the route selection process can proceed. Chapter 2.0 of this report identifies directives and requirements that potentially could affect salt transport from the Deaf Smith site. A summary of salt disposal alternatives and reference cases is contained in Chapter 3.0. Chapter 4.0 identifies and discusses current methods of salt handling and transport in the United States, and also provides some perspective as to the volume of excess salt to be transported from the Deaf Smith site relative to current industry practices. Chapter 5.0 identifies an approach to the salt transportation issue, and suggests one system for evaluating alternative highway routes for truck shipments

  20. Molten salt power towers operating at 600–650 °C: Salt selection and cost benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauer, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    This analysis examines the potential benefit of adopting the supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycle at 600-650 degrees C compared to the current state-of-the-art power tower operating a steam-Rankine cycle with solar salt at approximately 574 degrees C. The analysis compares a molten-salt power tower configuration using direct storage of solar salt (60:40 wt% sodium nitrate: potassium nitrate) or single-component nitrate salts at 600 degrees C or alternative carbonate- or chloride-based salts at 650 degrees C.

  1. Salts-based size-selective precipitation: toward mass precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Min; Xu, Shu-Hong; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2010-01-19

    Purification is a necessary step before the application of nanocrystals (NCs), since the excess matter in nanoparticles solution usually causes a disadvantage to their subsequent coupling or assembling with other materials. In this work, a novel salts-based precipitation technique is originally developed for the precipitation and size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs. Simply by addition of salts, NCs can be precipitated from the solution. After decantation of the supernatant solution, the precipitates can be dispersed in water again. By means of adjusting the addition amount of salt, size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs can be achieved. Namely, the NCs with large size are precipitated preferentially, leaving small NCs in solution. Compared with the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, the current one is simpler and more rapid due to the avoidance of condensation and heating manipulations used in the traditional precipitation process. Moreover, the salts-based precipitation technique was generally available for the precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles, no matter if there were semiconductor NCs or metal nanoparticles. Simultaneously, the cost of the current method is also much lower than that of the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, making it applicable for mass purification of aqueous NCs.

  2. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  3. Preliminary area selection considerations for radioactive waste repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    This guide describes an approach to selection of areas of bedded salt which contain potentially suitable sites for the storage of radioactive waste. To evaluate a site selected by a license applicant, it is necessary to understand the technical site characteristics which should be considered in the preliminary phase of site selection. These site characteristics are presented here in checklist form, and each item is accompanied by a discussion which explains its significance. These qualitative considerations are used first to select an area of interest within a broad geologic or geomorphic region. Once an area has been selected, more quantitative information must be acquired to determine whether the proposed site meets the resultations for storage of nuclear waste

  4. Regulatory monitoring systems of fortified salt and wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Bégin, France; Codling, Karen; Randall, Philip; Johnson, Quentin W

    2013-06-01

    Considerable efforts have been made over the past decade to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies. An increasing number of countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are adopting mandatory food fortification as one of the primary strategies to overcome these deficiencies. Experience shows that fortified foods can reach large parts of the population, including the poor, if the fortification is done on a mandatory rather than a voluntary basis and if the food vehicle is widely consumed. To review the importance of regulatory monitoring as an essential component of food fortification efforts in selected ASEAN countries, with special focus on the available information on regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour. The role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification programs was discussed during a joint regional meeting of the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the Flour Fortification Initiative, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, the Micronutrient Initiative, and the World Bank on regulatory monitoring of salt and wheat flour fortification programs in Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on 27-29 September 2011. This paper reviews the regulatory monitoring systems of selected ASEAN countries that participated in this meeting. Problems and challenges in regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries are identified, and a description of the role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification initiatives, particularly of salt and flour, and highlights of areas for improvement are presented. Regulatory monitoring consists of monitoring activities conducted at the production level, at customs warehouses, and at retail stores by concerned regulatory authorities, and at the production level by producers themselves, as part of quality control and assurance efforts. Unless there are appropriate enforcement and quality

  5. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, Gozal; Kochba, Joshua

    1983-01-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of `Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na+ and Cl− uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K+ and Cl− accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl−. (d) Removal of Ca2+ from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663067

  6. Phase-selective staining of metal salt for scanning electron microscopy imaging of block copolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing Ze, E-mail: Lijinge@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronic and Solid-state Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering (Sichuan University), Chengdu 610054 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Urumuqi 830011 (China); Wang, Ying; Hong Wang, Zhi; Mei, Di; Zou, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronic and Solid-state Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Min Chang, Ai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering (Sichuan University), Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qi [Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Urumuqi 830011 (China); Komura, Motonori; Ito, Kaori [Division of Integrated Molecular Engineering, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Iyoda, Tomokazu, E-mail: Iyoda.t.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Division of Integrated Molecular Engineering, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Three metal salts, i.e., AgNO{sub 3}, HAuCl{sub 4}, and KCl, were proposed as novel staining reagents instead of traditional RuO{sub 4} and OsO{sub 4} labeled with expensive price and extreme toxicity for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of microphase separated block copolymer film. A simple and costless aqueous solution immersion procedure could ensure selective staining of the metal slat in specific phase of the nanostructured copolymer film, leading to a clear phase contrasted SEM image. The heavy metal salt has better staining effect, demonstrating stable and high signal-to-noise SEM image even at an acceleration voltage as high as 30 kV and magnification up to 250,000 times.

  7. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables

  8. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  9. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  10. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  11. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  12. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature.

  13. Anion mediated polytype selectivity among the basic salts of Co(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, T. N.; Rajamathi, Michael; Vishnu Kamath, P.

    2006-08-01

    Basic salts of Co(II) crystallize in the rhombohedral structure. Two different polytypes, 3R 1 and 3R 2, with distinct stacking sequences of the metal hydroxide slabs, are possible within the rhombohedral structure. These polytypes are generated by simple translation of successive layers by (2/3, 1/3, z) or (1/3, 2/3, z). The symmetry of the anion and the mode of coordination influences polytype selection. Cobalt hydroxynitrate crystallizes in the structure of the 3R 2 polytype while the hydroxytartarate, hydroxychloride and α-cobalt hydroxide crystallize in the structure of the 3R 1 polytype. Cobalt hydroxysulfate is turbostratically disordered. The turbostratic disorder is a direct consequence of the mismatch between the crystallographically defined interlayer sites generated within the crystal and the tetrahedral symmetry of the SO 42- ions.

  14. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation

  15. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  16. Anion mediated polytype selectivity among the basic salts of Co(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, T.N.; Rajamathi, Michael; Vishnu Kamath, P.

    2006-01-01

    Basic salts of Co(II) crystallize in the rhombohedral structure. Two different polytypes, 3R 1 and 3R 2 , with distinct stacking sequences of the metal hydroxide slabs, are possible within the rhombohedral structure. These polytypes are generated by simple translation of successive layers by (2/3, 1/3, z) or (1/3, 2/3, z). The symmetry of the anion and the mode of coordination influences polytype selection. Cobalt hydroxynitrate crystallizes in the structure of the 3R 2 polytype while the hydroxytartarate, hydroxychloride and α-cobalt hydroxide crystallize in the structure of the 3R 1 polytype. Cobalt hydroxysulfate is turbostratically disordered. The turbostratic disorder is a direct consequence of the mismatch between the crystallographically defined interlayer sites generated within the crystal and the tetrahedral symmetry of the SO 4 2- ions. - Graphical abstract: (a) Observed PXRD pattern of cobalt hydroxytartarate compared with the DIFFaX simulated patterns of (b) 3R 1 and (c) 3R 2 polytypes, respectively

  17. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterward undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. 44 refs., 3 figs

  18. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterwards undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows some trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. (author)

  19. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  20. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  1. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  2. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M; Krstonošić Veljko S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, ...

  3. Screening selected genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] for salt tolerance during seedling growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogile, A; Andargie, M; Muthuswamy, M

    2013-07-15

    The environmental stress such as, salinity (soil or water) are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world. This study was conducted to assess the potential for salt tolerance of cowpea genotypes during the seedling stage. The experimental treatments were 9 cowpea genotypes and 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) and they were tested in greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized design in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1) statistical software. Seedling shoots and root traits, seedling shoots and root weight, number of leaves and total biological yield were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length, shoot length, seedling shoot and root weight of cowpea genotypes. The extent of decrease varied with genotypes and salt concentrations. Most genotypes were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. The correlation analysis revealed positive and significant association among most of the parameters. Genotypes 210856, 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The study revealed the presence of broad intra specific genetic variation in cowpea varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production.

  4. Foraging site choice and diet selection of Meadow Pipits Anthus pratensis breeding on grazed salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Mandema, Freek S.; Bakker, Jan P.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Breeding Meadow Pipits foraged for caterpillars and large spiders in vegetation that was less heterogeneous than vegetation at random locations.Aims To gain a better understanding of the foraging ecology of breeding Meadow Pipits on grazed coastal salt marshes, we tested three hypotheses:

  5. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  6. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  7. Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described

  8. Molecular interactions between selected sodium salts of bile acids and morphine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Kövér, Katalin E; Guzsvány, Valéria; Batta, Gyula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the prolonged analgesic action of morphine hydrochloride observed in the presence of sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate. Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. In addition to the sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate, the present investigation also included salts of cholic and 7-oxodeoxycholic acids. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments showed that morphine binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt approaches the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of the affected protons decrease significantly in the presence of micellar solutions of the bile acid salts, and the most pronounced change in T(1) was observed for sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate. Diffusion-ordered NMR experiments suggested that morphine hydrochloride can interact only with sodium 7-oxochenodeoxycholate. It can be supposed that the molecular ratio of sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate and morphine hydrochloride in the mixed micelle is 2:1. The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. In the presence of bile acids, the transfer rate constant (k(12)) of morphine hydrochloride from the buffered aqueous solution to chloroform (model of the cell membrane) shows a decrease. A significant decrease of the k(12) was also observed in the presence of micellar solutions. Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  10. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Mechanistic Insight into Salt Tolerance of Acacia auriculiformis: The Importance of Ion Selectivity, Osmoprotection, Tissue Tolerance, and Na+ Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. M.; Rahman, Md. A.; Miah, Md. G.; Saha, Satya R.; Karim, M. A.; Mostofa, Mohammad G.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity, one of the major environmental constraints, threatens soil health and consequently agricultural productivity worldwide. Acacia auriculiformis, being a halophyte, offers diverse benefits against soil salinity; however, the defense mechanisms underlying salt-tolerant capacity in A. auriculiformis are still elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate mechanisms regulating the adaptability of the multi-purpose perennial species A. auriculiformis to salt stress. The growth, ion homeostasis, osmoprotection, tissue tolerance and Na+ exclusion, and anatomical adjustments of A. auriculiformis grown in varied doses of seawater for 90 and 150 days were assessed. Results showed that diluted seawater caused notable reductions in the level of growth-related parameters, relative water content, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and carbohydrates in dose- and time-dependent manners. However, the percent reduction of these parameters did not exceed 50% of those of control plants. Na+ contents in phyllodes and roots increased with increasing levels of salinity, whereas K+ contents and K+/Na+ ratio decreased significantly in comparison with control plants. A. auriculiformis retained more Na+ in the roots and maintained higher levels of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and K+/Na+ ratio in phyllodes than roots through ion selective capacity. The contents of proline, total free amino acids, total sugars and reducing sugars significantly accumulated together with the levels of malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage in the phyllodes, particularly at day 150th of salt treatment. Anatomical investigations revealed various anatomical changes in the tissues of phyllodes, stems and roots by salt stress, such as increase in the size of spongy parenchyma of phyllodes, endodermal thickness of stems and roots, and the diameter of root vascular bundle, relative to control counterparts. Furthermore, the estimated values for Na+ exclusion and tissue tolerance index suggested that

  13. Further studies on selective radioprotection by organic zinc salts and synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Bieri, A.

    1990-01-01

    Protection of the haematocrit and thrombocytes by small doses of the aminothiol radioprotector WR 2721 was markedly improved by the concomitant administration of small doses of zinc aspartate. Zinc aspartate was the only one of the tested zinc salts not inhibiting the regression induced by radiotherapy of human tumours grown as xenografts in immunosuppressed mice. This also applied to zinc aspartate with WR 2721. A dose of zinc aspartate which afforded synergistic haematological protection did not enhance the toxicity of WR 2721. The synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721 and the differential radioprotection of the combined protocol may make it possible in clinical cancer radiotherapy to obtain selective radioprotection at a lower toxicity giving an improved therapeutic ratio compared with WR 2721 alone. (author)

  14. In vitro selection of salinity tolerant variants from triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x C. dactylon) and their physiological responses to salt and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Peng, Xinxiang; Guo, Zhenfei; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Zhongcheng; Wang, Congying; Pang, Chaoshu; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Jihua

    2007-08-01

    A protocol was established for in vitro selection of salinity tolerant somaclonal variations from suspension cultured calli of triploid bermudagrass cv. TifEagle. To induce somaclonal variations the calli were subcultured for 18 months and were then subject to three-round selections for salt-tolerant calli by placing on solid medium containing 0.3 M NaCl for 10 days followed by a recovery for 2 weeks. The surviving calli were regenerated on regeneration medium containing 0.1 M NaCl. Three somaclonal variant lines (2, 71, and 77) were obtained and analyzed. The selected somaclonal lines showed higher relative growth and less injury than TifEagle under salt stress, indicating that they increased salt tolerance. In addition, they had higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage than TifEagle after withholding irrigation, indicating that they also increased drought tolerance. The three somaclonal variant lines had higher proline content than TifEagle under normal growth condition. The line 71 had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio, whereas the lines 2 and 77 had higher CAT activity under control and salt stress conditions, indicating that different mechanisms for salt tolerance might exist in these three lines.

  15. Radiolytic and thermal stability of selected plutonium salts containing nitrate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, G.H.

    1976-04-01

    (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O, K 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 , and (NH 4 ) 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 ) were studied to evaluate their ability to serve as shipping forms that meet criteria. The radiolytic gas evolution study eliminated (NH 4 ) 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 from further consideration. None of the compounds produced H 2 or O 2 in sufficient quantity to produce a flammable mixture, except Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O which produced O 2 and H 2 in a ratio that is above explosive limits after long storage time. The ammonium salt decomposition appears to be about the same as that observed upon heating of NH 4 NO 3 to produce N 2 , H 2 O, and nitrous oxides. Plutonium nitrate contains hydration water. This water is of some concern due to the production of hydrogen by alpha-radiolysis. Two waters of hydration appear to be the lower limit to which Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O may be taken before decomposition of the solid begins. TGA results indicate the simple nitrate (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O) is somewhat less thermally stable than either the ammonium or potassium hexanitrato plutonate which detracts somewhat from its suitability as a shipping form. Maintaining large quantities of this compound with a high 238 Pu content (less than 1 percent 238 Pu) may require specially designed and larger containers to prevent thermal degradation and gas pressure buildup problems. The informaion was presented to plutonium processors; the final consensus of this group was that in spite of some thermal instability of Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O at fairly low temperatures, it was preferable to K 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 due to the additional waste disposal problems the potassium would present. (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O also has several other advantages. A possible problem that could arise due to the variable weight of plutonium nitrate could be in plutonium accountability, but this would be prevented if the plutonium content of the solution prior to evaporation to the solid is known

  16. Effect of selected Hofmeister salts on textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankey, J A; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-09-01

    Three Hofmeister salts (HS; sodium sulfate, sodium thiocyanate, and sodium chloride) were evaluated for their effect on the textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese. Nonfat cheese, made by direct acidification, were sliced into discs (diameter=50 mm, thickness=2 mm) and incubated with agitation (6 h at 22°C) in 50 mL of a synthetic Cheddar cheese aqueous phase buffer (pH 5.4). The 3 HS were added at 5 concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 M) to the buffer. Post-incubation, cheese slices were air dried and equilibrated in air-tight bags for 18 h at 5°C before analysis. Small amplitude oscillatory rheology properties, including the dynamic moduli and loss tangent, were measured during heating from 5 to 85°C. Hardness was determined by texture profile analysis. Acid-base buffering was performed to observe changes in the indigenous insoluble (colloidal) calcium phosphate (CCP). Moisture content decreased with increasing HS concentration. Cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SCN(-) softened earlier (i.e., loss tangent=1) compared with other HS treatments. Higher melting temperature values were observed for cheeses incubated in high concentrations of SO(4)(2-). Hardness decreased in cheeses incubated in buffers with high concentrations of SCN(-). The indigenous CCP profile of nonfat cheese was not greatly affected by incubation in Cl(-) or SCN(-), whereas buffers with high concentrations of SO(4)(2-) reduced the acid-base buffering contributed by CCP. The use of high concentrations (1.0M) of SCN(-) for incubation of cheeses resulted in a softer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the chaotropic effect of SCN(-), which weakened hydrophobic interactions between CN. Cheese samples incubated in 1.0M SO(4)(2-) buffers exhibited a stiffer protein matrix at high temperatures due to the kosmotropic effect of SO(4)(2-), which helped to strengthen hydrophobic interactions in the proteins during the heating step. This study showed that HS

  17. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. New visible and selective DNA staining method in gels with tetrazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Aaron J; Naranjo-Palma, Tatiana; Alfaro-Valdés, Hilda M; Barriga, Andrés; Babul, Jorge; Wilson, Christian A M

    2017-01-15

    DNA staining in gels has historically been carried out using silver staining and fluorescent dyes like ethidium bromide and SYBR Green I (SGI). Using fluorescent dyes allows recovery of the analyte, but requires instruments such as a transilluminator or fluorimeter to visualize the DNA. Here we described a new and simple method that allows DNA visualization to the naked eye by generating a colored precipitate. It works by soaking the acrylamide or agarose DNA gel in SGI and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) solution that, when exposed to sunlight, produces a purple insoluble formazan precipitate that remains in the gel after exposure to light. A calibration curve made with a DNA standard established a detection limit of approximately 180 pg/band at 500 bp. Selectivity of this assay was determined using different biomolecules, demonstrating a high selectivity for DNA. Integrity and functionality of the DNA recovered from gels was determined by enzymatic cutting with a restriction enzyme and by transforming competent cells after the different staining methods, respectively. Our method showed the best performance among the dyes employed. Based on its specificity, low cost and its adequacy for field work, this new methodology has enormous potential benefits to research and industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust outer-selective thin-film composite polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes with low reverse salt flux for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Zhen Lei; Li, Xue; Liu, Ying Da; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

  20. Robust outer-selective thin-film composite polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes with low reverse salt flux for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Zhen Lei

    2016-01-08

    This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

  1. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  2. Exploration and safety evaluations of salt formations and site selection procedures; Erkundung und Sicherheitsbewertung von Salzformationen und Standortauswahlverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapf, Eva Barbara

