Sample records for aminobenzoic acid-ortho

  1. 9-Aminoacridin-10-ium 4-aminobenzoate dihydrate

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    Nallathambi Dhanabalan


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated salt, C13H11N2+·C7H6NO2−·2H2O, consists of two independent 9-aminoacridinium cations, two 4-aminobenzoate anions and four water molecules. Both 9-aminoacridinium cations are essentially planar, with maximum deviations of 0.034 (1 and 0.025 (2 Å, and are protonated at the pyridine N atoms. The 4-aminobenzoate anions are approximately planar, with dihedral angles of 9.16 (19 and 5.4 (2° between the benzene ring and the carboxylate group. In the crystal, the two independent anions are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (100. The layers are connected through the cations by N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The water molecules, which form O—H...O hydrogen-bonded chains along the b-axis direction, connect the anions and the cations by O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also features π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6343 (9–3.8366 (10 Å] and a C—H...π interaction.

  2. Iodine Catalyzed One-pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from Anthranilic Acids, Ortho Esters and Amines under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Hong-She; ZENG,Jun-E


    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from anthranilic acids, ortho esters and amines using a catalytic amount of iodine under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding products in excellent yields. The direct use of commercially available catalyst, mild and solvent-free reaction conditions, short reaction time, easy workup and excellent yields are the advantages of the present protocol.

  3. Separation of Aminobenzoic Acids by Gold Nanoparticle modified Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN,Hongtao; LI,Tuo; GUO,Yanli


    A novel method for the separation of aminobenzoic acids by capillary electrophoresis was developed.The capillary was modified with gold nanoparticles.The effect of gold nanoparticles on the resolution and selectivity of separation was investigated.The influence of separation voltage,pH and buffer concentration on the separation of aminobenzoic acids was also examined.It was found that the presence of gold nanoparticles improved the precision of the analysis and increased the separation efficiency.Under the optimized experiment conditions,aminobenzoic acids were separated and determined.Linearity was established over the concentration range 0.5-40 μg·mL-1 with correlation coefficients of 0.9978-0.9992.The detection limits (S/N = 3) were from 0.1 to 0.5 μg·mL-1.

  4. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. Extraction of Aminobenzoic Acid with TOA and TBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 戴猷元


    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid were carried out. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were selected as complexing agents. 1-Octanol and kerosene were selected as diluents. The effects of extractant concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. It was found that there are ion-pair association and hydrogen-bond complexing in the extraction. Expressions of the equilibrium distribution for different solvent systems are proposed. The precision of the models is satisfactoy.

  6. Physico-chemical studies of some aminobenzoic acid hydrazide complexes

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    Full Text Available The stability constants and related thermodynamic functions characterizing the formation of divalent Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg complexes with o- and p-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide were determined potentiometrically at different temperatures. The formations of the complexes are endothermic processes. The formed bonds are mainly electrostatic. Conductometric titration was carried out to determine the stoichiometry and stability of the formed complexes. The structures of complexes were characterized by their IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, as well as X-ray diffractograms. The coordination process takes place through the carbonyl group and the terminal hydrazinic amino group. The thermal stability of the complexes was followed in the temperature range 20–600ºC.

  7. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.


    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  8. Distribution Behavior of Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in n-octane or 1-octanol was carried out. The effects of aminobenzoic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. The infrared spectra of the organic phase loaded with solute illustrated that pH had little effect on the structure of the complex formed. There proceed ion association and cation-exchange reaction in the extraction. An expression of the equilibrium distribution was proposed.

  9. Competitive homolytic and heterolytic decomposition pathways of gas-phase negative ions generated from aminobenzoate esters. (United States)

    Xia, Hanxue; Zhang, Yong; Pavlov, Julius; Jariwala, Freneil B; Attygalle, Athula B


    An alkyl-radical loss and an alkene loss are two competitive fragmentation pathways that deprotonated aminobenzoate esters undergo upon activation under mass spectrometric conditions. For the meta and para isomers, the alkyl-radical loss by a homolytic cleavage of the alkyl-oxygen bond of the ester moiety is the predominant fragmentation pathway, while the contribution from the alkene elimination by a heterolytic pathway is less significant. In contrast, owing to a pronounced charge-mediated ortho effect, the alkene loss becomes the predominant pathway for the ortho isomers of ethyl and higher esters. Results from isotope-labeled compounds confirmed that the alkene loss proceeds by a specific γ-hydrogen transfer mechanism that resembles the McLafferty rearrangement for radical cations. Even for the para compounds, if the alkoxide moiety bears structural motifs required for the elimination of a more stable alkene molecule, the heterolytic pathway becomes the predominant pathway. For example, in the spectrum of deprotonated 2-phenylethyl 4-aminobenzoate, m/z 136 peak is the base peak because the alkene eliminated is styrene. Owing to the fact that all deprotonated aminobenzoate esters, irrespective of the size of the alkoxy group, upon activation fragment to form an m/z 135 ion, aminobenzoate esters in mixtures can be quantified by precursor ion discovery mass spectrometric experiments.

  10. Aminobenzoate modified hydrotalcites as a novel smart additive of reinforced concrete for anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.R.; Polder, R.B.


    A carbonate form of Mg-Al-hydrotalcite with Mg/Al = 2 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative have been synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, IR and TG/DSC. Mg(2) Al-CO 3 was prepared by a coprecipitation method and was subsequently modified by pAB through the calcination-rehydrat

  11. Amine vs. carboxylic acid protonation in ortho-, meta-, and para-aminobenzoic acid: An IRMPD spectroscopy study (United States)

    Cismesia, Adam P.; Nicholls, Georgina R.; Polfer, Nicolas C.


    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational chemistry are applied to the ortho-, meta-, and para- positional isomers of aminobenzoic acid to investigate whether the amine or the carboxylic acid are the favored sites of proton attachment in the gas phase. The NH and OH stretching modes yield distinct patterns that establish the carboxylic acid as the site of protonation in para-aminobenzoic acid, as opposed to the amine group in ortho- and meta-aminobenzoic acid, in agreement with computed thermochemistries. The trends for para- and meta-substitutions can be rationalized simplistically by inductive effects and resonant stabilization, and will be discussed in light of computed charge distributions based from electrostatic potentials. In ortho-aminobenzoic acid, the close proximity of the amine and acid groups allow a simultaneous interaction of the proton with both groups, thus stabilizing and delocalizing the charge more effectively, and compensating for some of the resonance stabilization effects.

  12. α-Cyclodextrin/aminobenzoic acid binding in salt solutions at different pH: dependence on guest structure. (United States)

    Romanova, Anastasia; Chibunova, Ekaterina; Kumeev, Roman; Fedorov, Maxim; Terekhova, Irina


    Influence of Na(+) and K(+) cations on α-cyclodextrin guest-host complex formation with isomeric aminobenzoic acids was examined at different pH and temperature of 298.15 K by (1)H NMR and calorimetry methods. More pronounced influence of Na(+) on inclusion complex formation of α-CD with aminobenzoic acid anions compare to the effects of Na(+) on α-CD complex formation with zwitterionic aminobenzoic acid molecules was revealed. For the first time, the dependence of salt effects on the structure, ionization and the hydration state of the guest molecule was demonstrated and analysed on the basis of the obtained thermodynamic parameters of complex formation and calculated free energy of hydration of different ionized forms of aminobenzoic acids.

  13. Poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl alcohol): Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Adhikari; P Banerji


    In this work, we have deposited poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ polymerization. The polymerization was effected within maleic acid (MA) cross-linked PVA hydrogel. The copolymer was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride and -aminobenzoic acid using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. Instead of conventional solution polymerization, here synthesis was carried out on APS soaked MA cross-linked PVA (MA–PVA) film where the polymer was in situ deposited in its conducting form. The composite film was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT–IR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Surface morphology of the composite films was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The variation of conductivity of the films was studied.

  14. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

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    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade, E-mail: [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: [Universidad de Guadalajara, Department of Chemistry, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials.

  15. Growth and characterization of an adduct 4-aminobenzoic acid with nicotinic acid (United States)

    Anandhi, S.; Rajalakshmi, M.; Shyju, T. S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    Synthesis, crystal growth of an adduct 2:1 4-aminobenzoic acid-nicotinic acid (AMN) and characterization are reported. The crystallographic data of the title compound are obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The optical absorbance spectrum from 200 to 2250 nm shows the cutoff occurs at 490 nm. Thermal analysis carried out reveals the melting point and thermal stability of the grown crystal. Dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. Vicker's microhardness test was performed to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown specimen. The grown features were analyzed by chemical etching.

  16. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some Schiff bases derived from 4-aminobenzoic acid

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    Full Text Available The following Schiff bases have been synthesized: (1 4-[(2-chlorobenzylidene amino]benzoic acid [JP1], (2 4-[(furan-2-ylmethyleneamino]benzoic acid [JP2], (3 4-[(3-phenylallylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP3], (4 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene amino]benzoic acid [JP4], (5 4-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP5] and (6 4-[(3-nitrobenzylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP6]. They were screened as potential antibacterial agents against a number of medically important bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity was studied against A. faecalis ATCC 8750, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae NCIM 2719, S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. vulgaris NCIM 8313, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and S. typhimurium ATCC 23564. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Agar Ditch method. The solvents used were 1,4-dioxane and dimethyl sulfoxide. Different effects of the compounds were found in the bacterial strains investigated and the solvents used, suggesting, once again, that the antibacterial activity is dependent on the molecular structure of the compound, the solvent used and the bacterial strain under consideration. In the present work, 1,4-dioxane proved to be a good solvent in inhibiting the above stated bacterial strains.

  17. Polymorphism control of p-aminobenzoic acid by isothermal anti-solvent crystallization (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh Kumar; Sarkar, Debasis


    We report, for the first time, the control of polymorphism of p-aminobenzoic acid by isothermal anti-solvent crystallization using ethanol as solvent and water as anti-solvent. p-aminobenzoic (p-ABA) acid crystallizes in two distinct polymorphic forms: the α-polymorph, which is commercially available form and appears as long fibrous needles; and the β-polymorph, which appears in the form of prisms. The solubility of p-ABA was determined gravimetrically for various water/ethanol mixtures at 15 °C and isothermal anti-solvent crystallization experiments were conducted at 15 °C over a range of supersaturation ratio from 1.01 to 1.30 and at different anti-solvent addition rates of 4, 6, 8, and10 ml/h. The needle-type α-polymorph was always obtained at higher supersaturation ratio and higher flow-rates of anti-solvent addition. The prismatic β-polymorph was obtained at lower supersaturation range of 1.01-1.06 when anti-solvent was added at 4 and 6 ml/h. The obtained polymorphs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The region of occurrence of each polymorph with respect to supersaturation ratio and anti-solvent wt% is presented for these addition rates. The careful selection of supersaturation ratio and anti-solvent addition rate can produce desired polymorph of p-ABA by anti-solvent crystallization.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for benzocaine and p-aminobenzoic acid including preliminary stability data. (United States)

    Narang, P K; Bird, G; Crouthamel, W G


    A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed that separates and quantitates benzocaine and its primary degradation product, p-aminobenzoic acid. This method is rapid, sensitive, and specific. Preliminary stability data obtained with this method demonstrate its utility for this purpose.

  19. Sensitive determination of buformin using poly-aminobenzoic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ying Jin; Hui Li; Wan-Bang Xu


    Glassy carbon electrode, which is used to electrochemically determine the content of buformin, is modified with an electropolymerized film of p-aminobenzoic acid in pH 7.0 acetate buffer solution (ABS). The polymer showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of buformin. In pH 7.0 ABS, the cathodic peak current increased linearly over three concentration intervals of buformin, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 2.0 ×10^9 g/mL. The method was successfully applied to directly determine buformin in tablets with standard addition recoveries of 95.8 102.5%. The proposed method is simple, cheap and highly efficient.


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    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  1. In vitro skin absorption and metabolism of benzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and benzocaine in the hairless guinea pig. (United States)

    Nathan, D; Sakr, A; Lichtin, J L; Bronaugh, R L


    The percutaneous absorption and metabolism of three structurally related compounds, benzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and ethyl aminobenzoate (benzocaine), were determined in vitro through hairless guinea pig skin. Benzocaine was also studied in human skin. Absorption of benzocaine was rapid and similar through both viable and nonviable skin. The absorption of the two acidic compounds, benzoic acid and PABA, was greater through nonviable skin. A small portion (6.9%) of absorbed benzoic acid was conjugated with glycine to form hippuric acid. Although N-acetyl-benzocaine had not been observed as a metabolite of benzocaine when studied by other routes of administration, both PABA and benzocaine were extensively N-acetylated during percutaneous absorption. Thus, the metabolism of these compounds should be considered in an accurate assessment of absorption after topical application.

  2. Aminobenzoate modified MgAl hydrotalcites as a novel smart additive of reinforced concrete for anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.R.; Cerezo, J.; Mol, J.M.C.; Polder, R.B.


    A carbonate form of MgAl hydrotalcite, Mg(2)Al-CO3 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative, Mg(2)Al-pAB, were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and TG/DSC. The anticorrosion behavior of Mg(2)Al-pAB was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in si

  3. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of unsubstituted aminobenzoic acids (United States)

    Abidi, S.L.


    High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) characteristics of three position isomers of aminobenzoic acids (potential metabolites of important anesthetic drugs), were delineated with respect to their interactions with various mobile phases and stationary phases. HPLC with five hydrocarbonaceous phase, I?-cyclodextrin silica (CDS), macrophase MP-1 polymer (MP), macroporous polystyrene/divinylbenzene (MPD), octadecylsilica (ODS), and propylphenylsilica (PPS), yielded results explicable in terms of substituent effects derived from the bifunctional amino- and carboxy groups. For cases where mobile phases contained sulfonates or quaternary ammonium salts both having longer chain alkyls, retention of analytes on all but CDS appeared to proceed predominantly via an ion-pairing mechanism. The extent of the corresponding counter-ion effects decreased in the order: MPD > ODS > PPS > MP, while the analyte retention order paralleled thier pH2 values. On the other hand, an inverse relationship between the magnitude of capacity factors (k') and pK1 values of the title compounds was observed in experiments that produced retention data incompatible with ion-pair interaction rationales. The unique HPLC results obtained with the CDS phase are compared with those obtained with other phases.

  4. Degradation of triclosan in the presence of p-aminobenzoic acid under simulated sunlight irradiation. (United States)

    Zhai, Pingping; Chen, Xuan; Dong, Wenbo; Li, Hongjing; Chovelon, Jean-Marc


    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of triclosan (TCS) in the presence of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) under simulated sunlight irradiation (λ ≥ 290 nm). The effect of PABA concentration, pH, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and DOM-hydrolytic Fe(III) species complexes on the photodegradation of TCS in the presence of PABA (TCS-PABA) was also studied. The photolysis of TCS-PABA obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics well, and the degradation of TCS-PABA enhanced with increasing solution pH (from 3.0 to 11.0). The presence of PABA inhibited the degradation of TCS-PABA, and the weakest inhibitory effect was observed while the concentration of PABA was 5 mg L(-1). The addition of DOM (Suwannee River fulvic acid standard I [SRFA], Suwannee River HA standard II [SRHA], and Suwannee River natural organic matter [SRNOM]) showed different inhibition effects on TCS-PABA degradation. However, higher Fe(III) concentration at the DOM concentration of 5 mg L(-1) could favor the formation of DOM-hydrolytic Fe(III) species complexes, further accelerating the degradation of TCS-PABA. In comparison with deionized water (DI water), TCS-PABA could be better photodegraded in river water nearby the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. This study provides useful information for understanding the natural behavior of TCS in the presence of other organic contaminants.

  5. Co-culture engineering for microbial biosynthesis of 3-amino-benzoic acid in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory


    3-amino-benzoic acid (3AB) is an important building block molecule for production of a wide range of important compounds such as natural products with various biological activities. In the present study, we established a microbial biosynthetic system for de novo 3AB production from the simple substrate glucose. First, the active 3AB biosynthetic pathway was reconstituted in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which resulted in the production of 1.5 mg/L 3AB. In an effort to improve the production, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was engineered to modularize the biosynthetic pathway between an upstream strain and an downstream strain. Specifically, the upstream biosynthetic module was contained in a fixed E. coli strain, whereas a series of E. coli strains were engineered to accommodate the downstream biosynthetic module and screened for optimal production performance. The best co-culture system was found to improve 3AB production by 15 fold, compared to the mono-culture approach. Further engineering of the co-culture system resulted in biosynthesis of 48 mg/L 3AB. Our results demonstrate co-culture engineering can be a powerful new approach in the broad field of metabolic engineering.

  6. 3-Aminobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/3

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    Pornsuda Lhengwan


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 3C10H8N2·2C7H7NO2, consists of three molecules of 4,4′-bipyridine (bpy and two molecules of 3-aminobenzoic acid (bza. Two molecules of bza and two molecules of bpy are connected via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming forming infinite double-stranded zigzag chains along the c axis. The third molecule of bpy is linked to the chain by weak C—H...O interactions. Adjacent chains are linked via π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.759 (3–3.928 (3 Å] involving the pyridine rings of bpy molecules, resulting in a sheet-like structure parallel to (100. These sheets are stacked via C—H...π interactions, resulting finally in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  7. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

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    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  8. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus. (United States)

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang


    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  9. 4-Carboxyanilinium (2R,3R)-tartrate and a redetermination of the alpha-polymorph of 4-aminobenzoic acid. (United States)

    Athimoolam, S; Natarajan, S


    In the title compounds, 4-carboxyanilinium (2R,3R)-tartrate, C(7)H(8)NO(2)+.C(4)H(5)O(6)-, (I), and 4-aminobenzoic acid, C(7)H(7)NO(2), (II), the carboxyl planes of the 4-carboxyanilinium cations/4-aminobenzoic acid are twisted from the aromatic plane. In (I), the characteristic head-to-tail interactions are observed through the tartrate anions, forming two C2(2)(7) chain motifs propagating parallel to the a and c axes of the unit cell. Also, the tartrate anions are connected through two primary C1(1)(6) and C1(1)(7) chain motifs, leading to a secondary R4(4)(22) ring motif. In (II), head-to-tail interaction is seen through a discrete D1(1)(2) motif and carboxyl group dimerization is observed through centrosymmetrically related R2(2)(8) motifs around the inversion centres of the unit cell. The crystal structures of both compounds are stabilized by intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks. Alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers are observed in (I) as a result of a column-like arrangement of the anions and the aromatic rings of the cations.

  10. Extended metal-organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugavel; G Anantharaman; D Krishnamurthy; M Sathiyendiran; M G Walawalkar


    This article describes the recent results obtained in our laboratory on the interaction of polyfunctional ligands with divalent alkaline earth metal ions and a few divalent transition metal ions. Treatment of MCl2$\\cdot$ H2O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) with 2-amino benzoic acid leads to the formation of complexes [Mg(2-aba)2] (1), [Ca(2-aba)2(OH2)3]∞ (2), [{Sr(2-aba)2(OH2)2}2$\\cdot$H2O)]∞ (3), [Ba(2-aba)2(OH2)]∞ (4), respectively. While the calcium ions in 2 are hepta-coordinated, the strontium and barium ions in 3 and 4 reveal a coordination number of nine apart from additional metal-metal interactions. Apart from the carboxylate functionality, the amino group also binds to the metal centres in the case of strontium and barium complexes 3 and 4. Complexes [{Mg(H2O)6}(4-aba)2$\\cdot$2H2O] (5), [Ca(4-aba)2(H2O)2] (6) prepared from 4-aminobenzoic acid reveal more open or layered structures. Interaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid with MCl2$\\cdot$6H2O (M = Mg, Ca), however, leads to the.oxidation of the thiol group resulting in the disulphide 2,2'-dithiobis(benzoic acid). New metal-organic framework based hydrogen-bonded porous solids [{M(btec)(OH2)4} $\\cdot$ (C4H12N2) 4H2O] (btec = 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylate) (M = Co 9; Ni 10; Zn 11) have been synthesized from 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid in the presence of piperazine. These compounds are made up of extensively hydrogenbonded alternating layers of anionic M-btec co-ordination polymer and piperazinium cations. Compounds 2-11 described herein form polymeric networks in the solid-state with the aid of different coordinating capabilities of the carboxylate anions hydrogen bonding interactions.

  11. Effect of the formulation parameters on the encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of p-aminobenzoic acid-loaded ethylcellulose microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffok Meryem


    Full Text Available In the current study, p-aminobenzoic acid-loaded ethylcellulose microspheres were prepared under various conditions by solvent evaporation method (o/w. This preparation was carried out with different p-aminobenzoic acid:ethylcellulose (PABA:EC ratios, stirring speed, surfactant nature and concentration in order to investigate their effect on encapsulation efficiency and drug release kinetics. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies showed spherical microspheres with a porous surface and different structures. The mean diameter of Sauter (d32 of these microparticles is in the range from 47 to 165 μm with PVA and from 793 to 870 μm with Tween 80 by adjusting process parameters. However, the encapsulation efficiency varied from 37.52 to 79.05 % suitable for the adjustment of a p-aminobenzoic acid with pro-longed release. Microspheres were characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The release of cation of p-aminobenzoic acid was performed in simulated gastric medium at pH 1.2 and 37±0.5°C by UV-VIS analysis to estimate its content. The release data were best fitted to Higuchi model with high correlation coefficient (r² and the obtained values of n from Korsmeyer-Peppas showed that the drug release follows the Fickian diffusion mechanism.

  12. Para-aminobenzoic acid used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: Assessment of control limits for a specific HPLC method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Ovesen, L.; Fagt, Sisse;


    Objective and design: The study comprised three protocols. Protocol 1 compared a HPLC method with the commonly employed colorimetric diazacoupling method. Protocol 2 examined, if the last dosage of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) could be advanced in the old to allow for a delayed age-dependent urinary...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismet Kaya; Ali Bilici


    The oxidative polycondensation reaction conditions of 4-[(2-hydroxyl-l-naphthyl)methylene]aminobenzoic acid (4-HNMABA) with H2O2,air O2 and NaOCl were studied in an aqueous alkaline medium between 40℃ and 90℃.The structure of oligo {4-[(2-hydroxyl-1-naphthyl)methylene]aminobenzoic acid} (O-4-HNMABA) was characterized by using 1H-NMR,13C-NMR,FT-IR,UV-Vis,size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and elemental analysis techniques.At the optimum reaction conditions,the yield of O-4-HNMABA was found to be 70% for H2O2 oxidant,94% for air O2 oxidant and 87% for NaOCl oxidant.According to the SEC analysis,the number-average molecular weight (Mn),weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) values of O-4-HNMABA were found to be 850,1350 and 1.59,using H2O2,1800,2200 and 1.22,using air O2 and 2200,3000 and 1.36,using NaOCl,respectively.TGA-DTA analyses showed that O-4-HNMABA was more stable than 4-HNMABA.The highest occupied molecular orbital,the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and electrochemical energy gaps ( Eg) of 4-HNMABA and O-4-HNMABA were found to be -6.34,-6.56; -2.67,-3.04; 3.67 and 3.52 eV,respectively,by cyclic voltammetry (CV).According to UV-Vis measurements,optical band gaps (E,g) of 4-HNMABA and O-4-HNMABA were found to be 3.12 and 3.03 eV,respectively.

  14. Effects of humic acids, para-aminobenzoic acid and ascorbic acid on the N-nitrosation of the carbamate insecticide propoxur and on the mutagenicity of nitrosopropoxur. (United States)

    Gichner, T; Badaev, S A; Pospísil, F; Velemínský, J


    Nitrosation of the carbamate insecticide propoxur at pH 3 and 37 degrees C was determined colorimetrically and found to be time- and sodium nitrite concentration-dependent. Nitrosated propoxur was mutagenic when exposed to the seeds of the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana but the formation of nitrosopropoxur, the presumed mutagen, was inhibited by humic acids, para-aminobenzoic acid and ascorbic acid. These agents also reduced the mutagenicity of preformed nitrosopropoxur.

  15. Degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid using a combination system of UV irradiation, persulphate and iron(II). (United States)

    Xue, Yicen; Dong, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaoning; Bi, Wenlong; Zhai, Pingping; Li, Hongjing; Nie, Minghua


    Increased usage and discharge of sunscreens have led to ecological safety crisis, and people are developing the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat them. The present study aimed to determine the degradation efficiency and mechanism of the sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using the UV/Fe(2+)/persulphate (PS) method. A series of irradiation experiments were conducted to optimise the system conditions and to study the impacts of the natural anion. Free radicals and degradation products were identified in order to clarify the degradation mechanism. Initial PS and Fe(2+) concentrations showed significant impacts on PABA degradation. Natural anions, such as Cl(-), NO3 (-), H2PO4 (-) and HCO3 (-), impeded PABA degradation because of ion (Fe(2+)) capture, radical scavenging or pH effects. Hydroxyl (HO·) and sulphate (SO4 (·-)) radicals were two main radicals observed in the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system; of these, SO4 (·-) showed greater effects on PABA degradation. Over 99 % of the available PABA was completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) by the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system, and the remaining PABA participated in complex radical reactions. By-products were identified by total ion chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our research provides a treatment process for PABA with high degradation efficiency and environmental safety and introduces a new strategy for sunscreen degradation.

  16. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals (United States)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.


    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  17. Disaggregation of Amylin Aggregate by Novel Conformationally Restricted Aminobenzoic Acid containing α/β and α/γ Hybrid Peptidomimetics (United States)

    Paul, Ashim; Kalita, Sourav; Kalita, Sujan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Mandal, Bhubaneswar


    Diabetes has emerged as a threat to the current world. More than ninety five per cent of all the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregates of Amylin hormone, which is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells, inhibit the activities of insulin and glucagon and cause T2DM. Importance of the conformationally restricted peptides for drug design against T2DM has been invigorated by recent FDA approval of Symlin, which is a large conformationally restricted peptide. However, Symlin still has some issues including solubility, oral bioavailability and cost of preparation. Herein, we introduced a novel strategy for conformationally restricted peptide design adopting a minimalistic approach for cost reduction. We have demonstrated efficient inhibition of amyloid formation of Amylin and its disruption by a novel class of conformationally restricted β-sheet breaker hybrid peptidomimetics (BSBHps). We have inserted β, γ and δ -aminobenzoic acid separately into an amyloidogenic peptide sequence, synthesized α/β, α/γ and α/δ hybrid peptidomimetics, respectively. Interestingly, we observed the aggregation inhibitory efficacy of α/β and α/γ BSBHps, but not of α/δ analogues. They also disrupt existing amyloids into non-toxic forms. Results may be useful for newer drug design against T2DM as well as other amyloidoses and understanding amyloidogenesis.

  18. Enhanced sensing of dopamine in the present of ascorbic acid based on graphene/poly(p-aminobenzoic acid) composite film. (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Jing, Qiang-Shan; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Lan; Wei, Cai-Yun


    Graphene/p-aminobenzoic acid composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/p-ABA/GCE) was first employed for the sensitive determination of dopamine (DA). The electrochemical behavior of DA at the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltametry (CV), differential pulse voltametry (DPV) and amperometric curve. The oxidation peak currents of DA increased dramatically at Gr/p-ABA/GCE. The modified electrode was used to electrochemically detect dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). The Gr/p-ABA composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of DA in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.5). The peak separation between DA and AA was large up to 220 mV. Using DPV technique, the calibration curve for DA determination was obtained in the range of 0.05-10 μM. The detection limit for DA was 20 nM. AA did not interfere with the determination of DA because of the very distinct attractive interaction between DA cations and the negatively Gr/p-ABA composite film. The proposed method exhibited good stability and reproducibility.

  19. Tetrahydrofolate-specific enzymes in Methanosarcina barkeri and growth dependence of this methanogenic archaeon on folic acid or p-aminobenzoic acid. (United States)

    Buchenau, Bärbel; Thauer, Rudolf K


    Methanogenic archaea are generally thought to use tetrahydromethanopterin or tetrahydrosarcinapterin (H4SPT) rather than tetrahydrofolate (H4F) as a pterin C1 carrier. However, the genome sequence of Methanosarcina species recently revealed a cluster of genes, purN, folD, glyA and metF, that are predicted to encode for H4F-specific enzymes. We show here for folD and glyA from M. barkeri that this prediction is correct: FolD (bifunctional N5,N10-methylene-H4F dehydrogenase/N5,N10-methenyl-H4F cyclohydrolase) and GlyA (serine:H4F hydroxymethyltransferase) were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and found to be specific for methylene-H4F and H4F, respectively (apparent Km below 5 microM). Western blot analyses and enzyme activity measurements revealed that both enzymes were synthesized in M. barkeri. The results thus indicate that M. barkeri should contain H4F, which was supported by the finding that growth of M. barkeri was dependent on folic acid and that the vitamin could be substituted by p-aminobenzoic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of H4F. From the p-aminobenzoic acid requirement, an intracellular H4F concentration of approximately 5 M was estimated. Evidence is presented that the p-aminobenzoic acid taken up by the growing cells was not required for the biosynthesis of H4SPT, which was found to be present in the cells at a concentration above 3 mM. The presence of both H4SPT and H4F in M. barkeri is in agreement with earlier isotope labeling studies indicating that there are two separate C1 pools in these methanogens.

  20. Crystal Structure, Fluorescence Property and Theoretical Calculation of the Zn(II) Complex with o-Aminobenzoic Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhongyu; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Nan; Yan, Xingchen; Zuo, Jian [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao (China)


    A novel complex [Zn(phen)(o-AB){sub 2}] [phen: 1,10-phenanthroline o-AB: o-aminobenzoic acid] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction single-crystal analysis. The crystal crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c with a = 7.6397(6) A, b = 16.8761(18) A, c = 17.7713(19) A, α = 90 .deg., β = 98.9570(10) .deg., γ = 90 .deg., V = 2.2633(4) nm{sup 3}, Z = 4, F(000) = 1064, S = 1.058, Dc = 1.520 g·cm{sup -3}, R{sub 1} = 0.0412, wR{sub 2} = 0.0948, μ = 1.128 mm{sup -1}. The Zn(II) is six coordinated by two nitrogen and four oxygen atoms from the 1,10-phenanthroline and o-aminobenzoic acid to furnish a distorted octahedron geometry. The complex exhibits intense fluorescence at room temperature. Theoretical studies of the title complex were carried out by density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method. CCDC: 898291.