    2016-12-12

    In 2011 the final decision for the withdrawal from the nuclear energy program was decided in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority of the produced radioactive waste originate in the operation as well as in the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities. The long-term containment of especially heat-developing and high-level waste in an underground disposal facility is pursued. The Site Selection Act (StandAG), passed in 2013, defined further procedural steps as well as responsibilities and the way of public participation during the site selection. In this context the newly founded Commission Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste was assigned with the task of giving relevant recommendations based on their investigation of specific aspects and fundamental questions. The objective of this procedure is the selection of the site that can provide the best possible safety for humans and the environment during the defined period of one million years. The Commissions' final report was published in July 2016. In this thesis a possible approach for exploring sites in connection with safety investigations is recommended. The site selection procedure described in the StandAG represents the basis for the considerations. Geoscientific exclusion criteria, minimum requirements as well as weighing criteria can be developed regarding the relevant geoscientific and climatic changes during the defined period of one million years. In contrast to the recommendations made by the Commission Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste no previously existing report has been revised and adapted. Rather, all issues relevant for the long-term containment of radioactive waste in a disposal facility had been newly developed. The considerations are related to salt domes as host rock. Furthermore, according to the StandAG preliminary safety investigations are required in every step of the site selection. The recommendations made in this thesis concerning content and feasibility of

  3. Effects of Highway Road Salting on the Water Quality of Selected Streams in Chittenden County, Vermont, November 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jon C.; Clark, Stewart F.; Smith, Thor E.; Medalie, Laura

    2010-01-01

    A study of road-deicing chloride (Cl) concentrations and loads was conducted at three streams in Chittenden County, VT, from November 2005 to 2007. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Vermont Agency of Transportation. The streams, Alder Brook, Allen Brook, and Mill Brook, were selected to represent different land uses in the upstream watershed, different road types and densities, and different geometric patterns of the roadway draining to the receiving stream to assess the relative contribution of and differences in state road-salt applications to stream Cl concentrations and loads. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired stations upstream and downstream from State highways and related to Cl concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-salting operations during winter maintenance on the levels of Cl in the streams. Mean concentrations of Cl ranged from 8.2 to 72 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the water-quality samples collected at sampling stations upstream from State highway bridges and from 7.9 to 80 mg/L in those collected at sampling stations downstream of highway bridges. Mean Cl loads ranged from 1,100 to 4,090 lb/d (pounds per day) at upstream stations and from 1,110 to 4,200 lb/d at downstream stations. Estimated mean annual Cl loads ranged from 402,000 to 1,490,000 lb/yr (pounds per year) at upstream stations and from 405,000 to 1,530,000 lb/yr at downstream stations. Mean Cl concentrations in samples collected at the three paired stations were lowest at Mill Brook at VT 117 near Essex Junction, VT (7.9 mg/L) and highest at Allen Brook at VT 2A near Essex Junction, VT (80.7 mg/L). None of the monitored Cl concentrations in the water-quality samples collected at the three paired sampling stations exceeded either of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 mg

  4. Selection for salt tolerance in tidal freshwater swamp species: Advances using baldcypress as a model for restoration: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Chambers, Jim L.; Creech, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, the intrusion of salinity into irrigated and natural landscapes has major economic and cultural impacts and has resulted in large reductions in crop yields (Epstein et al. 1980; Flowers 2003). Losses have prompted wide-scale programs to improve the salt tolerance of many agronomic species or to identify crop species that can tolerate lands affected by low levels of salinity. Few historic research efforts have considered forest tree species in the United States, especially in nonurban areas. Newer programs have focused on identifying salt tolerance in forest tree species but have mainly limited these efforts to compiling lists of salt tolerant species to be used in afforestation projects (Gogate et al. 1984; Shrivastava et al. 1988; Beckmann 1991; Bell 1999). Gogate et al. (1984), for instance, listed 26 potential species from Australia with silvicultural application to salt affected lands in India. More comprehensive efforts have considered species lists along with specific site requirements (Bell 1999); species tolerant to saline irrigation waters on dry land, for example, will not often be tolerant of salinity increases in wetland settings. Similar ideas have spawned field trials of native and nonnative tree species in India, Pakistan, Thailand, Australia, and the United States (Thomson 1988; Beckmann 1991; Krauss et al. 2000; Conner and Ozalp 2002; Marcar and Crawford 2004; Conner and Inabinette 2005). Concerted attempts at salt tolerance improvement of forest tree species have been limited, owing in part to the diversity of regional issues that such programs must consider. Whereas food, fodder, and pulp yield may be the major improvement goal on salt affected lands in India (Mathur and Sharma 1984), identifying trees that can survive deicing salts (Townsend 1989), oil and gas brine discharges (Auchmoody and Walters 1988), or sea-level rise induced salinity changes (Pezeshki et al. 1987, 1990) are of greater interest to larger industrial nations

  5. A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-09-27

    Binary catalyst systems comprising a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex and an alkali metal salt were developed for selective hydroboration of CO 2 utilizing pinacolborane at r.t. and 1 atm CO 2 , with the combination of [Ru(CNC Bn )(CO) 2 (H)][PF 6 ] and KOCO 2 t Bu producing formoxyborane in 76% yield. A bicyclic catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed.

  6. Short, multiple-stranded β-hairpin peptides have antimicrobial potency with high selectivity and salt resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuli; Shao, Changxuan; Wang, Jiajun; Shan, Anshan; Xu, Lin; Dong, Na; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-hairpin structure has been proposed to exhibit potent antimicrobial properties with low cytotoxicity, thus, multiple β-hairpin structures have been proved to be highly stable in structures containing tightly packed hydrophobic cores. The aim of this study was to develop peptide-based synthetic strategies for generating short, but effective AMPs as inexpensive antimicrobial agents. Multiple-stranded β-hairpin peptides with the same β-hairpin unit, (WRXxRW)n where n=1, 2, 3, or 4 and Xx represent the turn sequence, were synthesized, and their potential as antimicrobial agents was evaluated. Owning to the tightly packed hydrophobic core and paired Trp of this multiple-stranded β-hairpin structure, all the 12-residues peptides exhibited high cell selectivity towards bacterial cells over human red blood cells (hRBCs), and the peptide W2 exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with the MIC values of 2-8μM against various tested bacteria. Not only that, but W2 also showed obvious synergy with streptomycin and chloramphenicol against Escherichia coli, and displayed synergy with ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus with the FICI values ⩽0.5. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy analyses indicated that W2 kills microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. Collectively, based on the multiple β-hairpin peptides, the ability to develop libraries of short and effective peptides will be a powerful approach to the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. We successfully screened a peptide W2 ((WRPGRW)2) from a series of multiple-stranded β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides based on the "S-shaped" motif that induced the formation of a globular structure, and Trp zipper was used to replace the disulfide bonds to reduce the cost of production. This novel structure applied to AMPs improved cell selectivity and salt stability. The findings of this study will promote the development of peptide

  7. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  8. Distinction of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts with a selection medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Higuchi, Tomoko; Shiga, Masanobu; Noguchi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are fundamentally divided into two groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Although the Gram stain and other techniques can be used to differentiate these groups, some issues exist with traditional approaches. In this study, we developed a method for differentiating Gram-positive and -negative bacteria using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt} (WST-8) via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone with a selection medium. We optimized the composition of the selection medium to allow the growth of Gram-negative bacteria while inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. When the colorimetric viability assay was carried out in a selection medium containing 0.5µg/ml crystal violet, 5.0 µg/ml daptomycin, and 5.0µg/ml vancomycin, the reduction in WST-8 by Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited. On the other hand, Gram-negative bacteria produced WST-8-formazan in the selection medium. The proposed method was also applied to determine the Gram staining characteristics of bacteria isolated from various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between the results obtained using the present method and those obtained using a conventional staining method. These results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay with selection medium is a useful technique for accurately differentiating Gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

  9. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  10. Congenital primary adrenal insufficiency and selective aldosterone defects presenting as salt-wasting in infancy: a single center 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Carla; Olivini, Nicole; Pedicelli, Stefania; Marini, Romana; Giannone, Germana; Cambiaso, Paola; Cappa, Marco

    2016-08-02

    Salt-wasting represents a relatively common cause of emergency admission in infants and may result in life-threatening complications. Neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. A retrospective chart review was conducted for infants hospitalized in a single Institution from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2015. The selection criterion was represented by the referral to the Endocrinology Unit for hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mEq/L) of suspected endocrine origin at admission. Fifty-one infants were identified. In nine infants (17.6 %) hyponatremia was related to unrecognized chronic gastrointestinal or renal salt losses or reduced sodium intake. In 10 infants (19.6 %) hyponatremia was related to central nervous system diseases. In 19 patients (37.3 %) the final diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH was related to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in 18 patients, and to 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) deficiency in one patient. Thirteen patients (25.5 %) were affected by different non-CAH salt-wasting forms of adrenal origin. Four familial cases of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to NROB1 gene mutation were identified. Two unrelated girls showed aldosterone synthase deficiency due to mutation of the CYP11B2 gene. Two unrelated infants were affected by familial glucocorticoid deficiency due to MC2R gene mutations. One girl showed pseudohypoaldosteronism related to mutations of the SCNN1G gene encoding for the epithelial sodium channel. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism was identified in two patients with renal malformations. In two infants the genetic aetiology was not identified. Emergency management of infants presenting with salt wasting requires correction of water losses and treatment of electrolyte imbalances. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis may be difficult in emergency settings, and sometimes hospitalized infants

  11. Probing the molecular forces involved in binding of selected volatile flavour compounds to salt-extracted pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2016-11-15

    Molecular interactions between heterologous classes of flavour compounds with salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs) were determined using various bond disrupting agents followed by GC/MS analysis. Flavour bound by proteins decreased in the order: dibutyl disulfide>octanal>hexyl acetate>2-octanone=benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde, 2-octanone and hexyl acetate interacted non-covalently with PPIs, whereas octanal bound PPIs via covalent and non-covalent forces. Dibutyl disulfide reacted with PPIs covalently, as its retention was not diminished by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Using propylene glycol, H-bonding and ionic interactions were implicated for hexyl acetate, benzaldehyde, and 2-octanone. A protein-destabilising salt (Cl3CCOONa) reduced bindings for 2-octanone, hexyl acetate, and benzaldehyde; however, retention for octanal and dibutyl disulfide increased. Conversely, a protein-stabilising salt (Na2SO4) enhanced retention for benzaldehyde, 2-octanone, hexyl acetate and octanal. Formation of a volatile flavour by-product, 1-butanethiol, from dibutyl disulfide when PPIs were treated with dithiothreitol indicated occurrence of sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological adjustment to salt stress in Jatropha curcas is associated with accumulation of salt ions, transport and selectivity of K+, osmotic adjustment and K+/Na+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E N; Silveira, J A G; Rodrigues, C R F; Viégas, R A

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the capacity of Jatropha curcas to physiologically adjust to salinity. Seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mm) for 15 days. Treatment without NaCl was adopted as control. Shoot dry weight was strongly reduced by NaCl, reaching values of 35% to 65% with 25 to 100 mm NaCl. The shoot/root ratio was only affected with 100 mm NaCl. Relative water content (RWC) increased only with 100 mm NaCl, while electrolyte leakage (EL) was much enhanced with 50 mm NaCl. The Na(+) transport rate to the shoot was more affected with 50 and 100 mm NaCl. In parallel, Cl(-) transport rate increased with 75 and 100 mm NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell from 50 mm to 100 mm NaCl. In roots, Na(+) and Cl(-) transport rates fell slightly only in 50 mm (to Na(+)) and 50 and 100 mm (to Cl(-)) NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell significantly with increasing NaCl. In general, our data demonstrate that J. curcas seedlings present changes in key physiological processes that allow this species to adjust to salinity. These responses are related to accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots, K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis, transport of K(+) and selectivity (K-Na) in roots, and accumulation of organic solutes contributing to osmotic adjustment of the species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Summary of computational support and general documentation for computer code (GENTREE) used in Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Salt Site Selection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, J.A.; Younker, J.L.; Rousseau, W.F.; Elayat, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Decision Tree Computer Model was adapted for the purposes of a Pilot Salt Site Selection Project conducted by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). A deterministic computer model was developed to structure the site selection problem with submodels reflecting the five major outcome categories (Cost, Safety, Delay, Environment, Community Impact) to be evaluated in the decision process. Time-saving modifications were made in the tree code as part of the effort. In addition, format changes allowed retention of information items which are valuable in directing future research and in isolation of key variabilities in the Site Selection Decision Model. The deterministic code was linked to the modified tree code and the entire program was transferred to the ONWI-VAX computer for future use by the ONWI project

  14. Rational Design of a Highly Potent and Selective Peptide Inhibitor of PACE4 by Salt Bridge Interaction with D160 at Position P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianati, Vahid; Shamloo, Azar; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Desjardins, Roxane; Soldera, Armand; Day, Robert; Dory, Yves L

    2017-08-08

    PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertases (PCs) family of serine proteases, is a validated target for prostate cancer. Our group has developed a potent and selective PACE4 inhibitor: Ac-LLLLRVKR-NH 2 . In seeking for modifications to increase the selectivity of this ligand toward PACE4, we replaced one of its P3 Val methyl groups with a basic group capable of forming a salt bridge with D160 of PACE4. The resulting inhibitor is eight times more potent than the P3 Val parent inhibitor and two times more selective over furin, because the equivalent salt bridge with furin E257 is not optimal. Moreover, the β-branched nature of the new P3 residue favors the extended β-sheet conformation usually associated with substrates of proteases. This work provides new insight for better understanding of β-sheet backbone-backbone interactions between serine proteases and their peptidic ligands. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A highly selective method for the synthesis of symmetrical trisubstituted pyridines using transition and non-transition metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebuov, F.A.; Dzhemilev, U.M.; Ruttan, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study was carried out on the reaction of C 2 -C 6 aliphatic acid chlorides with t-BuOH, isobutylene and NH 3 by the action of transition and non-transition metal salts (A1C1 3 , ZnC1 2 , InC1 3 , TiC1 4 , TiC1 3 , WC1 6 , FeC1 3 , CoC1 2 , NiC1 2 and PdC1 2 ) and bimetallic systems A1C1 3 -NiC1 2 and A1C1 3 -PdC1 2 in a search for new catalysts for this reaction which provide for the formation of 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (I), which has practical importance, and to determine the possibility of using other acid chlorides and isobutylene in this reaction

  16. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong, E-mail: redastar@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Gu, Jia-Li [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: lijianrong@zjgsu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10{sup −3}–1 mol L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 mol L{sup −1}. DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L{sup −1}, 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1} and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method.

  17. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10 −3 –1 mol L −1 . - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10 −3 to 1 mol L −1 . DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L −1 and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L −1 , respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method

  18. Selective detection of carbohydrates and their peptide conjugates by ESI-MS using synthetic quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of phenylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  19. PDC bit selection to drill the Brazilian pre-salt heterogeneous carbonates; Selecao de broca PDC para a perfuracao dos carbonatos heterogeneos do pre-sal brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Araken Dumont Ramos; Tocantins, Joao Pedro Tourinho [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The well drilling operation to access the oil reserves of the Brazilian pre-salt find their highest challenge in the rock reservoir, which is formed from organic limestone and other sediments, and it can have different heterogeneous features that are hostile to drilling. Those features such as the silica nodules increase the rock formation strength and abrasiveness that together with the PDC bit vibrations generated during the rock cutting reduce the life of the cutting structure to a few meters. Because of these conditions, the development of more stable bits, with very low lateral and torsional vibration levels and with more strength PDC, has been one oil industry challenges to drill the pre-salt limestone with silica. This paper aims to present a dynamic comparative analysis between three PDC bits, called BR1, BR2 and BR3, of different generations, selected to drill a well design in a limestone heterogeneous and homogeneous (without silica nodules). This analysis was performed with dynamic three dimensional finite elements software, which considers the interaction between the bit cutter structure and the rock to be drilled, used to design bits, reamers and BHA (Bottom Hole Assembly). (author)

  20. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  1. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  2. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-04-30

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3-12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-3) to 1 molL(-1). DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L(-1), 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L(-1) and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L(-1), respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of organic solvent, water activity, and salt hydrate pair on the sn-1,3 selectivity and activity of whole-cell lipase from Aspergillus niger GZUF36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiqin; Zhang, Fuhao; Gao, Zexin; He, Laping; Zeng, Xuefeng; Zhu, Qiujin; Yu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    We previously screened a whole-cell lipase EC 3.1.1.3 from the novel strain Aspergillus niger GZUF36, which exhibited 1,3-selectivity in the synthesis of 1,3-diacylglycerol via glycerolysis. However, the mechanism of lipase selectively in catalyzing the sn-1,3 position remains ambiguous. This work was performed to investigate the 1,3-selective mechanism of lipase using glycerolysis to synthesize 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DG) as a model reaction by changing solvent(s) and water activity (a w ), and addition of salt hydrate pair. The measured diacylglycerol yield was also used to examine lipase activity. Results indicated that not only organic solvent and a w have strong effect on the sn-1,3 selectivity, but also ions of salt hydrate pair also affected selectivity. Lipase conformation was altered by hydrophobic interactions of the solvent, a w , or ions of salt hydrate, resulting in distinct sn-1,3 selectivity of the lipase. The salt hydrate pair changed the lipase conformation and selectivity not only by a w but also by static interactions, which was rarely reported. These parameters also affected lipase activity. The lipase displayed the highest selectivity (about 88%) and activity in solvents of t-butanol and n-hexane (1:29, v/v) at a w 0.43. The results demonstrated that the sn-1,3 selectivity and activity of the lipase from A. niger GZUF36 may be improved by control of some crucial factors. This work laid a foundation for the application of lipase in the synthesis of 1,3-DG and other structural and functional lipids.

  4. Green Chemicals from d-glucose : Systematic Studies on Catalytic Effects of Inorganic Salts on the Chemo-Selectivity and Yield in Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Adisasmito, S.; Heeres, H. J.

    The use of inorganic salts as catalysts for the reactions of d-glucose in aqueous solutions in a batch reactor is reported. The type of salt and effect of reaction time were examined in detail at a fixed salt (5 mM) and d-glucose concentration (0.1 M) and at a temperature of 140 A degrees C. Al(III)

  5. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also show...

  6. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  7. A Highly Sensitive and Selective Method for the Determination of an Iodate in Table-salt Samples Using Malachite Green-based Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkayan, Mongkol; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive malachite green-based spectrophotometric method for the selective trace determination of an iodate has been developed and presented for the first time. The reaction mixture was specifically involved in the liberation of iodine in the presence of an excess of iodide in an acidic condition following an instantaneous reaction between the liberated iodine and malachite green dye. The optimum condition was obtained with a buffer solution pH of 5.2 in the presence of 40 mg L -1 potassium iodide and 1.5 × 10 -5 M malachite green for a 5-min incubation time. The iodate contents in some table-salt samples were in the range of 26 to 45 mg kg -1 , while those of drinking water, tap water, canal water, and seawater samples were not detectable (< 96 ng mL -1 of limits of detection, LOQ) with their satisfied method of recoveries of between 93 and 108%. The results agreed with those obtained using ICP-OES for comparison.

  8. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  11. In-situ corrosion studies on selected high-level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzkopf, W.; Smailos, E.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work reports about in situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99,8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as modular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The experiments were carried out in the frame of the German/US Brine Migration Test in heated tubed boreholes in the Asse salt mine at T = 150 0 C to 210 0 C, both in the absence and in the presence of a γ-radiation field of 3x10 2 Gy/h (Co-60 source). In addition, the material used to protect the tubing from corrosion (Inconel 600) as well as the backfill material for the annular gap (Al 2 O 3 spheres) were investigated for possible corrosion attack. All materials investigate exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test. All material specimens corroded at much lower rates than determined in the previous laboratory-scale tests. All materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack. The γ-radiation of 3x10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behaviour of the materials. No corrosion attacks were observed on the Al 2 O 3 spheres. In the case of Inconel 600 traces of sulphur were detected probably resulting from the reaction of Ni with H 2 S to NiS. Measurable general and local corrosion, however, have not been observed. (orig./IHOE) [de

  12. An ultrasensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt based on molecularly imprinted polymer modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wang, Yuli; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Liping; Luo, Jun; Zhao, Na; Han, Yajie; Zhao, Feilang; Ying, Xue; Li, Yingchun

    2017-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been developed for the determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt (ESS). MIPs were prepared in polar medium via bulk polymerization and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to the study preparation process and binding behavior of the MIP-modified CPE (MIP/CPE) toward ESS. The conditions for preparing MIPs and MIP/CPE as well as ESS detection were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the detection linear range for ESS is 4 × 10 -12 to 6 × 10 -9  M with a limit of detection of 1.18 × 10 -12  M (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity toward ESS over its structural analogues with excellent repeatability and stability. The fabricated MIP/CPE was then successfully employed to detect ESS in pregnant mare urine (PMU) without any pretreatment, and the average recoveries were from 99.6 to 104.9% with relative standard deviation less than 3.0%. High-performance liquid chromatography was adopted as a reference to validate the established approach in detecting ESS and their results showed good agreement. The as-prepared sensor has high potential to be a decent tool for on-site determination of ESS in PMU in a fast and convenient manner. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Effect of cadmium salts on some growth and metabolic activities of selected fungi from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, M.I.; Ali, M.I.; Haikal, N.Z.; Sharaf, E.F. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1986-12-01

    Six fungi, isolated from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea Mays, were selected for their variable resistance to soil application of cadmium nitrate and cadmium sulfate, at the range of 100-1000 ppm concentration. These were (a) Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus oryzae; (b) Paecilomyces divaricata, Curvularia tetramera; (c) Fusarium oxysporum and (d) Cladosporium herbarum. Fifty ppm cadmium salts exerted no effect on spore germination of R. oryzae, F. oxysporum or C. tetramera, stimulated A. terreus and P. divaricata and suppressed C. herbarum. 100 ppm dose exerted variable effects dependent on the organism and/or accompanying anion. 1000 ppm cadmium arrested spore germination of all the tested fungi except F. oxysporum where marked suppression were observed. Cadmium arrested growth of C. herbarum and P. divaricata at 50 ppm, initiated that of A. terreus, C. tetramera and F. oxysporum but seemed without effect on R. oryzae. Larger doses seemed to be inhibitory to all organisms, R. oryzae being least affected. Results show that nitrogen secretion was not a function of tolerance of the fungi to cadmium applied to the soil but was largely controlled by the effect of cadmium on the permeability of the cells of each individual fungus. Cadmium seemed to stimulate nitrogen metabolism of Aspergillus and Fusarium, had little or no effect on that of Rhizopus but suppressed that of Curvularia. Most accumulated nitrogen was in the form of amino and other soluble nitrogen. Cadmium inhibited the incorporation of absorbed phosphorus into energy-rich compounds. This was concomitant with the failure of amino acid incorporation into proteins.

  14. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  15. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  16. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case sodium salt taste, play a role

  17. Corrosion behaviour of selected high-level waste packaging materials under gamma irradiation and in-situ disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-07-01

    Corrosion studies performed until now on a number of materials have shown that unalloyed steels, Hastelloy C4 and Ti 99.8-Pd are the most promising materials for a long-term resistant packaging to be used in high-level waste (HLW) canister disposal in rock salt formations. To characterize their corrosion behaviour in more detail, additional studies have been performed. The influence has been examined which is exerted by the gamma dose rate (1 Gy/h to 100 Gy/h) on the corrosion of three preselected steels and Hastelloy C4 at 90 0 C in a salt brine (Q-brine) rich in MgCl 2 , i.e., conditions relevant to accident scenarios in a repository. In addition, in-situ corrosion experiments have been carried out in the Asse salt mine at elevated temperatures (120 0 C to 210 0 C) in the absence and in the presence of a gamma radiation field of 3 x 10 2 Gy/h, within the framework of the German/US Brine Migration Test. Under the test conditions the gamma radiation did not exert a significant influence on the corrosion of the steels investigated, whereas Hastelloy C4, exposed to dose rates of 10 Gy/h and 100 Gy/h, underwent pitting and crevice corrosion (20 μm/a at the maximum).The low amounts of migrated salt brine (140 ml after 900 days) in the in-situ- experiment did not produce noticeable corrosion of the materials. (orig./RB) [de

  18. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  19. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  20. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  1. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  3. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Gao, Wenyang; Wojtas, Łukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The Effect of Number and Position of P=O/P=S Bridging Units on Cavitand Selectivity toward Methyl Ammonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Menozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the synthesis and complexation properties of five mixed bridge P=O/P=S cavitands toward N,N-methyl butyl ammonium chloride (1 as prototype guest. The influence of number and position of P=O and P=S groups on the affinity of phosphonate cavitands toward 1 is assessed via ITC titrations in DCE as solvent. Comparison of the resulting Kass values, the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the overall binding with those of the parent tetraphosphonate Tiiii and tetrathiophosphonate TSiiii cavitands allows one to single out the simultaneous dual H-bond between the cavitand and the salt as the major player in complexation.

  6. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1 on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa. In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75 was observed between yield decrease and Cl– accumulation in leaves, whereas yield was not affected by salinity in lettuce. NaCl application increased Na+ accumulation at the expense of Ca2+ uptake in the leaf tissues of both crops, but also of K+ in watercress. Health-related features were improved by salinity (e.g. increased phenolics and reduced nitrates, especially in watercress, with limited sensorial quality evaluation effects.

  7. Recommended new criteria for the selection of nuclear waste repository sites in Columbia River basalt and US Gulf Coast domed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinborn, T.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Qualheim, B.; Fitts, C.R.; Stetkar, R.E.; Turnbull, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Screening criteria and specifications are recommended to aid in the evaluation of sites proposed for nuclear waste disposal in basalt and domed salt. The recommended new criteria proposed in this report are intended to supplement existing repository-related criteria for nuclear waste disposal. The existing criteria are contained in 10 CFR 60 sections which define siting criteria of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and ONWI 33(2) which defines siting criteria of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy. The specifications are conditions or parameter values that the authors recommend be applied in site acceptance evaluations. The siting concerns covered in this report include repository depth, host rock extent, seismic setting, structural and tectonic conditions, groundwater and rock geochemistry, volcanism, surface and subsurface hydrology, and socioeconomic issues, such as natural resources, land use, and population distribution

  8. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  9. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  10. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  11. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  12. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  13. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  15. Geologic disposal of nuclear wastes: salt's lead is challenged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The types of radioactive waste disposal sites available are outlined. The use of salt deposits and their advantages are discussed. The reasons for the selection of the present site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented. The possibilities of using salt domes along the Gulf Coast and not-salt rocks as nuclear waste repositories are also discussed. The sea bed characteristics are described and advantages of this type of site selection are presented

  16. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  17. Ethanol-selective catalytic reduction of NO by Ag/Al2O3 catalysts: Activity and deactivation by alkali salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard; Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jacobsen, Casper Funk

    2012-01-01

    Ag/Al2O3 catalysts with and without potassium doping were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, NH3-TPD and SEM. The influence of the Ag content from 1 to 5 wt.% was investigated for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ethanol. The 3...... wt.% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be the most active and CO2 selective over a wide temperature window (300–500 ◦C). Addition of 500 ppm of H2 has a mild promotional effect on the activity while SO2 has a strong negative influence on the SCR activity. Furthermore, the Ag/Al2O3 ethanol-SCR catalyst......3 ethanol-SCR catalyst compared to the conventional NH3-SCR catalyst. The still low potassium resistance, in combination with the high sensitivity to SO2, seems not to make these catalysts a real option for biomass fired boilers....

  18. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  19. Catalysts for selective hydrogenation of furfural derived from the double complex salt [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ](ReO 4 ) 2 on γ-Al 2 O 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Simon T.; Lamb, H. Henry

    2017-06-01

    The double complex salt [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 was employed as precursor of supported bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation of furfural. Direct reduction of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 in flowing H2 at 400 °C yields bimetallic nanoparticles 1–2 nm in size that exhibit significant interaction between the metals, as evidenced by temperature-programmed hydride decomposition (complete suppression of β-PdHx formation), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Pd K and Re LIII edges (PdRe distance = 2.72 Å), and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In contrast, calcination of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 at 350 °C in air and subsequent reduction in H2 at 400 °C results in metal segregation and formation of large (>50 nm) supported Pd particles; Re species cover the Pd particles and γ-Al2O3 support. A PdRe 1:2 catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation and calcination using HReO4 and [Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2 has a similar morphology. The catalyst derived by direct reduction of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 exhibits remarkably high activity for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol (FAL) at 150 °C and 1 atm. Suppression of H2 chemisorption via elimination of Pd threefold sites, as evidenced by CO diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, correlates with increased FAL selectivity.

  20. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  1. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  2. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  3. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  4. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  5. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  6. Enhanced Selectivity and Uptake Capacity of CO2 and Toluene Adsorption in Co0.5 M0.33 MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) Chalcogels by Impregnated Metal Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Adhiam, Fatima Abdullah Ahmed

    2017-11-17

    The synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5M0.33MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2− chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3+) or (Y3+) salts in nonaqueous solvents forming amorphous networks with a gel property. The chalcogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 176 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4) and 145 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials are porous with wide pore size distribution and average pore width of 16 nm. These chalcogels show higher adsorption capacity of toluene vapor (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4: 387 mg g−1) and (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4: 304 mg g−1) over cyclohexane vapor and high selectivity of CO2 over CH4 or H2, Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 80 and CO2/CH4: 21), Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 27 and CO2/CH4: 15). We also demonstrated that the impregnation of various metal species like Li+, Mg2+, and Ni2+ significantly enhanced the uptake capacity and selectivity of toluene and CO2 adsorptions in the chacogels.

  7. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  8. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  9. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  10. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  11. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  12. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  13. Salt Stability - The Effect of pHmax on Salt to Free Base Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Merritt, Jeremy M; Yu, Weili; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the disproportionation process can be impacted by the properties of the salt, specifically pHmax. Five miconazole salts and four sertraline salts were selected for this study. The extent of conversion was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. A mathematical model was utilized to estimate the theoretical amount of conversion. A trend was observed that for a given series of salts of a particular basic compound (both sertraline and miconazole are bases), the extent of disproportionation increases as pHmax decreases. Miconazole phosphate monohydrate and sertraline mesylate, although exhibiting significantly different pHmax values (more than 2 units apart), underwent a similar extent of disproportionation, which may be attributed to the lower buffering capacity of sertraline salts. This work shows that the disproportionation tendency can be influenced by pHmax and buffering capacity and thus highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate salt form during the screening process in order to avoid salt-to-free form conversion.

  14. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  15. Just add a pinch of salt!--current directions for the use of salt in recipes in Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

    2010-02-01

    Australians currently consume too much salt causing adverse consequences for health. The media play an important role in the provision of nutrition advice to consumers. Previous research shows that many foods advertized in consumer magazines are high in salt, but little research has examined magazine recipes in this context. The aim of this project was to summarize directions for salt use in recipes in leading Australian magazines. In August 2007 and 2008, the top 10 magazines by circulation that included at least five recipes, were examined. Standardized information was collected about directions for salt use in recipes. Three hundred and thirty recipes were identified in 2007 and 417 in 2008. About 68% of recipes included high-salt ingredients, 37% instructed to season with salt, 10% instructed to add a specific quantity of salt and 15% recommended selection of low-salt ingredients. There was substantial variability in directions for salt use in recipes between magazines, but no clear differences between 2007 and 2008. Many recipes advised to add salt in direct contradiction to national dietary guidelines. There is clear potential for editorial guidelines on salt use in recipes to play a role in advancing public health efforts in Australia and other such nations.

  16. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  17. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  18. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  19. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  20. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  1. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  2. Studies on components for a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, M.; Matal, O.

    2003-01-01

    The aim is contribute to a design of selected components of molten salt reactors with fuel in the molten fluoride salt matrix. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) permit the utilization of plutonium and minor actinides as new nuclear fuel from a traditional nuclear power station with production of electric energy. Results of preliminary feasibility studies of an intermediate heat exchanger, a small power molten salt pump and a modular conception of a steam generator for a demonstration unit of the MSR (30 MW) are summarized. (author)

  3. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  4. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  5. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  6. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  7. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  8. Trends in Streamflow Characteristics of Selected Sites in the Elkhorn River, Salt Creek, and Lower Platte River Basins, Eastern Nebraska, 1928-2004, and Evaluation of Streamflows in Relation to Instream-Flow Criteria, 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Godberson, Julie A.; Steele, Gregory V.

    2009-01-01

    The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources approved instream-flow appropriations on the Platte River to maintain fish communities, whooping crane roost habitat, and wet meadows used by several wild bird species. In the lower Platte River region, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission owns an appropriation filed to maintain streamflow for fish communities between the Platte River confluence with the Elkhorn River and the mouth of the Platte River. Because Elkhorn River flow is an integral part of the flow in the reach addressed by this appropriation, the Upper Elkhorn and Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources Districts are involved in overall management of anthropogenic effects on the availability of surface water for instream requirements. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) and other estimation methodologies were used previously to determine instream requirements for Platte River biota, which led to the filing of five water appropriations applications with the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources in 1993 by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. One of these requested instream-flow appropriations of 3,700 cubic feet per second was for the reach from the Elkhorn River to the mouth of the Platte River. Four appropriations were granted with modifications in 1998, by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources. Daily streamflow data for the periods of record were summarized for 17 streamflow-gaging stations in Nebraska to evaluate streamflow characteristics, including low-flow intervals for consecutive durations of 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 183 days. Temporal trends in selected streamflow statistics were not adjusted for variability in precipitation. Results indicated significant positive temporal trends in annual flow for the period of record at eight streamflow-gaging stations - Platte River near Duncan (06774000), Platte River at North Bend (06796000), Elkhorn River at Neligh (06798500), Logan Creek near Uehling (06799500), Maple Creek near Nickerson

  9. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  10. Geohydrolic studies of Gulf Coast interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Gulf Coast salt domes requires that the cavities be free from groundwater dissolution for 250,000 years. Salinity variations of groundwater near selected domes were investigated. Saline groundwater anomalies (saline plumes) in aquifers pierced or uplifted by the dome may be the result of salt solution by groundwater. In the Northeast Texas salt dome basin electric logs of oil and gas wells have been used to estimate groundwater salinities in aquifers near selected domes. Thus far, the analyses have revealed saline groundwater anomalies around 4 of the 9 domes studied. Estimates of the rate of salt dissolution from domes associated with saline groundwater plumes indicate that less than 30 meters of salt will be removed from the upper surfaces of the dome in 250,000 years. Thus, these preliminary studies show that even apparently unstable domes may be sufficiently stable to serve as waste disposal sites. 6 figures

  11. Advances in molten salt electrochemistry towards future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    This review article describes some selected novel molten salt electrochemical processes which have been created/developed by the author and his coworkers, with emphasis on the applications towards future energy systems. After showing a perspective of the applications of molten salt electrochemistry from the viewpoints of energy and environment, several selected topics are described in detail, which include nitride fuel cycle in a nuclear field, hydrogen energy system coupled with ammonia economy, thermally regenerative fuel cell systems, novel Si production process for solar cell and novel molten salt electrochemical processes for various energy and environment related functional materials including nitrides, rare earth-transition metal alloys, fine particles obtained by plasma-induced electrolysis, and carbon film. And finally, the author stresses again, the importance and potential of molten salt electrochemistry, and encourages young students, scientists and researchers to march in a procession hand in hand towards a bright future of molten salts. (author)

  12. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  13. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1 0 F to 25 0 F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes

  14. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  15. Ion exchange removal of technetium from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange methods for removing technetium from waste salt solutions have been investigated by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). These experiments have shown: Commercially available anion exchange resins show high selectivity and capacity for technetium. In column runs, 150 column volumes of salt solution were passed through an ion exchange column before 50% 99 Tc breakthrough was reached. The technetium can be eluted from the resin with nitric acid. Reducing resins (containing borohydride) work well in simple hydroxide solutions, but not in simulated salt solutions. A mercarbide resin showed a very high selectivity for Tc, but did not work well in column operation

  16. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  18. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  19. Enhanced Selectivity and Uptake Capacity of CO2 and Toluene Adsorption in Co0.5 M0.33 MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) Chalcogels by Impregnated Metal Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5M0.33MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2− chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3+) or (Y3+) salts in nonaqueous solvents forming amorphous networks

  20. Accelerator molten-salt breeding and thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshio; Ohno, Hideo; Mitachi, Kohshi.

    1990-01-01

    The recent efforts at the development of fission energy utilization have not been successful in establishing fully rational technology. A new philosophy should be established on the basis of the following three principles: (1) thorium utilization, (2) molten-salt fuel concept, and (3) separation of fissile-breeding and power-generating functions. Such philosophy is called 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THORIMS-NES]'. The present report first addresses the establishment of 233 U breeding fuel cycle, focusing on major features of the Breeding and Chemical Processing Centers and a small molten-salt power station (called FUJI-II). The development of fissile producing breeders is discussed in relation to accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB), impact fusion molten-salt breeder, and inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder. Features of the accelerator molten-salt breeder are described, focusing on technical problems with accelerator breeders (or spallators), design principle of the accelerator molten-salt breeder, selection of molten salt compositions, and nuclear- and reactor-chemical aspects of AMSB. Discussion is also made of further research and development efforts required in the future for AMSB. (N.K.)

  1. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  2. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  3. Salt briquette: the form of salt monopoly in madura, 1883-1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnu; Alrianingrum, S.; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the history of the salt monopoly in Indonesia because it is associated with the issue of salt crisis lately, widely reported in various media. This study tried to find answers to the relationship between monopoly and crisis events through the study of history. Monopoly policy by the government of the colonial period is actually an industrial modernization effort, but it turned out another impact. Although the colonial government wanted to issue a policy that ends strengthens the position of the government in the industry, but ultimately backfire and disasters in the salt industry at the time. This article discusses only the focus of the salt monopoly in Madura as a selection of events, arguing the island as a center of salt in Indonesia. The method used in this study using a review of history. Therefore, their explanations using historical sources. Methodologically through the process of collecting historical sources, criticize these sources, synthesize and interpret the analysis in an array of historical writing. In conclusion, although the salt monopoly policy gives a great advantage to the colonial government, but the overall population of Madura remains in a poor state. It is evident that the Madurese to migrate Madurese to various areas outside the island of Madura, to fix the economy.