  1. Enhancing pterin and para-aminobenzoate content is not sufficient to successfully biofortify potato tubers and Arabidopsis thaliana plants with folate. (United States)

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Storozhenko, Sergei; Van Daele, Jeroen; Stove, Christophe; Visser, Richard G F; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique


    Folates are important cofactors in one-carbon metabolism in all living organisms. Since only plants and micro- organisms are capable of biosynthesizing folates, humans depend entirely on their diet as a folate source. Given the low folate content of several staple crop products, folate deficiency affects regions all over the world. Folate biofortification of staple crops through enhancement of pterin and para-aminobenzoate levels, precursors of the folate biosynthesis pathway, was reported to be successful in tomato and rice. This study shows that the same strategy is not sufficient to enhance folate content in potato tubers and Arabidopsis thaliana plants and concludes that other steps in folate biosynthesis and/or metabolism need to be engineered to result in substantial folate accumulation. The findings provide a plausible explanation why, more than half a decade after the proof of concept in rice and tomato, successful folate biofortification of other food crops through enhancement of para-aminobenzoate and pterin content has not been reported thus far. A better understanding of the folate pathway is required in order to determine an engineering strategy that can be generalized to most staple crops.

  2. 4-Methylbenzyl 4-aminobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haider


    Full Text Available The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings in the title compound, C15H15NO2, is 65.28 (12°. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of supramolecular chains along the a-axis direction.

  3. Para-aminobenzoic acid (United States)

    PABA is used in certain sunscreen and skin-care products. It may also naturally occur in these foods: Brewer's yeast Liver Molasses Mushrooms Spinach Whole grains Other products may also contain PABA.

  4. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wencai [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013 (China); Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)


    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets.

  5. 3D porous graphene-porous PdCu alloy nanoparticles-molecularly imprinted poly(para-aminobenzoic acid) composite for the electrocatalytic assay of melamine. (United States)

    Shang, Lei; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao


    In this work, a three-dimensional hybrid film with in- and out-of-plane pores was fabricated by using porous graphene as framework structure and porous PdCu alloy nanoparticles as building blocks. The porous PdCu alloy nanoparticles were prepared by chemical dealloying with acetic acid. The hierarchical pores had abundant active catalytic sites, and the material exhibited remarkable catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydrazine. Based on this hybrid film, an electrochemical sensor of melamine was developed by further introducing melamine imprinted electro-polymer of para-aminobenzoic acid. Melamine was detected by differential pulse voltammetry using hydrazine as electrochemical probe. The detection signal was amplified due to the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine at this hybrid film. The linear determination range was 0.01-1 μM and the detection limit was 2 nM (S/N = 3). The sensor displayed high recognition capacity toward melamine and also showed good reproducibility and stability. It is promising in the determination of melamine in real samples.

  6. N-Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine in primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells and in the human urothelial cell line 5637. (United States)

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Behm, Claudia; Degen, Gisela H; Golka, Klaus


    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are important enzymes in the metabolism of certain carcinogenic arylamines, as N-acetylation decreases or prevents their bioactivation via N-hydroxylation. To study such processes in the bladder, cell culture models may be used, but metabolic competence needs to be characterized. This study focused on the N-acetylation capacity of two urothelial cell systems, using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the hair dye precursor p-phenylenediamine (PPD), two well-known substrates of the enzyme NAT1. The constitutive NAT1 activity was investigated using primary cultures of porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) and in the human urothelial cell line 5637 to assess their suitability for further in vitro studies on PABA and PPD-induced toxicity. N-Acetylation of PABA and PPD was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in cytosols of the two cell systems upon incubation with various substrate levels for up to 60 min. The primary PUBEC revealed higher N-acetylation rates (2.5-fold for PABA, 5-fold for PPD) compared to the 5637 cell line, based on both PABA conversion to its acetylated metabolite and formation of mono- and diacetylated PPD. The urothelial cell systems may thus be useful as a tool for further studies on the N-acetylation of aromatic amines via NAT1.

  7. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films. (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi


    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets.

  8. Quantitative twoplex glycan analysis using (12)C6 and (13)C6 stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid labelling and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Váradi, Csaba; Mittermayr, Stefan; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers excellent efficiency and orthogonality to liquid chromatographic (LC) separations for oligosaccharide structural analysis. Combination of CE with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for glycan analysis remains a challenging task due to the MS incompatibility of background electrolyte buffers and additives commonly used in offline CE separations. Here, a novel method is presented for the analysis of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labelled glycans by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). To ensure maximum resolution and excellent precision without the requirement for excessive analysis times, CE separation conditions including the concentration and pH of the background electrolyte, the effect of applied pressure on the capillary inlet and the capillary length were evaluated. Using readily available (12/13)C6 stable isotopologues of 2-AA, the developed method can be applied for quantitative glycan profiling in a twoplex manner based on the generation of extracted ion electropherograms (EIE) for (12)C6 'light' and (13)C6 'heavy' 2-AA labelled glycan isotope clusters. The twoplex quantitative CE-MS glycan analysis platform is ideally suited for comparability assessment of biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, for differential glycomic analysis of clinical material for potential biomarker discovery or for quantitative microheterogeneity analysis of different glycosylation sites within a glycoprotein. Additionally, due to the low injection volume requirements of CE, subsequent LC-MS analysis of the same sample can be performed facilitating the use of orthogonal separation techniques for structural elucidation or verification of quantitative performance.

  9. 从糖精生产废液中回收邻氨基苯甲酸工艺优化研究%Study on Process Optimization of the Recovery of o-Aminobenzoic Acid from Saccharin Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 王红凯; 余卫晓; 王丹


    针对原有从糖精生产废液中回收邻氨基苯甲酸生产工艺中存在的问题,通过酯化母液氧化处理、碱溶工序滤渣酸溶回用两个优化措施,在Cu2+离子浓度为15.03 g/L时,使邻氨基苯甲酸回收率达到最高(92.41%)。%In order to solve the problems which exist in process of the recovery of o-aminobenzoic acid from saccharin waste water, oxidation of o -aminobenzoic acid contained waste water and reuse of the waste acid which CuO contained waste residue dissolved in are adopted as optimization measure.o-ami-nobenzoic acid recovery rate is the highest(92.41%) at the concentration of Cu2+reaches 15.03 g/L.

  10. 微波辐射硫酸氢钠催化合成对氨基苯甲酸苄酯%Synthesis of 4-aminobenzoic acid benzyl ester catalyzed by sodium bisulfate under microwave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓军; 李西安


    在微波辐射下,以一水合硫酸氢钠为催化剂,对氨基苯甲酸和苯甲醇为原料,合成对氨基苯甲酸苄酯.结果表明,当微波辐射功率为500W,0.05mol对氨基苯甲酸为基准,催化剂的用量为1.6 g,酸醇的摩尔比为1∶1.2,反应时间14 min时,醋化率达93.8%.%The 4-aminobcnzoic acid benzyl ester was synthesized under microwave radiacion from 4-aminobenzoic acid and benzyl alcohol using sodium bisulfate as catalyst. When the power of microwave radiation was 500 W, amount of catalyst was 1. 6 g, the molar ratio of acid to alcohol was 1∶ 1.2( using 0. 05 mol of 4-aminobenzoic acid ) and reaction time was 14 min, the yield reached 93. 8% .

  11. Multiple hormonal activities of UV filters and comparison of in vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity of ethyl-4-aminobenzoate in fish. (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Fent, Karl


    UV filters have been detected in surface water, wastewater and fish, and some of them are estrogenic in fish. At present, little is known about their additional hormonal activities in different hormonal receptor systems despite their increasing use and environmental persistence. Besides estrogenic activity, UV filters may have additional activities, both agonistic and antagonistic in aquatic organisms. In our study, we investigate a series of UV filters for multiple hormonal activities in vitro in human receptor systems and evaluate the predictive value of these findings for the activity in fish in vitro and in vivo. First we systematically analysed the estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activity of 18 UV filters and one metabolite in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentrations with recombinant yeast systems carrying either a human estrogen (hERalpha) or androgen receptor (hAR). All 19 compounds elicited hormonal activities, surprisingly most of them multiple activities. We found 10 UV-filters having agonistic effects towards the hERalpha. Surprisingly, we identified for the first time six UV filters with androgenic activities and many of them having pronounced antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. As much as 17 compounds inhibited 4,5-dihydrotestosterone activity in the hAR assay, while 14 compounds inhibited estradiol activity in the hERalpha assay, indicating antiandrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, respectively. In particular, the antiandrogenic activities of phenyl- and benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-1 and -2, and of 4-hydroxybenzophenone were higher than that of flutamide, a known hAR antagonist. In a second series of experiments, we investigated the predictive power of the hERalpha assay for aquatic organisms by further investigating the estrogenic UV filter ethyl 4-aminobenzoate (Et-PABA) in vitro and in vivo in fish. Et-PABA showed estrogenic activity in a recombinant yeast system carrying the rainbow trout estrogen receptor

  12. Rigid, non-porous and tunable hybrid p-aminobenzoate/TiO2 materials: Toward a fine structural determination of the immobilized RhCl(Ph3)3 complex

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff


    By exchange of ligands, Wilkinson complex RhCl(PPh3)3 are immobilized on p-aminobenzoate/TiO2 with different organic loading (6, 11 and 16%). This new hybrid material exhibit a linear correlation between the ligand content of the starting TiO2 and the rhodium loading, showing the accessibility of all surfaces amines fonctions on the non-porous parent materials. 1H, 13C, and 1D, 2D INAQUEDATE refocused and J-resolved 31P solid-state NMR confirm the well-defined structure [(≡TiO)2(n{right tail}2-O2C-C6H4-NH2)RhCl-cis-(PPh3)2]. New immobilized catalysts show interesting activity in cyclohexene hydroformylation.

  13. 水杨醛缩邻氨基苯甲酸Schiff碱稀土配合物的合成%Synthesis of salicylaldehyde-o-aminobenzoic acid Schiff base and its rare earth complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿; 金真; 彭忠利


    Synthesis of salicylaldebyde-o-aminobenzoic acid Schiff base and its four rare earth complexes were reported. It showed that complexes had the general formula of REL( H2O)Cl2 ·H2O(RE=Y、La、Sm、Eu)by elemental analysis 、IR、UV、1H NMR and TG-DTG. The fluorescence properties of compexes were studied by photolutninescence, Y( III ) 、La( III)、Eu( III)、Sm( III ) four rare earth complexes could produce fluorescence in S00-700nm range under the excitation source, the peak wavelength were 551 nm、 556nm,547nm and 550nm.%报道了水杨醛缩邻氨基苯甲酸及其四种稀土配合物的合成,通过元素分析、IB、UV、1H NMR及热失重分析,确定配合物组成为REL( H2O)C12·H2O( RE=Y、La、Sm、Eu);测试了配合物的荧光性,在激发光源辐射下,Y(Ⅲ)、La(Ⅲ)、Eu(Ⅲ)、Sm(Ⅲ)四种稀土配合物在500-700nm区域产生荧光,λmax分别为551nm、556nm、547nm和550nm.

  14. Homology of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases with the cobC (cobalamin synthesis), nifS (nitrogen fixation), pabC (p-aminobenzoate synthesis) and malY (abolishing endogenous induction of the maltose system) gene products. (United States)

    Mehta, P K; Christen, P


    Bacterial deletion mutants have indicated that the gene products of cobC, nifS, pabC and malY participate in important metabolic pathways, i.e. cobalamin synthesis, nitrogen fixation, synthesis of p-aminobenzoate and the regulation of the maltose system, respectively. However, the proteins themselves and their specific functions have not yet been identified. In the course of our studies on the evolutionary relationships among aminotransferases, we have found that the above gene products are homologous to aminotransferases. Profile analysis [Gribskov, M., Lüthy, R. & Eisenberg, D. (1990) Methods Enzymol. 183, 146-159] based on the amino acid sequences of certain subgroups of aminotransferases as probes attributed significant Z scores in the range 5-20 SD to the deduced amino acid sequences of the above gene products as included in the protein data base. Reciprocal profile analyses confirmed the homologies. All known aminotransferases are pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes and catalyze the reversible transfer of amino groups from amino acids to oxo acids. The sequence homologies suggest that the above gene products are aminotransferases or other closely related pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes probably catalyzing transformations of amino acids involving cleavage of a bond at C alpha.

  15. Novel mixed ligand complexes of bioactive Schiff base (E)-4-(phenyl (phenylimino) methyl) benzene-1,3-diol and 2-aminophenol/2-aminobenzoic acid: Synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial and nuclease studies (United States)

    Subbaraj, P.; Ramu, A.; Raman, N.; Dharmaraja, J.


    A novel bidentate Schiff base ligand has been synthesized using 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and aniline. Its mixed ligand complexes of MAB type [M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); HA = Schiff base and B = 2-aminophenol/2-aminobenzoic acid] have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectral data UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, FAB-Mass, EPR, SEM and magnetic studies. All the complexes were soluble in DMF and DMSO. Elemental analysis and molar conductance values indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. HA binds with M(II) ions through azomethine and deprotonated phenolic group and B binds through the primary amine group and deprotonated phenolic/carboxylic groups. Using FAB-Mass the cleavage pattern of the ligand (HA) has been established. All the complexes adopt octahedral geometry around the metal ions. It has been confirmed with the help of UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR and FAB-Mass spectral data. DNA binding activities of the complexes 1d and 2d are studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and cleavage studies of Schiff base ligand and its complexes 1d and 2d have been by agarose gel electrophoresis method. In vitro biological activities of the free ligand (HA) and their metal complexes (1a-1e and 2a-2e) were screened against few bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saphyphiticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi Aspergillus niger, Enterobacter species, Candida albicans by well diffusion technique.

  16. 不同的银表面上系列氨基苯甲酸的吸附行为的差别%The Difference of Adsorptive Behavior of a Series of n-Aminobenzoic Acids (n=P,M and O) on Different Silver Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 方炎


    分别以覆银的干燥滤纸和银胶溶液中的银纳米颗粒为基底,对苯甲酸的一系列氨基取代物[n-ABA(n=P,M和O)]进行了表面增强拉曼散射(SERS)的研究,发现PABA在两种基底上的SERS光谱差别较大,而MABA和OABA则不然,我们分析了可能的原因.%Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of a series of n-aminobenzoic acids (n-ABA, n=P, M and O) adsorbed on the silver nano-particles were studied, respectively, in the silver colloidal solution and on the dried silver-coated filter paper.Significant changes were found from two SERS spectra of PABA but MABA or OABA.The probable reasons are given.

  17. 胶束电动毛细管色谱法测定板蓝根中苯甲酸、水杨酸和邻氨基苯甲酸%Determination of Benzoic Acid, Salicylic Acid and o-Aminobenzoic Acid in Radix Isatidis by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苏亚; 王黎; 范涛; 李华


    采用胶束电动毛细管色谱法对板蓝根中芳香酸类化合物苯甲酸、水杨酸和邻氨基苯甲酸进行了分离测定。电泳介质(pH 9.8)为20 mmol.L-1硼砂、30 mmol.L-1十二烷基硫酸钠、2 mmol.L-1β-环糊精和4%(体积分数)甲醇组成的混合溶液,以对-羟基苯甲酸为内标,分离电压为16 kV,检测波长为250 nm。在优化的试验条件下,苯甲酸、水杨酸和邻氨基苯甲酸的线性范围分别为40~240 mg.L-1,64~320 mg.L-1和40~400 mg.L-1,检出限(3S/N)依次为0.64,1.08,1.36 mg.L-1。应用此方法分析了板蓝根样品,测定回收率在93.3%~104.2%之间。%Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) was applied to the separation and determination of aromatic acids, including benzoic acid, salicylic acid and o-aminobenzoic acid, in Radiz Isatldis. A mixed buffer solution of pH 9.8 containing 20 mmol · L ^-1 borate, 30 mmol ·L ^-1 SDS, 2 mmol· L ^-1 β-CD and 4% (by vol. ) methanol was used as the electrophoretic medium, p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was chosen as internal standard. Separation voltage applied was 16 kV and wavelength of detection was taken at 250 nm. Under the optimum conditions, linearity ranges of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and o aminobenzoic acid found were between 40- 240, 64-320 and 40-400 mg · L^-1 , with detection limits (3S/N) of 0. 64, 1.08, 1.36 mg · L^-1 respectively. The proposed method was used in the analysis of sample of Radix Isatidis, giving values of recovery in the range of 93.3%-104. 20%.

  18. Crystal structures of three anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with the ring-substituted benzoic acid analogues 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith


    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with 4-aminobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 4-aminobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H6NO2− (I], 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O6−, (II] and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O7−, (III] have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In both (II and (III, the DBU cations have a common disorder in three of the C atoms of the six-membered ring moieties [site-occupancy factors (SOF = 0.735 (3/0.265 (3 and 0.686 (4/0.314 (4, respectively], while in (III, there is additional rotational disorder in the DNSA anion, giving two sites (SOF = 0.72/0.28, values fixed for the phenol group. In the crystals of (I and (III, the cation–anion pairs are linked through a primary N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond [2.665 (2 and 2.869 (3 Å, respectively]. In (II, the ion pairs are linked through an asymmetric three-centre R12(4, N—H...O,O′ chelate association. In (I, structure extension is through amine N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bonds between the PABA anions, giving a three-dimensional structure. The crystal structures of (II and (III are very similar, the cation–anion pairs being associated only through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving in both overall two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  19. 3-Aminobenzoic acid–4-nitrobenzoic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun


    Full Text Available In the title 1:1 adduct, C7H5NO4·C7H7NO2, the nitro group of the 4-nitro benzoic acid is twisted from the attached ring by 4.40 (8°. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into ribbon-like structures along [150] and [1overline{5}0] via O—H...O, N—H...O, N—H...N and C—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  20. The influence of the crystal structure on aggregation-induced luminescence of derivatives of aminobenzoic acid (United States)

    Nosova, D. A.; Zarochentseva, E. P.; Vysotskaya, S. O.; Klemesheva, N. A.; Korotkov, V. I.


    The luminescence of three derivatives of 2-(phenylamino)-benzoic acid (N-phenylanthranilic, mefenamic, and niflumic acids) in benzene solution, in the polycrystalline state, and in the hexamethylbenzene matrix is studied. In the crystalline state, these compounds exhibit intense aggregation-induced luminescence. An increase in luminescence is also observed in the impurity crystal. The hexamethylbenzene crystal lattice restricts the mobility of molecules, thus ensuring the rigidity of the molecular structure of acids, which decreases the efficiency of nonradiative electron energy degradation. The main reason for the increase in the luminescence intensity in the case of fixation in a crystalline matrix is the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and dimers of acid molecules.

  1. Docking and Antiherpetic Activity of 2-Aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Al-Salahi


    Full Text Available As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50, furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL, compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL. Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50, EC50, and the selectivity index (SI values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1–24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted.

  2. Crystal stucture of methyl 2-({[2-(methoxycarbonylphenyl]carbamoyl}aminobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Yassine


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H16N2O5, the dihedral angles between the central urea [N—C(=O—N] fragment and its attached benzene rings are 20.20 (14 and 24.24 (13°; the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 42.1 (1°. The molecular conformation is consolidated by two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which both generate S(6 rings. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O interactions generate R22(14 loops. The dimers are linked by further C—H...O interactions into (011 sheets.

  3. Synthesis, characterisation and non-isothermal degradation kinetics of novel poly(mono ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-4-aminobenzoate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Synthesis of a novel co-polymer made by the addition polymerisation between MEGDMA and 4-AB by aza-Michael addition (AMA) polymerisation method is a fascinating field of research. The present investigationyielded a hazardous metal catalyst-free and toxic solvent-free methodology. The AMA polymerisation was carried out at five different [$M_1/M_2$] values under N$_2$ atmosphere at 100$^{\\circ}$C for 2 h. Thus, obtained co-polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM image confirmed the formation of polymer nanoparticles. The non-isothermal degradation kinetics was followed with four different models, such as Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Auggis-Bennet, Kissinger and Friedman method. Among the modelsused, the Kissinger method yielded the lowest degradation kinetics. The degradation kinetics of the co-polymer was followed with the help of model-free methods. Moreover, it was critically compared with the literature.

  4. Cloning, expression, and characterization of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase from Agaricus bisporus 02, a thermotolerant mushroom strain. (United States)

    Deng, Li-Xin; Shen, Yue-Mao; Song, Si-Yang


    The pabS gene of Agaricus bisporus 02 encoding a putative PABA synthase was cloned, and then the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of the T7 promoter. The enzyme with an N-terminal GST tag or His tag, designated GST-AbADCS or His-AbADCS, was purified with glutathione Sepharose 4B or Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow. The enzyme was an aminodeoxychorismate synthase, and it was necessary to add with an aminodeoxychorismate lyase for synthesizing PABA. AbADCS has maximum activity at a temperature of approximately 25°C and pH 8.0. Magnesium or manganese ions were necessary for the enzymatic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant for chorismate was 0.12 mM, and 2.55 mM for glutamine. H2O2 did distinct damage on the activity of the enzyme, which could be slightly recovered by Hsp20. Sulfydryl reagents could remarkably promote its activity, suggesting that cysteine residues are essential for catalytic function.

  5. The crystal structure of the complex formed by 4-nitropyridine n-oxide with 3-aminobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moreno Fúquene


    Full Text Available La estructura cristalina y molecular del complejo formado por enlace de hidrógeno entre la 4-nitropiridina N-oxido y el ácido 3-aminobenzóico fue estudiado por difracción de rayos X. Los cristales fueron obtenidos a partir de una solución equimolecular en acetonitrilo, son monoclínicos P2/c, con a=7,325(3, b=10,173(l, c=16,701(7Á, fl=101,74(3-, V=1219( 1Á^ e Dc= 1,511 g cm^ para Z=4. La estructura fue resuelta por métodos directos y afinada por mínimos cuadrados con 1^20(1, obteniéndose un coeficiente de discordancia R=0.0504 y R^= 0.0485. Las moléculas que forman el complejo presentan un enlace de hidrógeno fuerte entre el grupo carboxilo y el grupo N-óxido con una distancia o—o igual a 2.539(7A. El ángulo dihedro formado por los planos medios de sus anillos es igual a 44.5(2°. Las moléculas de 4-nitropiridina N-óxido y del ácido 3-aininobenzóico presentan superposición en la dirección [100], con una distancia media de 3.25(4 y 3.42(4Á. Es discutido también el efecto de la substitución meta en el ácido 3-aminobenzóico sobre el empaquetamiento molecular

  6. Drug: D04814 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04814 Mixture, Drug Ethyl aminobenzoate - p-butylaminobenzoyldiethylaminoethyl hyd...rochloride mixt; Neozalocaine (TN) Ethyl aminobenzoate [DR:D00552], p-Butylaminobenzoyldiethylaminoethyl hyd

  7. Synthesis and crystal structures of two coordination polymers and a binuclear cadmium(II) complex containing 3- and 4-aminobenzoate ligands. (United States)

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Feng-Yi; Kou, Jun-Feng


    Due to their wide range of coordination modes and versatile conformations when binding to metal atoms, multicarboxylate ligands are of interest in the design of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Three Cd(II) complexes, namely catena-poly[diammonium [[chloridocadmium(II)]-di-μ-chlorido-[chloridocadmium(II)]-bis(μ-3-aminobenzoato)-κ(3)N:O,O';κ(3)O,O':N

  8. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: effects of age and dosage scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.


    after ingestion of 240 mg PABA at recommended hours the lowest acceptable recovery (78.1%) was reached. Conclusion: There is a gradual decline of PABA recovery with age that cannot be overcome by advancing the dosage schedule. Because of a lower delimiting PABA recovery for the elderly, some 24 h...

  9. Synthesis, solid-state fluorescence properties, and computational analysis of novel 2-aminobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine 5,5-dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichirou Yokota


    Full Text Available New fluorescent compounds, benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine 5,5-dioxides (3a–g, 2-amino-4-methylsulfanylbenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine (6, and 2-amino-4-methylsulfanyl-7-methoxybenzo[4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidine (7, were synthesized in good yields from heterocyclic ketene dithioacetals (1a–c and guanidine carbonate (2a or (S-methylisothiourea sulfate (2b in pyridine under reflux. Among the fused pyrimidine derivatives, compound 3c, which has an amino group at the 2-position and a benzylamino group at the 4-position of the pyrimidine ring, showed the strongest solid-state fluorescence. The absorption and emission properties of the compounds were quantitatively reproduced by a series of ab initio quantum-chemical calculations.

  10. Enhancing pterin and para-aminobenzoate content is not sufficient to successfully biofortify potato tubers and Arabidopsis thaliana plants with folate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blancquaert, D.; Storozhenko, S.; Daele, W.; Stove, C.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lambert, W.; Straeten, van der D.


    Folates are important cofactors in one-carbon metabolism in all living organisms. Since only plants and micro- organisms are capable of biosynthesizing folates, humans depend entirely on their diet as a folate source. Given the low folate content of several staple crop products, folate deficiency af

  11. The Inhibitive Effect of para-Amino Benzoic Acid and Its Polymer on Corrosion of Iron in 1 mol/L HCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Manivel; G. Venkatachari


    Poly p-aminobenzoic acid has been synthesized by chemical oxidation method. The inhibitive effect of poly p-aminobenzoic acid on iron in 1 mol/l HCl solution was investigated by polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with that of monomer p-aminobenzoic acid. The effectiveness of poly p-aminobenzoic acid is very high in comparison with that of monomer. The results show that both cathodic and anodic processes were suppressed by p-aminobenzoic acid and poly p-aminobenzoic acid of iron dissolution in 1 mol/L HCl by their adsorption on the iron surface. The inhibition efficiency of both p-aminobenzoic acid and poly p-aminobenzoic acid were found to increase with the inhibitor concentrations. Ultraviolet (UV)reflectance studies of the iron surface after exposure to inhibitor acid show that poly p-aminobenzoic acid is strongly adsorbed on iron surface.

  12. Hydrogen bonding in cyclic imides and amide carboxylic acid derivatives from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-carboxylic anhydride with o- and p-anisidine and m- and p-aminobenzoic acids. (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D


    The structures of the open-chain amide carboxylic acid rac-cis-2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, C(15)H(19)NO(4), (I), and the cyclic imides rac-cis-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindole-1,3-dione, C(15)H(17)NO(3), (II), chiral cis-3-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid, C(15)H(15)NO(4), (III), and rac-cis-4-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid monohydrate, C(15)H(15)NO(4)·H(2)O, (IV), are reported. In the amide acid (I), the phenylcarbamoyl group is essentially planar [maximum deviation from the least-squares plane = 0.060 (1) Å for the amide O atom] and the molecules form discrete centrosymmetric dimers through intermolecular cyclic carboxy-carboxy O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions [graph-set notation R(2)(2)(8)]. The cyclic imides (II)-(IV) are conformationally similar, with comparable benzene ring rotations about the imide N-C(ar) bond [dihedral angles between the benzene and isoindole rings = 51.55 (7)° in (II), 59.22 (12)° in (III) and 51.99 (14)° in (IV)]. Unlike (II), in which only weak intermolecular C-H···O(imide) hydrogen bonding is present, the crystal packing of imides (III) and (IV) shows strong intermolecular carboxylic acid O-H···O hydrogen-bonding associations. With (III), these involve imide O-atom acceptors, giving one-dimensional zigzag chains [graph-set C(9)], while with the monohydrate (IV), the hydrogen bond involves the partially disordered water molecule which also bridges molecules through both imide and carboxy O-atom acceptors in a cyclic R(4)(4)(12) association, giving a two-dimensional sheet structure. The structures reported here expand the structural database for compounds of this series formed from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride with substituted anilines, in which there is a much larger incidence of cyclic imides compared to amide carboxylic acids.

  13. 邻氨基苯甲酸改性双氰胺的制备与表征研究%Characterization and Syntheses of Biguanide Modified Dicyandiamide by o-aminobenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以邻氨基苯甲酸为基本原料,合成了一种新型的双氰胺衍生物--邻双胍基苯甲酸盐酸盐,讨论了反应条件对合成的影响,并通过熔点、FT-IR、1H-NMR和UV表征了产物结构.结果表明,邻双胍基苯甲酸盐酸盐适宜的合成条件为:邻氨基苯甲酸对双氰胺的物质的量比为1.5、盐酸与邻氨基苯甲酸的物质的量之比为0.6、反应温度为60℃、反应时间为6.0 h;在此条件下,o-CPBGH的收率为37.8%.UV分析表明,o-CPBGH在197 nm、240 nm和272 nm有3个明显的紫外吸收峰.

  14. 间氨基苯甲酸乙酯甲磺酸盐对泥鳅的麻醉效果%Anesthetic Effects of 3-Aminobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光明; 毕建花; 张家宏; 寇祥明; 朱凌宇; 徐荣; 王桂良; 王守红


    根据泥鳅(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)对20~140 mg/L 麻醉剂间氨基苯甲酸乙酯甲磺酸盐(MS-222)在最终麻醉状态和复苏过程中的行为特征,分别把麻醉程度和复苏过程分为6和4个时期,研究140~340 mg/L的麻醉剂 MS-222在12℃和22℃条件下对泥鳅的麻醉效果,比较180 mg/L 的 MS-222对不同规格(5.1、11.6、28.1 g)泥鳅的麻醉效果差异。结果表明:当 MS-222溶液浓度为80 mg/L 时,泥鳅达到麻醉3期,可以作为泥鳅长途运输的参考剂量;泥鳅呼吸频率受麻醉程度的影响,在麻醉3期之前无显著变化,但是4期之后出现显著下降(P declined clearly until stage 4 under the concentration range of 20 - 140 mg/L. The induction time of the loach under the condition of temperature 12 ℃,in the MS-222 solution with mass concentration of 140- 340 mg/L, were longer than those under the condition of temperature 22 ℃, and the change of recovery time was same to induction time. The effective anesthetic concentrations of MS-222 on loach at 12 and 22 ℃ are 180, 220 mg/L, respectively. Small loach individuals have short anesthesia time and long recovery time (P < 0.05). It is suggested that MS-222 has preferable anesthetic effect to the loach, and at the anesthesia operation, we need to consider factors such as water temperature, fish size in order to use reasonable anesthesia concentration for the loach.

  15. Drug: D00552 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00552 Drug Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN); Parathesin (TN) C9H11...D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides ...264 Analgesics, anti-itchings, astringents, anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); anesthetics D00552 Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP16); Benzocaine (USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC...RHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD03 Benzocai

  16. 21 CFR 582.60 - Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants. (United States)


    ... acid (equisetic acid, citridic acid, achilleic acid). Anethole (parapropenyl anisole). Benzaldehyde.... Methyl anthranilate (methyl-2-aminobenzoate). Piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxy-benzaldehyde,...

  17. The effects of cyclodextrins on drugs absorption. I. In vitro observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Schoonen, A.J.M.; Lerk, C.F.