  4. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography in dual salt system increases protein binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczuk, Anna M; Klinke, Ralph; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Vedantham, Ganesh; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses weakly hydrophobic resins and requires a salting-out salt to promote protein-resin interaction. The salting-out effects increase with protein and salt concentration. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) is dependent on the binding constant, as well as on the flow characteristics during sample loading. DBC increases with the salt concentration but decreases with increasing flow rate. Dynamic and operational binding capacity have a major raw material cost/processing time impact on commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. In order to maximize DBC the highest salt concentration without causing precipitation is used. We report here a novel method to maintain protein solubility while increasing the DBC by using a combination of two salting-out salts (referred to as dual salt). In a series of experiments, we explored the dynamic capacity of a HIC resin (TosoBioscience Butyl 650M) with combinations of salts. Using a model antibody, we developed a system allowing us to increase the dynamic capacity up to twofold using the dual salt system over traditional, single salt system. We also investigated the application of this novel approach to several other proteins and salt combinations, and noted a similar protein solubility and DBC increase. The observed increase in DBC in the dual salt system was maintained at different linear flow rates and did not impact selectivity.

  5. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    , and this report also describes more recently developed technologies such as dry gas seals. This report also provides a high-level, parametric evaluation of LSHT loop performance to allow general intercomparisons between heat-transport fluid options as well as provide an overview of the properties and requirements for a representative loop. A compilation of relevant thermophysical properties of useful fluoride salts is also included for salt heat transport systems. Fluoride salts can be highly corrosive depending on the container materials selected, the salt chemistry, and the operating procedures used. The report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art in reduction-oxidation chemistry control methodologies employed to minimize corrosion issues. Salt chemistry control technology, however, remains at too low a level of understanding for widespread industrial usage. Loop operational issues such as start-up procedures and system freeze-up vulnerability are also discussed. Liquid fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat transport medium for high-temperature applications. This report provides an overview of the current status of liquid salt heat transport technology. The report includes a high-level, parametric evaluation of liquid fluoride salt heat transport loop performance to allow intercomparisons between heat-transport fluid options as well as providing an overview of the properties and requirements for a representative loop. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier molten salt reactor program and a significant advantage of fluoride salts, as high temperature heat transport media is their consequent relative technological maturity. The report also includes a compilation of relevant thermophysical properties of useful heat transport fluoride salts. Fluoride salts are both thermally stable and with proper chemistry control can be relatively chemically inert. Fluoride salts can, however, be highly corrosive depending on the container

  6. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  7. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  8. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  9. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  10. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  11. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  12. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  13. Expected environment for waste packages in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Clark, D.E.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Rai, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses results of recent efforts to define the very near-field (within approximately 2 m) environmental conditions to which waste packages will be exposed in a salt repository. These conditions must be considered in the experimental design for waste package materials testing, which includes corrosion of barrier materials and leaching of waste forms. Site-specific brine compositions have been determined, and standard brine compositions have been selected for testing purposes. Actual brine compositions will vary depending on origin, temperature, irradiation history, and contact with irradiated rock salt. Results of irradiating rock salt, synthetic brines, rock salt/brine mixtures, and reactions of irradiated rock salt with brine solutions are reported. 38 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  14. Salt in bread - succesful?) Reduction of content in danish bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Trolle, Ellen

    High intakes of sodium are associated with high blood pressure, elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases and early death. In the Nordic countries reduction of average sodium intake to about 2-2.7 g/d, or 5-7 g salt/d, is recommended. Main sources of salt in the diet are processed foods e.g. bread...... of view a gradual reduction would do in order to adapt to lower salt preference. To demonstrate a possible reduction, current salt levels must be assessed, and in the present study salt content of bread, covering Danish consumption in 2014, was investigated. When monitoring a possible trend samples...... studied must represent the current consumption. Thus getting an overview of market shares is important, and quite a challenge as selection of bread is changing continuously. A strategic sampling plan was made representing all relevant types of bread, based on information from manufacturers...

  15. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  16. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  17. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  18. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  19. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  20. Compatibility studies of potential molten-salt breeder reactor materials in molten fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    1977-05-01

    The molten fluoride salt compatibility studies carried out during the period 1974--76 in support of the Molten-Salt Reactor Program are summarized. Thermal-convection and forced-circulation loops were used to measure the corrosion rate of selected alloys. Results confirmed the relationship of time, initial chromium concentration, and mass loss developed by previous workers. The corrosion rates of Hastelloy N and Hastelloy N modified by the addition of 1--3 wt percent Nb were well within the acceptable range for use in an MSBR. 13 figures, 3 tables

  1. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  2. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Salt power - Is Neptune's ole salt a tiger in the tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G. S.

    1980-02-01

    Methods of exploiting the 24 atm osmotic pressure difference between fresh and salt water to generate energy include reverse electrodialysis, wherein 80 millivolts of electricity cross each ion-selective membrane placed between solutions of fresh and salt water. Pressure-retarded osmosis, using pumps and pressure chambers, relies on semipermeable membranes that allow fresh water to flow into saline, with power generated by the permeated water being released through a turbine. In reverse vapor compression, water vapor rapidly transfers from fresh water to salt water in an evacuated chamber (due to the vapor pressure difference between them), and power can be extracted using 24 m diameter turbine blades. Environmental concerns include protecting estuaries from stress, managing sediments, and protecting marine animals, while filtration would be needed to keep the membranes free from corrosion, biological fouling, or silting.

  5. RAPD tagging of salt tolerance gene in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.; Zhang, G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.

    1998-01-01

    Salinity, which is critical in determining the growth and development of plants, is a major problem affecting ever-increasing areas throughout the world. A salt tolerant rice mutant (M-20) was obtained from accession 77-170 (Oryza sativa) through EMS mutagenesis and selection in vitro. The use of 220 10-mer RAPD primers allowed the identification of a new molecular marker, whose genetic distance from a salt tolerance gene is about 16.4 cM. (author)

  6. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  8. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  9. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush, E-mail: Piyush.Sabharwall@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF{sub 4} at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical

  10. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  11. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  12. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  13. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT)

  14. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  15. Optogenetic Inhibition of Ventral Pallidum Neurons Impairs Context-Driven Salt Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Smedley, Elizabeth B; Stansfield, Katherine J; Stott, Jeffrey J; Smith, Kyle S

    2017-06-07

    Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013). However, it is not known whether the VP is necessary for salt appetite in terms of seeking out salt or consuming salt following sodium depletion. Here, we used a conditioned place-preference procedure to investigate the effects of optogenetically inhibiting the VP on context-driven salt seeking and the consumption of salt following deprivation. Male rats learned to associate one context with sucrose and another context with less-desirable salt. Following sodium depletion, and in the absence of either sucrose or salt, we found that inhibiting the VP selectively reduced the elevation in time spent in the salt-paired context. VP inhibition had minimal effects on the consumption of salt once it was made available. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the VP or any brain region is necessary for the ability to use contextual cues to guide salt seeking. These results highlight a dissociation between deficit-driven reward seeking and reward consumption to replenish those deficits, with the former process being particularly sensitive to on-line VP activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Salt appetite, in which rats will immediately seek out a once-undesirable concentrated salt solution after being depleted of bodily sodium despite never having tasted salt as a positive reward, is a phenomenon showing how animals can update their motivational goals without any new learning or conditioning. This salt-seeking behavior is also observed when the animal

  16. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  17. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  18. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  20. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  1. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  2. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Cypress Creek salt core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Law Engineering Testing Company supervised the drilling of a corehole into the stock of Cypress Creek Dome, located in Perry County, Mississippi. A total of 170 ft of caprock and 501 ft of salt stock was recovered for physical examination and chemical analysis. This report describes the types of analyses performed and summarizes the data developed. The entire caprock and salt core were described and photographed prior to selection of samples for petrologic and geochemical analysis. Transmitted light techniques were used to determine gross structural and compositional variations in the core. The core lithologies are presented graphically, at a scale of 1 in. to 2 ft. In addition to the detailed field descriptions and photographs, petrologic studies performed on selected caprock and salt samples included: thin-section examination, scanning-electron microscope studies, energy-dispersion analysis, and x-ray-diffraction analysis. Geochemical analyses were performed to determine the average elemental composition of the salt core and amounts of methane and carbon dioxide gases contained within the salt grains. Except for two thin (3 and 6 ft thick) gypsum zones in the top 27 ft of the caprock, the core is predominantly anhydrite (generally 80%). Minor amounts of dolomite and calcite are also present. The salt core consists predominantly of crystalline halite, fine- to medium-grained (0.25 to 1 in.) with few megacrysts. Anhydrite occurs in the salt core as disseminated grains, ranging in length from <0.1 in. to 12 in. Discrete zones exist within the salt core, distinguished from one another primarily by the character of the anhydrite inclusions

  3. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  4. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  5. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  6. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  7. Residual salt separation from simulated spent nuclear fuel reduced in a LiCl-Li2O salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Hong, Sun-Seok; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, All rights reservedopyriprocess. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of the LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below the temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950degC were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O>LiCl>LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 >SrCl 2 . (author)

  8. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 > SrCl 2

  9. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-15

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li{sub 2}O, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SrCl{sub 2} were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li{sub 2}O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li{sub 2}O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl{sub 2} > SrCl{sub 2}.

  10. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  11. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  12. Polymeric membranes containing silver salts for propylene/propane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Pollo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is one of the most important processes of the chemical industry. This separation is typically carried out by distillation, which is an energy and capital intensive process. One promising alternative is the use of facilitated transport membranes, which contain specific carrier agents in the polymer matrix that interact reversibly with the double bond in the olefin molecule, promoting the simultaneous increase of its permeability and selectivity. In this study, polyurethane (PU membranes were prepared using two different silver salts (triflate and hexafluorantimonate. The membranes were structurally characterized and their performance for the separation of propylene/propane mixtures was evaluated. The results of the characterization analyses indicated that the triflate salt was the most efficient carrier agent. The membranes containing this salt showed the best performance, reaching an ideal selectivity of 10 and propylene permeability of 188 Barrer.

  13. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  14. Absorption behavior of iodine from molten salt mixture to zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kei; Terai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Uozumi, Koichi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2011-01-01

    Behavior of zeolite to absorb anion fission product (FP) elements in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was studied using iodine. At first, zeolite-A was selected as the suitable type of zeolite among zeolite-A (powder), zeolite-X (powder and granule), and zeolite-Y (powder) through experiments to heat the zeolite together with LiCl-KCl-KI salt, respectively. As the next step, similar experiments to immerse zeolite-A in molten LiCl-KCl-KI salt containing various concentrations of iodine were performed. The affinity of iodine to zeolite was evaluated using the separation factor (SF) value, which is defined as [I/(I+Cl) mol ratio in zeolite after immersion]/[I/(I+Cl) mol ratio in salt after immersion]. Since the SF values ranged between 4.3 and 9.1, stronger affinity of iodine than chlorine to zeolite-A was revealed. Finally, influence of co-existing cation FPs was studied by similar absorption experiments in LiCl-KCl-KI salt containing CsCl, SrCl 2 , or NdCl 3 . The SF values were less than those obtained in the LiCl-KCl-KI salt and this can be ascribed to the sharing of inner space of zeolite cage among absorbed cations and anions. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of the molten salt reactor fuel - 5233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been selected as one of the Generation IV nuclear systems. The very unique feature of this reactor concept is the liquid nature of the fuel which offers numerous advantages concerning the reactor safety. Nowadays, the research in Europe is focused on an innovative concept, the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor), that combines the generic assets of molten salt as liquid fuel with those related to fast neutron reactors and the thorium fuel cycle. For the design and safety assessment of the MSFR concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of fluorides salts, which is the class of materials that is the best suited for nuclear applications. Potential chemical systems have been critically reviewed and an extensive thermodynamic database describing the most relevant systems has been created at the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). Thermochemical equilibrium calculations are a very important tool that allows the evaluation of the performance of several salt mixtures predicting their properties and thus the optimization of the fuel composition. The work combines the experimental determination of different salt properties with the modelling of the thermodynamic functions, using the Calphad method. An overview of the experimental work and the thermodynamic assessments will be given in this paper and different fuel options for the MSFR will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Concentration of iodine in edible salt in district mansehra, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.; Mustafa, A.; Khalil, K.U.R.; Faisal, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the status of iodization of edible salt of different brands available in the market and used at homes in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in District Mansehra between December 2016 to March 2017. Samples were selected from 8 union councils through non probability convenient sampling technique. Salt analyzing kits were used to determine amount of iodine in each sample. Results: The mean iodine concentration of salt available in the market was 23.6+-10.461 ppm; while that of the household salt was 22.85+-10.696 ppm. Overall, 82% of the samples had iodine concentration within ecommended level i.e. 15-30ppm. No iodine was found in 13.2% of the samples and 4.8% of the samples had below recommended level. Conclusion: The percentage of adequately iodized salt in the market (83.9%) was better than that of households (81.5%). Overall samples of edible salt showed adequate amount of iodine. (author)

  17. Salt Tolerance and Polyphyly in the Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Pleurocapsales)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbers, John Robert; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant species. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the genus, 15 species were selected that had been previously isolated from different locations, including salt and freshwater environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 species, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1 and gltX genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified two distinct clades, a salt-tolerant clade and a freshwater clade. This study demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, species were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater species were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater species required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature.

  18. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  19. Bases, assumptions, and results of the flowsheet calculations for the decision phase salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, under the sponsorship of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High Level Waste (HLW) Vice President and General Manager. The Team is chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted waste form

  20. Optimizing the extraction of Soluble salts from porous materials by poultices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawdy, A.; Lubelli, B.; Voronina, V.; Pel, L

    2010-01-01

    Poultices are often used to extract salts from salt-deteriorated objects, but the results achieved can be highly variable. Currently, poulticing materials and methodologies are selected empirically, but many variables affect the treatment outcome, so achieving the 'best fit' between available

  1. Influence of intracellular Na + , K + and Cl - on the salt tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the process of selection for salt tolerance, it is important to understand the physiological basis of ion management executed by the cells through the exclusion, accumulation or maintenance of ratios of specific ions. Intracellular accumulation of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions in the cells in vitro was studied as a factor in salt ...

  2. Influence of de-icing salt chemistry on the corrosion behavior of AA6016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoukens, Ine; Cavezza, Francesca; Cerezo, Jose

    2017-01-01

    De-icing salts are commonly used on European roads during winter and are usually based on chlorides of sodium, magnesium, or calcium. The salt selection depends on the local climate and legislation. Therefore, the chemical composition of the de-icing mixture can be very different within Europe. T...

  3. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  4. Status of iodized salt coverage in urban slums of Cuttack City, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Ansuman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.

  5. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gard, L.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt are discussed. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after Miocene regional uplift had caused downcutting streams to breach the salt core resulting in further collapse. The axis of the anticline is a narrow generally flat-floored valley containing a few hills composed of downdropped Mesozoic rocks foundered in thecaprock. The caprock, which underlies thin alluvium in the valley, is composed of contorted gypsum, shale, sandstone, and limestone--the insoluble residue of the Paradox salt

  6. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  7. Electrolytic experiments of gadolinium and neodymium ions in the fluoride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, J. B.; Hwang, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Lee, B. J.; Yoo, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Electrolytic reductions of Gd 3+ and Nd 3+ ions were carried out to prepare bismuth alloys including Gd and Nd solutes using a molten liquid Bi cathode in the LiF-NaF-KF fluoride salt. It was considered that selective separation of Gd from bismuth alloy is possible by controlling the addition amount of an oxidation agent to a salt phase. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are useful tools not only for in-situ detection of solutes in salt phase in the course of back extraction experiments but also for elucidation of electrochemical reactions of Gd and Nd in the FLINAK molten salt

  8. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  9. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  10. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  11. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Cai, Caiping; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Fang; Hou, Sen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60%) were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses. PMID:26943816

  13. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the counterion on the solubility and physicochemical properties of salts of carboxylic acid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S E; Timmins, P; Conway, B R

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation is a widely used approach to improve the physicochemical and solid state properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In order to better understand the relationships between the active drug, the selected counterion and the resultant salt form, crystalline salts were formed using four different carboxylic acid drugs and a closely related series of amine counterions. Thirty-six related crystalline salts were prepared, characterized and the relationship between solubility and dissolution behaviour and other properties of the salt and the counterion studied. Salts of four model acid drugs, gemfibrozil, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and etodolac were prepared using the counterions butylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1,3-diol and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. Salt formation was confirmed, the salts were characterized and their corresponding solubilities determined and rationalized with respect to the counterions' properties. The properties of the salt highly dependent on the nature of the counterion and, although there is considerable variation, some general conclusion can be drawn. For the alkyl amines series, increasing chain length leads to a reduction in solubility across all the acidic drugs studied and a reduction in melting point, thus contradicting simplistic relationships between solubility and melting point. Small, compact counterions consistently produce crystalline salts with high melting point accompanied with a modest improvement in solubility and the nature of hydrogen bonding between the ions has a major impact on the solubility.

  15. Solubilization and Interaction Studies of Bile Salts with Surfactants and Drugs: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    In this review, bile salt, bile salt-surfactant, and bile salt-drug interactions and their solubilization studies are mainly focused. Usefulness of bile salts in digestion, absorption, and excretion of various compounds and their rare properties in ordering the shape and size of the micelles owing to the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces are taken into consideration while compiling this review. Bile salts as potential bio-surfactants to solubilize drugs of interest are also highlighted. This review will give an insight into the selection of drugs in different applications as their properties get modified by interaction with bile salts, thus influencing their solution behavior which, in turn, modifies the phase-forming behavior, microemulsion, and clouding phenomenon, besides solubilization. Finally, their future perspectives are taken into consideration to assess their possible uses as bio-surfactants without side effects to human beings.

  16. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  17. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  18. Salt hydrates and other phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, S.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of the project are: to ascertain thermal performance of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ . 10H/sub 2/O and other incongruently melting salt hydrates by calorimetric investigation of melting and freezing; and select compounds and mixtures suitable for isothermal heat storage within the range, 90 to 250/sup 0/C. Selection is to be used on laboratory evaluation as well as on economic and technical screening criteria.