    A two-phase transfer system, water with organic solvent, was used to investigate the effect of cyclodextrins on transport of dissolved lipophilic drugs from the aqueous to the organic layer. Four model drugs, diazepam, medazepam, n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate and n-pentyl-p-aminobenzoate were used. Stabil

  18. Drug: D04879 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04879 Mixture, Drug Hydrocortisone acetate - hinokitiol - ethyl aminobenzoate mixt; Hinoporon (TN) Hydrocor...l organs 27 Dental preparations 279 Miscellaneous 2790 Miscellaneous D04879 Hydrocortison...tisone acetate [DR:D00165], Hinokitiol [DR:D04876], Ethyl aminobenzoate [DR:D00552

  19. Drug: D04707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04707 Mixture, Drug Lithospermum root extract - ethyl aminobenzoate - dibucaine hydrochloride - diphenhydr...amine hydrochloride - cetrimide mixt; Borraginol N (TN) Lithospermum root extract [D...R:D04705], Ethyl aminobenzoate [DR:D00552], Dibucaine hydrochloride [DR:D02220], Diphenhydramine hydrochloride [DR:D00669], Cetrimide [DR:D02164] PubChem: 17398145 ...

  20. Living Polycondensation: Synthesis of Well-Defined Aromatic Polyamide-Based Polymeric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alyami, Mram Z.


    Chain growth condensation polymerization is a powerful tool towards the synthesis of well-defined polyamides. This thesis focuses on one hand, on the synthesis of well-defined aromatic polyamides with different aminoalkyl pendant groups with low polydispersity and controlled molecular weights, and on the other hand, on studying their thermal properties. In the first project, well-defined poly (N-octyl-p-aminobenzoate) and poly (N-butyl-p-aminobenzoate) were synthesized, and for the first time, their thermal properties were studied. In the second project, ethyl4-aminobenzoate, ethyl 4-octyl aminobenzoate and 4-(hydroxymethyl) benzoic acid were used as novel efficient initiators of ε-caprolactone with t-BuP2 as a catalyst. Macroinitiator and Macromonomer of poly (ε-caprolactone) were synthesized with ethyl 4-octyl aminobenzoate and ethyl 4-aminobenzoate as initiators to afford polyamide-block-poly (ε-caprolactone) and polyamide-graft-poly (ε-caprolactone) by chain growth condensation polymerization (CGCP). In the third project, a new study has been done on chain growth condensation polymerization to discover the probability to synthesize new polymers and studied their thermal properties. For this purpose, poly (N-cyclohexyl-p-aminobenzoate) and poly (N-hexyl-p-aminobenzoate) were synthesized with low polydispersity and controlled molecular weights.

  1. Strontium chloride-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 4(3H)-quinazolinones under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Zhi Guo Song; Ting Ting Zhang


    Strontium chloride was used as an efficient and recyclable catalyst in one-pot condensation of anthranilic acid, ortho esters and amines leading to the formation of 4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives in good yields at room temperature under solvent-free conditions.

  2. 二正丁基锡水杨醛缩对氨基苯甲酸酯配合物的合成、表征及结构研究%Synthesis, Characterization and Structural Studies of Dibutyltin(Ⅳ) Complex with Schiff Base Ligand Salicylaldehyde 4-aminobenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈满生; 邝代治; 邓奕芳; 张春华; 冯泳兰


    The title complex {[nBu2Sn(2-OHC6H4CH=NC6H4COO)]2O}2· 2H2O was synthesized by the reaction of N-(4-carboxyphenyl)-salicylideneimine with dibutyltin(Ⅳ) oxide in 1:1 molar ratio. The compound has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR spectra and X-ray single crystal diffraction. It crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P(-1). The crystal data are: a=1.242 9(2) nm, b=1.261 3(2) nm, c=1.594 9(3) nm, α=102.06(2)°, β=compound is in centro-symmetric dimer structure mode with a four-member central endo-cyclic Sn2O2 unit in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated. All the tin atoms are five-coordinated with geometry of distorted trigonal bipyramid. CCDC:286105.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Tryptophan Based on TiO2-graphene/poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%聚对氨基苯甲酸/TiO2-石墨烯修饰玻碳电极 同时测定扑热息痛和色氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春萱; 郭晓海; 孙双霞; 刘静


    采用滴涂法和电聚合法制备聚对氨基苯甲酸/Ti02-石墨烯修饰玻碳电极.用循环伏安法和差分脉冲伏安法研究扑热息痛和色氨酸在修饰电极上的电化学行为,据此建立一种扑热息痛和色氨酸同时测定的电化学方法.实验结果表明,该修饰电极对于扑热息痛和色氨酸的电化学反应具有良好的催化性能.利用差分脉冲伏安法测定,扑热息痛和色氨酸在1.0~530 μmol/L浓度范围内与氧化峰电流呈良好的线性关系,相关系数分别为0.990和0.993.信噪比为3时,扑热息痛和色氨酸检出限分别为0.4μmol/L和0.1μmol/L.将该方法用于实际样品分析,回收率为95.2% ~ 105.8%.%TiO2-graphene (TiO2-Gr) was coated on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and 4-aminoben2oic acid was then electropolymerized on the modified electrode to fabricated electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen and tryptophan on the modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammelry. A novel electrochemical method for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and tryptophan was developed. The results showed that the modified electrode has good electrocatalytic performance toward the electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen and tryptophan. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the determination of acetaminophen and tryptophan. The concentration of acetaminophen and tryptophan showed good linear relationships with the oxidation peak current in the range of 1.0 -530 μmol/L, with correlation coefficients of 0.990 and 0.993, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.4 μmol/L and 0.1 μmol/L ( SSN = 3), respectively. The developed method was used to determine real samples with recoveries of 95.2% ~ 105. 8%.

  4. Drug: D00740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00740 Drug Procaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP); Novocain (TN) C13H20N2O2. HCl 272.12...ts affecting peripheral nervous system 121 Local anesthetics 1211 Aminobenzoate alkamine esters D00740 Procai...FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD05 Procaine D00740 Procaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) N... NERVOUS SYSTEM N01 ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BA Esters of aminobenzoic acid N01BA02 D00740 Procaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S0

  5. A new smart additive of reinforced concrete based on modified hydrotalcites: Preparation, characterization and anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.


    A carbonate form of Mg-Al-hydrotalcite and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative (i.e.,Mg(2)Al-pAB) were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD and FT-IR. The anticorrosion behavior was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in simulated concrete pore solution

  6. A feasibility study of anticorrosion applications of modified hydrotalcites in reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.B.


    A carbonate form of Mg-Al-hydrotalcite with Mg/Al =2 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, IR and TG/DSC. Mg(2)Al-CO3 was prepared by a coprecipitation method and was subsequently modified by pAB through the calcination-rehydration tech

  7. Fluorometric polyethyleneglycol-peptide hybrid substrates for quantitative assay of protein disulfide isomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla; St Hilaire, Phaedria M; Winther, Jakob R.


    of substrate for PDI where two cysteine-containing oligopeptides are connected by an onameric ethylene glycol linker. We term such hybrid compounds PEGtides. The oligopeptides are each marked with a fluorescent aminobenzoic acid and a quenching nitrotyrosine group, respectively. The reversible formation...

  8. Enkele nieuwe aminosulfonamiden en aminosulfonen en hun 'sulfonamide activiteit'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Jan Anne Keverling


    A number of compounds was synthesized and tested on suphon-amide-activity. By this is meant a bacteriostatic action in vitro, which is annihilated by 4-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H'). The bacteriostatic activity of a compound was measured by the time, in which a culture of pneumococs in ascites-brot

  9. Metabolism and elimination of benzocaine by rainbow-trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.


    1. Branchial and urinary elimination of benzocaine residues was evaluated in adult rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, given a single dorsal aortic dose of c-14-benzocaine hydrochloride.^2. Branchial elimination of benzocaine residues was rapid and accounted for 59.2% Of the dose during the first 3 h after dosing. Renal elimination of radioactivity was considerably slower; the kidney excreted 2.7% Dose within 3 h and 9.0% Within 24 h. Gallbladder bile contained 2.0% Dose 24 h after injection.^3. Of the radioactivity in radiochromatograms from water taken 3 min after injection, 87.3% Was benzocaine and 12.7% Was n-acetylated benzocaine. After 60 min, 32.7% Was benzocaine and 67.3% Was n-acetylated benzocaine.^4. Of the radioactivity in radiochromatograms from urine taken 1 h after dosing, 7.6% Was para-aminobenzoic acid, 59.7% Was n-acetylated para-aminobenzoic acid, 19.5% Was benzocaine, and 8.0% Was n-acetylated benzocaine. The proportion of the radioactivity in urine changed with time so that by 20 h, 1.0% Was para-aminobenzoic acid and 96.6% Was n-acetylated para-aminobenzoic acid.^5. Benzocaine and a more hydrophobic metabolite, n-acetylated benzocaine, were eliminated primarily through the gills; renal and biliary pathways were less significant elimination routes for benzocaine residues.

  10. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.


    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in v

  11. Drug: D07678 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07678 Drug Chloroprocaine (INN) C13H19ClN2O2 270.1135 270.7552 D07678.gif Local an... N NERVOUS SYSTEM N01 ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BA Esters of aminobenzoic acid N01BA04 Chloroprocaine D07678 Chloroproca

  12. Another two genes controlling mitotic intragenic recombination and recovery from UV damage in Aspergillus nidulans IV. Genetic analysis of mitotic intragenic recombinants from uvs+/uvs+, uvsD/uvsD and uvsE/uvsE diploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, J.J.H.


    This paper presents the results of a genetic analysis of a number of spontaneous mitotic p-aminobenzoic acid-independent recombinants from uvs+/uvs+, uvsD53/uvsD53 and uvsE82/uvsE82 diploids that are heteroallelic at the pabaA locus. Intragenic recombination in each of the three strains is largely n

  13. Drug: D07742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitin S (TN) Ethyl aminobenzoate [DR:D00552], Lidocaine [DR:D00358], Bismuth subgallate [DR:D01398] Therapeutic category: 2559 Therap...eutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs

  14. Synthesis of aromatic glycoconjugates. Building blocks for the construction of combinatorial glycopeptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Nörrlinger


    Full Text Available New aromatic glycoconjugate building blocks based on the trifunctional 3-aminomethyl-5-aminobenzoic acid backbone and sugars linked to the backbone by a malonyl moiety were prepared via peptide coupling. The orthogonally protected glycoconjugates, bearing an acetyl-protected glycoside, were converted into their corresponding acids which are suitable building blocks for combinatorial glycopeptide synthesis.

  15. Preparation and mechanism of calcium phosphate coatings on chemical modified carbon fibers by biomineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-ping; ZHOU Ke-chao; LI Zhi-you


    In order to prepare HA coatings on the carbon fibers, chemical modification and biomineralization processes were applied. The phase components, morphologies, and possible growth mechanism of calcium phosphate were studied by infrared spectroscopy(IR), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results show that calcium phosphate coating on carbon fibers can be obtained by biomineralization. But the phase components and morphologies of calcium phosphate coatings are different due to different modification methods. Plate-like CaHPO4-2H2O (DCPD) crystals grow from one site of the active centre by HNO3 treatment. While on the para-aminobenzoic acid treated fibers, the coating is composed of nano-structural HA crystal homogeneously. This is because the -COOH functional groups of para-aminobenzoic acid graft on fibers, with negative charge and arranged structure, accelerating the HA crystal nucleation and crystallization on the carbon fibers.

  16. Myeloperoxidase propagates damage and is a potential therapeutic target for subacute stroke. (United States)

    Forghani, Reza; Kim, Hyeon Ju; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Bure, Lionel; Wu, Yue; Hayase, Makoto; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W


    Few effective treatment options exist for stroke beyond the hyperacute period. Radical generation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been implicated in stroke. We investigated whether pharmacologic reduction or gene deletion of this highly oxidative enzyme reduces infarct propagation and improves outcome in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model (MCAO). Mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor. Three treatment regimens were used: (1) daily throughout the 21-day observational period, (2) during the acute stage (first 24 hours), or (3) during the subacute stage (daily starting on day 2). We found elevated MPO activity in ipsilateral brain 3 to 21 days after ischemia. 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced enzyme activity by 30% to 40% and final lesion volume by 60% (Pafter 24 hours of stroke onset.

  17. Lipoic Acid Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Organic Compounds as Bioactive Materials (United States)

    Turcu, Ioana; Zarafu, Irina; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bleotu, Coralia; Culita, Daniela; Ghica, Corneliu; Ionita, Petre


    Water soluble gold nanoparticles protected by lipoic acid were obtained and further functionalized by standard coupling reaction with 1-naphtylamine, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 4′-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 ether. Derivatives of lipoic acid with 1-naphtylamine, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 4′-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 ether were also obtained and characterized. All these were tested for their antimicrobial activity, as well as for their influence on mammalian cell viability and cellular cycle. In all cases a decreased antimicrobial activity of the obtained bioactive nanoparticles was observed as compared with the organic compounds, proving that a possible inactivation of the bioactive groups could occur during functionalization. However, both the gold nanoparticles as well as the functionalized bioactive nanosystems proved to be biocompatible at concentrations lower than 50 µg/mL, as revealed by the cellular viability and cell cycle assay, demonstrating their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  18. Para-amino benzoic acid–mediated synthesis of vaterite phase of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ramesh; S A Inchara; K Pallavi


    Calcium carbonate polymorphs were precipitated at room temperature and 80°C by varying the precipitation pH, carbonate source, effect of solvent in presence and absence of structure directing agent such as para-aminobenzoic acid. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate was obtained when sodium hydrogen carbonate and/or sodium carbonate (used as precipitating agents) were added to calcium chloride solution at different pHs in water and/or methanol as solvent in separate experiments. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been synthesized by mixing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid when water–methanol binary mixture was used as solvent. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate crystallizes in P63/mmc, while that of calcite phase in R-3mc, respectively. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate exhibits rhombohedral morphology, while vaterite phase has spherical morphology.

  19. Graphite oxide-intercalated anionic clay and its decomposition to graphene-inorganic material nanocomposites. (United States)

    Nethravathi, C; Rajamathi, Jacqueline T; Ravishankar, N; Shivakumara, C; Rajamathi, Michael


    A graphite oxide-intercalated anionic clay (nickel zinc hydroxysalt) has been prepared using the aqueous colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphite oxide sheets and aminobenzoate-intercalated anionic clay layers as precursors. When the two colloidal dispersions are reacted, the interlayer aminobenzoate ions are displaced from the anionic clay and the negatively charged graphite oxide sheets are intercalated between the positively charged layers of the anionic clay. The thermal decomposition of the intercalated solid at different temperatures yields graphene-metal oxide/metal nanocomposites. Electron microscopic analysis of the composites indicates that the nanoparticles are intercalated between the layers of graphite in many regions of these solids although the graphite layers are largely exfoliated and not stacked well together.

  20. Study of the growth and pyroelectric properties of TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules (United States)

    Zhang, Kecong; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Min; Fang, Changshui; Lu, Mengkai


    TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules (aniline, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzene-sulphonic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid and 4-nitroraniline) have been grown by the slow-cooling solution method. The influence of these dopants on the growth habits, crystal morphology pyroelectric properties, and structure parameters of TGS crystals has been systematically investigated. The effects of the domain structure of the seed crystal on the pyroelectric properties of the doped crystals have been studied. It is found that the spontaneous polarization (P), pyroelectric coefficient (lambda), and internal bias field of the doped crystals are slightly higher than those of the pure TGS, and the larger the dipole moment of the dopant molecule, the higher the P and lambda of the doped TGS crystal.

  1. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition in the Preparation of New Fused Heterocyclic Compounds via Thermal Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Porubský


    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of precursors with a benzo[b]furan skeleton for the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides prepared from N-substituted 3-allyl-aminobenzo[b]furan-2-aldehydes and secondary amines derived from α-amino acid esters. Reactions were initiated by heating. The products consisted of four fused rings with three stereogenic centers. Their structure and stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectra and X-ray measurements.

  2. The Effect of Mafenide on Dihydropteroate Synthase (United States)


    sulphonamides . ) Introduction >Mafenide is a synthetic antimicrobial agent structurally related to the sulphonamides as well as to p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). It...infections (Lindbe.g et al1965a, b) and this remains the primary use of mafenide today. Chemically mafenide is p-aminomttnylbenzene sulphonamide . Its...structure differs from that of the sulphonamides in that it has an aminomethyl group in the para position on the benzene ring instead of an unsubstituted

  3. Simultaneous and accurate determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin tablets by using an RP-HPLC method



    In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid) and four fat-soluble vitamins (retinol acetate, cholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, and phytonadione) in multivitamin tablets. The linearity of the method was excellent (R² > 0.999) over the concentration...

  4. Rubber-Modified Epoxies. II. Morphology, Transitions, and Mechanical Properties. (United States)


    tetrafunctional aromatic diamine-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A ( DGEBA )-type epoxy resin was selected as the neat system because of its high ETgm (1670C...was a DGEBA -type epoxy resin (DER 331, Dow Chemical Co.) cured with tri- methylene glycol di-p-aminobenzoate (ITMABO, i.e. Polacure 740M, Polaroid...Chemical "o.) with excess of DGEBA resin. The second system, denoted DTAxl6, was iodified with a commercial amino-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile

  5. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Azizi


    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  6. Solid-surface luminescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtubise, R.J.


    We have characterized several interactions that are very important in solid-matrix luminescence. With silica gel chromatoplates and filter paper, simple equations were derived for calculating the individual contributions to the percent decrease in luminescence due to either moisture or to a quenching gas. For sodium acetate as a solid matrix and p-aminobenzoate as a model compound, it was concluded that p-aminobenzoate was incorporated into the crystal structure of sodium acetate, and the triplet energy was lost be skeletal vibrations in sodium acetate. Also, with the same system is was shown that p-aminobenzoate did not undergo rotational relaxation, and thus rotational processes did not contribute to the deactivation of the triplet state. Several results were obtained from model compounds adsorbed on filter paper under different temperature and humidity conditions and with a variety of heavy atoms present. Fundamental photophysical equations were used in calculating several basic parameters that revealed information on rate processes and how the absorbed energy was distributed in an adsorbed lumiphor. The most important advancement with filter paper was the development of equations that relate phosphorescence parameters of adsorbed phosphors to the Young's modulus of filter paper. These equations are based on a fundamental theory that relates the hydrogen-bonding network of paper to the modulus of paper.

  7. Solid-surface luminescence analysis. Progress report, 15 June 1989--31 October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtubise, R.J.


    We have characterized several interactions that are very important in solid-matrix luminescence. With silica gel chromatoplates and filter paper, simple equations were derived for calculating the individual contributions to the percent decrease in luminescence due to either moisture or to a quenching gas. For sodium acetate as a solid matrix and p-aminobenzoate as a model compound, it was concluded that p-aminobenzoate was incorporated into the crystal structure of sodium acetate, and the triplet energy was lost be skeletal vibrations in sodium acetate. Also, with the same system is was shown that p-aminobenzoate did not undergo rotational relaxation, and thus rotational processes did not contribute to the deactivation of the triplet state. Several results were obtained from model compounds adsorbed on filter paper under different temperature and humidity conditions and with a variety of heavy atoms present. Fundamental photophysical equations were used in calculating several basic parameters that revealed information on rate processes and how the absorbed energy was distributed in an adsorbed lumiphor. The most important advancement with filter paper was the development of equations that relate phosphorescence parameters of adsorbed phosphors to the Young`s modulus of filter paper. These equations are based on a fundamental theory that relates the hydrogen-bonding network of paper to the modulus of paper.

  8. Evidence for arylamine N-acetyltransferase in Hymenolepis nana. (United States)

    Chung, J G; Kuo, H M; Wu, L T; Lai, J M; Lee, J H; Hung, C F


    N-acetyltransferase activities with p-aminobenzoic acid and 2-aminofluorene were determined in Hymenolepis nana, a cestode found in the intestine of the Sprague-Dawley rats. The N-acetyltransferase activity was determined using an acetyl CoA recycling assay and high pressure liquid chromatography. The N-acetyltransferase activities from a number of Hymenolepis nana whole tissue homogenizations were found to be 2.83 +/- 0.31 nmole/min/mg for 2-aminofluorene and 2.07 +/- 0.24 nmole/min/mg for p-aminobenzoic acid. The apparent Km and Vmax were 1.06 +/- 0.38 mM and 8.92 +/- 1.46 nmol/min/mg for 2-aminofluorene, and 2.16 +/- 0.19 mM and 12.68 +/- 2.26 nmol/min/mg for p-aminobenzoic acid. The optimal pH value for the enzyme activity was pH 8.0 for both substrates tested. The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was 37 degrees C for both substrates. The N-acetyltransferase activity was inhibited by iodacetamide. At 0.25 mM iodacetamide the activity was reduced 50% and 1.0 mM iodacetamide inhibited activity more than 90%. Among a series of divalent cations and salts, Fe2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ were demonstrated to be the most potent inhibi-tors. Among the protease inhibitors, only ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly protected N-acetyltransferase. Iodoacetate, in contrast to other agents, markedly inhibited N-acetyltransferase activity. This is the first demonstration of acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in a cestode and extends the number of phyla in which this activity has been found.

  9. Structural elucidation of specific noncovalent association of folic acid with native cyclodextrins using an ion mobility mass spectrometry and theoretical approach. (United States)

    Zimnicka, Magdalena; Troć, Anna; Ceborska, Magdalena; Jakubczak, Michał; Koliński, Michał; Danikiewicz, Witold


    The combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry studies and theoretical calculations including docking studies permitted a detailed structural description of noncovalent complexes of folic acid (FA) and native cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD). The mode of noncovalent association depended on the cavity size of the cyclodextrin. The structure of FA/α-CD represented the exclusion complex in which the aminobenzoic moiety and the aromatic pteridine ring of folic acid remain outside the cyclodextrin cavity, while the glutamate residue is anchored in the interior of the α-cyclodextrin. A rotaxane-type structure was proposed for the FA/β-CD complex with the aminobenzoic part of FA being trapped in the central cavity of β-CD. The glutamate residue and the aromatic pteridine ring interact with the primary and secondary rim hydroxyl residues, respectively, enhancing complex stability. Two possible structures of FA/γ-CD were suggested, the first one being analogous to the FA/β-CD complex and the second one being more stable-in which the aromatic pteridine ring penetrates into the CD cavity while the glutamate residue with the aminobenzoic part of FA is exposed to the cone exterior of CD at its wider edge. Further insight into the association behavior of the folic acid toward cyclodextrins evaluated by thermodynamic calculations indicates that the process is highly exothermic. The complex stability increased in the order FA/α-CD < FA/β-CD < FA/γ-CD. This order is consistent with the previously determined relative gas-phase stability established based on the dissociation efficiency curves of the FA/CD complexes.

  10. Heteroarylazo derivatives of cyclohexane-1,3-dione and their metal complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummathur Muhammed Basheer


    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzo-thiazole with cyclohexane-1,3-dione yielded a new type of tridentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data indicate the existence of the compounds in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form. Monobasic tridentate coordination of the compounds in their [CuL(OAc] and [ML2] complexes [M = Ni(II and Zn(II] has been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic while Cu(II and Ni(II complexes showed normal paramagnetic moment.

  11. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))


    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  12. Drug: D00732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00732 Drug Chloroprocaine hydrochloride (USP); Nesacaine (TN) C13H19ClN2O2. HCl 30... ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BA Esters of aminobenzoic acid N01BA04 Chloroprocaine D00732 Chloroprocai...[HSA:6323] [KO:K04833] Chloroprocaine [ATC:N01BA04] D00732 Chloroprocaine hydrochloride (USP) voltage-gated ...sodium channel (SCN2A) [HSA:6326] [KO:K04834] Chloroprocaine [ATC:N01BA04] D00732 Chloroprocaine (USP) voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN3A) [HSA:6328] [KO:K04836] Chloroprocai

  13. Drug: D08422 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08422 Drug Procaine (INN); Solution of novocain (TN) C13H20N2O2 236.1525 236.3101 ...R TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD05 Procaine D08422 (INN) N NERVOUS SYSTEM N01 ANESTHETICS N01B ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BA Esters of aminobenzoic acid N01BA02 D08422 Procaine (INN) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01H... LOCAL ANESTHETICS S01HA Local anesthetics S01HA05 Procaine D08422 Procaine (INN) Target-based classificatio

  14. Copper and dyes enhance laccase production in gamma-proteobacterium JB. (United States)

    Malhotra, Kanam; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena


    Laccase production in gamma-proteobacterium JB was enhanced 13-fold by adding 0.1 mM CuSO(4) 24 h after the onset of growth. Ethidium bromide (2.5 microM), Malachite Green, Phenol Red and Thymol Blue (10 microM each) enhanced laccase production 17-, 19-, 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Among the fourteen aromatic/organic compounds tried, p-aminobenzoic acid and an industrial effluent, from where the organism was isolated, showed 1.2- and 1.26-fold increases in production.


    Landsteiner, K.; Di Somma, A. A.


    Sensitization of guinea pigs to picric acid was obtained by application of oil solutions to the skin, preferably on inflamed sites or by treatment with a compound of picric acid with n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate. The lesions obtained in sensitive animals on superficial administration bore resemblance to human eczema. It seems probable that picric acid sensitization is an instance where a substance does not sensitize directly but after conversion into a more reactive compound, a principle which should be of wider application to instances where the original substance does not readily form conjugates. PMID:19871030

  16. Overlaps between the various biodegradation pathways in Sphingomonas subarctica SA1. (United States)

    Magony, Mónika; Kákonyi, Ildikó; Gara, Anna; Rapali, P; Perei, Katalin; Kovács, K L; Rákhely, G


    A bacterium capable to grow on sulfanilic acid as sole carbon, nitrogen and sulfur source has been isolated. A unique feature of this strain is that it contains the full set of enzymes necessary for the biodegradation of sulfanilic acid. Taxonomical analysis identified our isolate as Sphingomonas subaretica SA1 sp. The biodegradation pathway of sulfanilic acid was investigated at the molecular level. Screening the substrate specificity of the strain disclosed its capacity to degrade six analogous aromatic compounds including p-aminobenzoic acid. Moreover, the strain was successfully used for removal of oil contaminations. S. subarctica SA1 seemed to use distinct enzyme cascades for decomposition of these molecules, since alternative enzymes were induced in cells grown on various substrates. However, the protein patterns appearing upon induction by sulfanilic acid and sulfocatechol were very similar to each other indicating common pathways for the degradation of these substrates. Cells grown on sulfanilic acid could convert p-aminobenzoic acid to some extent and vice versa. Two types of ring cleaving dioxygenases were detected in the cells grown on various substrates: one preferred protocatechol, while the other had higher activity with sulfocatechol. This latter enzyme, named as sulfocatechol dioxygenase was partially purified and characterized.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Dinuclear Complex: Bis[aqua(phen)(4-aba)copper(Ⅱ)nitrate(4-abaH)dihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-Guo; CHEN Hong-Ji


    The title complex has been obtained by the reaction of copper nitrate trihydrate with 4-abaH (4-abaH = 4-aminobenzonic acid) and phenanthroline in ethanol solution,and its structure was determined by X-ray crystallography with the following data: monoclinic,space group C2/c, Mr = 1266.13, Cu2C52H54N10O20, a = 25.884(5), b = 10.205(2), c = 20.849(4)(A), β= 106.34(3)°, Z = 4, V= 5284.7(18) (A)3, F(000) = 2616, Dc = 1.591 g/cm3, μ = 0.896 mm-1,the final R = 0.0441 and wR = 0.1148 for 4200 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the molecule of the title complex, the asymmetric unit contains one half molecule. The Cu(Ⅱ) atom is five-coordinated by a terminal water molecule, a bidentate phenanthroline and two monodentate 4-aminobenzoate ligands forming a square pyramidal coordination environment. The two bridging 4-aminobenzoate ligands result in a dinuclear copper(Ⅱ) cluster with a short Cu-Cu distance (3.048 (A)) and a π-πstacking between the adjacent phenanthroline rings (2.96 (A)).

  18. Quantification of benzocaine and its metabolites in channel catfish tissues and fluids by HPLC. (United States)

    Szoke, A; Hayton, W L; Schultz, I R


    Methods for extraction and gradient HPLC quantification were developed for benzocaine (BZ) and three of its metabolites to be used in conjunction with a reverse isotope technique. The metabolites were p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (AcPABA) and acetylbenzocaine (AcBZ). The matrixes studied were white muscle, red muscle, skin, liver, trunk kidney, head kidney, plasma and the bile of channel catfish. Analytes were validated for each of the compounds at 25 and 100 nmol per sample in the various tissues and fluids. The intraday variability (R.S.D.) was less than 13% in all tissues and fluids except for BZ in the liver. Recoveries varied from matrix to matrix for each analyte. The highest recoveries were obtained from plasma which ranged from 82.8-99.8% depending on the concentration. The average recovery of the compounds from tissues was between 50 and 78%, except for liver where the recovery of PABA and BZ was below 30%. Detection was by UV absorbance at 286 nm and the linear range was 2.5-15 nmol 100 ml-1 for all analytes. The method was selective; no interference peaks coeluted with the analytes.

  19. Study of the Chemical Space of Selected Bacteriostatic Sulfonamides from an Information Theory Point of View. (United States)

    López-Rosa, Sheila; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Dehesa, Jésus S


    The relative structural location of a selected group of 27 sulfonamide-like molecules in a chemical space defined by three information theory quantities (Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and disequilibrium) is discussed. This group is composed of 15 active bacteriostatic molecules, 11 theoretically designed ones, and para-aminobenzoic acid. This endeavor allows molecules that share common chemical properties through the molecular backbone, but with significant differences in the identity of the chemical substituents, which might result in bacteriostatic activity, to be structurally classified and characterized. This is performed by quantifying the structural changes on the electron density distribution due to different functional groups and number of electrons. The macroscopic molecular features are described by means of the entropy-like notions of spatial electronic delocalization, order, and uniformity. Hence, an information theory three-dimensional space (IT-3D) emerges that allows molecules with common properties to be gathered. This space witnesses the biological activity of the sulfonamides. Some structural aspects and information theory properties can be associated, as a result of the IT-3D chemical space, with the bacteriostatic activity of these molecules. Most interesting is that the active bacteriostatic molecules are more similar to para-aminobenzoic acid than to the theoretically designed analogues.