  19. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  20. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  2. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  3. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  4. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  5. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  6. Compatibility tests between molten salts and metal materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    2003-08-01

    Latent heat storage technology using molten salts can reduce temperature fluctuations of heat transfer fluid by latent heat for middle and high temperature regions. This enables us to operate several heat utilization systems in cascade connected to High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) from high to low temperature range by setting the latent heat storage system after a heat utilization system to reduce thermal load after the heat utilization systems. This latent heat technology is expected to be used for effective use of heat such as equalization of electric load between night and daytime. In the application of the latent heat technology, compatibility between molten salts and metal materials is very important because molten salts are corrosive, and heat transfer pipes and vessels will contact with the molten salts. It will be necessary to prevail the latent heat storage technique that normal metal materials can be used for the pipes and vessels. However, a few studies have been reported of compatibility between molten salts and metals in middle and high temperature ranges. In this study, four molten salts, range of the melting temperature from 490degC to 800degC, are selected and five metals, high temperature and corrosion resistance steels of Alloy600, HastelloyB2, HastelloyC276, SUS310S and pure Nickel are selected for the test with the consideration of metal composition. Test was performed in an electric furnace by setting the molten salts and the metals in melting pots in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Results revealed excellent corrosion resistance of pure Nickel and comparatively low corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys such as Alloy600 and Hastelloys against Li 2 CO 3 . Corrosion resistance of SUS310S was about same as nickel based alloys. Therefore, if some amount of corrosion is permitted, SUS310S would be one of the candidate alloys for structure materials. These results will be used as reference data to select metals in latent heat technology

  7. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  8. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  9. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  10. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  12. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  13. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact assessment of salt iodization on the prevalence of goiter in district Swat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Zahoor-Ullah; Paracha, P.I.; Lutfullah, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: To eliminate Iodine Deficiency Disorders, (IDD) universal salt iodization is the widely practiced intervention. District Swat (a hilly area of NWFP, highly endemic for IDDs is selected as a first model district of the province for salt iodization program. Objectives: To find out the proportion of the families using iodized salt, iodine contents of the salts used by the families, urinary iodine levels in school children and the effect on goiter prevalence in Swat selected as a model district in 1998. Subject and Methods: The study was conducted in 960 children of both sexes, age 8-10 years in primary schools of district Swat in the year 2000. A replicate model used for base line study in 1998 was adopted. The students were clinically examined for goiter using palpation method. 960 edible salt samples for its iodine content and 240 urine samples for iodine level were analysed. Results: The overall goiter prevalence was found to be 52 and 45% in boys and girls respectively. 23% salt samples were found un-iodized, while in 25.6% the iodine content was less than 7ppm. The results revealed 18% decrease in total goiter rate and 35% increase in the use of iodized salt from the base line survey conducted in 1998, in school children of district Swat. Conclusions: The study revealed that since the area of Swat is still highly endemic for Iodine Deficiency Disorders, sustained efforts are required to ensure 100% salt iodization. (author)

  15. Assessment of salt concentration in bread commonly consumed in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Al-Khamaiseh, Manal

    2018-04-05

    Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Excessive salt and sodium intake is directly related to hypertension, and its reduction is a priority of WHO. Bread is the leading staple food in the Region; therefore, reducing the amount of salt added to bread could be an effective measure for reducing salt intake. The study sought to determine the levels of sodium and salt in locally produced staple bread from 8 countries in the Region. Bread samples were collected randomly from bakeries located in the capital cities of the selected countries. The samples were analysed for sodium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean salt content of breads varied from 4.28 g/kg in Jordan to 12.41 g/kg in Tunisia. The mean salt and sodium content in bread for all countries was 7.63 (SD 3.12) and 3.0 (SD 1.23) g/kg, respectively. The contribution of bread to daily salt intake varied considerably between countries, ranging from 1.3 g (12.5%) in Jordan to 3.7 g (33.5%) in Tunisia. Interventions to reduce population salt intake should target reduction of salt in bread in all countries. The amount of salt added to bread should be standardized and relevant legislation developed to guide bakers. Setting an upper limit for salt content in flat bread (pita or Arabic bread) at 0.5% is strongly recommended. However, salt levels at ≤ 1% would be appropriate for other kind of breads. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  16. Salt disproportionation: A material science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Naveen K; Kelly, Ron C

    2017-03-30

    While screening the counter-ions for salt selection for an active pharmaceutical substance, there is often an uncertainty about disproportionation of the salt and hence physical stability of the final product formulation to provide adequate shelf life. Several examples of disproportionation reactions are reviewed to explain the concepts of pHmax, microenvironmental pH, and buffering capacity of excipients and APIs to gain mechanistic understanding of disproportionation reaction. Miscellaneous factors responsible for disproportionation are examined. In addition to the dissolution failure due to the formation of less soluble unionized form, various implications of the disproportionation are evaluated with specific examples. During lead optimization and early stages of development, when only a limited amount of material is available, use of predictive tools like mathematical models and model free kinetics to rank order the various counter-ions are discussed in detail. Finally, analytical methods and mitigation strategies are discussed to prevent the disproportionation by detecting it during early stages of drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  18. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  19. Properties of organic salt superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whangbo, M.H.; Jung, D.; Evain, M.; Williams, J.M.; Beno, M.A.; Schultz, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of the β- and κ-phase superconducting salts of organic donor molecules are compared. Importance of donor... donor and donor...anion interactions involving the C-H bonds in setting the lattice softness, the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the superconducting transitions temperature are discussed

  20. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  2. Mapping of a major QTL for salt tolerance of mature field-grown maize plants based on SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhang, Ruyang; Xing, Jinfeng; Duan, Minxiao; Li, Jingna; Wang, Naishun; Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Huasheng; Shi, Zi; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran

    2017-08-15

    Salt stress significantly restricts plant growth and production. Maize is an important food and economic crop but is also a salt sensitive crop. Identification of the genetic architecture controlling salt tolerance facilitates breeders to select salt tolerant lines. However, the critical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the salt tolerance of field-grown maize plants are still unknown. To map the main genetic factors contributing to salt tolerance in mature maize, a double haploid population (240 individuals) and 1317 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were employed to produce a genetic linkage map covering 1462.05 cM. Plant height of mature maize cultivated in the saline field (SPH) and plant height-based salt tolerance index (ratio of plant height between saline and control fields, PHI) were used to evaluate salt tolerance of mature maize plants. A major QTL for SPH was detected on Chromosome 1 with the LOD score of 22.4, which explained 31.2% of the phenotypic variation. In addition, the major QTL conditioning PHI was also mapped at the same position on Chromosome 1, and two candidate genes involving in ion homeostasis were identified within the confidence interval of this QTL. The detection of the major QTL in adult maize plant establishes the basis for the map-based cloning of genes associated with salt tolerance and provides a potential target for marker assisted selection in developing maize varieties with salt tolerance.

  3. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  4. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  5. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  6. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  7. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  8. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  9. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S.; Delpech, S.; Picard, G.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 , equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl 2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl 2 , 1 atm/Cl - reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl 2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl 2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  10. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  11. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na_2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  12. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  13. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  14. An integrated methodology for salt damage assessment and remediation: The case of San Jerónimo Monastery (Granada, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Sawdy, A.; Hees, R. van; Price, C.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2011-01-01

    San Jerónimo Monastery (Granada, Spain) was selected as a case study for the investigation of the effect of indoor environmental conditions on salt weathering and for on-site testing of a remediation treatment using crystallization inhibitors on account of the extreme salt damage affecting both the

  15. An integrated methodology for salt damage assessment and remediation : The case of San Jeronimo Monastery (Granada, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Sawdy, A.; Van Hees, R.; Price, C.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-01-01

    San Jeronimo Monastery (Granada, Spain) was selected as a case study for the investigation of the effect of indoor environmental conditions on salt weathering and for on-site testing of a remediation treatment using crystallization inhibitors on account of the extreme salt damage affecting both the

  16. Iminium Salts by Meerwein Alkylation of Ehrlich’s Aldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 4-(Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated at the N atom by dialkyl sulfates, MeI, or Me3O BF4. In contrast, ethylation by Et3O BF4 occurs selectively at the O atom yielding a quinoid iminium ion. 4-(Diethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated only at O by either Et or Me oxonium reagent. The iminium salts are prone to hydrolysis giving the corresponding hydrotetrafluoroborates. Five crystal structures were determined.

  17. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; McKellar, Michael; Anderson, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  18. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  19. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  20. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation

  1. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  2. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  3. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  4. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  5. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  6. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  7. Potential constitutive models for salt: Survey of phenomenology, micromechanisms, and equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.; Hansen, F.D.

    1987-12-01

    Results are given of a literature survey performed to document the thermomechanical phenomena and micromechanical processes observed for salt over the ranges of stress and temperature of interest for a high-level nuclear repository. The elastic and thermal expansion behavior of salt can be readily modeled by the generalized Duhamel Neumann form of Hooke's law with temperature-dependent elastic constants and coefficient of thermal expansion. Inelastic deformation is primarily viscoplastic, but also has a brittle component. The observed phenomenological behavior of salt occurs because of micromechanical processes. To the extent that these processes have been studied, a summary of deformation mechanisms in natural salt is included in this report. Eight constitutive models that appear to be capable of modeling the viscoplastic deformation have been selected from the literature. Two models have been selected to model brittle deformation. Insufficient data are available to develop a model for failure. 92 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  9. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  10. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. I. Actinide recovery from aqueous salt wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martella, L.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed for removing actinides from selected salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system, tributyl phosphate (TBP) followed by a bidentate organophosphorus extractant (DHDECMP), appears most efficient for removing actinides from salt waste. The TBP step would remove most of the plutonium and >99.99% of the uranium. The second step, using DHDECMP, would remove >99.91% of the americium, the remaining plutonium (>99.98%), and other actinides from the acidified salt waste

  11. Proposed Guidance for Preparing and Reviewing Molten Salt Nonpower Reactor Licence Applications (NUREG-1537)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Flanagan, George F. [ORNL; Voth, Marcus [Boston Government Services, LLC

    2018-05-01

    Development of non-power molten salt reactor (MSR) test facilities is under consideration to support the analyses needed for development of a full-scale MSR. These non-power MSR test facilities will require review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. This report proposes chapter adaptations for NUREG-1537 in the form of interim staff guidance to address preparation and review of molten salt non-power reactor license applications. The proposed adaptations are based on a previous regulatory gap analysis of select chapters from NUREG-1537 for their applicability to non-power MSRs operating with a homogeneous fuel salt mixture.

  12. Some geotechnical problems related to underground waste disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berest, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in deep salt formations is an option considered by several countries. Rock salt is a very impervious medium, but can be easily leached; selection of an appropriate disposal formation must account for natural protections of the formation as regards water movements. It must be checked that such initially favourable characteristics will not be affected by the existence of shafts and galleries, or by the important heat output generated by vitrified wastes. The discussion is uneasy, for a comprehensive rheological model for rock salt is difficult to set and to be extrapolated to large time scales; some methodological problems are raised by use of numerical computations. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  13. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  14. Amine-selective bioconjugation using arene diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Stefan; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-08-01

    A novel bioconjugation strategy is presented that relies on the coupling of diazonium terephthalates with amines in proteins. The diazonium captures the amine while the vicinal ester locks it through cyclization, ensuring no reversibility. The reaction is highly efficient and proceeds under mild conditions and short reaction times. Densely functionalized, complex natural products were directly coupled to proteins using low concentrations of coupling partners.

  15. Selection of salt-tolerant variant of wheat in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, W.; Tang, X.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Growing-tip explants of four winter wheat varieties were cultured on basal medium supplemented with 2,4-D 2mg/l and various NaCI concentrations. The calli derived from 'Nongda 139' growing-tips were subcultured on the medium salinized with 0.4% NaCI for one year. Then they were cultured on a medium serially salinised with NaCI, increasing by 0.4% steps until 2%. Finally, surviving calli were transferred to a medium containing 0.4% NaCI for regeneration. 21 plants were obtained among which 3 were sterile. Dwarf, late ripening, shrunken grains and spike shape variations were observed, but they were non-heritable except dwarf and spike shape. Some potential NaCI-tolerant variants were identified. (author)

  16. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  17. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Gulf Interior Region of the United States (Louisiana and Mississippi). Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Permian Basin in Texas) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in-situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homoqeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptural design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  18. Nuclear energy synergetics and molten-salt technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    There are various problems with nuclear energy techniques in terms of resources, safety, environmental effects, nuclear proliferation, reactor size reduction and overall economics. To overcome these problems, future studies should be focused on utilization of thorium resources, separation of multiplication process and power generation process, and application of liquid nuclear fuel. These studies will lead to the development of molten thorium salt nuclear synergetics. The most likely candidate for working medium is Lif-BeF 2 material (flibe). 233 U production facilities are required for the completion of the Th cycle. For this, three ideas have been proposed: accelerator M.S. breeder, impact fusion MSB and inertial conf. fusion hybrid MSB. The first step toward the development of molten Th salt nuclear energy synergetics will be the construction of a pilot plant of an extreme small size. As candidate reactor, the author has selected mini FUJI-II (7.0 MWe), an extremely small molten salt power reactor. Mini FUJI-II facilities are expected to be developed in 7 - 8 years. For the next step (demonstration step), the designing of a small power reactor (FUJI 160 MWe) has already been carried out. A small molten salt reactor will have good safety characteristics in terms of chemistry, material, structure, nuclear safety and design basis accidents. Such reactors will also have favorable economic aspects. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  20. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    exhibit better heat transfer and nuclear performance metrics. Lighter salts also tend to have more favorable (larger) moderating ratios, and thus should have a more favorable coolant-voiding behavior in-core. Heavy (high-Z) salts tend to have lower heat capacities and thermal conductivities and more significant activation and transmutation products. However, all of the salts are relatively good heat-transfer agents. A detailed discussion of each property and the combination of properties that served as a heat-transfer metric is presented in the body of this report. In addition to neutronic metrics, such as moderating ratio and neutron absorption, the activation properties of the salts were investigated (Table C). Again, lighter salts tend to have more favorable activation properties compared to salts with high atomic-number constituents. A simple model for estimating the reactivity coefficients associated with a reduction of salt content in the core (voiding or thermal expansion) was also developed, and the primary parameters were investigated. It appears that reasonable design flexibility exists to select a safe combination of fuel-element design and salt coolant for most of the candidate salts. Materials compatibility is an overriding consideration for high-temperature reactors; therefore the question was posed whether any one of the candidate salts was inherently, or significantly, more corrosive than another. This is a very complex subject, and it was not possible to exclude any fluoride salts based on the corrosion database. The corrosion database clearly indicates superior container alloys, but the effect of salt identity is masked by many factors which are likely more important (impurities, redox condition) in the testing evidence than salt identity. Despite this uncertainty, some reasonable preferences can be recommended, and these are indicated in the conclusions. The reasoning to support these conclusions is established in the body of this report.

  1. Proceedings of the 8th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [RESPEC, Rapid City, SD (United States); Steininger, Walter [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm [DBE Technology, Peine (Germany); Kuhlman, Kristopher L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunagan, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This document records the Proceedings of the 2017 gathering of salt repository nations. In a spirit of mutual support, technical issues are dissected, led capably by subject matter experts. As before, it is not possible to explore all contemporary issues regarding nuclear waste disposal in salt formations. Instead, the group focused on a few selected issues to be pursued in depth, while at the same time acknowledging and recording ancillary issues.

  2. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  3. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  4. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  5. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  6. Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yibo; He, Canming; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator were experimentally studied. • Overall heat transfer coefficient reached maximum with optimal molten salt flow rate. • Energy efficiency first rose and then decreased with salt flow rate and temperature. • Optimal molten salt flow rate and temperature existed for good thermal performance. • High inlet water temperature benefited steam generating rate and energy efficiency. - Abstract: Molten salt steam generator is the key technology for thermal energy conversion from high temperature molten salt to steam, and it is used in solar thermal power station and molten salt reactor. A shell and tube type molten salt steam generator was set up, and its thermal performance and heat transfer mechanism were studied. As a coupling heat transfer process, molten salt steam generation is mainly affected by molten salt convective heat transfer and boiling heat transfer, while its energy efficiency is also affected by the heat loss. As molten salt temperature increased, the energy efficiency first rose with the increase of heat flow absorbed by water/steam, and then slightly decreased for large heat loss as the absorbed heat flow still rising. At very high molten salt temperature, the absorbed heat flow decreased as boiling heat transfer coefficient dropping, and then the energy efficiency quickly dropped. As the inlet water temperature increased, the boiling region in the steam generator remarkably expanded, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency both rose with the overall heat transfer coefficient increasing. As the molten salt flow rate increased, the wall temperature rose and the boiling heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased according to the boiling curve, so the overall heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency of steam generator both had maxima.

  7. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  8. Photopolymerizable organic compositions and diaryliodonium salts used therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivello, J.V.; Lee, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Arylketone containing iodonium salts is described of the formula [RR/sup 1/]/sup +/X/sup -/, where R is a C/sub (6-13/) monovalent aromatic hydrocarbon radical or halo substituted C/sub (6-13/) monovalent aromatic hydrocarbon radical. R/sup 1/ is a monovalent aryl ketone group which is attached to iodine to form a carbon-iodine linkage selected from the class and X/sup -/ is a counter ion selected from the class consisting of tosylate, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, hexafluoroarsenate, and hexafluoroantimonate

  9. Assessment and Comparison of salt Content in Mangrove Plants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dissanayake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the predicted threats of global warming and sea level rise, the salt tolerance and salt accumulative abilities of plants have become popular contentious topics. Mangroves are one of the major groups of salt tolerant plants and several mechanisms are known as instrumental in their salt tolerance. Salt excretion through leaf drop is given as one, but its validity is questioned by some recent works compelling the necessity for further studies. Knowledge of the salt contents in different mangrove plants is a pre requisite for such studies. Hence, this study aimed to quantify and compare the salt content in mature leaves of nine mangrove species in Sri Lanka., i.e. Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata which are growing in the same mangrove system; the Rekawa lagoon in Sri Lanka. Two species of non mangrove plants, Gliricidia sepium and Artocarpus heterophyllus, which were growing in inland areas were also selected for comparison. The concentration of Na+ in leaves was considered as a measure of the salt concentration. The Na+ in leaves was extracted by acid digestion and quantified by flame photometry. The salt content of mangroves was measured under two contrasting hydrological situations: at the highest and lowest water levels of the lagoon. Rekawa lagoon can be considered as a ‘barrier built estuary’, the highest water level occurs when the lagoon mouth is blocked due to the formation of the sand bar and the water level is increased by fresh water inflow, inundating the total mangrove area and decreasing the soil/water salinity. The water level of the lagoon becomes lowest when the lagoon mouth is opened (naturally or by dredging and lagoon water is flushed out to the sea. Then the salinity of lagoon water becomes high due to sea water influx. The results showed

  10. New Insight into Carbon Nanotube Electronic Structure Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role of aryl diazonium salts for post synthesis selectivity of carbon nanotubes is investigated using extensive electronic structure calculations. The resulting understanding for diazonium salt based selective separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes shows how the primary contributions come from the interplay between the intrinsic electronic structure of the carbon nanotubes and that of the anion of the salt. We demonstrate how the electronic transport properties change upon the formation of charge transfer complexes and upon their conversion into covalently attached functional groups. Our results are found to correlate well with experiments and provide for the first time an atomistic description for diazonium salt based chemical separation of carbon nanotubes

  11. Computational analysis of candidate disease genes and variants for Salt-sensitive hypertension in indigenous Southern Africans

    KAUST Repository

    Tiffin, Nicki; Meintjes, Ayton; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Rayner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    appears more prevalent in people of indigenous African origin. The underlying genetics of salt-sensitive hypertension, however, are poorly understood. In this study, computational methods including text- and data-mining have been used to select

  12. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  13. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  14. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  15. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  16. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  17. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  18. Screening of diverse local germplasm of guar (cyamposis tetragonoloba (l.) taub.) for salt tolerance: A possible approach to utilize salt - affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, M. J. Z.; Ahmad, K.; Qurainy, F. A.; Khan, S.; Athar, H. U. R.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of good quality water and soil salinity reduces crop productivity world-over. The development of salt stress tolerant cultivars/lines by screening and selection is of considerable value to enhance crop growth and yield. Though a number of breeding programs are underway to develop salt tolerant cultivars in wheat, barley, maize, and even grasses, a low amount of work done for improving salt tolerance in a potential leguminous forage crop guar widely grown in subcontinent due to rapid increase in its demand for its commercial use. Thus, the present study was focused on efforts to develop salt tolerant cultivars of guar. The growth responses of 31 accessions/lines/cultivars of a potential leguminous crop (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) to salt stress were assessed at the vegetative growth stage. A considerable variation in salinity tolerance was found in a set of lines/cultivars of guar using agronomic traits. Under saline conditions, Khanewal Local2, Chiniot White, 27340, 24323, BWP-5589 produced the lowest shoot fresh and dry biomass in relative terms, while genotypes/lines 5597, 24288, Br 99, Khushab white, Sillanwali white and Mardan white had greater fresh and dry biomass. Klorkot white and 24323 had maximum plant height under non-saline conditions, whereas genotypes/line 5597 and 24288 was maximal in plant height under salt stress conditions. Moreover, genotypes/lines Khanewal Local2 followed by Chiniot White and 27340 were the lowest in plant height. Growth attributes and relative salt tolerance of guar genotypes were used to group genotypes/lines as salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and salt sensitive using Hierarchical Cluster method following squared Euclidean distance. It was found that genotypes/lines 41671, Khaushab White, 5597, 24320, 24288, Sillanwali White, 24321, Mardan White were the most salt tolerant, while Chiniot White, BWP-5589, Kalorkot White, Khanewal Local 2, 24323 were the most salt sensitive. The availability of considerable amount of

  19. Salt Block II: description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfelder, J.J.

    1980-06-01

    A description of and results from the Salt Block II experiment, which involved the heating of and measurement of water transport within a large sample of rock salt, are presented. These results include the measurement of water released into a heated borehole in the sample as well as measured temperatures within the salt. Measured temperatures are compared with the results of a mathematical model of the experiment

  20. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  1. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  2. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  3. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  4. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  5. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  6. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  7. Leaching of Nutrient Salts from Fly Ash from Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  8. Membrane interactions of ionic liquids and imidazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Drücker, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their versatile properties such as negligible volatility, inflammability, high extractive selectivity and thermal stability. In general, RTILs are organic salts with a melting point below ~100 °C determined by the asymmetry of at least one of their ions. Due to their amphiphilic character, strong interactions with biological materials can be expected. However, rising attention has appeared towards their similarity and interaction with biomolecules. By employing structural modifications, the biochemical properties of RTILs can be designed to mimic lipid structures and to tune their hydrophobicity towards a lipophilic behavior. This is evident for the interaction with lipid-membranes where some of these compounds present membrane-disturbing effects or cellular toxicity. Moreover, they can form micelles or lipid-like bilayer structures by themselves. Both aspects, cellular effects and membrane-forming capacities, of a novel class of lipophilic imidazolium salts will be discussed.