  20. Fluorescence Quenching Study of Zinc Bisporphyrins by Fulleropyrrolidines and Their N-Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ming-Yu; YUAN Ruo; CHAI Ya-Qin


    The third generation amperometric biosensor for thedetermination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been described. For the fabrication of biosensor, o-aminobenzoic acid (oABA) was first electropolymerized on the surface of platinum (Pt) elctrode as an electrostatic repulsion layer to reject interferences. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) absorbed by nano-scaled particulate gold (nano-Au) was immobilized on the electrode modified with polymerized o-aminobenzoic acid (poABA) with L-cysteine as a linker to prepare a iosensor for the detection of H2O2. Amperometric detection of H2O2 was realized at a potential of +20 mV versus SCE. The resulting biosensor exhibited fast response, excellent reproducibility and sensibility, expanded linear range and low interferences. Temperature and pH dependence and stability of the sensor were investigated. The optimal sensor gave a linear response in the range of 2.99× 10-6 to 3.55 × 10-3 mol·L-1 to H2O2 with a sensibility of 0.0177 A·L-1·mol-1 and a detection limit (S/N=3) of 4.3 × 10-7 mol·L-1. The biosensor demonstrated a 95% response within less than 10 s.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of Four Organic Acids in Radix Isatidis on E. coli Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG,Wei-Jun; ZHAO,Yan-Ling; SHAN,Li-Mei; XIAO,Xiao-He; GUO,Wei-Ying


    The inhibitory effects of four organic acids (OAs) in Radix Isatidis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, on Escherichia coli (E.coli) growth were investigated by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves of E. coli growth with and without OAs were acquired, meanwhile the extent and duration of inhibitory effects on the metabolism were evaluated by growth rate constants (k1, k2), half inhibitory ratio (IC50), maximum heat output (Pmax) and peak time (tp). The values of k1 and k2 of E. coli growth in the presence of the four OAs decreased with the increasing concentrations of OAs. Moreover, Pmax was reduced and the value of tp increased with increasing concentrations of the four drugs. The sequence of anti-microbial activity of the four OAs was: syringic acid>2-amino-benzoic acid>salicylic acid>benzoic acid. IC50 of the four OAs was respectively 56 μg/mL for syringic acid, 75 μg/mL for 2-amino-benzoic acid, 86 μg/mL for salicylic acid and 224 μg/mL for benzoic acid. The existence of the functional groups on phenyl ring improves the anti-microbial activity compared to benzoic acid. The functional groups methoxyl at C(3) and C(5) improve anti-microbial activity more strongly than the other functional groups, and the functional group amino at C(2) improve anti-microbial activity more strongly than hydroxyl at C(2) on phenyl ring.

  2. Mercury Photolytic Transformation Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Natural Organics in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL


    Mechanisms by which dissolved organic matter (DOM) mediates the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) in aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood, owing to the heterogeneous nature and complex structural properties of DOM. In this work, naturally occurring aromatic compounds including salicylic, 4-hydrobenzoic, anthranilic, 4-aminobenzoic, and phthalic acid were systematically studied as surrogates for DOM in order to gain an improved mechanistic understanding of these compounds in the photoreduction of Hg(II) in water. We show that the photoreduction rates of Hg(II) are influenced not only by the substituent functional groups such as OH, NH2 and COOH on the benzene ring, but also the positioning of these functional groups on the ring structure. The Hg(II) photoreduction rate decreases in the order anthranilic acid > salicylic acid > phthalic acid according to the presence of the NH2, OH, COOH functional groups on benzoic acid. The substitution position of the functional groups affects reduction rates in the order anthranilic acid > 4-aminobenzoic acid and salicylic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Reduction rates correlate strongly with ultraviolet (UV) absorption of these compounds and their concentrations, suggesting that the formation of organic free radicals during photolysis of these compounds is responsible for Hg(II) photoreduction. These results provide insight into the role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds and possibly DOM in Hg photoredox transformation and may thus have important implications for understanding Hg geochemical cycling in the environment.

  3. Silicon-containing bis-azomethines: Synthesis, structural characterization, evaluation of the photophysical properties and biological activity (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanada; Vlad, Angelica; Cazacu, Maria; Avadanei, Mihaela; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Balan, Mihaela; Shova, Sergiu


    A new diamine, (dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-aminobenzoate) (1), containing dimethylsilane spacer, was prepared by the condensation of p-aminobenzoic acid with bis(chloromethyl)dimethylsilane. This was subsequently reacted with salicylaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-salicylaldehyde, and 3-methoxy-salicyladehyde, when corresponding Schiff bases (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (2), (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (3), and (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene) bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (4), respectively were formed. All the obtained compounds were structurally characterized by spectral (FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) analyses and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Photophysical studies revealed that the new prepared Schiff bases are good UV light absorbing and fluorescent materials. Thus, they exhibit strong UV/Vis-absorption at 250-400 nm and violet or orange emission, in sensitive dependence on the polarity of the solvents and the nature of the substituent (sbnd H, sbnd OH and sbnd OCH3) at the aromatic ring. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was first studied in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two species of bacteria and three fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration was then determined with the reference of standard compounds. The results displayed that Schiff bases 3 and 4 having hydroxy- and methoxy-substituents on the aromatic ring were better inhibitors of both types of species (bacteria and fungi) than standard compounds, Caspofungin and Kanamycin.

  4. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase (United States)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan


    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  5. Inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with carboxylic acids. (United States)

    Maresca, Alfonso; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Manole, Gheorghe; Supuran, Claudiu T


    The growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is strongly inhibited by weak acids although the mechanism by which these compounds act is not completely understood. A series of substituted benzoic acids, nipecotic acid, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were investigated as inhibitors of three β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC from this pathogen, mtCA 1 (Rv1284), mtCA 2 (Rv3588c) and mtCA 3 (Rv3273). All three enzymes were inhibited with efficacies between the submicromolar to the micromolar one, depending on the scaffold present in the carboxylic acid. mtCA 3 was the isoform mostly inhibited by these compounds (K(I)s in the range of 0.11-0.97 µM); followed by mtCA 2 (K(I)s in the range of 0.59-8.10 µM), whereas against mtCA 1, these carboxylic acids showed inhibition constants in the range of 2.25-7.13 µM. This class of relatively underexplored β-CA inhibitors warrant further in vivo studies, as they may have the potential for developing antimycobacterial agents with a diverse mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs for which many strains exhibit multi-drug or extensive multi-drug resistance.

  6. Highly Dispersed Palladium Nanoparticles on Functional MWNT Surfaces for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG zhe; ZHU Zan-Zan; LI You-Xiang; LI Hu-Lin


    Palladium nanoparticles were crystallized on 4-aminobenzoic acid monolayer-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) by diazotization. The structure and nature of the resulting Pd/MWNT composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, the results show that the chemically synthesized Pd nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed and well-separated from one another on the modified MWNT surfaces. Cyclic voltammogram showed that the Pd-MWNT composite materials performed higher electrocatalytic activity and better long-term stability toward methanol oxidation in alkaline solution than Pd-C. The results imply that the Pd-MWNT composite materials as a promising support material improve the excellent electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation greatly. So the Pd/MWNT composites have a good application potential to fuel cells.

  7. Bioreporter pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 immobilized in a silica matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trogl J.


    Full Text Available The bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, the whole cell bacterial biosensor that responds to naphthalene and its metabolites via the production of visible light, was immobilized into a silica matrix by the sol-gel technique. The bioluminescence intensities were measured in the maximum of the bioluminescence band at X = 500 nm. The immobilized cells (>105 cells per g silica matrix produced light after induction by salicylate (cone. > 10 g/l, naphthalene and aminobenzoic acid. The bioluminescence intensities induced by 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were comparable to a negative control. The cells in the silica layers on glass slides produced light in response to the presence of an inductor at least 8 months after immobilization, and >50 induction cycles. The results showed that these test slides could be used as assays for the multiple determination of water pollution.

  8. Synthesis and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Evaluation of 4-(1,3-Dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-N-Phenyl Benzamide Derivatives as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents (United States)

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Soltani Darbandi, Samira; Aliabadi, Alireza


    Alzheimer᾽s disease is characterized by cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation of learning and memory. A progressive reduction in cholinergic neurons in some areas of the brain such as cortex and hippocampus is related to the deficits in memory and cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the current project a new series of phthalimide derivatives were synthesized. Phthalic anhydride was reacted with 4-aminobenzoic acid in the presence of triethylamine under reflux condition. Then, the obtained acidic derivative was utilized for preparation of final compounds via an amidation reaction through a carbodiimde coupling reaction. Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of synthesized derivatives was assessed by Ellman᾽s test. Compound 4g in this series exhibited the highest inhibitory potency (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.25 µM) compared to donepezil (IC50 = 0.41 ± 0.12 µM) as reference drug. PMID:27980565

  9. Luminescence of Terbium Complexes Incorporated into Silica Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫冰; 游佳勇


    Binary and ternary terbium complexes were synthesized: Tb(N-PA)3*4H2O and Tb(N-PA)3(phen*2H2O (N-HPA = N-phenyl-2-aminobenzoic acid and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). These complexes were introduced into inorganic polymeric porous silica matrix by the sol-gel method. The luminescence behavior of the complexes in silica gels was compared with the corresponding solid state complexes by means of emission, excitation spectra and luminescence lifetimes. The result indicates that the terbium ions show fewer emission lines and lower emission intensities in the silica gel than those in pure terbium complexes. The lifetimes of terbium ions in silica gel doped with terbium complexes become longer than those of terbium complexes.

  10. Methemoglobinemia Caused by Topical Teething Preparation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran D. Balicer


    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia (MetHb remains an uncommon, but potentially fatal disorder. Benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate, a topical anesthetic, has been reported to cause acquired MetHb when used during endoscopic or other ambulatory procedures. Reports of severe MetHb following benzocaine-containing preparations in the community, however, are very rare. We discuss this entity by describing an unusual case of severe MetHb in a 5-year-old child, caused by unattended self-use of a benzocaine-containing, pain-relief gel for teething. This case story illustrates the potential lethal risk of over-the-counter topical anesthetics for pediatric use. We review the risks of this potentially deadly disorder and the associated diagnostic challenges. Physicians not familiar with this rare complication may face diagnostic dilemmas, as its presentation is often nonspecific and rapid treatment is essential to prevent life-threatening complications.

  11. Pharmacological and spectral studies of synthetic biomimetic copper complexes derived from 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagashri


    Full Text Available Novel biomimetic ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 3-hydroxyflavone, 2-aminophenol(L1/2-aminobenzoic acid (L2 and-aminothiazole (L3. Their Cu(II complexes have also been synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1H NMR, IR, UV–Vis spectra, elemental analyses, molar conductivity, ESR, electrochemical behaviour and thermal analyses. The antimicrobial activities (MIC values of the ligands, copper complexes and standard drugs have been evaluated using the serial dilution technique against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory and SOD activities of the investigated compounds are also promising and allow the selection of a lead compound for further biological studies.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activity of new organotin complexes of 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid. (United States)

    Vieira, Flaviana T; de Lima, Geraldo M; Maia, José R da S; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Ardisson, José D; Rodrigues, Leonardo; Correa, Ary; Romero, Oscar B


    The reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadione with 2-aminobenzoic acid has produced the 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid (HOBz). Subsequent reactions of the ligand with organotin chlorides led to [Me(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (1), [Bu(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (2), [Ph(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (3), [Me(3)Sn(OBz)] (4), [Bu(3)Sn(OBz)] (5) and [Ph(3)Sn(OBz)] (6). All complexes have been fully characterized. In addition the structure of complexes (2) and (4) have been authenticated by X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. In addition we have performed toxicological testes employing human kidney cell. The complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best values of inhibition of the fungus growing, superior to ketoconazole. Compound (5) presented promising results in view of the antifungal and cytotoxicity assays.

  13. Simultaneous and accurate determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin tablets by using an RP-HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semahat Kucukkolbasi


    Full Text Available In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid and four fat-soluble vitamins (retinol acetate, cholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, and phytonadione in multivitamin tablets. The linearity of the method was excellent (R² > 0.999 over the concentration range of 10 - 500 ng mL-1. The statistical evaluation of the method was carried out by performing the intra- and inter-day precision. The accuracy of the method was tested by measuring the average recovery; values ranged between 87.4% and 98.5% and were acceptable quantitative results that corresponded with the label claims.

  14. Myeloperoxidase Stimulates Neutrophil Degranulation. (United States)

    Grigorieva, D V; Gorudko, I V; Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Vasilyev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M


    Myeloperoxidase, heme enzyme of azurophilic granules in neutrophils, is released into the extracellular space in the inflammation foci. In neutrophils, it stimulates a dose-dependent release of lactoferrin (a protein of specific granules), lysozyme (a protein of specific and azurophilic granules), and elastase (a protein of azurophilic granules). 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a potent inhibitor of peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase, produced no effect on neutrophil degranulation. Using signal transduction inhibitors (genistein, methoxyverapamil, wortmannin, and NiCl2), we demonstrated that myeloperoxidase-induced degranulation of neutrophils resulted from enzyme interaction with the plasma membrane and depends on activation of tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and calcium signaling. Myeloperoxidase modified by oxidative/halogenation stress (chlorinated and monomeric forms of the enzyme) lost the potency to activate neutrophil degranulation.

  15. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W. (SJCH)


    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and benzocaine. (United States)

    Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel


    Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.

  17. Influence of metabolism in skin on dosimetry after topical exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronaugh, R.L.; Collier, S.W.; Macpherson, S.E.; Kraeling, M.E.K. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)


    Metabolism of chemicals occurs in skin and therefore should be taken into account when one determines topical exposure dose. Skin metabolism is difficult to measure in vivo because biological specimens may also contain metabolites from other tissues. Metabolism in skin during percutaneous absorption can be studied with viable skin in flow-through diffusion cells. Several compounds metabolized by microsomal enzymes in skin (benzo[a]pyrene and 7-ethoxycoumarin) penetrated human and hairless guinea pig skin predominantly unmetabolized. However, compounds containing a primary amino group (p-aminobenzoic acid, benzocaine, and azo color reduction products) were substrates for acetyltransferase activity in skin and were substantially metabolized during absorption. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model has been developed with an input equation, allowing modeling after topical exposure. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Influence of metabolism in skin on dosimetry after topical exposure. (United States)

    Bronaugh, R L; Collier, S W; Macpherson, S E; Kraeling, M E


    Metabolism of chemicals occurs in skin and therefore should be taken into account when one determines topical exposure dose. Skin metabolism is difficult to measure in vivo because biological specimens may also contain metabolites from other tissues. Metabolism in skin during percutaneous absorption can be studied with viable skin in flow-through diffusion cells. Several compounds metabolized by microsomal enzymes in skin (benzo[a]pyrene and 7-ethoxycoumarin) penetrated human and hairless guinea pig skin predominantly unmetabolized. However, compounds containing a primary amino group (p-aminobenzoic acid, benzocaine, and azo color reduction products) were substrates for acetyltransferase activity in skin and were substantially metabolized during absorption. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model has been developed with an input equation, allowing modeling after topical exposure. Plasma concentrations in the hairless guinea pig were accurately predicted for the model compound, benzoic acid, from in vitro absorption, metabolism, and other pharmacokinetic parameters.

  19. Self-assembly through secondary interactions in formation of two-dimensional lead(II) supramolecular polymer with nanosheets morphology (United States)

    Noori, Yasamin; Akhbari, Kamran; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Costantino, Ferdinando


    In order to study the role of self-assembly through secondary interactions in formation of [Pb(3-AB)2]n (1), [3-ABbar = 3-aminobenzoate], we designed some experiments and synthesized two samples of 1 under ultrasonic irradiations. Nanosheets of 1 were synthesized under these conditions. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional coordination polymer. Self-assembly through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between these chains results in formation of two-dimensional supramolecular polymer. It seems that self-assembly through secondary interactions between these chain structures is responsible for formation of 1 with nanosheet morphology. Formation nanoparticles of [Pb(2,6-DHB)2]n (2), [2,6-DHBbar = 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate], under the same condition applied for 1, which has three-dimensional coordination network in its crystalline structure, approved our hypotheses. These microstructures were characterized by IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  20. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption (United States)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S.


    Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of thermotropic liquid crystalline polyimides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Mane; C R Rajan; Surendra Ponrathnam; Nayaku Chavan


    Non-symmetrical and linear dyad-based mesogens were synthesised containing imine or ester bridging group. In the present work, due to the absence of branching in diamine-based mesogen, the structure has—rigidity inversely imine/ester bridging groups between two benzene rings imparts—flexible property to the mesogen and consequently rigid–flexible property has been balanced. The synthesised mesogens were characterized by different techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) were synthesised using pyromellitic dianhydride and 4-[(4-aminobenzylidene)amino]aniline or 4-aminophenyl-4-aminobenzoate. Subsequently, thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have also been evaluated to obtain optical microscopy textures at different temperatures which demonstrated interesting and notable changes. It is worth noting that marble-like textures were observed upto 200 ° C.

  2. Biodegradation of textile azo dye by Shewanella decolorationis S12 under microaerophilic conditions. (United States)

    Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping


    The complete biodegradation of azo dye, Fast Acid Red GR, was observed under microaerophilic conditions by Shewanella decolorationis S12. Although the highest decolorizing rate was measured under anaerobic condition and the highest biomass was obtained under aerobic condition, a further biodegradation of decolorizing products can only be achieved under microaerophilic conditions. Under microaerophilic conditions, S. decolorationis S12 could use a range of carbon sources for azo dye decolorization, including lactate, formate, glucose and sucrose, with lactate being the optimal carbon source. Sulfonated aromatic amines were not detected during the biotransformation of Fast Acid Red GR, while H(2)S formed. The decolorizing products, aniline, 1,4-diaminobenzene and 1-amino-2-naphthol, were followed by complete biodegradation through catechol and 4-aminobenzoic acid based on the analysis results of GC-MS and HPLC.

  3. Synthesis of Calix[4]resorcinarene Based Dyes and its Application in Dyeing of Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Jain


    Full Text Available Four new ʻupper rimʼ azocalix[4]resorcinarene have been synthesized by coupling calix[4]resorcinarene with different diazotized aromatic compounds of sulphanilic acid, anthranilic acid, o-aminophenol and p-aminobenzoic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized based on m.p., elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR. These dyes have been used for the dyeing of textile fibres like cotton and wool. Their fastness properties such as fastness to sunlight, water, washings, and perspiration have also been studied. The synthesized dyes have been employed for computerized colour strength determination through colour matching with known standards. Their L, A*, B* values as well as the colour difference values such as ∆L, ∆A*, ∆B*, ∆C and ∆H have also been reported.

  4. Facile synthesis and catalytic properties of silver colloidal nanoparticles stabilized by SDBS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Wang; Yinmin Song; Quansheng Liu; Keli Yang


    A facile method was explored to prepare stable silver colloidal nanoparticles (AgCNPs) in water. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the stabilizing agent, without addition of any co-surfactant. The reaction was rapid and the product prepared at different conditions was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that AgCNPs stabilized by SDBS was stable in water with narrow size distribution (1-5 nm). The amount of surfactant has great influence on the products. When the molar ratio of Ag+ to SDBS increased to 1 : 4, AgCNPs can be obtained with high dispersion (2-3 nm), which has high catalytic activity on reduction of 4-nitrobenzoic acid to 4-aminobenzoic acid.

  5. Biocompatible hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles used as antibiotic drug carriers. (United States)

    Bolocan, Alexandra; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Pop, Corina Silvia


    Here we report a newly synthesized vectorizing nanosystem, based on hydrodispersible magnetite nanoparticles (HMNPs) with an average size less than 10 nm, obtained by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in basic solution of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) and bioevaluated for cytotoxicity and antibiotic delivery in active forms. The obtained data demonstrate that HMNPs can be used as an efficient drug delivery system, for clinically relevant antimicrobial drugs. HMNPs antimicrobial activity depended on the loaded drug structure and the tested microbial strain, being more efficient against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparing with the Escherichia coli strain. The novel HMNPs demonstrated an acceptable biocompatibility level, being thus a very good candidate for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery or targeting.

  6. Theoretical study of tautomers and photoisomers of avobenzone by DFT methods. (United States)

    Trossini, Gustavo H G; Maltarollo, Vinicius G; Garcia, Ricardo D'A; Pinto, Claudinéia A S O; Velasco, Maria V R; Honorio, Kathia M; Baby, André R


    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters such as cinnamates, benzophenones, p-aminobenzoic derivatives, and avobenzone (which have well-established and recognized UV-filtering efficacies) are employed in cosmetic/pharmaceutical products to minimize the harm caused by exposure of the skin to sunlight. In this study, a detailed investigation of the photostability and tautomerism mechanisms of avobenzone was performed utilizing DFT methods. The UV spectral profile of avobenzone was also simulated, and the results showed good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the calculations were able to distinguish tautomers and photoisomers of the studied organic filter based on their properties, thus showing the potential to develop new organic UV filters. Graphical Abstract Theoretical studies of avobenzone and its tautomers by TD-DFT.

  7. A Novel Electrochemical Sensor for Probing Doxepin Created on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly(4-Amino- benzoic Acid/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Lie Kong


    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of doxepin was prepared, which was based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film [poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE]. The sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. It was observed that poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE showed excellent preconcentration function and electrocatalytic activities towards doxepin. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to the logarithm of doxepin concentration in the range from 1.0 ´ 10−9 to 1.0 ´ 10−6 M, and the detection limit obtained was 1.0 × 10−10 M. The poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE was successfully applied in the measurement of doxepin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations, and the analytical accuracy was confirmed by comparison with a conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay.

  8. Syntheses,characteristics,and fluorescence properties of complexes of europium with benzoic acid and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhongcheng; SHU Wangen; RUAN Jianming; HUANG Boyun; LIU Younian


    The binary complexes of europium with benzoic acid and its derivatives (phthalic acid, m-phthalic acid,o-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, and sulfosalicylic acid) were synthesized and their compositions were identified by elemental analyses. UV and IR of the complexes have been investigated. The UV spectra indicated that the complexes' ultraviolet absorption were mainly the ligands' absorption. The IR spectra showed that the IR spectra of complexes are different from those of free ligands. The fluorescence properties of them were investigated by using luminescence spectroscopy, the results showed that only three complexes appear as better luminescence, they were Eu-benzoic acid,Eu-m-phthalic acid and Eu-phthalic acid, while the others exhibited the ligands' wideband emission.

  9. catena-Poly[[(4-aminobenzoatoaquasilver(I]-μ-hexamethylenetetramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jun Han


    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, [Ag(C7H6NO2(C6H12N4(H2O]n, the AgI ion is five-coordinated by two carboxylate O atoms from one 4-aminobenzoate anion (L, two N atoms from two different hexamethylenetetramine (hmt ligands, and one water O atom in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The metal atom lies on a mirror plane and the L anion, hmt ligand and water molecule all lie across crystallographic mirror planes. Each hmt ligand bridges two neighboring AgI ions, resulting in the formation of a chain structure along the b axis. The chains are linked into a three-dimensional framework by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  10. The susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine: correlation of in vivo and in vitro results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schapira, A; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jepsen, S;


    In 1982, 2 of 14 Plasmodium falciparum infections acquired in East Africa and diagnosed in Copenhagen were resistant to treatment with sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (Fansidar), while in 1983, 6 of 18 were so. The in vivo tests were supplemented by determinations of drug concentrations in serum......, and 4 isolates from in vivo-sensitive cases and 6 from in vivo-resistant cases were selected for in vivo tests. These were performed in ordinary RPMI 1640 medium and in a medium with physiological p-aminobenzoic acid and folic acid concentrations. Pharmacokinetic aberrations were found to be of possible...... importance in only 2 of the in vivo-resistant cases. In vitro susceptibility to sulfadoxine was found to be uniformly low in all isolates. Testing with a combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in the medium with physiological concentrations of cofactors probably reflects the in vivo situation most...

  11. Multiple depositions of Ag nanoparticles on chemically modified agarose films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhai, Wen-Lei; Li, Da-Wei; Qu, Lu-Lu; Fossey, John S.; Long, Yi-Tao


    A facile and cost-effective approach for the preparation of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate through constructing silver nanoparticle/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/agarose films (Ag NPs/APTES/Agar film) on various solid supports is described. The SERS performance of the substrate was systematically investigated, revealing a maximum SERS intensity with four layers of the Ag NP deposition. The enhancement factor of the developed substrate was calculated as 1.5 × 107 using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the probe molecule, and the reproducibility of the SERS signals was established. A high throughput screening platform was designed, manufactured and implemented which utilised the ability to cast agarose to assemble arrays. Quantitative analysis of 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was achieved over a ~0.5 nM-0.1 μM range.A facile and cost-effective approach for the preparation of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate through constructing silver nanoparticle/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/agarose films (Ag NPs/APTES/Agar film) on various solid supports is described. The SERS performance of the substrate was systematically investigated, revealing a maximum SERS intensity with four layers of the Ag NP deposition. The enhancement factor of the developed substrate was calculated as 1.5 × 107 using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the probe molecule, and the reproducibility of the SERS signals was established. A high throughput screening platform was designed, manufactured and implemented which utilised the ability to cast agarose to assemble arrays. Quantitative analysis of 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was achieved over a ~0.5 nM-0.1 μM range. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: the chemical structure of agarose, the SEM characterization of the synthesised Ag NPs, the calculation of the EF, the stability of the SERS substrate. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10956a

  12. Tuning solubility and stability of hydrochlorothiazide co-crystals. (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Rajput, Lalit


    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), C7H8ClN3O4S2, is a diuretic BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class IV drug which has primary and secondary sulfonamide groups. To modify the aqueous solubility of the drug, co-crystals with biologically safe co-formers were screened. Multi-component molecular crystals of HCT were prepared with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, succinamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, resorcinol and pyrogallol using liquid-assisted grinding. The co-crystals were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry. Single crystal structures were obtained for four of them. The N-H...O sulfonamide catemer synthons found in the stable polymorph of pure HCT are replaced in the co-crystals by drug-co-former heterosynthons. Isostructural co-crystals with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are devoid of the common sulfonamide dimer/catemer synthons. Solubility and stability experiments were carried out for the co-crystals in water (neutral pH) under ambient conditions. Among the six binary systems, the co-crystal with p-aminobenzoic acid showed a sixfold increase in solubility compared with pure HCT, and stability up to 24 h in an aqueous medium. The co-crystals with nicotinamide, resorcinol and pyrogallol showed only a 1.5-2-fold increase in solubility and transformed to HCT within 1 h of the dissolution experiment. An inverse correlation is observed between the melting points of the co-crystals and their solubilities.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of neurotransmitter disorders. (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; Hartka, Thomas R; Taylor, Jacob


    The neurotransmitter disorders represent an enigmatic and enlarging group of neurometabolic conditions caused by abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism or transport. A high index of clinical suspicion is important, given the availability of therapeutic strategies. This article covers disorders of monoamine (catecholamine and serotonin) synthesis, glycine catabolism, pyridoxine dependency, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. The technological aspects of appropriate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, shipment, study, and interpretation merit special consideration. Diagnosis of disorders of monoamines requires analysis of CSF homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, ortho-methyldopa, BH4, and neopterin. The delineation of new disorders with important therapeutic implications, such as cerebral folate deficiency and PNPO deficiency, serves to highlight the value of measuring CSF neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites. The impressive responsiveness of Segawa fluctuating dystonia to levodopa is a hallmark feature of previously unrecognized neurologic morbidity becoming treatable at any age. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency have more severe phenotypes and show variable responsiveness to levodopa. Glycine encephalopathy usually has a poor outcome; benzoate therapy may be helpful in less affected cases. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are a refractory but treatable group of neonatal and infantile seizures; rare cases require pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is relatively common in comparison to the remainder of this group of disorders. Treatment directed at the metabolic defect with vigabatrin has been disappointing, and multiple therapies are targeted toward specific but protean symptoms. Other disorders of GABA metabolism, as is true of the wide spectrum of neurotransmitter disorders, will require increasing use of CSF analysis for diagnosis, and ultimately, treatment.

  14. Development and validation of a sensitive, simple, and rapid method for simultaneous quantitation of atorvastatin and its acid and lactone metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). (United States)

    Macwan, Joyce S; Ionita, Ileana A; Dostalek, Miroslav; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh


    The aim of the proposed work was to develop and validate a simple and sensitive assay for the analysis of atorvastatin (ATV) acid, ortho- and para-hydroxy-ATV, ATV lactone, and ortho- and para-hydroxy-ATV lactone in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All six analytes and corresponding deuterium (d5)-labeled internal standards were extracted from 50 μL of human plasma by protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using a Zorbax-SB Phenyl column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of a gradient mixture of 0.1% v/v glacial acetic acid in 10% v/v methanol in water (solvent A) and 40% v/v methanol in acetonitrile (solvent B). All analytes including ortho- and para-hydroxy metabolites were baseline-separated within 7.0 min using a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Mass spectrometry detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode, with multiple-reaction monitoring scan. The calibration curves for all analytes were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.9975, n = 3) over the concentration range of 0.05-100 ng/mL and with lower limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mL. Mean extraction recoveries ranged between 88.6-111%. Intra- and inter-run mean percent accuracy were between 85-115% and percent imprecision was ≤ 15%. Stability studies revealed that ATV acid and lactone forms were stable in plasma during bench top (6 h on ice-water slurry), at the end of three successive freeze and thaw cycles and at -80 °C for 3 months. The method was successfully applied in a clinical study to determine concentrations of ATV and its metabolites over 12 h post-dose in patients receiving atorvastatin.