  9. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  10. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr; Afonichkin, Valery

    2008-01-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF 3 ) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the 7 Li,Na,Be/F and 7 Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  11. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  12. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  13. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  14. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge

  15. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balon, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  16. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  17. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  18. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  19. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers to Study Genetic Diversity Among Cotton Cultivars in Associated with Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ABDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing salt-tolerant crops is very important as a significant proportion of cultivated land is salt-affected. Screening and selection of salt tolerant genotypes of cotton using DNA molecular markers not only introduce tolerant cultivars useful for hybridization and breeding programs but also detect DNA regions involved in mechanism of salinity tolerance. To study this, 28 cotton cultivars, including 8 Iranian cotton varieties were grown in pots under greenhouse condition and three salt treatments were imposed with salt solutions (0, 70 and 140 mM NaCl. Eight agronomic traits including root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll and fluorescence index, K+ and Na+ contents in shoot (above ground biomass, and K+/Na+ ratio were measured. Cluster analysis of cultivars based on measured agronomic traits, showed �Cindose� and �Ciacra� as the most tolerant cultivars, and �B-557� and �43347� as the most sensitive cultivars of salt damage. A total of 65 polymorphic DNA fragments were generated at 14 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR loci. Plants of 28 cultivars of cotton grouped into three clusters based on ISSR markers. Regression analysis of markers in relation with traits data showed that 23, 33 and 30 markers associated with the measured traits in three salt treatments respectively. These markers might help breeders in any marker assisted selection program in order to improving cotton cultivars against salt stress.

  20. Distinct Osmoadaptation Strategies in the Strict Halophilic and Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Lunsu Salt Water Body of North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Shivani; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2018-07-01

    Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains. The strict halophiles and, one of the halotolerants, Marinomonas sp. SS8 were found to utilize both "salt-in strategy" and "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" for osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions. On the contrary, the remaining two halotolerants used "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" under saline stress and not the "salt-in strategy". The present study suggests towards distinct mechanisms of salt tolerance in the two classes, wherein strict halophiles accumulate compatible solutes as well as adopt salt-in strategy, while the halotolerant bacteria accumulate a range of compatible solutes, except Marinomonas sp. SS8, which utilizes both the strategies to combat salt stress.

  1. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification

  2. Organic-soluble lanthanide nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, T.J.; Zaia, J.

    1987-01-01

    Lanthanide complexes of the formula [Ln(fod) 4 ] - (FOD, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione) are effective organic-soluble nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts. The shift reagent is formed in solution from Ln(fod) 3 and Ag(fod) or K(fod). The selection of Ag(fod) or K(fod) in forming the shift reagent is dependent on the anion of the organic salt. Ag(fod) is more effective with halide salts, whereas K(fod) is preferred with tetrafluoroborate salts. Resolution of diastereotopic hydrogen atoms was observed in the shifted spectra of certain substrates. Enantiomeric resolution was obtained in the spectrum of sec-butylisothiouronium chloride with a chiral shift reagent. The reagents can be employed in solvents such as chloroform and benzene

  3. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  4. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  5. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological

  6. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    , suggesting that bile salt analysis may have utility in selected paleontological research. PMID:20444292

  7. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    preserved in arid climates, suggesting that bile salt analysis may have utility in selected paleontological research.

  8. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  10. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  11. Salt extraction by poulticing : an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronina, V.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of salts is widely recognized as one of the most significant causes of damage to many cultural objects consisting of porous materials, such as monuments, sculptures, historic buildings, wall paintings, etc. A common response to salt damage problems are treatments aimed at

  12. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  13. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  14. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  15. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    parallel shortening. Mechanical model have been developed to rigorously correlate rheological properties of rock to the fold shape. A quantitative fold shape analysis combined with the folding theory allows deciphering the rock rheology. In this study, we analyse anhydrite layers embedded in the rock salt from the Upper Permian Zechstein salt formation from Dutch offshore. The anhydrite layers are common intercalation in the sequence. Their thickness varies between few millimetres up to hundred meters. The layers are strongly deformed often forming fold structures, which can be observed on a wide range of scales: in core samples, mine galleries, and also in the seismic sections. For our analysis, we select single layer fold trains. Quantitative fold shape analysis is carried out using Fold Geometry Toolbox [3], which allows deciphering the viscosity ratio between anhydrite and salt. The results indicate that anhydrite layer is ca. 10 to 30 times more viscous than the embedding salt. Further, we use the estimated rheological parameters of anhydrite in the numerical analysis of the internal salt dynamics. We solve an incompressible Stokes equation in the presence of the gravity using the finite element method solver MILAMIN [4]. We show that the presence of denser and more viscous anhydrite layers in the tectonically stable regime is insignificant for the internal stability of the salt structures. [1] Chemia, Z., Koyi, H., Schmeling, H. 2008. Numerical modelling of rise and fall of a dense layer in salt diapirs. Geophysical Journal International, 172: 798-816. [2] Muller, W.H., Briegel, U. 1978. The rheological behaviour of polycrystalline Anhydrite. Eclogae Geol. Helv, 71(2): 397-407 [3] Adamuszek M., Schmid D.W., Dabrowski M. 2011. Fold geometry toolbox - Automated determination of fold shape, shortening, and material properties, Journal of Structural Geology, 33: 1406-1416. [4] Dabrowski, M., Krotkiewski, M., and Schmid, D. W. 2008. MILAMIN: MATLAB-based finite element

  16. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  17. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  18. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1991-11-01

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  19. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  20. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  1. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  2. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F.; Jercinovic, M.

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., ≤ 10 -18 m 2 ) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  4. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  5. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated β-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated β-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included. (author)

  6. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated. beta. -diketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated ..beta..-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated ..beta..-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included.

  7. New quaternary ammonium salts based decontaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Popescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination after terrorist attacks or industrial accidents with biological and/or chemical agents („bio-chem“ must be fast and efficient, in order to reduce the number of victims and to eliminate the consequent damages. The decontamination of living biological agents (bacteria, viruses or nonliving ones (toxins, regulators and toxic chemicals could be accomplished by reactions of hydrolysis in various experimental conditions, in particular in alkaline medium, reactions with amines or ammonia, alcohols, phenols etc. and by their transformation into less toxic degradation products. “Bio-chem” intentional or unintentional contamination is a real risk, towards which an effective management must be available to prevent and control it. Decontamination is an essential measure to protect the personnel and the environment. Synthesis and testing of new „bio-chem“ decontaminants, based on quaternary ammonium salts, complete the arsenal of protection against chemical and biological agents. The most effective selected substances could be produced and used for decontamination in accordance with legal procedures

  8. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  9. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  10. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  11. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  13. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  14. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  15. Simulation of Molten Salt Reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, J.; Rohde, U.; Grundmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of the Molten Salt Reactor - one of the 'Generation IV' concepts - was studied in this paper. The graphite-moderated channel type MSR was selected for the numerical simulation of the reactor with liquid fuel. The MSR dynamics is very specific because of two physical peculiarities of the liquid fueled reactor: the delayed neutrons precursors are drifted by the fuel flow and the fission energy is immediately released directly into the coolant. Presently, there are not many accessible numerical codes appropriate for the MSR simulation, therefore the DYN3D-MSR code was developed based on the FZR in-house code DYN3D. It allows calculating of full 3D transient neutronics in combination with parallel channel type thermal-hydraulics. By means of DYN3D-MSR, several transients typical for the liquid fuel system were analyzed. Those transients were initiated by reactivity insertion, by overcooling of fuel at the core inlet, by the fuel pump start-up or coast-down, or by the blockage of selected fuel channels. In these considered transients, the response of the MSR is characterized by the immediate change of the fuel temperature with changing power and fast negative temperature feedback to the power. The response through the graphite temperature is slower. Furthermore, for big MSR cores fueled with U233 the graphite feedback coefficient can be positive. In this case the addition of erbium to the graphite can ensure the inherent safety features. The DYN3D-MSR code has been shown to be an effective tool for MSR dynamics studies. (author)

  16. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  17. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixtures of LiF with other alkali fluorides were conducted and compared. The investigation of fluoride salts at elevated temperatures is complicated by the fact that fluoride vapour is aggressive to many materials. In order to protect our sensitive measurement equipment the salt samples were encapsulated in nickel crucibles using a laser welding technique and afterwards the whole nickel capsule was measured. This method was verified by the measurement of unmixed CsF and KF where in both examples an excellent agreement with literature data was obtained. Afterwards various intermediate compositions of the systems LiF-KF, LiF-CsF and LiF-RbF were investigated and a general trend according to the difference in cation radii could be established. In combination with literature data for the LiF-NaF system the heat capacity of the liquid state follows the order LiF-NaF 2 -LaF 3 phase diagram was obtained. With the help of mathematical models the phase diagrams can be calculated and also higher order systems can be predicted. The LiF-NaF-CaF 2 -LaF 3 system was calculated with the classical polynomial model and the quasi-chemical model in parallel in order to evaluate which of the two models provide a better extrapolation to higher order systems (ternary or quaternary) based on the related binary systems. The two models behaved very similar at the investigated system and the quasi-chemical model was chosen for further assessments of phase diagrams. This model was selected, since it considers the

  18. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable

  19. Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 angstrom diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms

  20. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  1. Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, R. K.; Kumar, P.; Burman, U.; Joshi, P.; Agrawal, A.; Raliya, R.; Tarafdar, J. C.

    2012-09-01

    Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

  2. Offsite testing in support of the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a rationale and recommendation to perform an offsite testing program in support of the Salt Repository Project. The investigation to be performed primarily consists of qualifying test methods and procedures, qualifying personnel-training procedures, evaluating test instruments and selected equipment, and obtaining mining and production equipment performance-related information. The key objective of these activities is to develop capabilities to be used at the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). The ESF is to be excavated at the Deaf Smith County site to characterize the salt site for the construction of a repository used to isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. The bulk of the offsite testing work will be performed at Avery Island Salt Mine at New Iberia, Lousiana. Additional knowledge will be obtained by exchanging technical information either as participants or as observers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and the Asse Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). It is estimated that the offsite testing program will cost approximately $9.3 million over 4 fiscal years. 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  3. Genome-wide association study of salt tolerance at the seed germination stage in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingyao; Gao, Lingling; Wu, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Mingming; Zhang, Congshun; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2017-05-30

    detected. These results provide valuable information for salt tolerance-related gene cloning and for understanding the genetic mechanisms of salt tolerance at the seed germination stage. This information will be useful to improve the salt tolerance of direct-seeding rice varieties by genomic selection or marker-assisted selection.

  4. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process

  5. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  6. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  7. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  8. Sampling device for radioactive molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masato

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for accurately sampling molten salts to which various kinds of metals in a molten salt storage tank are mixed for analyzing them during a spent fuel dry type reprocessing. Namely, the device comprises a sampling tube having an opened lower end to be inserted into the radioactive molten salts stored in a tank and keeps reduced pressure from the upper end, and a pressure reducing pipeline having one end connected to the sampling tube and other end connected to an evacuating pump. In this device, the top end of the sampling tube is inserted to a position for sampling the radioactive molten salts (molten salts). The pressure inside the evacuating pipeline connected to the upper portion of the sampling tube is reduced for a while. In this case, the inside of the pressure reducing pipeline is previously evacuated by the evacuating pump so as to keep a predetermined pressure. Since the pressure in the sampling tube is lowered, molten salts are inserted into the sampling tube, the sampling tube is withdrawn, and the molten salts flown in the sampling tube are analyzed. (I.S.)

  9. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  10. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs

  11. Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, K A [National Inst. for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    1995-01-01

    Plant are susceptible to various stresses, affecting growth productivity. Among the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a result, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known to confer salt tolerance into crop plants. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Ion Correlation Effects in Salt-Doped Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.; Seo, Youngmi; Hall, Lisa M.

    2018-03-01

    We apply classical density functional theory to study how salt changes the microphase morphology of diblock copolymers. Polymers are freely jointed and one monomer type favorably interacts with ions, to account for the selective solvation that arises from different dielectric constants of the microphases. By including correlations from liquid state theory of an unbound reference fluid, the theory can treat chain behavior, microphase separation, ion correlations, and preferential solvation, at the same coarse-grained level. We show good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-06-12

    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  15. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  16. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  17. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  18. Inertia-confining thermonuclear molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Nakai, Sadao; Imon, Shunji; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nakamura, Norio; Kato, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the heat generating efficiency while improving the reactor safety and thereby maintaining the energy balance throughout the reactor. Constitution: In an inertia-confining type D-T thermonuclear reactor, the blanket is made of lithium-containing fluoride molten salts (LiF.BeF 2 , LiF.NaF.KF, LiF.KF, etc) which are cascaded downwardly in a large thickness (50 - 100 cm) along the inner wall of the thermonuclear reaction vessel, and neutrons generated by explosive compression are absorbed to lithium in the molten salts to produce tritium, Heat transportation is carried out by the molten salts. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  20. Leach resistance properties and release processes for salt-occluded zeolite A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) results in a waste of LiCl-KCl-NaCl salt containing approximately 10 wt% fission products, primarily CsCl and SrCl 2 . For disposal, this waste must be immobilized in a form that it is leach resistant. A salt-occluded zeolite has been identified as a potential waste form for the salt. Its leach resistance properties were investigated using powdered samples. The results were that strontium was not released and cesium had a low release, 0.056 g/m 2 for the 56 day leach test. The initial release (within 7 days) of alkali metal cations was rapid and subsequent releases were much smaller. The releases of aluminum and silicon were 0.036 and 0.028 g/m 2 , respectively, and were constant. Neither alkali metal cation hydrolysis nor exchange between cations in the leachate and those in the zeolite was significant. Only sodium release followed t 0.5 kinetics. Selected dissolution of the occluded salt was the primary release process. These results confirm that salt-occluded zeolite has promise as the waste form for IFR pyroprocess salt

  1. The electrodeposition and rare earths reduction in the molten salt actinides recovery systems using liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, J-B.; Lee, J-H.; Kwon, S-W.; Ahn, B-G.; Woo, M-S.; Lee, B-J.; Kim, E-H.; Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.

    2005-01-01

    A pyrochemical partitioning system uses liquid metals such as cadmium and bismuth in order to recover the actinide metals from a molten salt mixture containing rare earth fission product metals. The liquid metals play roles as a cathode in the electrowinning or an extracting phase in the reductive extraction operation. The product resulting from the above operations is metal-cadmium or-bismuth alloy, which should contain the rare earth element amounts as low as possible for a transmutation purpose. In this study, the electrodeposition behaviours of uranium and lanthanide elements such as La, Ce and Nd were investigated for solid molybdenum and liquid cadmium electrodes in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Electrochemical methods used are a cyclic voltammetry (CV) and a chronopotentiometry for monitoring the salt phase and recovering the metals, respectively. The CV graphs for monitoring the oxidizing agent CdCl 2 in the salt phase were obtained. These show a time dependently disappearance of the oxidizing agent corresponding to the formation of UCl 3 by inserting the uranium metal into the salt. Also, a sequential oxidation technique which is added at a controlled amount of the oxidizing agents into the salt phase was applied. It was found that this method is feasible for the selective reduction of the rare earths content in liquid metal alloys. (author)

  2. Development of a three dimension multi-physics code for molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Maosong; Dai Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) was selected as one of the six innovative nuclear reactors by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The circulating-fuel in the can-type molten salt fast reactor makes the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics of the reactor strongly coupled and different from that of traditional solid-fuel reactors. In the present paper: a new coupling model is presented that physically describes the inherent relations between the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor, the heat transfer and the turbulent flow. Based on the model, integrating nuclear data processing, CAD modeling, structured and unstructured mesh technology, data analysis and visualization application, a three dimension steady state simulation code system (MSR3DS) for the can-type molten salt fast reactor is developed and validated. In order to demonstrate the ability of the code, the three dimension distributions of the velocity, the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor and the temperature were obtained for the simplified MOlten Salt Advanced Reactor Transmuter (MOSART) using this code. The results indicate that the MSR3DS code can provide a feasible description of multi-physical coupling phenomena in can-type molten salt fast reactor. Furthermore, the code can well predict the flow effect of fuel salt and the transport effect of the turbulent diffusion. (authors)

  3. Determination of soil mechanics of salt rock as a potential backfilling material in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1987-09-01

    Within the framework of the research and development project 'Backfilling and sealing of boreholes, chambers and roadways in a final dump', the Institute for Underground Dumping chose - from the broad range of possible stowing materials - the material 'salt spoil' and investigated its soil-mechanical properties in detail. Besides the implementation of soil-mechanical standard analyses (determination of the grain size distribution, bulk density, limits of storage density, proctor density, permeabilities, and shear strength) of two selected salt spoils (heap salt and rock salt spoil), the studies concentrated on the determination of the compression behaviour of salt spoil. In order to obtain data on the compaction behaviour of this material in the case of increasing stress, compression tests with obstructed lateral expansion were carried out on a series of spoil samples differing mainly in the composition of grain sizes. In addition to this, for a small number of samples of rock salt spoil, the creep behaviour at constant stress was determined after the compaction phase. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Short-term effects of salt exposure on the maize chloroplast protein pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Herbst, Ramona; Forreiter, Christoph; Schubert, Sven

    2009-09-01

    It is of fundamental importance to understand the physiological differences leading to salt resistance and to get access to the molecular mechanisms underlying this physiological response. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of short-term salt exposure on the proteome of maize chloroplasts in the initial phase of salt stress (up to 4 h). It could be shown that sodium ions accumulate quickly and excessively in chloroplasts in the initial phase of moderate salt stress. A change in the chloroplast protein pattern was observed without a change in water potential of the leaves. 2-DE revealed that 12 salt-responsive chloroplast proteins increased while eight chloroplast proteins decreased. Some of the maize chloroplast proteins such as CF1e and a Ca(2+)-sensing receptor show a rather transient response for the first 4 h of salt exposure. The enhanced abundance of the ferredoxin NADPH reductase, the 23 kDa polypeptide of the photosystem II, and the FtsH-like protein might reflect mechanism to attenuate the detrimental effects of Na(+) on the photosynthetic machinery. The observed transient increase and subsequent decrease of selected proteins may exhibit a counterbalancing effect of target proteins in this context. Intriguingly, several subunits of the CF1-CF0 complex are unequally affected, whereas others do not respond at all.