  15. Characterization and purification of polyphenol oxidase from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). (United States)

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Yusuf; Ertürk, Hatibe; Arslan, Oktay


    In this study, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was first purified by a combination of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. At the end of purification, 43-fold purification was achieved. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that PPO had a 57 kDa molecular mass. Second, the contents of total phenolic and protein of artichoke head extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of artichoke head was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 425 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Protein content was determined according to Bradford method. Third, the effects of substrate specificity, pH, temperature, and heat inactivation were investigated on the activity of PPO purified from artichoke. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, catechol, and L-dopa. No activity was detected toward L-tyrosine, resorsinol, and p-cresol. According to V(max)/K(m) values, 4-methylcatechol (1393 EU min(-1) mM(-1)) was the best substrate, followed by pyrogallol (1220 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), catechol (697 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), and L-dopa (102 EU min(-1) mM(-1)). The optimum pH values for PPO were 5.0, 8.0, and 7.0 using 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, and catechol as substrate, respectively. It was found that optimum temperatures were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol substrates. However, all inactivation experiments for catechol showed that the activity of artichoke PPO increased with mild heating, reached a maximum, and then decreased with time. Finally, inhibition of artichoke PPO was investigated with inhibitors such as L-cysteine, EDTA, ascorbic

  16. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Adam


    Full Text Available Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM, quercitrin (4 µM and quercetin (4 µM. Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was

  17. Genomic approach to studying nutritional requirements of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and other Clostridia causing late blowing defects. (United States)

    Storari, Michelangelo; Kulli, Sandra; Wüthrich, Daniel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Berthoud, Hélène; Arias-Roth, Emmanuelle


    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for the late blowing defect in hard and semi-hard cheeses, causing considerable economic losses to the cheese industry. Deeper knowledge of the metabolic requirements of this microorganism can lead to the development of more effective control approaches. In this work, the amino acids and B vitamins essential for sustaining the growth of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated using a genomic approach. As the first step, the genomes of four C. tyrobutyricum strains were analyzed for the presence of genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and B vitamins. Metabolic pathways could be reconstructed for all amino acids and B vitamins with the exception of biotin (vitamin B7) and folate (vitamin B9). The biotin pathway was missing the enzyme amino-7-oxononanoate synthase that catalyzes the condensation of pimeloyl-ACP and l-alanine to 8-amino-7-oxononanoate. In the folate pathway, the missing genes were those coding for para-aminobenzoate synthase and aminodeoxychorismate lyase enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for the conversion of chorismate into para-aminobenzoate (PABA). Two C. tyrobutyircum strains whose genome was analyzed in silico as well as other 10 strains isolated from cheese were tested in liquid media to confirm these observations. 11 strains showed growth in a defined liquid medium containing biotin and PABA after 6-8 days of incubation. No strain showed growth when only one or none of these compounds were added, confirming the observations obtained in silico. Furthermore, the genome analysis was extended to genomes of single strains of other Clostridium species potentially causing late blowing, namely Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium butyricum. Only the biotin biosynthesis pathway was incomplete for C. butyricum and C. beijerincki. In contrast, C. sporogenes showed missing enzymes in biosynthesis pathways of several amino acids as well

  18. Temperature effects on chemically modified Pt electrode sensing paracetamol%化学修饰铂电极传感扑热息痛中的温度效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽波; 杨国程; 杨颖姝; 赵振波; 周德凤


    通过电化学方法制备了3类化学修饰电极:电化学氧化法将4-氨基苯甲酸(4-Amino-benzoic acid,4-ABA)共价修饰到铂电极上,形成单分子层膜修饰电极(4-ABA/Pt);恒电位沉积法将铂纳米粒子(Nanoparticles,NPs)修饰到铂电极上,形成NPs修饰电极(PtNPs/Pt);先恒电位,然后循环伏安将3-噻吩丙二酸(3-Thiophenemalonic acid,3-TMA)聚合到铂电极上,形成聚合物薄膜修饰电极(poly(3-TMA)/Pt)。线性伏安法测试3种修饰电极在不同温度下传感扑热息痛(Paracetamol,PCT),得出PCT在较宽浓度范围内都与其氧化峰电流呈良好的线性关系,但在不同温度条件下灵敏度是不同的。通过分析温度对PCT活度、离子导体和电子导体电阻的影响,对这一结果给出合理的解释。%Three kinds of chemically modified electrode(CME) are prepared with electrochemical method.With electrochemical oxidation,4-aminobenzoic acid(4-ABA) is covalently modified on Pt electrode to form the 4-ABA/Pt.With the potentiostatic method,the Pt nanoparticles(NPs) are electrodeposited on Pt electrode to form the PtNPs/Pt.With the potentiostatic process followed by cyclic voltammetry method,3-thiophenemalonic acid(3-TMA) is electropolymerized on Pt electrode to form the poly(3-TMA)/Pt.CMEs are applied to sense paracetamol(PCT) at different temperatures.The results show that the PCT concentration has a linear relationship with the oxidation peak current in a wide concentration range but the sensitivity is different at different temperature.The temperature effect on the PCT activity and resistance of ionic conductor and electronic conductor can be used to explain the result.

  19. Promoter strength of folic acid synthesis genes affects sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Iliades, Peter; Berglez, Janette; Meshnick, Steven; Macreadie, Ian


    The enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is an important target for sulfa drugs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. However, the understanding of DHPS function and the action of antifolates in eukaryotes has been limited due to technical difficulties and the complexity of DHPS being a part of a bifunctional or trifunctional protein that comprises the upstream enzymes involved in folic acid synthesis (FAS). Here, yeast strains have been constructed to study the effects of FOL1 expression on growth and sulfa drug resistance. A DHPS knockout yeast strain was complemented by yeast vectors expressing the FOL1 gene under the control of promoters of different strengths. An inverse relationship was observed between the growth rate of the strains and FOL1 expression levels. The use of stronger promoters to drive FOL1 expression led to increased sulfamethoxazole resistance when para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) levels were elevated. However, high FOL1 expression levels resulted in increased susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole in pABA free media. These data suggest that up-regulation of FOL1 expression can lead to sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff bases and Cu(II) complexes. (United States)

    Baran, Talat; Menteş, Ayfer; Arslan, Hülya


    In this study, mono-imine was synthesized (3a and 4a) via a condensation reaction between 2,4-pentadion and aminobenzoic acid (meta or para) in alcohol (1:1). The second-imine (CS-3a and CS-4a) was obtained as a result of the reaction of the free oxo groups of mono-imine (3a and 4a) with the amino groups on the chitosan (CS). Their structures were characterized with FTIR and (13)C CP-MAS. Then, the water soluble forms of CS-3a and CS-4a were obtained through oxidation of the hydroxide groups on the chitosan to carboxymethyl groups using monochloracetic acid ([O-CMCS-3a] · 2H2O and [O-CMCS-4a] · 2H2O). Thus, the solubility problem of chitosan in an aqueous media was overcome and Cu(II) complexes could be synthesized more easily. Characterization of the synthesized O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff base derivatives and their metal complexes, [O-CMCS-3a-Cu(OAc)2] · 2H2O and [O-CMCS-4a-Cu(OAc)2] · 2H2O, was conducted using FTIR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, elemental analysis, conductivities and magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  1. Electrospun biodegradable calcium containing poly(ester-urethane)urea: synthesis, fabrication, in vitro degradation, and biocompatibility evaluation. (United States)

    Nair, Priya A; Ramesh, P


    In this work an in vitro degradable poly(ester-urethane)urea (PEUU) was synthesized using polycaprolactone diol, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and calcium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid. The synthesized polymer was characterized by (1) H-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and viscosity studies. Scaffolds having random micro fibrous structures were fabricated from PEUU by electrospinning process. The thermal properties of the scaffold were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical property evaluation showed that the scaffold possess sufficiently high tensile strength of 16 MPa. The in vitro degradation studies of the electrospun scaffold were carried out in phosphate buffer saline for 6 months. The average mass loss of the scaffold after 6 months of hydrolytic degradation was 25%. FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the degradation of the PEUU from decrease in intensity of 1400 cm(-1) peak corresponding to ionic carboxylate group. Presence of amine group and calcium ions in the degradation medium further confirmed the degradation of the hard segment in the hydrolytic medium. The mechanical property evaluation of the scaffold indicated a gradual decrease in tensile strength and modulus whereas percentage elongation of the scaffold increases with time of in vitro degradation. The morphological evaluation of the scaffold after degradation by SEM shows evidence of broken fibers and pores in the scaffold. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated that both the material and the degradation products were noncytotoxic in nature and the material showed good proliferation to L-929 cells.

  2. Formation of Carbamate Anions by the Gas-phase Reaction of Anilide Ions with CO2. (United States)

    Liu, Chongming; Nishshanka, Upul; Attygalle, Athula B


    The anilide anion (m/z 92) generated directly from aniline, or indirectly as a fragmentation product of deprotonated acetanilide, captures CO2 readily to form the carbamate anion (m/z 136) in the collision cell, when CO2 is used as the collision gas in a tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The gas-phase affinity of the anilide ion to CO2 is significantly higher than that of the phenoxide anion (m/z 93), which adds to CO2 only very sluggishly. Our results suggest that the efficacy of CO2 capture depends on the natural charge density on the nitrogen atom, and relative nucleophilicity of the anilide anion. Generally, conjugate bases generated from aniline derivatives with proton affinities (PA) less than 350 kcal/mol do not tend to add CO2 to form gaseous carbamate ions. For example, the anion generated from p-methoxyaniline (PA = 367 kcal/mol) reacts significantly faster than that obtained from p-nitroaniline (PA = 343 kcal/mol). Although deprotonated p-aminobenzoic acid adds very poorly because the negative charge is now located primarily on the carboxylate group, it reacts more efficiently with CO2 if the carboxyl group is esterified. Moreover, mixture of CO2 and He as the collision gas was found to afford more efficient adduct formation than CO2 alone, or as mixtures made with nitrogen or argon, because helium acts as an effective "cooling" gas and reduces the internal energy of reactant ions.

  3. Synthetic Studies and Antibacterial Activity of Nucleobases and their N- and S-Glucosidesfrom 2-Amino Benzoic Acid and its Benzamido Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Benhammadi


    Full Text Available A series of S-glucosides11a-14a and their benzamido derivatives 11b-14b have been synthesized by reacting D-glucose withthiol groups of 5-(2’-aminophenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thioles7(a,b, 5-(2’-aminophenylene-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiols8(a,b, 5-(2’-aminophenylene-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols9(a,band 5-(2’-aminophenylene-4-N-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols10(a,b. The thiols7(a,b-10(a,b have been synthesized from hydrazides3(a,bwhich already been synthesized from 2-aminobenzoic acid and its benzamido derivative.Allsynthesized compoundswerecharacterized by IR, UV,1H- and13C- NMR. Nucleobases and a representative of S-glycoside weretestedin vitro against the following microorganisms: twoGram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureusandBacillus cereusand two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosaand they exhibited significant effects.Amykacinewas used as positive standard.

  4. Long-range pseudoknot interactions dictate the regulatory response in the tetrahydrofolate riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Serganov, Alexander (MSKCC)


    Tetrahydrofolate (THF), a biologically active form of the vitamin folate (B{sub 9}), is an essential cofactor in one-carbon transfer reactions. In bacteria, expression of folate-related genes is controlled by feedback modulation in response to specific binding of THF and related compounds to a riboswitch. Here, we present the X-ray structures of the THF-sensing domain from the Eubacterium siraeum riboswitch in the ligand-bound and unbound states. The structure reveals an 'inverted' three-way junctional architecture, most unusual for riboswitches, with the junction located far from the regulatory helix P1 and not directly participating in helix P1 formation. Instead, the three-way junction, stabilized by binding to the ligand, aligns the riboswitch stems for long-range tertiary pseudoknot interactions that contribute to the organization of helix P1 and therefore stipulate the regulatory response of the riboswitch. The pterin moiety of the ligand docks in a semiopen pocket adjacent to the junction, where it forms specific hydrogen bonds with two moderately conserved pyrimidines. The aminobenzoate moiety stacks on a guanine base, whereas the glutamate moiety does not appear to make strong interactions with the RNA. In contrast to other riboswitches, these findings demonstrate that the THF riboswitch uses a limited number of available determinants for ligand recognition. Given that modern antibiotics target folate metabolism, the THF riboswitch structure provides insights on mechanistic aspects of riboswitch function and may help in manipulating THF levels in pathogenic bacteria

  5. Long-range pseudoknot interactions dictate the regulatory response in the tetrahydrofolate riboswitch. (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J; Serganov, Alexander


    Tetrahydrofolate (THF), a biologically active form of the vitamin folate (B(9)), is an essential cofactor in one-carbon transfer reactions. In bacteria, expression of folate-related genes is controlled by feedback modulation in response to specific binding of THF and related compounds to a riboswitch. Here, we present the X-ray structures of the THF-sensing domain from the Eubacterium siraeum riboswitch in the ligand-bound and unbound states. The structure reveals an "inverted" three-way junctional architecture, most unusual for riboswitches, with the junction located far from the regulatory helix P1 and not directly participating in helix P1 formation. Instead, the three-way junction, stabilized by binding to the ligand, aligns the riboswitch stems for long-range tertiary pseudoknot interactions that contribute to the organization of helix P1 and therefore stipulate the regulatory response of the riboswitch. The pterin moiety of the ligand docks in a semiopen pocket adjacent to the junction, where it forms specific hydrogen bonds with two moderately conserved pyrimidines. The aminobenzoate moiety stacks on a guanine base, whereas the glutamate moiety does not appear to make strong interactions with the RNA. In contrast to other riboswitches, these findings demonstrate that the THF riboswitch uses a limited number of available determinants for ligand recognition. Given that modern antibiotics target folate metabolism, the THF riboswitch structure provides insights on mechanistic aspects of riboswitch function and may help in manipulating THF levels in pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Influence of composition on rate of polymerization contraction of light-curing resin composites. (United States)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne


    A slow contraction may result in reduced gap formation when a restorative resin polymerizes in a dental cavity. It was the aim in the present work to investigate the rate of contraction in relation to composition of experimental light-curing resin composites. The monomer of the resin composites consisted of mixtures of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and in one series HEMA. The resins contained varying amounts of initiators, co-initiators, and inhibitor, and were made composite by adding a silanized glass filler to a content of 74% by weight of the composite paste. The polymerization contraction up to 120 sec was determined by means of the bonded-disk method. Within the ranges studied, the concentration of initiator and co-initiator in the monomer mixture had only an insignificant influence on rate of polymerization. In comparison to camphorquinone, the initiators 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione and benzil reduced the rate of polymerization without affecting the final contraction. In comparison to N,N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, N,N-cyanoethyl methylaniline was as effective, while N,N-diethanol-p-toluidine was less effective as co-initiator. A relatively high content of the inhibitor methoxyhydroquinone reduced the initial rate but not the final polymerization contraction. The rate of polymerization increased with the level of HEMA and TEGDMA in the monomer mixture. It was concluded that intrinsic slow cure may be obtained with certain compositions of resin composites without impairing the final extent of polymerization.

  7. Heterogeneous Catalysis Applied To Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) For Degradation of Organic Pollutants (United States)

    Cotto-Maldonado, Maria del Carmen

    Water is an essencial resource for humankind and biomes. Actually, the pollution of the water resources, specially the contamination of the fresh water is great concern in our society. Develop of new and more efficient method for degradation of pollutant in water increase the research in this area, especially in the AOPs. During this investigation a comparison between different AOPs methods (photocatalysis, sono-Fenton and photo-Fenton) to determine the most efficient process of them was done. To reach our goal, different catalysts, namely TiO2 nanowires, TiO2 CNTs, ZnO nanoparticles, Fe2O3 nanowires and magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by different techniques including FE-SEM, TGA, specific surface area (BET), XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and magnetic susceptibility. Commercial and synthesized catalysts were used in photocatalysis, sono-Fenton and photo-Fenton processes for the degradation of model organic compounds (Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B, Methyl Orange, Gential Violet, Methyl Violet and p-aminobenzoic acid). According with the experimental results, no significant differences were observed between the photo-Fenton and sono-Fenton processes when the same catalysts were used. For the photocatalytic process, the more effective catalyst was TiO2NWs and for the sono-Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, the more effective catalyst was FeCl2.

  8. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry A. El-Bassiouny


    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1 towards nitrogen nucleo-philes, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylene- diamine, o-tolidinediamine p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride,  2-amino- nicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  9. Fluorescent substituted amidines of benzanthrone: Synthesis, spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations (United States)

    Gonta, Svetlana; Utinans, Maris; Kirilov, Georgii; Belyakov, Sergey; Ivanova, Irena; Fleisher, Mendel; Savenkov, Valerij; Kirilova, Elena


    Several new substituted amidine derivatives of benzanthrone were synthesized by a condensation reaction from 3-aminobenzo[de]anthracen-7-one and appropriate aromatic and aliphatic amides. The obtained derivatives have a bright yellow or orange fluorescence in organic solvents and in solid state. The novel benzanthrone derivatives were characterized by TLC analysis, 1H NMR, IR, MS, UV/vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The solvent effect on photophysical behaviors of these dyes was investigated, and the results showed that the Stoke's shift increased, whereas quantum yield decreased with the growth of the solvent polarity. The structure of some dyes was confirmed by the X-ray single crystal structure analysis. AM1, ZINDO/S and ab initio calculations using Gaussian software were carried out to estimate the electron system of structures. The calculations show planar configurations for the aromatic core of these compounds and two possible orientations of amidine substituents. The calculation results correlate well with red-shifted absorption and emission spectra of compounds.

  10. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles for the on-line determination of gold, palladium, and platinum in mine samples based on flow injection micro-column preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Ye, Juanjuan; Liu, Shuxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Li, Wanjun; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Weihong; Jia, Qiong


    A simple and highly selective procedure for on-line determination of trace levels of Au, Pd, and Pt in mine samples has been developed using flow injection-column adsorption preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FI-column-GFAAS). The precious metals were adsorbed on the as-synthesized magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with 4'-aminobenzo-15-crown-5-ether packed into a micro-column and then eluted with 2% thiourea + 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl solution prior to the determination by GFAAS. The properties of the magnetic adsorbents were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Various experimental parameters affecting the preconcentration of Au, Pd, and Pt were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the detection limits of the developed technique were 0.16 ng mL(-1) for Au, 0.28 ng mL(-1) for Pd, and 1.01 ng mL(-1) for Pt, with enrichment factors of 24.3, 13.9, and 17.8, respectively. Precisions, evaluated as repeatability of results, were 1.1%, 3.9%, and 4.4% respectively for Au, Pd, and Pt. The developed method was validated by the analysis of Au, Pd, and Pt in certified reference materials and mine samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of new 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole derivatives bearing different heterocyclic rings. (United States)

    Yurttaş, Leyla; Tay, Funda; Demirayak, Şeref


    Twenty-five new N-[4-(benzothiazole-2-yl)phenyl]acetamide derivatives bearing different heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized using 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole structure as a pharmacophoric group. Final compounds were screened for their potential antitumor activity in vitro against approximately 60 human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic diseases at National Cancer Institute, USA. 2-(4-Aminophenyl)benzothiazole structure was prepared by the reaction of 4-aminobenzoic acid and 2-aminothiophenol in polyphosphoric acid using microwave irradiation. After acetylation reaction, amide compounds 2a and 2b were obtained, which were then reacted with 2-mercapto(benz)imidazole/benzothiazole/benzoxazole derivatives in acetone with the presence of potassium carbonate to gain final compounds (3-27). Among all tested compounds, compound 10, namely N-[4-(benzothiazole-2-yl)-3-chlorophenyl]-2-[(benzimidazole-2-yl)thio]acetamide, and compound 16, namely N-[4-(benzothiazole-2-yl)phenyl]-2-[(1,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)thio]acetamide, were found to be of considerable anticancer activity against some cancer cell lines.

  12. Profiling and characterization of sialylated N-glycans by 2D-HPLC (HIAX/PGC) with online orbitrap MS/MS and offline MSn. (United States)

    Hanneman, Andrew J S; Strand, James; Huang, Chi-Ting


    Glycosylation is a critical parameter used to evaluate protein quality and consistency. N-linked glycan profiling is fundamental to the support of biotherapeutic protein manufacturing from early stage process development through drug product commercialization. Sialylated glycans impact the serum half-life of receptor-Fc fusion proteins (RFPs), making their quality and consistency a concern during the production of fusion proteins. Here, we describe an analytical approach providing both quantitative profiling and in-depth mass spectrometry (MS)-based structural characterization of sialylated RFP N-glycans. Aiming to efficiently link routine comparability studies with detailed structural characterization, an integrated workflow was implemented employing fluorescence detection, online positive and negative ion tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and offline static nanospray ionization-sequential mass spectrometry (NSI-MS(n)). For routine use, high-performance liquid chromatography profiling employs established fluorescence detection of 2-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (2AA) and hydrophilic interaction anion-exchange chromatography (HIAX) charge class separation. Further characterization of HIAX peak fractions is achieved by online (-) ion orbitrap MS/MS, offering the advantages of high mass accuracy and data-dependent MS/MS. As required, additional characterization uses porous graphitized carbon in the second chromatographic dimension to provide orthogonal (+) ion MS/MS spectra and buffer-free liquid chromatography peak eluants that are optimum for offline (+)/(-) NSI-MS(n) investigations to characterize low-abundance species and specific moieties including O-acetylation and sulfation.

  13. Aerobic biodegradation pathway for Remazol Orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S


    Removal of azo dyes from effluent generated by textile industries is rather difficult. Azo dyes represent a major class of synthetic colorants that are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa grew well in the presence of Remazol Orange (RO) and was able to decolorize and degrade it. In the present study, the decolorization and degradation efficiency using single culture P. aeruginosa with RO and textile wastewaters is studied. The elucidation of decolorization pathway for P. aeruginosa is of special interest. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed during the degradation were also predicted with the help of high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. The data show the cleavage of the azo dye RO to form both methyl metanilic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid after decolorization and finally to oxidation forms benzoic acid, alkenes, aldehydes, and alkynes. The organism was able to decolorize the dye RO and wastewater effectively to the maximum of 82.4% and 62%, respectively.

  14. Electrospun functionalized polyaniline copolymer-based nanofibers with potential application in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija; Ray, Sudip; Bennett, Jared R; Easteal, Allan J; Cooney, Ralph P


    Nanofibrous blends of HCl-doped poly(aniline-co-3-aminobenzoic acid) (3ABAPANI) copolymer and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were fabricated by electrospinning solutions of the polymers, in varying relative proportions, in dimethyl sulfoxide/tetrahydrofuran mixture. The morphology, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanofibers were characterized and an assessment of their bioactivity performed. To assess cell morphology and biocompatibility, pure PLA and 3ABAPANI-PLA nanofibrous mats were deposited in the form of three-dimensional networks with a high degree of connectivity, on glass substrates, and their ability to promote proliferation of COS-1 fibroblast cells was determined. The nanofibrous electrospun 3ABAPANI-PLA blends gave enhanced cell growth, potent antimicrobial capability against Staphylococcus aureus and electrical conductivity. This new class of nanofibrous blends can potentially be employed as tissue engineering scaffolds, and in particular have showed promise as the basis of a new generation of functional wound dressings that may eliminate deficiencies of currently available antimicrobial dressings.

  15. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone. (United States)

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J


    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  16. Pathways and substrate-specific regulation of amino acid degradation in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 (archetype of the marine Roseobacter clade). (United States)

    Drüppel, Katharina; Hensler, Michael; Trautwein, Kathleen; Koßmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Ulbrich, Marcus; Bergen, Nils; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schomburg, Dietmar; Rabus, Ralf


    Combining omics and enzymatic approaches, catabolic routes of nine selected amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, lysine and threonine) were elucidated in substrate-adapted cells of Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 (displaying conspicuous morphotypes). The catabolic network [excluding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle] was reconstructed from 71 genes (scattered across the chromosome; one-third newly assigned), with 69 encoded proteins and 20 specific metabolites identified, and activities of 10 different enzymes determined. For example, Ph. inhibens DSM 17395 does not degrade lysine via the widespread saccharopine pathway but might rather employ two parallel pathways via 5-aminopentanoate or 2-aminoadipate. Tryptophan degradation proceeds via kynurenine and 2-aminobenzoate; the latter is metabolized as known from Azoarcus evansii. Histidine degradation is analogous to the Pseudomonas-type Hut pathway via N-formyl-l-glutamate. For threonine, only one of the three genome-predicted degradation pathways (employing threonine 3-dehydrogenase) is used. Proteins of the individual peripheral degradation sequences in Ph. inhibens DSM 17395 were apparently substrate-specifically formed contrasting the non-modulated TCA cycle enzymes. Comparison of genes for the reconstructed amino acid degradation network in Ph. inhibens DSM 17395 across 27 other complete genomes of Roseobacter clade members revealed most of them to be widespread among roseobacters.

  17. Dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless dihydrogen/air-breathing biofuel cell operating at room temperature (United States)

    Xia, Hong-qi; So, Keisei; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Kano, Kenji


    A membraneless direct electron transfer (DET)-type dihydrogen (H2)/air-breathing biofuel cell without any mediator was constructed wherein bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria (BOD) and membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (MBH) were used as biocatalysts for the cathode and the anode, respectively, and Ketjen black-modified water proof carbon paper (KB/WPCC) was used as an electrode material. The KB/WPCC surface was modified with 2-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, to face the positively charged electron-accepting site of BOD and the negatively charged electron-donating site of MBH to the electrode surface. A gas-diffusion system was employed for the electrodes to realize high-speed substrate supply. As result, great improvement in the current density of O2 reduction with BOD and H2 reduction with MBH were realized at negatively and postively charged surfaces, respectively. Gas diffusion system also suppressed the oxidative inactivation of MBH at high electrode potentials. Finally, based on the improved bioanode and biocathode, a dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless H2/air-breathing biofuel cell was constructed. The maximum power density reached 6.1 mW cm-2 (at 0.72 V), and the open circuit voltage was 1.12 V using 1 atm of H2 gas as a fuel at room temperature and under passive and quiescent conditions.

  18. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  19. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila (United States)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  20. Excessive folate synthesis limits lifespan in the C. elegans: E. coli aging model

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    Virk Bhupinder


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbes influence animal health and thus, are potential targets for interventions that slow aging. Live E. coli provides the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans with vital micronutrients, such as folates that cannot be synthesized by animals. However, the microbe also limits C. elegans lifespan. Understanding these interactions may shed light on how intestinal microbes influence mammalian aging. Results Serendipitously, we isolated an E. coli mutant that slows C. elegans aging. We identified the disrupted gene to be aroD, which is required to synthesize aromatic compounds in the microbe. Adding back aromatic compounds to the media revealed that the increased C. elegans lifespan was caused by decreased availability of para-aminobenzoic acid, a precursor to folate. Consistent with this result, inhibition of folate synthesis by sulfamethoxazole, a sulfonamide, led to a dose-dependent increase in C. elegans lifespan. As expected, these treatments caused a decrease in bacterial and worm folate levels, as measured by mass spectrometry of intact folates. The folate cycle is essential for cellular biosynthesis. However, bacterial proliferation and C. elegans growth and reproduction were unaffected under the conditions that increased lifespan. Conclusions In this animal:microbe system, folates are in excess of that required for biosynthesis. This study suggests that microbial folate synthesis is a pharmacologically accessible target to slow animal aging without detrimental effects.

  1. Oxidative and conjugative metabolism of xenobiotics by livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats. (United States)

    Smith, G S; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D


    Homogenate preparations from fresh livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats were assayed for microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, for mixed-function oxidase activities and for a wide array of conjugative activities using numerous xenobiotic substrates. Results show that hepatic enzymatic capabilities toward xenobiotics do not parallel phylogenetic classifications, thus strengthening the view that most of the comparative data available at present is more descriptive than predictive of relationships among species. Livestock species differed widely from rats in having lower activities of benzo(alpha)pyrene hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase and acetyltransferase toward isoniazid and sulfamethazine and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase toward bilirubin. Acetyltransferase activities toward beta-naphthylamine and 2-aminofluorene were not detected in livers of livestock species studied. Cattle livers were remarkably high in activities of styrene oxide hydrolase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, 2-naphthol sulfotransferase and p-aminobenzoic acid acetyltransferase; but notably low in activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward sulfobromophthalein and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. Swine livers had low activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward four of six substrates and low acetyltransferase activity toward four of five substrates. Sheep livers generally were higher than cattle livers in sulfo- and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase activities and lower in acetyl- and glutathionyl-S-transferase. Findings emphasize the risk of error in extra-polations among species and in extrapolations among substrates.

  2. Mediatorless solar energy conversion by covalently bonded thylakoid monolayer on the glassy carbon electrode. (United States)

    Lee, Jinhwan; Im, Jaekyun; Kim, Sunghyun


    Light reactions of photosynthesis that take place in thylakoid membranes found in plants or cyanobacteria are among the most effective ways of utilizing light. Unlike most researches that use photosystem I or photosystem II as conversion units for converting light to electricity, we have developed a simple method in which the thylakoid monolayer was covalently immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface. The activity of isolated thylakoid membrane was confirmed by measuring evolving oxygen under illumination. Glassy carbon surfaces were first modified with partial or full monolayers of carboxyphenyl groups by reductive C-C coupling using 4-aminobenzoic acid and aniline and then thylakoid membrane was bioconjugated through the peptide bond between amine residues of thylakoid and carboxyl groups on the surface. Surface properties of modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, contact angle measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photocurrent of 230 nA cm(-2) was observed when the thylakoid monolayer was formed on the mixed monolayer of 4-carboxylpheny and benzene at applied potential of 0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl. A small photocurrent resulted when the 4-carboxyphenyl full monolayer was used. This work shows the possibility of solar energy conversion by directly employing the whole thylakoid membrane through simple surface modification.

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of metal complexes of novel Schiff base. Synthesis, thermal and biological activity studies. (United States)

    Omar, M M; Mohamed, Gehad G; Ibrahim, Amr A


    Novel Schiff base (HL) ligand is prepared via condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. The ligand is characterized based on elemental analysis, mass, IR and (1)H NMR spectra. Metal complexes are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA, DrTGA and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that HL is coordinated to the metal ions in a uninegatively tridentate manner with NNO donor sites of the azomethine N, amino N and deprotonated caroxylic-O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated complexes losses water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, E*, DeltaH*, DeltaS* and DeltaG* are calculated from the DrTG curves using Coats-Redfern method. The synthesized ligands, in comparison to their metal complexes also were screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Pyogones and Fungi (Candida). The activity data show that the metal complexes to be more potent/antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand against one or more bacterial species.

  4. Mono and binuclear Ag(I), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes of a new azo-azomethine as ligand: synthesis, potentiometric, spectral and thermal studies. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim S; Moustafa, Moustafa M; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed M


    New azo-azomethine dyes were prepared by reaction of p-aminobenzoic acid, o-anisidine, o-nitroaniline, and p-bromoaniline with salicylaldehyde respectively to form azo compounds and then condensation by urea to form 4-(R-arylazo 2-salicylaldene)-urea azo-azomethine derivatives (I(a-d)). The complexes of these ligands with Ag(I), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) metal ions were prepared. The structure of the free ligands and their complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis (C, H, N), (1)H NMR, IR and UV-Vis-spectra. The proton dissociation constants of the ligands and the stability constant of their complexes have been determined potentiometrically in 40% (v/v) alcohol-water medium as well as the stoichiometry of complexes were determined conductometrically. The data reveal that the stoichiometries for all complexes were prepared in molar ratios (1:1) and (1:2) (M:L). The electrolytic and nonelectrolytic natures of the complexes were assigned based on molar conductance measurements. The thermogravimetric (TG), and differential thermal analyses (DTA) were studied in nitrogen atmosphere with heating rate 10°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for thermal decomposition of complexes have been calculated by graphical method using Coats-Redfern (CR) method.

  5. Functional Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Heavy Metal Ions and Size-Selective Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qian-Rong; Yuan, Daqiang; Sculley, Julian; Li, Jian-Rong; Han, Zheng-Bo; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    By using Zn₄O(CO₂)₆ as secondary building units (SBUs) and two extended ligands containing amino functional groups, TATAB and BTATB (TATAB = 4,4',4''-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate and BTATB = 4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(azanediyl))tribenzoate), two isostructural mesoporous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with cavities up to 2.73 nm, designated as PCN-100 and PCN-101 (PCN represents porous coordination network), have been synthesized. N₂ sorption isotherms of both PCN-100 and -101 showed typical type IV behavior, indicating their mesoporous nature. The TATAB ligand that comprises PCN-100 was employed to capture heavy metal ions (Cd(II) and Hg(II)) by constructing complexes within the pores with a possible coordination mode similar to that found in aminopyridinato complexes. This reveals that mesoporous materials such as PCN-100 can be applied in the elimination of heavy metal ions from waste liquid. In addition, both PCNs-100 and -101 exhibit size-selective catalytic activity toward the Knoevenagel condensation reaction.

  6. A review on cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Anand, Preet; Singh, Baldev


    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the deficits in the cholinergic system and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ) in the form of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Since the cholinergic system plays an important role in the regulation of learning and memory processes, it has been targetted for the design of anti-Alzheimer's drugs. Cholinesterase inhibitors enhance cholinergic transmission directly by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which hydrolyses acetylcholine. Furthermore, it has been also demonstrated that both acetylcholinesterase and butrylcholinesterase (BuChE) play an important role in Aβ-aggregation during the early stages of senile plaque formation. Therefore, AChE and BuChE inhibition have been documented as critical targets for the effective management of AD by an increase in the availability of acetylcholine in the brain regions and decrease in the Aβ deposition. This review discusses the different classes of cholinesterase inhibitors including tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, xanthostigmine, para-aminobenzoic acid, coumarin, flavonoid, and pyrrolo-isoxazole analogues developed for the treatment of AD.

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Dinuclear Copper Complex [Cu(CH2O(C6H4)N=C(C6H4)O)(Py)]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛德仲; 沐来龙; 路再生; 王玉成; 陈久桐


    The complex [Cu2L2(Py)2] (H2L=2-aminobenzoic alcohol condensation salicylaldehyde) was obtained. A single-crystal X-ray study shows that the complex is a binuclear compound (Cu2C38H32N4O4). The coordination geometry about each copper atom is best described as a distorted square pyramid. The compound [Cu2L2(Py)2] belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21, lattice constants: a = 10.3881(1), b = 17.9724(1), c = 17.5800(2) A, β =90.4880(1)°, V= 3282.05(5) A3, Z= 4, Mr =735.75, Dc=1.489 g/cm3, μ= 1.344mm-1, F(000) = 1512, R=0.0519, wR=0.1092 for 6725 reflections with I >2σ(I). The distances between Cu(II) and O atoms are range from 1.898(6) to1.976(5)A, between Cu(II) and N atoms are range from 1.990(6) to 2.369(7)A. The Cu(1)-Cu(2) bond length is 3.024(4) A.

  8. Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer. (United States)

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Hegmann, Elda; Gaspar, Kim; Kumar, Praveen; Chao, Heman


    A novel immunoconjugate (L-DOS47) was developed and characterized as a therapeutic agent for tumors expressing CEACAM6. The single domain antibody AFAIKL2, which targets CEACAM6, was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pT7-7 system. High purity urease (HPU) was extracted and purified from Jack bean meal. AFAIKL2 was activated using N-succinimidyl [4-iodoacetyl] aminobenzoate (SIAB) as the cross-linker and then conjugated to urease. The activation and conjugation reactions were controlled by altering pH. Under these conditions, the material ratio achieved conjugation ratios of 8-11 antibodies per urease molecule, the residual free urease content was practically negligible (95%) L-DOS47 conjugate was produced using only ultradiafiltration to remove unreacted antibody and hydrolyzed cross-linker. L-DOS47 was characterized by a panel of analytical techniques including SEC, IEC, Western blot, ELISA, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping. As the antibody-urease conjugate ratio increased, a higher binding signal was observed. The specificity and cytotoxicity of L-DOS47 was confirmed by screening in four cell lines (BxPC-3, A549, MCF7, and CEACAM6-transfected H23). BxPC-3, a CEACAM6-expressing cell line was found to be most susceptible to L-DOS47. L-DOS47 is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in human phase I clinical studies for nonsmall cell lung cancer.

  9. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila. (United States)

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Lavanya, Madugula P; Das, Pragna P; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Leary, R; Bagchi, A; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Bhadra, Utpal


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  10. Application of CZE Method in Routine Analysis for Determination of B-Complex Vitamins in Pharmaceutical and Veterinary Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Franco


    Full Text Available A competitive CZE method for quality control analysis of multivitamin preparations and veterinary products containing B-group vitamins was developed. Vitamins of interest are thiamine hydrochloride (B1, thiamine monophosphate chloride (B1a, riboflavine (B2, riboflavine-5′monophosphate (B2a, nicotinamide (B3, d-pantothenic acid calcium salt (B5, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6, folic acid (B9, and 4-aminobenzoic acid (B10. These analytes were separated optimizing the experimental conditions in 20 mM tetraborate buffer pH=9.2 as a BGE (background electrolyte, on a Beckman P/ACE System MDQ instrument, using uncoated fused silica capillary. The effective capillary length was of 49.5 cm, I.D.=50 μm, the applied voltage 20 kV and the temperature 25∘C. Detection was performed by a diode array detector at 214 nm for all vitamins except B5 (190 nm and B2a (260 nm. Separation time was about 9 min. After experimental conditions optimization, the proposed method was validated. Precision of migration time and corrected peak area, linearity range, LOD and LOQ, accuracy (recovery, robustness, and ruggedness were evaluated for each analyte demonstrating the good reliability of the method. Analyses of the pharmaceutical real samples were performed and confirmed the versatility of this method.

  11. Double-blind comparison of two types of benzocaine lozenges for the treatment of acute pharyngitis. (United States)

    Busch, Regina; Graubaum, Hans-Joachim; Grünwald, Jörg; Schmidt, Mathias


    In a reference-controlled double-blind trial in patients with acute pharyngitis the effects of a newly developed lozenge containing 8 mg of benzocaine (p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, CAS 94-09-7) were compared with those of an identically dosed commercial pastille. 246 patients were randomized to receive either the lozenges (group A, n = 123) or the pastilles (group B, n = 123). Each patient took a total of six doses within 12 h according to the double-dummy principle, with each single dose spaced by 2 h. The primary parameter was the assessment of the responder rate with = 50 % pain relief within 15 min post application. Further parameters included the relative relief of pain in the course of the study and the tolerability of the formulation. After application of the first unit the comparison of groups yielded very similar and statistically not differing results for efficacy in both groups, with responder rates of 25.2 % and 22.0 % in groups A and B, respectively. One adverse drug reaction was observed in group B (burning and tingling feeling on the tongue), which, however, did not lead to discontinuation of study participation. In all other cases tolerability was stated to be "good to very good". The application of the benzocaine lozenges was statistically non-inferior to the use of the pastilles.

  12. Protomers of benzocaine: solvent and permittivity dependence. (United States)

    Warnke, Stephan; Seo, Jongcheol; Boschmans, Jasper; Sobott, Frank; Scrivens, James H; Bleiholder, Christian; Bowers, Michael T; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Pagel, Kevin; von Helden, Gert


    The immediate environment of a molecule can have a profound influence on its properties. Benzocaine, the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid that finds an application as a local anesthetic, is found to adopt in its protonated form at least two populations of distinct structures in the gas phase, and their relative intensities strongly depend on the properties of the solvent used in the electrospray ionization process. Here, we combine IR-vibrational spectroscopy with ion mobility-mass spectrometry to yield gas-phase IR spectra of simultaneously m/z and drift-time-resolved species of benzocaine. The results allow for an unambiguous identification of two protomeric species: the N- and O-protonated forms. Density functional theory calculations link these structures to the most stable solution and gas-phase structures, respectively, with the electric properties of the surrounding medium being the main determinant for the preferred protonation site. The fact that the N-protonated form of benzocaine can be found in the gas phase is owed to kinetic trapping of the solution-phase structure during transfer into the experimental setup. These observations confirm earlier studies on similar molecules where N- and O-protonation have been suggested.

  13. Application of Pd/C-HCOONH4 Reductive System in the Synthesis of Benzocaine and its Analogues%Pd/C-HCOONH4还原体系在苯佐卡因及类似物合成中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 金小平; 高浩其; 房江华; 李瑞丰; 方烨汶


    The catalytic transfer hydrogenation of ethyl p-nitrobenzoate to ethyl 4-aminobenzoate is studied at room temperature with ammonium format as the hydrogen donor and ethanol as the solvent using Pd/C as catalyst. Under the same catalytic condition, the analogs of benzocaine is also synthesized in high yields. The present catalytic transfer hydrogenation reaction can be made under mild reactions conditions with high catalytic reactivity and also shows a great scale-up prospect.%以对硝基苯甲酸乙酯为原料, Pd/C为催化剂,甲酸铵为供氢体,乙醇为溶剂,对在室温下反应得到对氨基苯甲酸乙酯的催化转移氢化反应进行了研究。在相同的催化体系下,本佐卡因的类似物也得以高效合成。该催化转移氢化反应除温和的反应条件和高催化活性外,还兼具良好的放大前景。

  14. Synthesis and characterization of covalently bound benzocaine graphite oxide derivative (United States)

    Kabbani, Ahmad; Kabbani, Mohamad; Safadi, Khadija


    Graphite oxide (GO) derived materials include chemically functionalize or reduced graphene oxide (exfoliated from GO) sheets, assembled paper-like forms , and graphene-based composites GO consists of intact graphitic regions interspersed with sp3-hybridized carbons containing hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the top and bottom surfaces of each sheet and sp2-hybridized carbons containing carboxyl and carbonyl groups mostly at the sheet edges. Hence, GO is hydrophilic and readily disperses in water to form stable colloidal suspensions Due to the attached oxygen functional groups, GO was used to prepare different derivatives which result in some physical and chemical properties that are dramatically different from their bulk counterparts .The present work discusses the covalent cross linking of graphite oxide to benzocaine or ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid,structure I,used in many over-the-counter ointment drug.Synthesis is done via diazotization of the amino group.The product is characterized via IR,Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as electron microscopy.

  15. Effects of local anesthetics and hemicholinium-3 on 45-Ca efflux in barnacle muscle fibers. (United States)

    Chen, S S


    Benzocaine, which occurs in the uncharged form in the physiological range of pH, caused inhibition of 45-Ca efflux in branacle muscle fibers. By contrast, in the presence of a low external Ca-2+ concentration it produced stimulation of the efflux. Both the inhibitory and stimulatory actions of benzocaine appeared to be less potent than those of procaine. Hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), on the other hand, which exists only in the charged form, caused a large stimulation of the 45-Ca efflux following microinjection, and the potency of this action was found to be at least 10 times greater than that of procaine. External application of HC-3 produced inhibition occasionally. Effects of tetracaine were similar to those produced by procaine; however, its inhibitory action was greater in more alkaline solution, which is the opposite of that observed with procaine. Lidocaine produced a less consistent effect than procaine; the inhibitory action of the former was less potent but the stimulatory action of the two anesthetics were comparable, p-Aminobenzoic acid was without effect on 45-Ca efflux. These results indicate that both the charged and uncharged forms of local anesthetics are capable of causing stimulatory and inhibitory effects on 45-Ca efflux in barnacle muscle fibers, and that the inhibition produced is the result of action on the CA-Ca exchange system whereas the stimulation is the result of release of Ca from internal storage sites.

  16. Myeloperoxidase deletion prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. (United States)

    Wang, Qilong; Xie, Zhonglin; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Huaiping; Zou, Ming-Hui


    Activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein primarily expressed in granules of neutrophils, is associated with the development of obesity. However, whether MPO mediates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance remains to be determined. Here, we found that consumption of an HFD resulted in neutrophil infiltration and enhanced MPO expression and activity in epididymal white adipose tissue, with an increase in body weight gain and impaired insulin signaling. MPO knockout (MPO(-/-)) mice were protected from HFD-enhanced body weight gain and insulin resistance. The MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced peroxidase activity of neutrophils and prevented HFD-enhanced insulin resistance. MPO deficiency caused high body temperature via upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue. Lack of MPO also attenuated HFD-induced macrophage infiltration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We conclude that activation of MPO in adipose tissue contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Inhibition of MPO may be a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  17. Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noiriel Alexandre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone.

  18. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Das, Pragna P; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Bhadra, Manika Pal [Division of Organic Chemistry-I, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Lavanya, Madugula P; Bhadra, Utpal [Functional Genomics and Gene Silencing Group, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007 (India)


    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  20. Internally quenched fluorescent peptide libraries with randomized sequences designed to detect endopeptidases. (United States)

    Oliveira, Lilian C G; Silva, Vinícius O; Okamoto, Debora N; Kondo, Marcia Y; Santos, Saara M B; Hirata, Isaura Y; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C; Gouvea, Iuri E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz


    Identification of synthetic peptide substrates for novel peptidases is an essential step for their study. With this purpose we synthesized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide libraries Abz (or MCA)-GXXXXXQ-EDDnp and Abz (or MCA)-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp, where X consists of an equimolar mixture of all amino acids, the Z position is fixed with one of the proteinogenic amino acids (cysteine was excluded), Abz (ortho-aminobenzoic acid) or MCA ([7-amino-4-methyl]coumarin) is the fluorescence donor and Q-EDDnp (glutamine-[N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ethylenediamine]) is the fluorescence acceptor. The peptide libraries MCA-GXXX↓XXQ-EDDnp and MCA-GXXZ↓XXQ-EDDnp were cleaved as indicated (↓) by trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin L, pepsin A, and Eqolisin as confirmed by Edman degradation of the products derived from the digestion of these libraries. The best hydrolyzed Abz-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp sublibraries by these proteases, including Dengue 2 virus NS2B-NS3 protease, contained amino acids at the Z position that are reported to be well accepted by their S(1) subsite. The pH profiles of the hydrolytic activities of these canonical proteases on the libraries were similar to those reported for typical substrates. The FRET peptide libraries provide an efficient and simple approach for detecting nanomolar concentrations of endopeptidases and are useful for initial specificity characterization as performed for two proteases secreted by a Bacillus subtilis.

  1. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase Activity in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum by Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) (United States)

    Hair, Pamela S.; Sass, Laura A.; Krishna, Neel K.


    Myeloperoxidase is the major peroxidase enzyme in neutrophil granules and implicated in contributing to inflammatory lung damage in cystic fibrosis. Free myeloperoxidase is present in cystic fibrosis lung fluid and generates hypochlorous acid. Here we report a new inhibitor of myeloperoxidase activity, Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). Using TMB as the oxidizing substrate, PIC1 inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in cystic fibrosis sputum soluble fractions by an average of a 3.4-fold decrease (P = 0.02). PIC1 also dose-dependently inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in a neutrophil lysate or purified myeloperoxidase by up to 28-fold (P < 0.001). PIC1 inhibited myeloperoxidase activity similarly, on a molar basis, as the specific myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) for various oxidizing substrates. PIC1 was able to protect the heme ring of myeloperoxidase from destruction by NaOCl, assayed by spectral analysis. PIC1 incubated with oxidized TMB reversed the oxidation state of TMB, as measured by absorbance at 450 nm, with a 20-fold reduction in oxidized TMB (P = 0.02). This result was consistent with an antioxidant mechanism for PIC1. In summary, PIC1 inhibits the peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase in CF sputum likely via an antioxidant mechanism. PMID:28135312

  2. A Titanium-Organic Framework as an Exemplar of Combining the Chemistry of Metal- and Covalent-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha L; Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Doan, Tan L H; Cordova, Kyle E; Yaghi, Omar M


    A crystalline material with a two-dimensional structure, termed metal-organic framework-901 (MOF-901), was prepared using a strategy that combines the chemistry of MOFs and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs). This strategy involves in situ generation of an amine-functionalized titanium oxo cluster, Ti6O6(OCH3)6(AB)6 (AB = 4-aminobenzoate), which was linked with benzene-1,4-dialdehyde using imine condensation reactions, typical of COFs. The crystal structure of MOF-901 is composed of hexagonal porous layers that are likely stacked in staggered conformation (hxl topology). This MOF represents the first example of combining metal cluster chemistry with dynamic organic covalent bond formation to give a new crystalline, extended framework of titanium metal, which is rarely used in MOFs. The incorporation of Ti(IV) units made MOF-901 useful in the photocatalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The resulting polyMMA product was obtained with a high-number-average molar mass (26 850 g mol(-1)) and low polydispersity index (1.6), which in many respects are better than those achieved by the commercially available photocatalyst (P-25 TiO2). Additionally, the catalyst can be isolated, reused, and recycled with no loss in performance.

  3. Nutritional optimization for anaerobic growth of Bacillus steaothermophilus LLD-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed


    Full Text Available In this study, a range of nutritional supplements including twenty amino acids, major vitamins and four nucleic acid bases were exploited as added-value supplements for the growth of a lactate-minus (ldh mutant Bacillus stearothermophilus LLD-16 under anaerobic environment. The chemostat studies revealed that five amino acids that includes aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, methionine, and serine were essential for persuaded growth of B. stearothermophilus LLD-16. The anaerobic batch studies showed that a number of nutritional supplements, such as, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, folic acid, pantothenic acid, adenine, glycine, leucine, tryptophan, proline, alanine and α-ketoglutarate, when added individually, improved the biomass levels. In contrast, the higher concentrations of cyanocobalamine or biotin, guanine, uracil and isoleucine were found inhibitory. Furthermore, the study explains why the highest biomass formation cannot necessarily be achieved on the richest mixture of amino acids, and the inadequacy of the biosynthetic machinery is very much dependent on the growth conditions of the microorganism.

  4. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of mesalamine in real samples. (United States)

    Torkashvand, M; Gholivand, M B; Taherkhani, F


    A novel electrochemical sensor based on mesalamine molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on a glassy carbon electrode was fabricated. Density functional theory (DFT) in gas and solution phases was developed to study the intermolecular interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture and to find the suitable functional monomers in MIP preparation. On the basis of computational results, o-phenylenediamine (OP), gallic acid (GA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) were selected as functional monomers. The MIP film was cast on glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization of solution containing ternary monomers and then followed by Ag dendrites (AgDs) with nanobranch deposition. The surface feature of the modified electrode (AgDs/MIP/GCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of mesalamine ranging from 0.05 to 100 μM, with the detection limit of 0.015 μM. The proposed sensor was applied successfully for mesalamine determination in real samples.

  5. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation (United States)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara


    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  6. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian, E-mail:


    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL{sup −1}, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  7. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens. (United States)

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend


    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔG binding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

  8. Antibacterial Activities of Newly Synthesized Azo Anils And its Oxalato-Bridged Binuclear {Cu(II and Zn(II} Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ameen


    Full Text Available Novel oxalato-bridged binuclear metal {Cu(II and Zn(II} complexes; [{(L1M(II}2OX] (L1= 2-({2-hydroxy-5-[(4-nitrophenyldiazenyl]benzylidene}aminobenzoic acid, OX = oxalate and [{(L2M(II}2OX], (L2 = 2-{[(2-hydroxyphenylimino]methyl}-4-[(4-nitrophenyldiazenyl] phenol, OX = oxalate were synthesized. Azo anils and corresponding Metal {Cu((II and Zn(II} complexes were characterised by Elemental Combustion System, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Visible, Spectroscopy and 13C-1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Elemental Analyses, FTIR and UV-Vis were used for structural characterization of metal complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for M(II complexes came into being. The antibacterial activities of azo anils ligands, oxalate ion, CuCl2.2H2O, Zn(CH3COO2.2H2O and metal {Cu(II and Zn(II} complexes against gram-positive (Bacillis subtilis and gram-negative (Escherichia coli were evaluated. The antibacterial activities were performed to asses inhibition potential of ligand and their metal {Cu(II and Zn(II} complexes. The results revealed that antibacterial activities of azo anils become more pronounced when free ligands were coordinated to central metal atom.

  9. Dynamic Heterogeneity in Highly Cross-linked Epoxy in the Vicinity of Glass Transition (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Khare, Rajesh


    Cross-linked epoxy has been widely used in aerospace and electronics industries. The highly cross-linked nature of these systems leads to different chain dynamics as compared to the linear polymeric systems. In this work, we have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the dynamic heterogeneity in cross-linked epoxy near the glass transition temperature. Well-relaxed atomistic models of cross-linked epoxy were first created by employing the simulated annealing polymerization approach. The specific epoxy system studied consisted of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) as the epoxy monomer and trimethylene glycol di-p-aminobenzoate (TMAB) as the cross-linker. The glass transition temperature of these model structures was determined from MD simulation by monitoring their volume-temperature behaviour in a stepwise cooling run. The chain dynamics of these systems were characterized by their local translational and orientational mobility. Furthermore, dynamic heterogeneity was studied by analyzing the spatial distribution of the mobile and immobile atoms in the system near the glass transition temperature.

  10. A Titanium–Organic Framework as an Exemplar of Combining the Chemistry of Metal– and Covalent–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ha L.; Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Doan, Tan L. H.; Cordova, Kyle E.; Yaghi, Omar M.


    A crystalline material with a two-dimensional structure, termed metal–organic framework-901 (MOF-901), was prepared using a strategy that combines the chemistry of MOFs and covalent–organic frameworks (COFs). This strategy involves in situ generation of an amine-functionalized titanium oxo cluster, Ti6O6(OCH3)6(AB)6 (AB = 4-aminobenzoate), which was linked with benzene-1,4-dialdehyde using imine condensation reactions, typical of COFs. The crystal structure of MOF-901 is composed of hexagonal porous layers that are likely stacked in staggered conformation (hxl topology). This MOF represents the first example of combining metal cluster chemistry with dynamic organic covalent bond formation to give a new crystalline, extended framework of titanium metal, which is rarely used in MOFs. The incorporation of Ti(IV) units made MOF-901 useful in the photocatalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The resulting polyMMA product was obtained with a high-number-average molar mass (26 850 g mol–1) and low polydispersity index (1.6), which in many respects are better than those achieved by the commercially available photocatalyst (P-25 TiO2). Additionally, the catalyst can be isolated, reused, and recycled with no loss in performance.

  11. Electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted film at polypyrrole-sulfonated graphene/hyaluronic acid-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for determination of tryptamine. (United States)

    Xing, Xianrong; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Lian, Wenjing; Huang, Jiadong


    An imprinted electrochemical sensor based on polypyrrole-sulfonated graphene (PPy-SG)/hyaluronic acid-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) for sensitive detection of tryptamine was presented. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by electropolymerization using tryptamine as the template, and para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) as the monomer. The surface feature of the modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The proposed sensor was tested by chronoamperometry. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the molecularly imprinted sensor were investigated and optimized. The results showed that the PPy-SG composites films showed improved conductivity and electrochemical performances. HA-MWCNTs bionanocomposites could enhance the current response evidently. The good selectivity of the sensor allowed three discriminations of tryptamine from interferents, which include tyramine, dopamine and tryptophan. Under the optimal conditions, a linear ranging from 9.0×10(-8) mol L(-1) to 7.0×10(-5) mol L(-1) for the detection of tryptamine was observed with the detection limit of 7.4×10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). This imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect tryptamine in real samples.

  12. Degradation of acid red 97 dye in aqueous medium using wet oxidation and electro-Fenton techniques. (United States)

    Kayan, Berkant; Gözmen, Belgin; Demirel, Muhammet; Gizir, A Murat


    Degradation of the acid red 97 dye using wet oxidation, by different oxidants, and electro-Fenton systems was investigated in this study. The oxidation effect of different oxidants such as molecular oxygen, periodate, persulfate, bromate, and hydrogen peroxide in wet oxidation system was compared. Mineralization of AR97 with periodate appeared more effective when compared with that of the other oxidants at equal initial concentration. When 5 mM of periodate was used, at the first minute of the oxidative treatment, the decolorization percentage of AR97 solution at 150 and 200 degrees C reached 88 and 98%, respectively. The total organic carbon removal efficiency at these temperatures also reached 60 and 80%. The degradation of AR97 was also studied by electro-Fenton process. The optimal current value and Fe(2+) concentration were found to be 300 mA and 0.2 mM, respectively. The results showed that electro-Fenton process can lead to 70 and 95% mineralization of the dye solution after 3 and 5h giving carboxylic acids and inorganic ions as final end-products before mineralization. The products obtained from degradation were identified by GC/MS as 1,2-naphthalenediol, 1,1'-biphenyl-4-amino-4-ol, 2-naphthalenol diazonium, 2-naphthalenol, 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedion, phthalic anhydride, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phthaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4-amino-benzoic acid, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid.

  13. 用于HPLC法测定多胺类化合物的4种荧光衍生试剂的合成及其性质%Synthesis and Properties of Four Fluorescent Reagents for HPLC Determination of Polyamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许泳吉; 王永智


    设计并合成了4种相对分子质量较小、疏水性较低的荧光衍生试剂:邻氨基苯甲酸酐、N-甲基邻氨基苯甲酸酐、2-氨基烟酸活性酯和水杨酸活性酯.系统研究了这些衍生试剂与己胺的反应性能,并合成了相应的衍生物标准品,测定了衍生物的荧光性质.结果表明:4种衍生试剂中邻氨基苯甲酸酐适合用作高效液相色谱荧光检测多胺的衍生试剂.%Four fluorescent reagents, anthranilic acid anhydride, N-methyl-σ-aminobenzoic acid anhydride, 2-aminonicotinic acid active ester and salicylic acid active ester, were designed and synthesized. The reaction properties between these reagents and hexylamine were studied. The corresponding standard derivatives were synthesized and the fluorescent properties of these derivatives were also measured. The results showed that anthranilic acid anhydride was a suitable fluorescent reagent for detection of polyamine by HPLC.

  14. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as a potential in vitro model for predictive identification of chemical sensitizers. (United States)

    Pépin, Elsa; Goutet, Michèle; Ban, Masarin


    The identification of potential sensitizing chemicals is a key step in the safety assessment process. To this end, predictive tests that require no or few animals and that are reliable, inexpensive and easy to perform are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in an in vitro skin sensitization model. BMDCs were exposed to six well-known allergens (dinitrochlorobenzene, DNCB; dinitrofluorobenzene, DNFB; Bandrowski's base, BB; paraphenylenediamine, PPD; nickel sulfate, NiSO(4); cinnamaldehyde, Cinn). Surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD54, and CD86 was measured by flow cytometry after 48h exposure to these chemicals. All the allergens tested induced a significant increase in marker expression, with an augmentation in the percentage of mature cells ranging from 2.3- to 10.5-fold change over control. The level of up-regulation was dependent on the concentration and the strength of the allergens. In contrast, the irritants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS and 4-aminobenzoic acid, pABA) and the negative control (zinc sulfate, ZnSO(4)) tested induced either no modification or a down-regulation of membrane marker expression. Taken together, our data suggest that murine BMDCs may represent a new and valuable in vitro model to predict the sensitizing properties of chemicals.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel bioactive 1,2,4-oxadiazole natural product analogs bearing the N-phenylmaleimide and N-phenylsuccinimide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V. Maftei


    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the biological activity of the only natural products containing a 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring in their structure (quisqualic acid and phidianidines A and B, the natural product analogs 1-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-ylphenylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (4 and 1-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-ylphenyl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (7 were synthesized starting from 4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-ylaniline (1 in two steps by isolating the intermediates 4-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-ylphenylamino-4-oxobutanoic acid (3 and (Z-4-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-ylphenylamino-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (6. The two natural product analogs 4 and 7 were then tested for antitumor activity toward a panel of 11 cell lines in vitro by using a monolayer cell-survival and proliferation assay. Compound 7 was the most potent and exhibited a mean IC50 value of approximately 9.4 µM. Aniline 1 was synthesized by two routes in one-pot reactions starting from tert-butylamidoxime and 4-aminobenzoic acid or 4-nitrobenzonitrile. The structures of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of novel bioactive 1,2,4-oxadiazole natural product analogs bearing the N-phenylmaleimide and N-phenylsuccinimide moieties (United States)

    Maftei, Catalin V; Fodor, Elena; Jones, Peter G; Franz, M Heiko; Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heiner


    Summary Taking into consideration the biological activity of the only natural products containing a 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring in their structure (quisqualic acid and phidianidines A and B), the natural product analogs 1-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (4) and 1-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (7) were synthesized starting from 4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)aniline (1) in two steps by isolating the intermediates 4-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid (3) and (Z)-4-(4-(3-tert-butyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)phenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (6). The two natural product analogs 4 and 7 were then tested for antitumor activity toward a panel of 11 cell lines in vitro by using a monolayer cell-survival and proliferation assay. Compound 7 was the most potent and exhibited a mean IC50 value of approximately 9.4 µM. Aniline 1 was synthesized by two routes in one-pot reactions starting from tert-butylamidoxime and 4-aminobenzoic acid or 4-nitrobenzonitrile. The structures of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:24222789

  17. Selective UV-filter detection with sensors based on stainless steel electrodes modified with polyaniline doped with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine films. (United States)

    Moreira, Luiz Fernando; Lanza, Marcos Roberto de Vasconcelos; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada


    This work describes the construction and application of two amperometric sensors for sensitive UV-filter determination. The sensors were prepared using stainless steel electrodes in which polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically polymerized in the presence of nickel (NiPcTS) or iron (FePcTS) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines. The sensor surface characterizations were carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PANI/NiPcTS sensor was selective for the chemical UV-filter p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the PANI/FePcTS sensor was selective for octyldimethyl-PABA (ODP), both in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at a volume ratio of 30 : 70, and with an applied potential of 0.0 mV vs. Ag|AgCl. A detailed investigation of the selectivity was carried out for both sensors, in order to determine their responses for ten different UV filters. Finally, each sensor was successfully applied to PABA or ODP quantification in sunscreen formulations and water from swimming pools.