  5. Notes from the CKD kitchen: a variety of salt-free seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwold, Duane

    2007-05-01

    One of the challenges with renal diets is how to make flavorful food while maintaining the low sodium restrictions. I have found three spice companies that have created seasoning mixtures using a mixture of herbs that do not add sodium or potassium chloride in their flavors. The recipe Ginger Roasted Chicken with an Asian Slaw is an example of how you can use three different salt-free seasonings to create a flavorful meal. I know from personal experience that I feel better, have more energy, and sleep better if I restrict my sodium intake. It is easy to stop using the salt shaker and replace the garlic salt and onion salt with garlic powder and onion powder in the kitchen. It takes a dedicated shopper to find the hidden sodium in foods. I find myself reading more and more labels in the aisles of the grocery store before I put any foods in my grocery cart. I also find myself studying the spice selections looking for salt-free seasonings. Mrs. Dash is great and very popular, but there must be more options for us patients with chronic kidney disease. After doing some culinary research, I was pleased to find a much larger section of salt-free seasonings than I expected. I have listed a few of the seasoning combinations below and a table of three major spice companies along with their contact information for purchasing their products.

  6. "Tepid" Geysers above salt caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Zakharov, Vassily

    2018-06-01

    The formation of a brine geyser erupting from the wellhead of a large underground salt cavern is described. In most cases, the brine outflow from an opened cavern is slow; it results from the cavern creep closure and the thermal expansion of the cavern brine. These two processes are smooth; however, the brine outflow often is bumpy, as it is modulated by atmospheric pressure variations that generate an elastic increase (or decrease) of both cavern and brine volumes. In addition, when the flow is fast enough, the brine thermodynamic behavior in the wellbore is adiabatic. The cold brine expelled from the cavern wellhead is substituted with warm brine entering the borehole bottom, resulting in a lighter brine column. The brine outflow increases. In some cases, the flow becomes so fast that inertia terms must be taken into account. A geyser forms, coming to an end when the pressure in the cavern has dropped sufficiently. A better picture is obtained when head losses are considered. A closed-form solution can be reached. This proves that two cases must be distinguished, depending on whether the cold brine initially contained in the wellbore is expelled fully or not. It can also be shown that geyser formation is a rare event, as it requires both that the wellbore be narrow and that the cavern be very compressible. This study stemmed from an actual example in which a geyser was observed. However, scarce information is available, making any definite interpretation difficult. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  8. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  9. Identification of Rice Accessions Associated with K+/Na+ Ratio and Salt Tolerance Based on Physiological and Molecular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key for rice plant survival under NaCl salt stress is maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in its cells. Selection for salt tolerance rice genotypes based on phenotypic performance alone will delay in progress in breeding. Use of molecular markers in tandem with physiological studies will help in better identification of salt tolerant rice accessions. Eight rice accessions along with the check Dongjin were screened using 1/2 Yoshida solution with 50 mmol/L NaCl at the seedling stage. The accessions IT001158, IT246674, IT260533 and IT291341 were classified as salt tolerant based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Seventeen SSR markers reported to be associated with K+/Na+ ratio were used to screen the accessions. Five SSR markers (RM8053, RM345, RM318, RM253 and RM7075 could differentiate accessions classified based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Banding pattern of the accessions was scored compared to the banding pattern of Dongjin. The study differentiated accessions based on their association of K+/Na+ ratio with molecular markers which are very reliable. These markers can play a significant role in screening large set of rice germplasms for salt tolerance and also help in identification of high-yielding varieties with better salt tolerance. The salt tolerant accessions can be taken forward into developing better varieties by conventional breeding and exploring genes for salt tolerance.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R

    2008-01-01

    salt simulant described in this report represents the initial attempt to represent the material which may be encountered during final waste removal and tank cleaning. The final selected simulant was produced by heating and evaporation of a salt slurry sample to remove excess water and promote formation and precipitation of solids with solubility characteristics which are consistent with actual tank insoluble salt samples. The exact anion composition of the final product solids is not explicitly known since the chemical components in the final product are distributed between the solid and liquid phases. By combining the liquid phase analyses and total solids analysis with mass balance requirements a calculated composition of assumed simple compounds was obtained and is shown in Table 0-1. Additional improvements to and further characterization of the insoluble salt simulant are possible. During the development of these simulants it was recognized that: (1) Additional waste characterization on the residues from salt dissolution tests with actual waste samples to determine the amount of species such as carbonate, oxalate and aluminosilicate would allow fewer assumptions to be made in constructing an insoluble salt simulant. (2) The tank history will impact the amount and type of insoluble solids that exist in the salt dissolution solids. Varying the method of simulant production (elevated temperature processing time, degree of evaporation, amount of mixing (shear) during preparation, etc.) should be tested

  11. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  12. Benchmark Simulation of Natural Circulation Cooling System with Salt Working Fluid Using SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. K.; Scarlat, R. O.; Hu, R.

    2017-09-03

    Liquid salt-cooled reactors, such as the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR), offer passive decay heat removal through natural circulation using Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops. The behavior of such systems should be well-understood through performance analysis. The advanced system thermal-hydraulics tool System Analysis Module (SAM) from Argonne National Laboratory has been selected for this purpose. The work presented here is part of a larger study in which SAM modeling capabilities are being enhanced for the system analyses of FHR or Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Liquid salt thermophysical properties have been implemented in SAM, as well as properties of Dowtherm A, which is used as a simulant fluid for scaled experiments, for future code validation studies. Additional physics modules to represent phenomena specific to salt-cooled reactors, such as freezing of coolant, are being implemented in SAM. This study presents a useful first benchmark for the applicability of SAM to liquid salt-cooled reactors: it provides steady-state and transient comparisons for a salt reactor system. A RELAP5-3D model of the Mark-1 Pebble-Bed FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR), and in particular its DRACS loop for emergency heat removal, provides steady state and transient results for flow rates and temperatures in the system that are used here for code-to-code comparison with SAM. The transient studied is a loss of forced circulation with SCRAM event. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of SAM to FHR or any other molten salt reactors. While building these models in SAM, any gaps in the code’s capability to simulate such systems are identified and addressed immediately, or listed as future improvements to the code.

  13. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;PTreatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  16. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt...

  17. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  18. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charo, L.; Habib, P.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  19. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, G.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  20. SALT4: a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity code for thermomechanical analysis in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    SALT4 is a two-dimensional analytical/displacement-discontinuity code designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. This code was developed by the University of Minnesota. This documentation describes the mathematical equations of the physical system being modeled, the numerical techniques utilized, and the organization of the computer code, SALT4. The SALT4 code takes into account: (1) viscoelastic behavior in the pillars adjacent to excavations; (2) transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock; and (2) excavation sequence. Major advantages of the SALT4 code are: (1) computational efficiency; (2) the small amount of input data required; and (3) a creep law consistent with laboratory experimental data for salt. The main disadvantage is that some of the assumptions in the formulation of SALT4, i.e., temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars. The SALT4 code can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermal and thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. SALT4 can also be used to verify fully numerical codes. This is similar to the use of analytic solutions for code verification. Although SALT4 was designed for analysis of bedded salt, it is also applicable to crystalline rock if the creep calculation is suppressed. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  1. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  2. SSR-based association mapping of salt tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y L; Wang, H M; Shao, B X; Chen, W; Guo, Z J; Gong, H Y; Sang, X H; Wang, J J; Ye, W W

    2016-05-25

    The identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with salt tolerance in cotton contributes to molecular assisted selection (MAS), which can improve the efficiency of traditional breeding. In this study, 134 samples of upland cotton cultivars were selected. The seedling emergence rates were tested under 0.3% NaCl stress. A total of 74 SSR markers were used to scan the genomes of these samples. To identify SSR markers associated with salt tolerance, an association analysis was performed between salt tolerance and SSR markers using TASSEL 2.1, based on the analysis of genetic structure using Structure 2.3.4. The results showed that the seedling emergence rates of 134 cultivars were significantly different, and 27 salt-sensitive and 10 salt-tolerant cultivars were identified. A total of 148 loci were found in 74 SSR markers involving 246 allelic variations, which ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 3.32 per SSR marker. The gene diversity ranged from 0.0295 to 0.4959, with the average being 0.2897. The polymorphic information content ranged from0.0290 to 0.3729, with the average being 0.2381. This natural population was classified into two subgroups by Structure 2.3.4, containing 89 and 45 samples, respectively. Finally, eight SSR sites associated with salt tolerance ware found through an association analysis, with the rate of explanation ranging from 2.91 to 7.82% and an average of 4.32%. These results provide reference data for the use MAS for salt tolerance in cotton.

  3. Intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator designs for the HYLIFE-II fusion power plant using molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II fusion power plant employs the molten salt, Flibe, for the liquid jets which form the self-healing 'first wall' of the reactor. The molten salt, sodium fluoroborate then transports the heat from the IHX's to the steam generators. The design and optimization of the IHX's and the steam generators for use with molten salts has been done as part of the HYLIFE-II conceptual design study. The results of this study are described, and reference designs of these large heat exchangers are selected to minimize the cost of electricity while satisfying other important constraints

  4. Development of structural materials to enable the electrochemical reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J. M.; Cho, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Seo, C. S.; Park, S. W

    2006-02-15

    For the development of the advanced spent fuel management process based on the molten salt technology, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling a molten salt. In this study, corrosion behavior of Fe-base superalloy, Ni-base superalloy, non-metallic material and surface modified superalloy were investigated in the hot molten salt under oxidation atmosphere. These experimental data will suggest a guideline for the selection of corrosion resistant materials and help to find the operation criteria of each equipment in aspects of high temperature characteristics and corrosion retardation.

  5. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  6. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  7. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  8. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  9. Neutronic design of a Liquid Salt-cooled Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zwaan, S. J.; Boer, B.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    A renewed interest has been raised for liquid salt cooled nuclear reactors. The excellent heat transfer properties of liquid salt coolants provide several benefits, like lower fuel temperatures, higher coolant outlet temperatures, increased core power density and better decay heat removal. In order to benefit from the online refueling capability of a pebble bed reactor, the Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR) is proposed. This is a high temperature pebble-bed reactor with a fuel design similar to existing HTRs, but using a liquid salt as a coolant. In this paper, the selection criteria for the liquid salt coolant are described. Based on its neutronic properties, LiF-BeF 2 (FLIBE) was selected for the LSPBR. Two designs of the LSPBR were considered: a cylindrical core and an annular core with a graphite inner reflector. Coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to obtain the steady state power distribution and the corresponding fuel temperatures. Finally, calculations were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability in a protected loss-of-forced cooling accident. The maximum allowable power that can be produced with the LSPBR is hereby determined. (authors)

  10. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rod S; Ashton, Kate E; Moxham, Tiffany; Hooper, Lee; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier Cochrane review of dietary advice identified insufficient evidence to assess effects of reduced salt intake on mortality or cardiovascular events. Objectives To assess the long term effects of interventions aimed at reducing dietary salt on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate whether blood pressure reduction is an explanatory factor in any effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Search methods The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched through to October 2008. References of included studies and reviews were also checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised with follow up of at least six-months, (2) intervention was reduced dietary salt (restricted salt dietary intervention or advice to reduce salt intake), (3) adults, (4) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data was available. Two reviewers independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis Data extraction and study validity were compiled by a single reviewer, and checked by a second. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Events were extracted and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs calculated. Main results Six studies (including 6,489 participants) met the inclusion criteria - three in normotensives (n=3518), two in hypertensives (n=758), and one in a mixed population of normo- and hypertensives (n=1981) with end of trial follow-up of seven to 36 months and longest observational follow up (after trial end) to 12.7 yrs. Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (end of trial RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.12, 60 deaths; longest follow up RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.40, 79 deaths) and hypertensives (end of trial RR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.13, 513 deaths

  11. Complexation and sensing behavior of dansyl-appended cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin dimers with bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.R.; Berthault, P.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Huskens, J.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    The dansyl-modified cyclodextrin derivatives 2 and 3 form complexes with the steroidal bile salts. The selectivity of the monomeric derivative 3 is similar to that of native g-cyclodextrin. All binding constants with 3 are lowered compared to g-cyclodextrin because of the competition for the cavity

  12. Complexation and sensing behavior of dansyl-appended cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin dimers with bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.R.; Berthault, Patrick; van Hoek, Arie; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    The dansyl-modified cyclodextrin derivatives 2 and 3 form complexes with the steroidal bile salts. The selectivity of the monomeric derivative 3 is similar to that of native β-cyclodextrin. All binding constants with 3 are lowered compared to β-cyclodextrin because of the competition for the cavity

  13. Synthesis of N-Substituted Piperidine Salts as Potential Muscarinic Ligands for Alzheimer's Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boulos, J.; Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Avila, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2013), s. 1363-1367 ISSN 0022-152X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : N-piperidine substituted salts * muscarinic receptor antagonists * selectivity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2013

  14. The aspen mortality summit; December 18 and 19, 2006; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale L. Bartos; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2010-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station sponsored an aspen summit meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on December 18 and19, 2006, to discuss the rapidly increasing mortality of aspen (Populus tremuloides) throughout the western United States. Selected scientists, university faculty, and managers from Federal, State, and non-profit agencies with experience...

  15. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  16. Parametric studies on the fuel salt composition in thermal molten salt breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the salt composition and the fuel cycle of a graphite moderated molten salt self-breeder reactor operating on the thorium cycle is investigated. A breeder molten salt reactor is always coupled to a fuel processing plant which removes the fission products and actinides from the core. The efficiency of the removal process(es) has a large influence on the breeding capacity of the reactor. The aim is to investigate the effect on the breeding ratio of several parameters such as the composition of the molten salt, moderation ratio, power density and chemical processing. Several fuel processing strategies are studied. (authors)

  17. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  18. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  19. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  1. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  2. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelombola, Waltram; Shi, Ainong; Weng, Yuejin; Mou, Beiquan; Motes, Dennis; Clark, John; Chen, Pengyin; Srivastava, Vibha; Qin, Jun; Dong, Lingdi; Yang, Wei; Bhattarai, Gehendra; Sugihara, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    could be used as a tool to select salt-tolerant lines for breeding improved cowpea tolerance to salinity.

  3. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma J. Adler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2011 of the effects of reducing dietary salt intake, through advice to reduce salt intake or low-sodium salt substitution, on mortality and cardiovascular events.OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the long-term effects of advice and salt substitution, aimed at reducing dietary salt, on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. 2. To investigate whether a reduction in blood pressure is an explanatory factor in the effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes.METHODS:Search methods: We updated the searches of CENTRAL (2013, Issue 4, MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to April week 3 2013, EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to 30 April 2013 and CINAHL (EBSCO, inception to 1 April 2013 and last ran these on 1 May 2013. We also checked the references of included studies and reviews. We applied no language restrictions. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1 randomised, with follow-up of at least six months, (2 the intervention was reduced dietary salt (through advice to reduce salt intake or low-sodium salt substitution, (3 participants were adults and (4 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data were available. Two review authors independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis: A single author extracted data and assessed study validity, and a second author checked this. We contacted trial authors where possible to obtain missing information. We extracted events and calculated risk ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs.MAIN RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: three in normotensives (n = 3518 and five in hypertensives or mixed populations of normo- and hypertensives (n = 3766. End of trial follow-up ranged from six to 36 months and the longest observational follow-up (after trial end was 12.7 years. The risk ratios (RR for all-cause mortality in normotensives were imprecise and showed no evidence

  4. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  5. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  6. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  7. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes with Vinyliodonium Salts To Generate α,β-Unsaturated Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkiewicz, Adam A; Kalek, Marcin

    2018-04-06

    An organocatalyzed metal-free, direct olefination of aldehydes with vinyliodonium salts has been achieved by an N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted C-H bond activation. The reaction proceeds under very mild conditions, delivering a range of (hetero)aryl-vinyl ketones in good yields. The retention of the double bond configuration is uniformly observed, and the application of 2-methoxyphenyl auxiliary group in iodonium salts secures a complete selectivity of the vinyl transfer.

  8. Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄRHINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lightly salted food products are included in the assortments of Finnish supermarkets and prominently placed on shelves. The study was carried out in eastern Finland in four supermarkets of different food chains. Six food groups of importance for people's salt intake were considered. The food labels of 689 packaged food products were checked for salt and sodium information on the basis of Finnish regulations on salt. Products with reduced salt contents were found in most food groups but not among whole-meat or ready-to-eat foods. Half of the products with reduced amounts of salt were labelled "lightly salted". All four supermarkets had a similar assortment of lightly salted products. From the public health point of view, the food industry should increase the supply of lightly salted products, and make a special effort to develop lightly salted ready-to-eat foods.

  9. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  10. Advanced Backcross QTL Analysis for the Whole Plant Growth Duration Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Lu; LI Zhi-kang; ZHANG Jian; PAN Xiao-biao; ZHANG Fan; ZHENG Tian-qing; ZHAO Xiu-qing; WANG Wen-sheng; Ali Jauhar; XU Jian-long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major factor limiting rice yield in coastal areas of Asia. To facilitate breeding salt tolerant rice varieties, the whole-plant growth duration salt tolerance (ST) was genetically dissected by phenotyping two sets of BC2F5 introgression lines (ILs) for four yield traits under severe natural salt stress and non-stress ifled conditions using SSR markers and the methods of advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) analysis and selective introgression. Many QTLs affecting four yield traits under salt stress and non-stress conditions were identiifed, most (>90%) of which were clustered in 13 genomic regions of the rice genome and involved in complex epistasis. Most QTLs affecting yield traits were differentially expressed under salt stress and non-stress conditions. Our results suggested that genetics complementarily provides an adequate explanation for the hidden genetic diversity for ST observed in both IL populations. Some promising Huanghuazhan (HHZ) ILs with favorable donor alleles at multiple QTLs and signiifcantly improved yield traits under salt stress and non-stress conditions were identiifed, providing excellent materials and relevant genetic information for improving rice ST by marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome selection.