  18. Do fish perceive anaesthetics as aversive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Readman

    Full Text Available This study addresses a fundamental question in fish welfare: are the anaesthetics used for fish aversive? Despite years of routine general use of many agents, within both scientific research and aquaculture, there is a paucity of information regarding their tolerance and associated behavioural responses by fish. This study examined nine of the most commonly used fish anaesthetic agents, and performed preference tests using adult mixed sex zebrafish (Danio rerio, the most commonly held laboratory fish. Video tracking software quantified swimming behaviour related to aversion for each anaesthetic at 50% of its standard recommended dose compared with clean water in a flow-through chemotaxic choice chamber. Results suggest that several commonly used anaesthetics were aversive, including two of the most commonly recommended and used: MS222 (ethyl 3-aminobenzoate methanesulphate and benzocaine. For ethical best practice, it is recommended that compounds that are aversive, even at low concentration, should no longer be used routinely for anaesthesia or indeed the first step of humane euthanasia of adult zebrafish. Two agents were found not to induce aversive behavioural responses: etomidate and 2,2,2 tribromoethanol. For the millions of adult zebrafish used in laboratories and breeding worldwide, etomidate appears best suited for future routine humane use.

  19. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101 Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hung Lin


    Full Text Available The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((−-epicatechin or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of IκB kinase (IKK and IκBα. In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  20. Methyl Anthranilate as a Repellent for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Norton, A P; Bjostad, L B


    Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of roots from germinating maize seeds. Separation of the extract on a Florisil column yielded an active fraction of 90:10 hexane:diethyl ether. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified two compounds in the active fraction: indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) and methyl anthranilate (methyl 2-aminobenzoate). When tested in behavioral bioassays, methyl anthranilate elicited a significant (P repellent response at doses of 1, 10, and 100 µg. In subsequent single-choice bioassays, 1, 10, and 100 µg of methyl anthranilate prevented larvae from approaching 10 mmol/mol concentrations of carbon dioxide, which is normally highly attractive to the larvae. Indole, the other compound identified from the active fraction, did not elicit a behavioral response by the larvae. Methyl anthranilate has potential for development as a management tool for western corn rootworm larvae and may be best suited for use in a push-pull control strategy.

  1. PLGA nanoparticle encapsulation reduces toxicity while retaining the therapeutic efficacy of EtNBS-PDT in vitro (United States)

    Hung, Hsin-I; Klein, Oliver J.; Peterson, Sam W.; Rokosh, Sarah R.; Osseiran, Sam; Nowell, Nicholas H.; Evans, Conor L.


    Photodynamic therapy regimens, which use light-activated molecules known as photosensitizers, are highly selective against many malignancies and can bypass certain challenging therapeutic resistance mechanisms. Photosensitizers such as the small cationic molecule EtNBS (5-ethylamino-9-diethyl-aminobenzo[a]phenothiazinium chloride) have proven potent against cancer cells that reside within acidic and hypoxic tumour microenvironments. At higher doses, however, these photosensitizers induce “dark toxicity” through light-independent mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the use of nanoparticle encapsulation to overcome this limitation. Interestingly, encapsulation of the compound within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-EtNBS) was found to significantly reduce EtNBS dark toxicity while completely retaining the molecule’s cytotoxicity in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This dual effect can be attributed to the mechanism of release: EtNBS remains encapsulated until external light irradiation, which stimulates an oxygen-independent, radical-mediated process that degrades the PLGA nanoparticles and releases the molecule. As these PLGA-encapsulated EtNBS nanoparticles are capable of penetrating deeply into the hypoxic and acidic cores of 3D spheroid cultures, they may enable the safe and efficacious treatment of otherwise unresponsive tumour regions. PMID:27686626

  2. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova


    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  3. Syntheses,characteristics and fluorescence properties of complexes of terbium with benzoic acid and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-cheng; SHU Wan-gen; RUAN Jian-ming; HUANG Bai-yun; LIU You-nian


    The binary complexes of terbium with benzoic acid and its derivatives (phthalic acid,iso-phthalic acid,oaminobenzoic acid,salicylic acid,sulfosalicylic acid) were synthesized and their compositions were identified by elemental analyses.UV,IR of the complexes were investigated.The UV spectra indicate that the complexes'ultraviolet absorption is mainly the ligands' absorption,but the location of peak drifts.The IR spectra show that the IR spectra of complexes are different from those of free ligands,and the band at 400-500 cm-1,due to the stretching vibration of Tb-O,is absent for free ligands.The fluorescence properties were investigated by using luminescence spectroscope,the results show that all the six complexes of terbium exhibit excellent luminescence,due to the transition from the lowest excited state 5D4 to 7F ground state manifold,the complexes of terbium with sulfosalicylic acid have the strongest fluorescence intensity,and is stronger than o-aminobenzoic acid-terbium,whose fluorescence intensity is regarded as the strongest one in the literature,and even stronger than some phosphor of terbium.

  4. Vibratory Reaction Unit for the Rapid Analysis of Proteins and Glycochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Sasakura


    Full Text Available A protein digestion system using immobilized enzymes for protein identification and glycochain analyses has been developed, and a vibration reaction unit for micro-scale sample convection on an enzyme-immobilized solid surface was constructed. BSA as a model substrate was digested by this unit, and was successfully identified by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Compared to the conventional liquid-phase digestion, the reaction unit increased the number of matched peptides from 9 to 26, protein score from 455 to 1247, and sequence coverage from 21% to 48%. Glycopeptidase F (NGF, an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, was also immobilized and used to remove the glycochains from human immunoglobulin G (IgG. Trypsin and NGF were immobilized on the same solid surface and used to remove glycochains from IgG in single-step. Glycochains were labeled with fluorescent reagent and analyzed by HPLC. Several peaks corresponding to the glycochains of IgG were detected. These results suggested that the single-step digestion system, by immobilized multiple enzymes (trypsin and NGF would be effective for the rapid structural analysis of glycoproteins.Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: glycopeptidase F; IgG: immunoglobulin G; PTM: post-translational modification; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; DTT: dithiothreitol; RT: retention time; ABOE: p-aminobenzoic acid octyl ester; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; ArgC: endoprotease Arginine C.

  5. Spectrofluorometric determination and chemical speciation of trace concentrations of tungsten species in water using the ion pairing reagent procaine hydrochloride. (United States)

    El-Shahawi, M S; Al Khateeb, L A


    A highly selective and low cost extractive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of trace concentrations of tungsten (VI) in water. The method was based upon solvent extraction of the developed ion associate [(PQH(+))(2)·WO(4)(2-)] of the fluorescent ion-pairing reagent [2-(diethylamino)ethyl 4 aminobenzoate] hydrochloride namely procaine hydrochloride, PQH(+)·Cl(-) and tungstate (WO(4)(2-)) in aqueous solution of pH 6-7 followed by measuring the resulting fluorescence enhancement in n-hexane at λ(ex/em)=270/320nm. The fluorescence intensity of PQH(+)·Cl(-) increased linearly on increasing tungstate concentration in the range 25-250μgL(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of tungsten (VI) were found 7.51 and 24.75μgL(-1), respectively. Chemical composition of the developed ion associate and the molar absorptivity at 270nm were found to be [(PQH(+))(2)·WO(4)(2-)] and 2.7×10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), respectively. Other oxidation states (III, IV, V) of tungsten species could also be determined after oxidation with H(2)O(2) in aqueous solution to tungsten (VI). The method was applied for analysis of tungsten in certified reference material (IAEA Soil-7) and wastewater samples. The results were compared successfully (>95%) with the data of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  6. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of mesalamine in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkashvand, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, M.B., E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taherkhani, F. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A novel electrochemical sensor based on mesalamine molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on a glassy carbon electrode was fabricated. Density functional theory (DFT) in gas and solution phases was developed to study the intermolecular interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture and to find the suitable functional monomers in MIP preparation. On the basis of computational results, o-phenylenediamine (OP), gallic acid (GA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) were selected as functional monomers. The MIP film was cast on glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization of solution containing ternary monomers and then followed by Ag dendrites (AgDs) with nanobranch deposition. The surface feature of the modified electrode (AgDs/MIP/GCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of mesalamine ranging from 0.05 to 100 μM, with the detection limit of 0.015 μM. The proposed sensor was applied successfully for mesalamine determination in real samples. - Highlights: • The determination of MES using AgDs/MIP/GCE is reported for the first time. • The computer assisted design of terpolymer MIPs was used to screen monomers. • Theoretical results of DFT approach were in agreement with experimental results. • The sensor displayed a high selectivity for template in the presence of interferes. • The developed sensor has been applied to determine mesalamine in real samples.

  7. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates in human monocytes by tumour cells and their role in spontaneous monocyte cytotoxicity (United States)

    Mytar, B; Siedlar, M; Woloszyn, M; Ruggiero, I; Pryjma, J; Zembala, M


    The present study examined the ability of human monocytes to produce reactive oxygen intermediates after a contact with tumour cells. Monocytes generated oxygen radicals, as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production, after stimulation with the tumour, but not with untransformed, cells. The use of specific oxygen radical scavengers and inhibitors, superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl sulphoxide and deferoxamine as well as the myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, indicated that chemiluminescence was dependent on the production of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and the presence of myeloperoxidase. The tumour cell-induced chemiluminescent response of monocytes showed different kinetics from that seen after activation of monocytes with phorbol ester. These results indicate that human monocytes can be directly stimulated by tumour cells for reactive oxygen intermediate production. Spontaneous monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity towards cancer cells was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, catalase, deferoxamine and hydrazide, implicating the role of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and hypohalite. We wish to suggest that so-called ‘spontaneous’ tumoricidal capacity of freshly isolated human monocytes may in fact be an inducible event associated with generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and perhaps other toxic mediators, resulting from a contact of monocytes with tumour cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070862

  8. Analysis of O-glycans as 9-fluorenylmethyl derivatives and its application to the studies on glycan array. (United States)

    Yamada, Keita; Hirabayashi, Jun; Kakehi, Kazuaki


    A method is proposed for the analysis of O-glycans as 9-fluorenylmethyl (Fmoc) derivatives. After releasing the O-glycans from the protein backbone in the presence of ammonia-based media, the glycosylamines thus formed are conveniently labeled with Fmoc-Cl and analyzed by HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS after easy purification. Fmoc labeled O-glycans showed 3.5 times higher sensitivities than those labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid in fluorescent detection. Various types of O-glycans having sialic acids, fucose, and/or sulfate residues were successfully labeled with Fmoc and analyzed by HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS. The method was applied to the comprehensive analysis of O-glycans expressed on MKN45 cells (human gastric adenocarcinoma). In addition, Fmoc-derivatized O-glycans were easily converted to free hemiacetal or glycosylamine-form glycans that are available for fabrication of glycan array and neoglycoproteins. To demonstrate the availability of our methods, we fabricate the glycan array with Fmoc labeled glycans derived from mucin samples and cancer cells. The model studies using the glycan array showed clear interactions between immobilized glycans and some lectins.

  9. Anthranilate degradation by a cold-adapted Pseudomonas sp. (United States)

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Kim, Eungbin; Hong, Soon Gyu


    An alpine soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25931 was characterized as eurypsychrophilic (both psychrophilic and mesotolerant) with a broad temperature range of 5-30 °C both for anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) degradation and concomitant cell growth. Two degradative gene clusters (antABC and catBCA) were detected from a fosmid clone in the PAMC 25931 genomic library; each cluster was confirmed to be specifically induced by anthranilate. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant AntABC (anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, AntDO) converted anthranilate into catechol, exhibiting strict specificity toward anthranilate. Recombinant CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, C12O) from the organism was active over a broad temperature range (5-37 °C). However, CatA rapidly lost the enzyme activity when incubated at above 25 °C. For example, 1 h-preincubation at 37 °C resulted in 100% loss of enzyme activity, while a counterpart from mesophilic Pseudomonas putida mt-2 did not show any negative effect on the initial enzyme activity. These results suggest that CatA is a new cold-adapted thermolabile enzyme, which might be a product through the adaptation process of PAMC 25931 to naturally cold environments and contribute to its ability to grow on anthranilate there.

  10. Electrochemical immunosensor for ethinylestradiol using diazonium salt grafting onto silver nanoparticles-silica-graphene oxide hybrids. (United States)

    Cincotto, Fernando H; Martínez-García, Gonzalo; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Canevari, Thiago C; Machado, S A S; Pingarrón, José M


    This work describes the preparation of an electrochemical immunosensor for ethinylestradiol (EE2) based on grafting of diazonium salt of 4-aminobenzoic acid onto a glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles/SiO2/graphene oxide hybrid followed by covalent binding of anti-ethinylestradiol (anti-EE2) to activated carboxyl groups. A competitive immunoassay was developed for the determination of the hormone using peroxidase-labeled ethinylestradiol (HRP-EE2) and measurement of the amperometric response at -200mV in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as redox mediator. The calibration curve for EE2 exhibited a linear range between 0.1 and 50ng/mL (r(2)=0.996), with a detection limit of 65pg/mL. Interference studies with other hormones related with EE2 revealed the practical specificity of the developed method for the analyte. A good reproducibility, with RSD=4.5% (n=10) was also observed. The operating stability of a single bioelectrode modified with anti-EE2 was maintained at least for 15 days when it was stored at 4°C under humid conditions between measurements. The developed immunosensor was applied to the analysis of spiked urine with good results.

  11. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal-organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde (United States)

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof


    A new 3D nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), [[Zn4O(C24H15N6O6)2(H2O)2]·6H2O·DMF]n (1) based on 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  12. Real-Time Detection of Traces of Benzaldehyde in Benzyl Alcohol as a Solvent by a Flexible Lanthanide Microporous Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Chen, Diming; Ma, Huili; Cheng, Peng


    Luminescent 3D lanthanide metal-organic framework (Ln-MOF) {[Tb2 (TATAB)2 ]⋅4 H2 O⋅6 DMF}n (1) was synthesized under solvothermal conditions by using flexible ligand 4,4',4''-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB). A phase transition was observed between low temperature and room temperature. The luminescence of 1 could be enhanced by formaldehyde and quenched efficiently by trace amounts of benzaldehyde in solvents such as benzyl alcohol (0.01-2.0 vol %) and ethanol (0.01-2.5 vol %). This is the first use of a Ln-MOF as chemical sensor for both formaldehyde and benzaldehyde. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the luminescence response of 1 to benzaldehyde allows it to be used as an excellent sensor for identifying benzaldehyde and provides a simple and convenient method for detecting traces of benzaldehyde in benzyl alcohol based injections. This work establishes a new strategy for detection of benzaldehyde in benzyl alcohol by luminescent MOFs.

  13. Drug elimination function of rat small intestine: metabolism and intraluminal excretion. (United States)

    Yasuhara, M; Kurosaki, Y; Kimura, T; Sezaki, H


    The metabolic and excretory function of the small intestine was investigated after oral and intravenous administration of drugs having an aromatic amino group to rats. After administration of drugs into the intestinal loop at the initial concentration of 0.1 mM, significant excretion of their N-acetylated forms into the lumen was observed. The amount of N-acetyl forms excreted in the lumen were 39.3 +/- 3.5, 63.5 +/- 20.9 and 18.0 +/- 13.8% of disappeared drugs from the lumen for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), p-aminosalicylic acid and sulfanilic acid, respectively. The excretion of p-acetamidobenzoic acid (Ac-PABA) after the absorption of PABA was reduced by the coadministration with salicylic acid, benzoic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Salicylic acid noncompetitively inhibited the acetylation of PABA by the intestinal N-acetyltransferase. A good correlation was found between the intestinal N-acetyltransferase activities for drugs and the intraluminal excretion of N-acetyl derivatives after intestinal absorption of drugs. These results indicate that a drug having a higher susceptibility to intestinal N-acetyltransferase would undergo a greater excretion into the lumen in its N-acetyl form after intestinal absorption. After intravenous administration of PABA at a dose of 100 mumole/kg, 4.02 +/- 0.51% of dose was excreted in the lumen as Ac-PABA in 30 min. On the other hand, a significantly smaller fraction (2.72 +/- 0.68% of dose) was excreted in the lumen after intravenous injection of 100 mumole/kg of Ac-PABA. The larger excretion of Ac-PABA after administration of PABA indicates the contribution of intestinal metabolism on the transfer of PABA not only after oral, but also after intravenous administration.

  14. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi


    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  15. Synthesis and optical properties studies

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    N.A. El-Ghamaz


    Full Text Available 4-(4-Amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-phenol (L1 and 4-(4-Amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-benzoic acid (L2 have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP and 4-aminophenol or 4-aminobenzoic acid in ethanolic solution and are characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. Thin films of L1 and L2 have been prepared by the conventional spin coating technique. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD show an amorphous nature for both powder and thin films for L1 and L2 ligands. The optical absorption and refraction properties of L1 and L2 are investigated by spectrophotometric techniques at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200–2500 nm. The absorption spectra show two peaks in the UV region which correspond to π → π∗ transition and a peak in UV–Vis region which may correspond to n → π∗ transition. The values of dispersion parameters Eo, Ed, εL, ε∞ and N/m* are calculated according to the single oscillator model. The presence of the OH group increases the value of ε∞ from 3.21 to 3.32 and the value of N/m* from 7.38 × 1053 to 2.08 × 1054 m−3Kg−1. The optical band transition is found to be indirect allowing fundamental energy gap values of 3.4 and 3.9 eV and onset energy gap values of 2.1 and 2.6 eV for L1 and L2, respectively.

  16. 一种新型Hsp90抑制剂的合成及其抑制活性%Synthesis of Novel Hsp90 Inhibotor and Its Inhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 张杰; 李伟; 王小龙


    对氨基苯甲酸经重氮化后再与2-氯乙酰乙酸乙醅反应制得(Z)4-[2-(1-氯-2-乙氧基-2-羰亚甲基)肼基]苯甲酸(1);1与二甲基环己二酮成环后再与对羟基环己胺完成酰胺化反应合成了一种新型Hs90抑制剂——N-(4-羟基环己基)-4-[1-(6,6-二甲基-4-氧-3-乙酰氧基-4,5,6,7-四氢吲唑)]苯甲酰胺(3),其结构经1 H NMR表征.荧光偏振法研究结果表明3对Hsp90α具有明显的抑制活性.%(Z)-4-[2-(l-chloro-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylidene)hydrazinyl]benzoic acid(l) was prepared from p-aminobenzoic acid by diazotization, then reacted with ethyl 2-chloro-acetoacetate. A novel Hsp90 inhibotor, ethyl l-{4-[ (4-hydroxycyclohexyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} -6,6-dimethyl-4-oxo-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro-lH-indazole-3-carboxylate(3), was synthesized by cyclization between 1 and 5,5-dime-thyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione, then amidation with p-hydroxyl-cyclohexylamine. The structure was characterized by ' H NMR. The result from fluorescence polarization showed that 3 exhibited good inhibition against Hsp90a.

  17. The Outcome of a Long-Term Follow-up of Pancreatic Function after Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

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    Tomas Symersky


    Full Text Available Context: It is generally assumed that pancreatic function recovers completely after mild but not after severe acute pancreatitis. Objective :To evaluate both pancreatic function and quality of life in patients who had recovered from acute pancreatitis in a long-term follow-up study. Participants :Thirty-four patients (mean age: 56 years who had recovered from biliary (n=26 or post ERCP (n=8 acute pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 4.6 years. Main outcome measures :Pancreatic function was evaluated by fecal fat excretion, urinary 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA recovery, oral glucose tolerance test and pancreatic polypeptide (PP secretion. In addition, the quality of life was measured by the gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI. Results :Of the 34 patients, 22 (65% had mild and 12 (35% had severe acute pancreatitis. Exocrine insufficiency (fecal fat greater than 7 g/24h and/or urinary PABA recovery less than 50% was present in 22 (65% patients: in 10 (83% after severe and in 12 (55% after mild acute pancreatitis, respectively (P=0.140. Endocrine insufficiency was present in 12 patients (35%: 7 (32% mild versus 5 (42% severe acute pancreatitis; P=0.711. the quality of life was significantly impaired after acute pancreatitis, (P=0.024. No significant relationship was found between the severity of the pancreatitis and impairment of the quality of life (P=0.604. Conclusion :In a significant proportion of patients who had recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairment was found. This finding is not confined only to patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered.

  18. Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants induce blood-brain barrier dysfunction in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Üllen

    Full Text Available Peripheral leukocytes can exacerbate brain damage by release of cytotoxic mediators that disrupt blood-brain barrier (BBB function. One of the oxidants released by activated leukocytes is hypochlorous acid (HOCl formed via the myeloperoxidase (MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system. In the present study we examined the role of leukocyte activation, leukocyte-derived MPO and MPO-generated oxidants on BBB function in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced systemic inflammation, neutrophils that had become adherent released MPO into the cerebrovasculature. In vivo, LPS-induced BBB dysfunction was significantly lower in MPO-deficient mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Both, fMLP-activated leukocytes and the MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system inflicted barrier dysfunction of primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC that was partially rescued with the MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. BMVEC treatment with the MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system or activated neutrophils resulted in the formation of plasmalogen-derived chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA severely compromised BMVEC barrier function and induced morphological alterations in tight and adherens junctions. In situ perfusion of rat brain with 2-ClHDA increased BBB permeability in vivo. 2-ClHDA potently activated the MAPK cascade at physiological concentrations. An ERK1/2 and JNK antagonist (PD098059 and SP600125, respectively protected against 2-ClHDA-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro. The current data provide evidence that interference with the MPO pathway could protect against BBB dysfunction under (neuroinflammatory conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Serkan Keskin


    Full Text Available Kristal koloitler son zamanlarda optik sensör yapım1nda kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Sahip oldukları kristal örgü yapısısayesinde görünür bölge ışığını kırmaları sensör yapunında kullanılmalannın önünü açmıştır. Bu kristal yapılıkoloitlerin polimer ağ içerisine hapsedilmesiyle, serbest gruplara sahip hidrojeller oluşturulmaktadır. Böylece görünürbölge ışığını kırabilen, sahip olduğu serbest gruplar sayesinde modifiye edilebilen polimer yapılar elde edilmiş olur. Buyapılara hedef analite göre tanıyıcı moleküllerin tutturulması ile de anorganik ve organik madde sensörlerioluşturulmaktadır. Görünür bölge ışığını kınnalanyla ile de optik sensör özelliği kazanırlar. Bu çalışmada alkalimetallerle kompleks yapma yeteneğine sahip 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 ( 4AB 1 5C5 taç eteri hidrojel yapıyabağlanarak, yapının metal iyonu optik sensör özelliği araştırılmıştır.

  20. Local Anesthetics in the Gas-Phase the Rotational Spectrum of Butamben and Isobutamben (United States)

    Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Ecija, Patricia; Caminati, Walther; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.


    Benzocaine (BZ), butamben (BTN) and isobutamben (BTI) are local anesthetics characterized by a hydrophilic head and a lipophilic aliphatic tail linked by an aminobenzoate group. Previous rotational work on BZ (H2N-C6H4-COO-Et) showed that its ethyl aliphatic tail may adopt either in-plane (trans) or out of plane (gauche) conformations, with a low interconversion barrier below 50 cm-1. Here we extend the rotational study to BTN and BTI, isolated in a supersonic jet expansion and vaporized either by heating or UV ps-laser ablation methods. Both molecules share a 14 heavy-atoms skeleton, differing in their butyl (-(CH2)3-CH3) or isobutyl (-CH2-CH(CH3)2) four-carbon tail. We detected a single conformer for BTN and two conformers for BTI. The two molecules do not adopt an all-trans carbon skeleton. Conversely, the β-ethyl carbon in BTN is gauche. For BTI the β-carbon may be either trans or gauche. The microwave spectrum covered the cm- (BTN, BTI, 6-18 GHz) and mm-wave (BTW, 50-75 GHz) frequency ranges.In all the cases, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants as well as the diagonal elements of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor were accurate determined and compared to the theoretical results (ab initio and DFT). No transitions belonging to configurations predicted as higher minima of the PES were found, pointing out that conformational interconversions may take place in the jet. A. Lesarri, S. T. Shipman, G. G. Brown, L. Alvarez-Valtierra, R. D. Suenram, B. H. Pate, Int. Symp. Mol. Spectrosc., 2008, Comm. RH07. E. Aguado, A. Longarte, E. Alejandro, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2006, 110, 6010.

  1. Sorption and degradation of selected organic UV filters (BM-DBM, 4-MBC, and OD-PABA) in laboratory water-sediment systems. (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Guanghua; Xie, Zhengxin; Ding, Jiannan; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi


    Organic UV filters that have been widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products have drawn much public concern because of their widespread contamination in the environment and their potential ecological risks to ecosystems. We selected three UV filters with high frequency of detection in the environment, namely butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to investigate the sorption and degradation behaviors of these compounds in lab-scale water-sediment systems set up with natural water and sediment samples collected from different rivers and lakes (i.e., Yangtze River, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Mochou Lake) in Nanjing, East China. The sorption isotherms of these UV filters were well described by the Freundlich equation (C s   = K f  × C w (n) ). The sorption of three UV filters in four sediments was all linear or close to it, with n values between 0.92 and 1.13. A moderate to strong sorption affinity was observed for these compounds, and the sorption appears to be irreversible. For the combined sorption and degradation studies, sorption was found to be a primary mechanism for the disappearance of these UV filters from the water phase, and biotransformation appears to be the predominant factor for the degradation of the target compounds in the water-sediment systems. All three UV filters were found to be slightly resistant to the microbes in these systems, with DT50total and DT90total values-the disappearance time (DT) describes the time in which the initial total mass of the UV filters in the whole system is reduced by 50 and 90 %-ranging between 18 and 31 days and 68 and 101 days, respectively.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle-based Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Fe(III) Ion Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ly, Nguyen Hoang; Joo, Sang-Woo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang Hwi [School of Systems Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 (4AB15C5) in conjugation with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MCB) with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) while considering the aqueous media. After specific binding of the ferric ion onto the 4MCB.4AB15C5 compound, the Raman frequencies and intensities were estimated by DFT calculations with the PCM. It was predicted that the Raman intensities became significantly increased upon binding of the ferric ion. 4MCB.4AB15C5 could be assembled on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via the cleavage of the thiol bond. Colorimetric and UV.Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that AuNPs became significantly aggregated in the presence of 1.10 mM of the ferric ion. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4MCB.4AB15C5 was used to identify the dissimilar spectral behaviors that yield a difference in intensity in the presence of the ferric ion. These changes were not observed in the other biological ions Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sup 4+}, and Co{sup 2+}. This study indicated that 4AB15C5 could be used to detect ferric ions in aqueous AuNP solutions by a combined method of colorimetric, UV.Vis absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. AuNPs.[4MCB. 4AB15C5] can thus be utilized as a selective turn-on sensor to Fe3{sup +} in aqueous solutions above 1 mM.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase: spatial conservation of an active site tyrosine and classification of two types of enzyme.

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    Patrick E F O'Rourke

    Full Text Available 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (PabC catalyzes the formation of 4-aminobenzoate, and release of pyruvate, during folate biosynthesis. This is an essential activity for the growth of gram-negative bacteria, including important pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A high-resolution (1.75 Å crystal structure of PabC from P. aeruginosa has been determined, and sequence-structure comparisons with orthologous structures are reported. Residues around the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor are highly conserved adding support to aspects of a mechanism generic for enzymes carrying that cofactor. However, we suggest that PabC can be classified into two groups depending upon whether an active site and structurally conserved tyrosine is provided from the polypeptide that mainly forms an active site or from the partner subunit in the dimeric assembly. We considered that the conserved tyrosine might indicate a direct role in catalysis: that of providing a proton to reduce the olefin moiety of substrate as pyruvate is released. A threonine had previously been suggested to fulfill such a role prior to our observation of the structurally conserved tyrosine. We have been unable to elucidate an experimentally determined structure of PabC in complex with ligands to inform on mechanism and substrate specificity. Therefore we constructed a computational model of the catalytic intermediate docked into the enzyme active site. The model suggests that the conserved tyrosine helps to create a hydrophobic wall on one side of the active site that provides important interactions to bind the catalytic intermediate. However, this residue does not appear to participate in interactions with the C atom that undergoes an sp(2 to sp(3 conversion as pyruvate is produced. The model and our comparisons rather support the hypothesis that an active site threonine hydroxyl contributes a proton used in the reduction of the substrate methylene to pyruvate methyl in the final stage of

  4. Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Peng-Fei; Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Guan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua


    Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR.

  5. Single-crystal diffuse scattering studies on polymorphs of molecular crystals. I. The room-temperature polymorphs of the drug benzocaine. (United States)

    Chan, E J; Welberry, T R; Goossens, D J; Heerdegen, A P; Beasley, A G; Chupas, P J


    The drug benzocaine (ethyl 4-aminobenzoate), commonly used as a local anaesthetic, is a bimorphic solid at room temperature. Form (I) is monoclinic P2(1)/c, while the metastable form (II) is orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1). Three-dimensional diffuse X-ray scattering data have been collected for the two forms on the 11-ID-B beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both forms show strong and highly structured diffuse scattering. The data have been interpreted and analysed using Monte Carlo (MC) modelling on the basis that the scattering is purely thermal in origin and indicates the presence of highly correlated molecular motions. In both forms (I) and (II) broad diffuse streaks are observed in the 0kl section which indicate strong longitudinal displacement correlations between molecules in the 031 directions, extending over distances of up to 50 A. Streaks extending between Bragg peaks in the hk0 section normal to [100] correspond to correlated motions of chains of molecules extending along a that are linked by N-H...O=C hydrogen bonds and which occur together as coplanar ribbon pairs. The main difference between the two forms is in the dynamical behaviour of the ribbon pairs and in particular how they are able to slide relative to each other. While for form (I) a model involving harmonic springs is able to describe the motion satisfactorily, as simple excursions away from the average structure, there is evidence in form (II) of anharmonic effects that are precursors of a phase transition to a new low-temperature phase, form (III), that was subsequently found.

  6. Rationalization of reduced penetration of drugs through ceramide gel phase membrane. (United States)

    Paloncýová, Markéta; DeVane, Russell H; Murch, Bruce P; Berka, Karel; Otyepka, Michal


    Since computing resources have advanced enough to allow routine molecular simulation studies of drug molecules interacting with biologically relevant membranes, a considerable amount of work has been carried out with fluid phospholipid systems. However, there is very little work in the literature on drug interactions with gel phase lipids. This poses a significant limitation for understanding permeation through the stratum corneum where the primary pathway is expected to be through a highly ordered lipid matrix. To address this point, we analyzed the interactions of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its ethyl (benzocaine) and butyl (butamben) esters with two membrane bilayers, which differ in their fluidity at ambient conditions. We considered a dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer in a fluid state and a ceramide 2 (CER2, ceramide NS) bilayer in a gel phase. We carried out unbiased (100 ns long) and biased z-constraint molecular dynamics simulations and calculated the free energy profiles of all molecules along the bilayer normal. The free energy profiles converged significantly slower for the gel phase. While the compounds have comparable affinities for both membranes, they exhibit penetration barriers almost 3 times higher in the gel phase CER2 bilayer. This elevated barrier and slower diffusion in the CER2 bilayer, which are caused by the high ordering of CER2 lipid chains, explain the low permeability of the gel phase membranes. We also compared the free energy profiles from MD simulations with those obtained from COSMOmic. This method provided the same trends in behavior for the guest molecules in both bilayers; however, the penetration barriers calculated by COSMOmic did not differ between membranes. In conclusion, we show how membrane fluid properties affect the interaction of drug-like molecules with membranes.