  11. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  12. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  13. Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).

  14. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Evaluation of Taste Properties of Commercially Available Salts

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Kyoko; SUGIMOTO, Maho; KUMAGAI, Masanori; MATSUNAGA, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    This study examined commercially available salts'taste properties. The salts were used in preparation of four dishes: asazuke of cucumber, asazuke of Chinese cabbage, clear soup, and green soybean rice. The respective tastes of the salts in those prepared foods differed from those of the salts alone. We evaluated the parameters: saltiness, mildness, unpleasantness, and palatability. Differences of the salt samples affected the perception of saltiness. Results of taste sensor analyses showed t...

  16. A genome-wide expression profile of salt-responsive genes in the apple rootstock Malus zumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtian; Liu, Jia; Tan, Dunxian; Allan, Andrew C; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai; Kong, Jin

    2013-10-18

    In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl). To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  17. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  18. Multicomponent, flow diazotization/Mizoroki-Heck coupling protocol: dispelling myths about working with diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalivela, Kumara S; Tilley, Michael; McGuire, Michael A; Organ, Michael G

    2014-05-26

    A single pass flow diazotization/Mizoroki-Heck protocol has been developed for the production of cinnimoyl and styryl products. The factors that govern aryl diazonium salt stability have been examined in detail leading to the development of a MeOH/DMF co-solvent system in which the diazonium salts can be generated in the presence of all other reaction components and then coupled selectively to give the desired products. Finally the key role of the reaction quench for flow reactions has been demonstrated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Rawichar Chaipojjana; Suttipong Phosuksirikul; Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465 were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition 5 M HCl, pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. ...

  20. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: A food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legislating the levels of salt in processed food is only one part of this national strategy. All health professionals and educators should also provide appropriate nutritional recommendations that will educate, motivate and enable consumers to change their nutritional behaviour to reduce salt intake to less than 5 g per day, ...

  1. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101......+/-3 mm Hg), and HS (96+/-1 mm Hg) groups on normal-salt diets compared with the controls (84+/-2 mm Hg), and the blood pressure was salt sensitive (high- versus normal-salt diet; 23+/-3, 9+/-2, 7+/-2, and 1+/-1 mm Hg, respectively). The hypertensive groups (UNX+HS, UNX, and HS) had increased diuresis......The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...

  2. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  3. Comparative miRomics of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Kavita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage. They also play an important role in regulating plant’s response to salt-stress. In this work we adopted the approach of comparative and integrated data-mining to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of salt-stress in rice. We profiled and compared the miRNA regulations using natural varieties and transgenic lines with contrasting behaviors in response to salt-stress. The information obtained from sRNAseq, RNAseq and degradome datasets was integrated to identify the salt-deregulated miRNAs, their targets and the associated metabolic pathways. The analysis revealed the modulation of many biological pathways, which are involved in salt-tolerance and play an important role in plant phenotype and physiology. The end modifications of the miRNAs were also studied in our analysis and isomiRs having a dynamic role in salt-tolerance mechanism were identified.

  4. Study Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt. Salt washing process should increase the saltquality. It should clean the salt from sludge or clay and also reduce the impurity compound such as Mg, Ca and the reductor content. The objective of these reseach is to assess the effect of washing process on the content og hygroscopic impurities compound (Ca and Mg, and reductor content of salt. The research also investigate the water absorbing, pH, KIO3 content as function of time to obtain effect of washing process on KIO3 stability in salt. The experiment result shows that the lowest content of Mg and reductor compound 0.016 % wt and 2.65 ppm respectively which is reached at the fi ne salt washing process using 27 % wt brine. The analysis of water content indicates an increase the Ca and Mg content, causing an water absorbtion in salt , However the effect on pH the is not clear.

  5. Removal of uranium and salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.; Rushton, J.E.; Faulkner, R.L.; Walker, K.L.; Del Cul, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, migration of 233 U was discovered to have occurred at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper describes the actions now underway to remove uranium from the off-gas piping and the charcoal bed, to remove and stabilize the salts, and to convert the uranium to a stable oxide for long-term storage

  6. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: Changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöyry, S.; Róg, T.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering, and

  7. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  8. Natural gas and condensate occurrence in salt, specifically in the salt stock Gorleben-Rambow. Literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The study on the natural gas and condensate occurrence in salt, specifically in the salt stock Gorleben-Rambow covers the topics development of salt deposits, salt stocks, crude oil and natural gas, gas and condensate inclusions in evaporite. Experimental data on crude oil borehole studies in Gorleben, natural gas drill holes in the salt stock Rambow, Luechow Z1 - saltstock Wustrow, gas indications, gas occurrences and gas detection are summarized.

  9. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  10. Molten salt hazardous waste disposal process utilizing gas/liquid contact for salt recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The products of a molten salt combustion of hazardous wastes are converted into a cooled gas, which can be filtered to remove hazardous particulate material, and a dry flowable mixture of salts, which can be recycled for use in the molten salt combustion, by means of gas/liquid contact between the gaseous products of combustion of the hazardous waste and a solution produced by quenching the spent melt from such molten salt combustion. The process results in maximizing the proportion of useful materials recovered from the molten salt combustion and minimizing the volume of material which must be discarded. In a preferred embodiment a spray dryer treatment is used to achieve the desired gas/liquid contact

  11. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  12. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  13. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Salma; Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  15. Volatility of atmospherically relevant alkylaminium carboxylate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Segre, Enrico; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zhang, Renyi; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-05-14

    Heterogeneous neutralization reactions of ammonia and alkylamines with sulfuric acid play an important role in aerosol formation and particle growth. However, little is known about the physical and chemical properties of alkylaminium salts of organic acids. In this work we studied the thermal stability and volatility of alkylaminium carboxylate salts of short aliphatic alkylamines with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. The enthalpy of vaporization and saturation vapor pressure at 298 K were derived using the kinetic model of evaporation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The vapor pressure of alkylaminium dicarboxylate salts is ∼10(-6) Pa, and the vaporization enthalpy ranges from 73 to 134 kJ mol(-1). Alkylaminium monocarboxylate salts show high thermal stability, and their thermograms do not follow our evaporation model. Hence, we inferred their vapor pressure from their thermograms as comparable to that of ammonium sulfate (∼10(-9) Pa). Further characterization showed that alkylaminium monocarboxylates are room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) that are more hygroscopic than ammonium sulfate (AS). We suggest that the irregular thermograms result from an incomplete neutralization reaction leading to a mixture of ionic and nonionic compounds. We conclude that these salts are expected to contribute to new particle formation and particle growth under ambient conditions and can significantly enhance the CCN activity of mixed particles in areas where SO2 emissions are regulated.

  16. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  17. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  18. The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

    2007-07-01

    Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is

  19. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  20. Tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest Florida (U.S.A.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. Buoyant A. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. We expected the physical structure of salt-marsh vegetation to define propagule retention capacity, and we predicted that salt-marsh plants with distinct growth forms would differentially retain propagules. Experimental monoculture plots (1 m2) of salt-marsh plants with different growth forms (Sporobolus virginicus [grass], Sesuvium portulacastrum [succulent forb], and Batis maritima [succulent scrub]) were created, and A. germinans propagules were emplaced into these plots and monitored over time. For comparison, propagules were also placed into natural polyculture plots (1 m2). Polyculture plots contained at least two of the salt-marsh plant taxa selected for monoculture treatments, and S. virginicus was always present within these polyculture plots. Natural polyculture plots retained 59.3% +/- 11.0% (mean +/- SE) of emplaced propagules. Monocultures varied in their propagule retention capacities with plots of S. virginicus retaining on average 65.7% +/- 11.5% of transplanted propagules compared to 7.2% +/- 1.8% by B. maritima and 5.0% +/- 1.9% by S. portulacastrum. Plots containing S. virginicus retained a significantly greater percentage of emplaced propagules relative to the two succulent salt-marsh taxa. Furthermore, propagule entrapment, across all treatments, was strongly correlated with salt-marsh structure (r2 = 0.6253, P = 0.00001), which was estimated using an indirect quantitative metric (lateral obstruction) calculated from digital images of plots. Overall, our findings imply that

  1. Evaluation of rice germplasm under salt stress at the seedling stage through SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Amin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight rice germplasms were used for identification of salt tolerant rice genotypes at the seedling stage at the experimental farm and Biotechnology laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh during February 2009 to October 2009. Phenotyping for salinity screening of the rice genotypes was done using salinized (EC level 12 dS m-1 nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance on 1-9 scale based on seedling growth parameters following modified Standard Evaluation Scoring (SES of IRRI. Phenotypically, on the basis of SES and % total dry matter (TDM reduction of the genotypes viz. PBSAL-614, PBSAL-613, PBSAL-730, Horkuch, S-478/3 Pokkali and PBSAL (STL-15 were found to be salt tolerant; on the other hand Iratom-24, S-653/32, S-612/32, S-604/32, S-633/32, Charnock (DA6, BINA Dhan-6 and S-608/32 were identified as salt susceptible. For genotyping, ten SSR markers were used for polymorphism, where 3 primers (RM127, RM443 and RM140 were selected for evaluation of salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM127, 7 lines were found salt tolerant and 11 lines were moderately tolerant and 10 lines were susceptible. Nine tolerant, 9 moderately tolerant and 10 susceptible lines were found when the primer RM140 was used and primer RM443 identified 8 lines as tolerant, 9 lines as moderately tolerant and 11 lines as susceptible. Thus, the salt tolerant lines can be used in further evaluation for salinity tolerance and the SSR markers used in this study are proving valuable for identifying salt tolerant genes in marker assisted breeding.

  2. Biochar application for the remediation of salt-affected soils: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Dahlawi, Saad; Naeem, Asif; Rengel, Zed; Naidu, Ravi

    2018-06-01

    Soil salinization and sodification are two commonly occurring major threats to soil productivity in arable croplands. Salt-affected soils are found in >100 countries, and their distribution is extensive and widespread in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In order to meet the challenges of global food security, it is imperative to bring barren salt-affected soils under cultivation. Various inorganic and organic amendments are used to reclaim the salt-affected lands. The selection of a sustainable ameliorant is largely determined by the site-specific geographical and soil physicochemical parameters. Recently, biochar (solid carbonaceous residue, produced under oxygen-free or oxygen-limited conditions at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1000°C) has attracted considerable attention as a soil amendment. An emerging pool of knowledge shows that biochar addition is effective in improving physical, chemical and biological properties of salt-affected soils. However, some studies have also found an increase in soil salinity and sodicity with biochar application at high rates. Further, the high cost associated with production of biochar and high application rates remains a significant challenge to its widespread use in areas affected by salinity and sodicity. Moreover, there is relatively limited information on the long-term behavior of salt-affected soils subjected to biochar applications. The main objective of the present paper was to review, analyze and discuss the recent studies investigating a role of biochar in improving soil properties and plant growth in salt-affected soils. This review emphasizes that using biochar as an organic amendment for sustainable and profitable use of salt-affected soils would not be practicable as long as low-cost methods for the production of biochar are not devised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Salt intake and the progression of renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaha, Mayuko; Ohashi, Yasushi; Sakai, Ken; Aikawa, Atsushi; Mizuiri, Sonoo

    2010-01-01

    Salt intake not only elevates the levels of blood pressure, glomerular capillary pressure and proteinuria, but also increases oxidative stress within the renal cortex in animal models. We examined the effect of salt intake on the rate of renal function decline, urinary protein and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical data including systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, urinary protein, salt intake, protein intake of non-diabetic CKD 53 patients were observed for one year. At the end of the observation period, we measured 8-hydroxydeoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) in spot urine. We calculated the slope of reciprocal serum creatinine as the rate of renal function decline (delta1/Cr). We then investigated the relationship between those clinical factors and delta1/Cr, and urinary 8-OHdG, and also selected clinical factors that significantly influence delta1/Cr and urinary 8-OHdG by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition, we investigated the gender difference in urinary 8-OHdG. Annual mean SBP and DBP of all patients were 121.5 +/- 9.3 mmHg and 72.5+/- 6.2 mmHg, respectively. delta1/Cr was negatively correlated with salt intake, urinary protein and urinary protein was a significant predictor of delta1/Cr in a multiple regression analysis. Salt intake was positively correlated with protein intake and urinary protein. Urinary 8-OHdG of all patients was positively correlated with urinary protein and it was a significant predictor. Urinary 8-OHdG of male patients was positively correlated with salt intake and was a significant predictor; in female patients, it was positively correlated with urinary protein and total cholesterol and these two factors were significant predictors. Salt intake increases urinary protein and promotes the progression of renal failure in CKD patients.

  4. Simulation tool of the on-line reprocessing unit of a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Nicole; Conocar, Olivier; Boussier, Hubert; Gastaldi, Olivier; Penit, Thomas; Walle, Eric; Huguet, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is an interesting technology selected in the frame of the Generation IV forum. In the MSR, actinides are diluted in a molten salt which is both the fuel and the coolant. The ability of such a reactor is the reducing of the long-lived wastes due to high burn-up and the on-site simplified reprocessing directly connected with the core which preserve the salt properties necessary for its correct operation. Here is defined a flexible computer reprocessing code which can use data from neutronic calculations and can be coupled to a neutronic code. The code allow the description the whole behaviour of MSR, including, a coupled manner, both the design of the core and the optimised reprocessing scheme effects. (authors)

  5. Transport of mecoprop from agricultural soils to an adjacent salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, Caroline A.; Scrimshaw, Mark D.; Lester, John N.

    2004-01-01

    Salt marshes are important ecological areas and play a significant role in coastal flood defence schemes. In many areas of the UK they are adjacent to agricultural areas utilised for the growth of cereal crops, for which mecoprop is used as a selective herbicide in the control of broad-leafed weeds. This study measured concentrations of mecoprop in soils, drainage ditch waters and sediments and salt marsh sediments over a period of 138 days following spring application. Soil concentrations of up to 1827 μg/g were recorded after application, which demonstrated a half life for mecoprop of from 9 to 12 days, with first order kinetics. However, a major rainfall event 9 days after application resulted in significant transport of herbicide to the salt marsh via subsurface field drains, drainage ditches and discharge sluice. Mecoprop concentrations of up to 386 μg/l observed in water samples were above UK guidelines

  6. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  7. Results from the large scale in situ drift sealing experiment in the salt mine Sondershausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitz, P.; Koch, G. [Freiberg Univ. of Mining an Technology, Institute of Mining Engineering (Germany); Gruner, M. [Wilsnack and Partners Freiberg / Saxony (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the research, which is supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung) and the state of Thuringia from 1997 to 2003, are long term stable drift sealing systems for underground waste disposals. As a result of the material selection for the sealing element bricks from a mixture of bentonite and quartz-sand were produced. The static abutment was built with natural salt bricks. A real drift sealing system was built in the former potash mine Sondershausen in a depth of 700 m and then tested under a fluid pressure up to 80 bar with saturated salt-brine. The functionality of the bentonite sealing element was proved successfully. Since 1998 some 500 t of such bentonite blocks with sand have been produced and built-in in underground sealing elements in salt mines. (authors)

  8. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-01-01

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further

  9. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents

  10. MORPHO-MOLECULAR SCREENING OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE FOR SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Julfiker Md. Masud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing adequate food to meet an escalating population is one of the gravest problems the humankind is now facing. To resolve this crisis identification of salt tolerant rice variety is very vital. So, in this research, ten rice genotypes were used to screen salinity tolerance at the seedling stage in hydroponic system using SSR markers. Salinity screening was done at glasshouse following IRRI standard protocol using two setups of salinized and non-salinized conditions. Genotypes under controlled condition had longer root and shoot length then salt stress genotypes. Parental polymorphism survey was done with ten SSR markers viz., RM336, RM510, RM7075, RM407, RM3201b, RM10748, AP3206f, RM3412, RM585, RM11504 and all were selected to evaluate salt tolerance in rice genotypes. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 (AP3206f to 9 (RM336, with an average of 6.1 alleles across 10 loci obtained in the study. The polymorphic information content values ranged from of 0.54 (AP3206f to a high of 0.86 (RM336 with an average of 0.74. The pair-wise comparisons of Nei’s (1973 genetic distance (D between varieties were computed from combined data for the 10 primers, ranged from 0.30 to 0.90 with an average of 0.86, while the similarity index based analysis ranged from 0.00 to 0.70. Finally, the FL-478, FL-378, Binadhan-8 and Binadhan-10 were selected as salt tolerant because they showed tolerance in phenotypic analysis. These phenotypically selected tolerant genotypes could be used for the selection of suitable parents and development of salt tolerant rice varieties.

  11. Cryoprotection properties of salts of organic acids: a case study for a tetragonal crystal of HEW lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Grzegorz; Wrzesniewska, Blanka; Bujacz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the great majority of the data that are used for solving macromolecular structures by X-ray crystallography are collected at cryogenic temperatures. Selection of a suitable cryoprotectant, which ensures crystal stability at low temperatures, is critical for the success of a particular diffraction experiment. The effectiveness of salts of organic acids as potential cryoprotective agents is presented in the following work. Sodium formate, acetate, malonate and citrate were tested, as were sodium potassium tartrate and acetate in the form of potassium and ammonium salts. For each salt investigated, the minimal concentration that was required for successful cryoprotection was determined over the pH range 4.5-9.5. The cryoprotective ability of these organic salts depends upon the number of carboxylic groups; the lowest concentration required for cryoprotection was observed at neutral pH. Case-study experiments conducted using the tetragonal form of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) confirmed that salts of organic acids can successfully act as cryoprotective agents of protein crystals grown from high concentrations of inorganic salts. When crystals are grown from solutions containing a sufficient concentration of organic acid salts no additional cryoprotection is needed as the crystals can safely be frozen directly from the crystallizing buffers.

  12. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  13. Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Lecocq, A.; Kato, Yoshio; Mitachi, Kohshi.

    1990-01-01

    In the next century, the 'fission breeder' concept will not be practical to solve the global energy problems, including environmental and North-South problems. As a new measure, a simple rational Th molten salt breeding fuel cycle system, named 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics (THORIMS-NES)', which composed of simple power stations and fissile producers, is proposed. This is effective to establish the essential improvement in issues of resources, safety, power-size flexibility, anti-nuclear proliferation and terrorism, radiowaste, economy, etc. securing the simple operation, maintenance, chemical processing, and rational breeding fuel cycle. As examples, 155 MWe fuel self-sustaining power station 'FUJI-II', 7 MWe pilot-plant 'miniFUJI-II', 1 GeV-300 mA proton Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder 'AMSB', and their combined fuel cycle system are explained. (author)

  14. Salt effects in surfactant-free microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttl, Sebastian; Horinek, Dominik

    2018-06-01

    The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase. In addition, minor charging of the interface as a consequence of differential adsorption of anions and cations occurs. However, this charge separation is overall weakened by the erratic surface of octanol aggregates, where polar hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic patches are both present. Furthermore, ethanol at the interface shields hydrophobic patches and reduces the preferential adsorption of iodide and lithium.

  15. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  16. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift

  17. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  18. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  19. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  20. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.