  7. Is benzoquinone the prohapten in cross-sensitivity among aminobenzene compounds? (United States)

    Lisi, P; Hansel, K


    Cross-sensitivity in allergic contact dermatitis is a simultaneous allergy to 2 or more contact substances which have in common an antigenic determinant or a metabolic derivative. One of the most notable examples is the cross-sensitivity among aromatic compounds which may be oxidized in vivo to benzoquinone (BQ). However, it has also been hypothesized that the allergenicity and cross-sensitization are modulated by the chemical reactivity of the substituents in the para position. A serial dilution of BQ (from 1% to 0.1% in pet.) and three 1,4-substituted benzene derivatives (p-aminophenol, hydroquinone, metol), theoretically capable of conversion to BQ by oxidation, were patch tested in 22 p-phenylenediamine (PPD) positive patients and in 20 controls. The patients and a further 116 subjects with a positive history of sensitivity to 1 or more aminoaromatic compounds were also tested with some haptens of the para group (PPD, p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminodiphenylamine, benzocaine, procaine chloride, p-toluenediamine sulfate). The results show that (i) the optimal patch test concentration for BQ was 0.2%, (ii) only 4 of the 22 patients allergic to PPD gave a clearly positive allergic reaction to BQ, and (iii) the number of positive reactions to the aromatic compounds was correlated with the presence of activating (-NH2, -OH, -CH3) and deactivating (-COOH) groups in the para position or, perhaps, with their effect on percutaneous penetration. The data suggest that BQ is not the only intermediate in the cross-sensitization of para group haptens. This is probably conditioned by other oxidation products and/or the chemical structure of the substituents in position 4 of the benzene ring.

  8. Simple Reversed-Phase HPLC Method with Spectrophotometric Detection for Measuring Acetaminophen-Protein Adducts in Rat Liver Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miteshkumar Acharya


    Full Text Available A simple reversed-phase HPLC method for measuring hepatic levels of acetaminophen- (APAP- protein adduct following an overdose of APAP was developed. An aliquot of liver homogenate in phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS was placed on a Nanosep centrifugal device, which was centrifuged to obtain a protein residue. This residue was incubated with a solution of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, the internal standard, and bacterial protease in PBS, transferred to a Nanosep centrifugal device, and centrifuged. A 100 μL portion of the filtrate was analyzed on a YMC-Pack ODS-AMQ C18 column, using 100 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate-methanol-acetic acid (100 : 0.6 : 0.1 as the mobile phase, a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and photometric detection at 254 nm. PABA and APAP-cystein-S-yl (APAP-Cys eluted at ~14.7 min and 22.7 min, respectively. Method linearity, based on on-column concentrations of APAP-Cys, was observed over the range 0.078–40 μg. Recoveries of APAP-Cys from spiked blank liver homogenates ranged from ~83% to 91%. Limits of detection and of quantification of APAP-Cys, based on column concentrations, were 0.06 μg and 0.14 μg, respectively. RSD values for interday and intraday analyses of a blank liver homogenate spiked with APAP-Cyst at three levels were, in all cases, ≤1.0% and <1.5%, respectively. The proposed method was found appropriate for comparing the antidotal properties of N-acetylcysteine and taurine in a rat model of APAP poisoning.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.


    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  10. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  11. Pterin and folate salvage. Plants and Escherichia coli lack capacity to reduce oxidized pterins. (United States)

    Noiriel, Alexandre; Naponelli, Valeria; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D


    Dihydropterins are intermediates of folate synthesis and products of folate breakdown that are readily oxidized to their aromatic forms. In trypanosomatid parasites, reduction of such oxidized pterins is crucial for pterin and folate salvage. We therefore sought evidence for this reaction in plants. Three lines of evidence indicated its absence. First, when pterin-6-aldehyde or 6-hydroxymethylpterin was supplied to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), pea (Pisum sativum), or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) tissues, no reduction of the pterin ring was seen after 15 h, although reduction and oxidation of the side chain of pterin-6-aldehyde were readily detected. Second, no label was incorporated into folates when 6-[(3)H]hydroxymethylpterin was fed to cultured Arabidopsis plantlets for 7 d, whereas [(3)H]folate synthesis from p-[(3)H]aminobenzoate was extensive. Third, no NAD(P)H-dependent pterin ring reduction was found in tissue extracts. Genetic evidence showed a similar situation in Escherichia coli: a GTP cyclohydrolase I (folE) mutant, deficient in pterin synthesis, was rescued by dihydropterins but not by the corresponding oxidized forms. Expression of a trypanosomatid pterin reductase (PTR1) enabled rescue of the mutant by oxidized pterins, establishing that E. coli can take up oxidized pterins but cannot reduce them. Similarly, a GTP cyclohydrolase I (fol2) mutant of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was rescued by dihydropterins but not by most oxidized pterins, 6-hydroxymethylpterin being an exception. These results show that the capacity to reduce oxidized pterins is not ubiquitous in folate-synthesizing organisms. If it is lacking, folate precursors or breakdown products that become oxidized will permanently exit the metabolically active pterin pool.

  12. 用正交实验法优化5-氨基-2-(对氨基苯)苯并(噁)唑的合成工艺%The optimized synthesis method of 5-amino-2-(P-aminophenyl) benzoxazole by orthodoxy design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥丽; 王鹏; 宋美霞


    5-amino-2-(P-aminophenyl) benzoxazole was synthesized by the reacting from 2,4-diaminophenol dihydrochloride and P-aminobenzoic acid in polyphosphoric acid. The synthesis method was investigated by orthodoxy experiment, and got the optimized conditions: the reacting temperature is 200 ℃, the reacting time is 5 h, and the content of P2O5 is 84%. The yield of the product is over 90%. The product was purified by methanol with the high purity over 98%, and the product can be used as a monomer in polymerization.%以2,4-二氨基苯酚盐酸盐和对氨基苯甲酸为原料在多聚磷酸中合成了高纯度的5-氨基-2-(对氨基苯)苯并恶唑.用正交实验设计对该合成方法进行了研究,得出了最优化的反应条件:反应温度为200 ℃,反应时间5 h,P2O5质量分数为84%.产品产率较高,可达90%以上.并对产品的纯化方法进行了改进,用甲醇作为重结晶溶剂,得到的产品纯度达98%以上.产物可作为聚合反应的单体原料.

  13. Purification and characterization of Ocimum basilicum L. polyphenol oxidase. (United States)

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Pinar; Dogan, Mehmet; Arslan, Oktay; Alkan, Mahir


    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in Ocimum basilicum L. is described. PPO in O. basilicum L. was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. The samples obtained from (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis were used for the characterization of PPO. At the end of purification by affinity chromatography, 11.5-fold purification was achived. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be approximately 54 kDa. The contents of total phenolic and protein of O. basilicum L. extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of O. basilicum L. was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 280 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. The protein content was determined according to the Bradford method. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates, but not to tyrosine. Therefore, of these three substrates, 4-methylcatecol was the best substrate due to the highest V(max)/K(m) value, followed by pyrogallol and catechol. The optimum pH was at 6, 8, and 9 for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 20, 40, and 50 degrees C for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. It was found that optimum temperature and pH were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme.

  14. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological risk of personal care products in urban river-groundwater interface (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Pau Serra, Maria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià


    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban groundwater and river samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of River Besòs that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results shown that most of compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 30 ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, named as benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000 ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the temporal variability of the River Besòs. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles MeBZT and BZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-Fs (e.g. benzophenone derivatives) in the river-groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for diferent aquatic species were calculated in order to characterise the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values will be presented and discussed in the presentation.

  15. Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Venisse, A; Berjeaud, J M; Chaurand, P; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G


    It was recently shown that mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) can be classified into two types (Chatterjee, D., Lowell, K., Rivoire B., McNeil M. R., and Brennan, P. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6234-6239) according to the presence or absence of mannosyl residues (Manp) located at the nonreducing end of the oligoarabinosyl side chains. These two types of LAM were found in a pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and in an avirulent M. tuberculosis strain, respectively, suggesting that LAM with Manp characterizes virulent and "disease-inducing strains." We now report the structure of the LAM from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain Pasteur, largely used throughout the world as vaccine against tuberculosis. Using an up-to-date analytical approach, we found that the LAM of M. bovis BCG belongs to the class of LAMs capped with Manp. By means of two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear scalar coupling NMR analysis and methylation data, the sugar spin system assignments were partially established, revealing that the LAM contained two types of terminal Manp and 2-O-linked Manp. From the following four-step process: (i) partial hydrolysis of deacylated LAM (dLAM), (ii) oligosaccharide derivatization with aminobenzoic ethyl ester, (iii) HPLC purification, (iv) FAB/MS-MS analysis; it was shown that the dimannosyl unit alpha-D-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp is the major residue capping the termini of the arabinan of the LAM. In this report, LAM molecular mass determination was established using matrix-assisted UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry which reveals that the LAM molecular mass is around 17.4 kDa. The similarity of the LAM structures between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv is discussed in regard to their function in the immunopathology of mycobacterial infection.

  16. Solid-matrix luminescence analysis. Progress report, 15 June 1992--31 October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtubise, R.J.


    Interaction models were developed for moisture effects on room-temperature fluorescence (RTF) and room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of compounds adsorbed on filter paper. The models described both dynamic and matrix quenching and also related the Young modulus of filter paper to quenching of phosphor on moist filter paper. Photophysical parameters for lumiphors in solution and on solid matrices were compared. Results showed that for some compounds, solid-matrix luminescence has greater analytical potential than solution luminescence. Also, the solid-matrix systems into one of two categories depending on how the intersystem crossing rate constants change with temperature. The first study was carried out on effects of heavy atom on solid-matrix luminescence. With some heavy atoms, maximum solid-matrix phosphorescence quantum yield was obtained at room temperature, and there was no need to use low temperature to obtain a strong phosphorescence signal. By studying solid-matrix luminescence properties of phosphors adsorbed on sodium acetate and deuterated sodium acetate, an interaction model was developed for p-aminobenzoic acid anion adsorbed on sodium acetate. It was shown that the energy-gap law was applicable to solid-matrix luminescence. Also, deuterated phenanthrene and undeuterated phenanthrene were used to study nonradiative transition of excited triplet state of adsorbed phosphors. Heat capacities of several solid matrices were obtained vs temperature and related to vibrational coupling of solid matrix with phosphor. Photophysical study was performed on the hydrolysis products of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts. Also, an analytical method was developed for tetrols in human lung fractions. Work was initiated on the formation of room temperature glasses with glucose and trehalose. Also, work has begun for the development of an oxygen sensor by measuring the RTP quenching of triphenylene on filter paper.

  17. Development of a Schistosoma mansoni shotgun O-glycan microarray and application to the discovery of new antigenic schistosome glycan motifs. (United States)

    van Diepen, Angela; van der Plas, Arend-Jan; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Royle, Louise; Dunne, David W; Hokke, Cornelis H


    Upon infection with Schistosoma, antibody responses are mounted that are largely directed against glycans. Over the last few years significant progress has been made in characterising the antigenic properties of N-glycans of Schistosoma mansoni. Despite also being abundantly expressed by schistosomes, much less is understood about O-glycans and antibody responses to these have not yet been systematically analysed. Antibody binding to schistosome glycans can be analysed efficiently and quantitatively using glycan microarrays, but O-glycan array construction and exploration is lagging behind because no universal O-glycanase is available, and release of O-glycans has been dependent on chemical methods. Recently, a modified hydrazinolysis method has been developed that allows the release of O-glycans with free reducing termini and limited degradation, and we applied this method to obtain O-glycans from different S. mansoni life stages. Two-dimensional HPLC separation of 2-aminobenzoic acid-labelled O-glycans generated 362 O-glycan-containing fractions that were printed on an epoxide-modified glass slide, thereby generating the first shotgun O-glycan microarray containing naturally occurring schistosome O-glycans. Monoclonal antibodies and mass spectrometry showed that the O-glycan microarray contains well-known antigenic glycan motifs as well as numerous other, potentially novel, antibody targets. Incubations of the microarrays with sera from Schistosoma-infected humans showed substantial antibody responses to O-glycans in addition to those observed to the previously investigated N- and glycosphingolipid glycans. This underlines the importance of the inclusion of these often schistosome-specific O-glycans in glycan antigen studies and indicates that O-glycans contain novel antigenic motifs that have potential for use in diagnostic methods and studies aiming at the discovery of vaccine targets.

  18. Presence of N-L-lactyl-D-perosamine residue in the sheath-forming polysaccharide of Thiothrix fructosivorans. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yuta; Kondo, Keiko; Narizuka, Rie; Endo, Tomoyuki; Katahira, Masato; Kawamura, Izuru; Sato, Michio; Takeda, Minoru


    Thiothrix fructosivorans forms a microtube (sheath) that encloses a line of cells. This sheath is an assemblage of [→4)-GlcN-(1→4)-Glc-(1→]n with side chains of Rha4N-(1→3)-Fuc(1→ at position 3 of Glc. The sheath-forming polysaccharide (SFP) may have some substitutions but this is not yet confirmed. To investigate the possible substitutions, the sheath was prepared by mild treatments. Solid-state NMR analysis suggested the presence of N-substitution. The sheath was hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl at 0°C, followed by derivatization with 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE). The presence of N-lactyl-Rha4N-Fuc-ABEE was suggested by NMR spectroscopy. Lactic acid was determined to be the l-isomer by chiral HPLC analysis. To estimate the N-lactylation degree, the sheath was N-acetylated. N-Acetyl-Rha4N-Fuc-ABEE and N-lactyl-Rha4N-Fuc-ABEE were then collectively recovered, and their abundance ratio was determined to be 1:4 by NMR analysis. When hydrolysis was performed at 40°C, GlcNAc-ABEE was obtained. For estimation of the N-acetylation degree, the sheath was N-acetylated with deuterated acetic anhydride and then N-acetyl-GlcN-ABEE was prepared. The content of deuterated N-acetyl-GlcN-ABEE was determined to be 50% based on the relative intensity of the acetyl proton signal in the 1D-(1)H NMR spectrum. It was concluded that Rha4N is mostly N-l-lactylated and GlcN is substoichiometrically N-acetylated.

  19. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Lee


    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  20. A shortcut to identifying small molecule signals that regulate behavior and development in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Pungaliya, Chirag; Srinivasan, Jagan; Fox, Bennett W; Malik, Rabia U; Ludewig, Andreas H; Sternberg, Paul W; Schroeder, Frank C


    Small molecule metabolites play important roles in Caenorhabditis elegans biology, but effective approaches for identifying their chemical structures are lacking. Recent studies revealed that a family of glycosides, the ascarosides, differentially regulate C. elegans development and behavior. Low concentrations of ascarosides attract males and thus appear to be part of the C. elegans sex pheromone, whereas higher concentrations induce developmental arrest at the dauer stage, an alternative, nonaging larval stage. The ascarosides act synergistically, which presented challenges for their identification via traditional activity-guided fractionation. As a result the chemical characterization of the dauer and male attracting pheromones remained incomplete. Here, we describe the identification of several additional pheromone components by using a recently developed NMR-spectroscopic approach, differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS), which simplifies linking small molecule metabolites with their biological function. DANS-based comparison of wild-type C. elegans and a signaling-deficient mutant, daf-22, enabled identification of 3 known and 4 previously undescribed ascarosides, including a compound that features a p-aminobenzoic acid subunit. Biological testing of synthetic samples of these compounds revealed additional evidence for synergy and provided insights into structure-activity relationships. Using a combination of the three most active ascarosides allowed full reconstitution of the male-attracting activity of wild-type pheromone extract. Our results highlight the efficacy of DANS as a method for identifying small-molecule metabolites and placing them within a specific genetic context. This study further supports the hypothesis that ascarosides represent a structurally diverse set of nematode signaling molecules regulating major life history traits.

  1. An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S.Y. Ting


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

  2. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius. (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria


    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  3. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal–organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradpour, Tahereh [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, Alireza, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Hecke, Kristof [XStruct, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krigslaan 281-S3, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)


    A new 3D nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF), [[Zn{sub 4}O(C{sub 24}H{sub 15}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·DMF]{sub n} (1) based on 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single–crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Absorption of two typical aldehydes (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) by solvothermally synthesized of a 3D nano-porous MOF based on TATAB tricarboxylate ligand and Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • We present a 3D Zn(II)-MOF with TATAB linker by solvothermal method. • The framework possesses a new kvh1 topology. • The framework displays formaldehyde and benzaldehyde absorption property. • Conformational analysis was performed to determine the stable linker geometry.

  4. Role of microbial adhesion in phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Hassan

    Biodegradation of poorly water soluble hydrocarbons, such as n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often limited by the low availability of the pollutant to microbes. Adhesion of microorganisms to the oil-water interface can influence this availability. Our approach was to study a range of compounds and mechanisms to promote the adhesion of a hydrophilic PAH degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a, to an oil-water interface and examine the effect on biodegradation of phenanthrene by the bacteria. The cationic surfactants cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), poly-L-lysine and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and the long chain alcohols 1-dodecanol, 2-dodecanol and farnesol increased the adhesion of P. fluorescens LP6a to n-hexadecane from ca. 30% to ca. 90% of suspended cells adhering. The alcohols also caused a dramatic change in the oil-water contact angle of the cell surface, increasing it from 24° to 104°, whereas the cationic compounds had little effect. In contrast, cationic compounds changed the electrophoretic mobility of the bacteria, reducing the mean zeta potential from --23 to --7 mV in 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, but the alcohols had no effect on zeta potential. This results illustrate that alcohols acted through altering the cell surface hydrophobicity, whereas cationic surfactants changed the surface charge density. Phenanthrene was dissolved in heptamethylnonane and introduced to the aqueous growth medium, hence forming a two phase system. Introducing 1-dodecanol at concentrations of 217, 820 or 4100 mg/L resulted in comparable increases in phenanthrene biodegradation of about 30% after 120 h incubation with non-induced cultures. After 100 h of incubation with LP6a cultures induced with 2-aminobenzoate, 4.5% of the phenanthrene was mineralized by cultures versus more than 10% by the cultures containing initial 1-dodecanol or 2-dodecanol concentrations of 120 or 160 mg/L. The production and accumulation of metabolites in

  5. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment — A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera, E-mail:; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia


    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3 mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  6. Proposition of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts using the van Krevelen group contribution method. (United States)

    Barra, J; Peña, M A; Bustamante, P


    The aim of this study is to propose, for the first time, a set of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts. The values were estimated using the few experimental partial solubility parameters of acid/sodium salt series available either from the literature (benzoic acid/Na, ibuprofen acid/Na, diclofenac Na) or determined in this work (salicylic acid/Na, p-aminobenzoic acid/Na, diclofenac), the group contribution method of van Krevelen to calculate the partial parameters of the acids, and three reasonable hypothesis. The experimental method used is a modification of the extended Hansen approach based on a regression analysis of the solubility mole fraction of the drug lnX(2) against models including three- or four-partial solubility parameters of a series of pure solvents ranging from non-polar (heptane) to highly polar (water). The modified method combined with the four-parameter model provided the best results for both acids and sodium derivatives. The replacement of the acidic proton by sodium increased the dipolar and basic partial solubility parameters, whereas the dispersion parameter remained unaltered, thus increasing the overall total solubility parameter of the salt. The proposed group molar constants of sodium are consistent with the experimental results as sodium has a relatively low London dispersion molar constant (identical to that of -OH), a very high Keesom dipolar molar constant (identical to that of -NO(2), two times larger than that of -OH), and a very high hydrogen bonding molar constant (identical to that of -OH). The proposed values are: F((Na)d)=270 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); F((Na)p)=1030 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); U((Na)h)=17000 J mol(-1). Like the constants for the other groups, the group molar constants proposed for sodium are certainly not the exact values. However, they are believed to be a fair approximation of the impact of sodium on the partial solubility parameters and, therefore, can

  7. Optimization, biological evaluation and microPET imaging of copper-64-labeled bombesin agonists, [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}], in a prostate tumor xenografted mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephanie R., E-mail: srlf36@mail.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nanda, Prasanta [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Figueroa, Said D. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Hoffman, Timothy J. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Smith, Charles J., E-mail: smithcj@health.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)


    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr) are a member of the bombesin (BBN) receptor family. GRPr are expressed in high numbers on specific human cancers, including human prostate cancer. Therefore, copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) radiolabeled BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} conjugates could have potential for diagnosis of human prostate cancer via positron-emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to produce [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates for prostate cancer imaging, where X=pharmacokinetic modifier (beta-alanine, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 8-aminooctanoic acid, 9-aminonanoic acid or para-aminobenzoic acid) and NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid [a derivative of NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid)]. Methods: [(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] Conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), after which NOTA was added via manual conjugation. The new peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu radionuclide. The receptor-binding affinity was determined in human prostate PC-3 cells, and tumor-targeting efficacy was determined in PC-3 tumor-bearing severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Whole-body maximum intensity microPET/CT images of PC-3 tumor-bearing SCID mice were obtained 18 h postinjection (pi). Results: Competitive binding assays in PC-3 cells indicated high receptor-binding affinity for the [NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] and [{sup nat}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates. In vivo biodistribution studies of the [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates at 1, 4 and 24 h pi showed very high uptake of the tracer in GRPr-positive tissue with little accumulation and retention in nontarget tissues. High-quality, high-contrast microPET images were obtained, with xenografted tumors being clearly visible at 18 h pi. Conclusions: NO2A chelator sufficiently stabilizes copper(II) radiometal under in vivo conditions, producing conjugates with very high uptake and retention in

  8. The genome of Geobacter bemidjiensis, exemplar for the subsurface clade of Geobacter species that predominate in Fe(III-reducing subsurface environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklujkar Muktak


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter species in a phylogenetic cluster known as subsurface clade 1 are often the predominant microorganisms in subsurface environments in which Fe(III reduction is the primary electron-accepting process. Geobacter bemidjiensis, a member of this clade, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface sediments in Bemidji, Minnesota, and is closely related to Geobacter species found to be abundant at other subsurface sites. This study examines whether there are significant differences in the metabolism and physiology of G. bemidjiensis compared to non-subsurface Geobacter species. Results Annotation of the genome sequence of G. bemidjiensis indicates several differences in metabolism compared to previously sequenced non-subsurface Geobacteraceae, which will be useful for in silico metabolic modeling of subsurface bioremediation processes involving Geobacter species. Pathways can now be predicted for the use of various carbon sources such as propionate by G. bemidjiensis. Additional metabolic capabilities such as carbon dioxide fixation and growth on glucose were predicted from the genome annotation. The presence of different dicarboxylic acid transporters and two oxaloacetate decarboxylases in G. bemidjiensis may explain its ability to grow by disproportionation of fumarate. Although benzoate is the only aromatic compound that G. bemidjiensis is known or predicted to utilize as an electron donor and carbon source, the genome suggests that this species may be able to detoxify other aromatic pollutants without degrading them. Furthermore, G. bemidjiensis is auxotrophic for 4-aminobenzoate, which makes it the first Geobacter species identified as having a vitamin requirement. Several features of the genome indicated that G. bemidjiensis has enhanced abilities to respire, detoxify and avoid oxygen. Conclusion Overall, the genome sequence of G. bemidjiensis offers surprising insights into the metabolism and physiology of

  9. Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah Linda


    In metallic nanostructures, the interaction of excited electrons with the nanostructure surface may result in electron relaxation dynamics that are significantly different than those predicted by electron-lattice coupling. These ultrafast electron dynamics were monitored by pump-probe measurements of the time-resolved change in transmission. Using femtosecond pulses from a cavity-dumped titanium-doped sapphire laser, two types of nanoparticles with a core-shell geometry were studied. Nanoshells are nanoparticles with a dielectric core surrounded by a continuous thin metal shell. For nanoshells, the plasmon resonance wavelength is tunable by changing the core and shell dimensions. For nanoshells with a gold sulfide core and a gold shell, two conditions were observed under which electron relaxation was different than predicted by electron-phonon coupling. First, electron relaxation occurred more rapidly for gold-gold sulfide nanoshells embedded in polymer films than for nanoshells dispersed in water, with lifetimes of 1.6 ps and 3 to 5 ps, respectively. Second, for nanoshells dispersed in water, the electron relaxation lifetime decreased with adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (to 1.7 ps) or aniline (to 1.9 ps) on the nanoshells. With adsorbed n-propylamine or p-mercaptobenzoic acid, electron relaxation transpired in 2.8 ps or 2.4 ps, respectively. Density functional theory calculations indicated that the molecules leading to the fastest electron relaxation possessed the largest induced dipole moments near a metal surface. Semicontinuous gold films grown around a silica nanoparticle core exhibited spectral and dynamical optical signatures of the percolation threshold. Compared to continuous shells, the electron dynamics in the semicontinuous shell layer were dramatically different as additional induced bleaching was observed in the first 500 fs. The observed dynamics are consistent with a rate equation model in which the electrons are initially excited in localized

  10. Intermolecular Interaction Induced Multi-Polymers of Aceclofenac with Flexible Conformation:Crystal Structure, Thermostability, Solubility and DFT Calculations%分子间作用力构筑的具有柔性结构的醋氯芬酸多聚物:晶体结构,热稳定性,溶解度和DFT计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙盼盼; 刘翔宇; 孙琳; 张盛; 魏青; 尹琰; 杨奇; 陈三平


    非甾体类抗炎药物醋氯芬酸(ACF)的水溶性差,导致其生物利用度较低。本文制备了三种多聚物,分别是醋氯芬酸与4,4ʹ-联吡啶(BIPY)共晶(1),与3-氨基苯甲酸(3-ABA)盐(2)和与二甲基亚砜(DMSO)的溶剂化物(3),利用红外光谱、粉末X射线衍射和单晶X射线衍射对它们的结构进行了表征。结果表明,化合物1-3的超分子结构是通过氢键、C―H…π和π…π堆积作用构筑而成,三个多聚物具有良好的热稳定性。从热力学角度分析和密度泛函理论(DFT)计算说明ACF在化合物3中的构象比其在化合物1和2中更稳定。此外, ACF形成共晶、盐和溶剂化物后有效提高了其溶解度。%The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug aceclofenac (ACF) has low bioavailability because of its poor water solubility. To enhance its water solubility we synthesized three compounds:a co-crystal of ACF-0.5BIPY (4,4'-bipyridine) (1), a salt of ACF-3-ABA (3-aminobenzoic acid) (2), and a solvate of ACF-DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) (3). These compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, powder and single crystal X-ray diffractions. The supramolecular structures of 1-3 are sustained by hydrogen bonding C―H…πandπ…πstacking interactions and they have favorable thermal stabilities. Thermodynamical y, DFT calculations revealed that the most stable conformation of ACF exists in compound 3 and this structure is more stable than 1 and 2. Furthermore, upon the formations of the co-crystal, the salt or the solvate the solubility of ACF improves significantly.

  11. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui


    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  12. Influence of Environmental Factors and Medium Composition on Vibrio gazogenes Growth and Prodigiosin Production (United States)

    Allen, Garry R.; Reichelt, John L.; Gray, Peter P.


    Vibrio gazogenes ATCC 29988 growth and prodigiosin synthesis were studied in batch culture on complex and defined media and in chemostat cultures on defined medium. In batch culture on complex medium, a maximum growth rate of 0.75 h−1 and a maximum prodigiosin concentration of 80 ng of prodigiosin · mg of cell protein−1 were observed. In batch culture on defined medium, maximum growth rates were lower (maximum growth rate, 0.40 h−1), and maximum prodigiosin concentrations were higher (1,500 ng · mg of protein−1). In batch culture on either complex or defined medium, growth was characterized by a period of logarithmic growth followed by a period of linear growth; on either medium, prodigiosin biosynthesis was maximum during linear growth. In batch culture on defined medium, the initial concentration of glucose optimal for growth and pigment production was 3.0%; higher levels of glucose suppressed synthesis of the pigment. V. gazogenes had an absolute requirement for Na+; optimal growth occurred in the presence of 100 mM NaCl. Increases in the concentration of Na+ up to 600 mM resulted in further increases in the concentration of pigment in the broth. Prodigiosin was synthesized at a maximum level in the presence of inorganic phosphate concentrations suboptimal for growth. Concentrations of KH2PO4 above 0.4 mM caused decreased pigment synthesis, whereas maximum cell growth occurred at 1.0 mM. Optimal growth and pigment production occurred in the presence of 8 to 16 mg of ferric ion · liter−1, with higher concentrations proving inhibitory to both growth and pigment production. Both growth and pigment production were found to decrease with increased concentrations of p-aminobenzoic acid. The highest specific concentration of prodigiosin (3,480 ng · mg protein−1) was observed in chemostat cultures at a dilution rate of 0.057 h−1. The specific rate of prodigiosin production at this dilution rate was approximately 80% greater than that observed in batch

  13. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  14. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  15. 水性酚醛环氧乳液的固化工艺及其性能%Curing process of waterborne novolac epoxy emulsion and its performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永乐; 文秀芳; 皮丕辉; 蔡智奇; 林炜创; 徐守萍; 程江


    The curing behavior of p-aminobenzoic acid modified bisphenol A phenolic epoxy resin emulsion with polyamide 8536 as curing agent was studied by programmed heating method. The peak temperatures during the curing reaction at different heating rates were examined by non-isothermal DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) method. The kinetic parameters of the curing reaction were obtained by Kissinger and Crane equations. The theoretical curing temperatures were determined by extrapolation method as follows: gelling temperature 372.7 K, curing temperature 398.6 K, and post-treatment temperature 405.1 K. On this basis the curing conditions of the system comprising water-based novolac epoxy emulsion and polyamide curing agent 8536 were determined: temperature 140 % and time 0.5 h. The coatings obtained under these conditions are uniform and smooth with a hardness up to 6H, having good adhesion and flexibility as well as high resistance to water and chemical media.%采用程序升温法研究了对氨基苯甲酸改性双酚A酚醛环氧树脂乳液/聚酰胺8536体系的固化行为,利用非等温DSC法考察不同升温速率的固化反应峰值温度,通过Kissinger和Crane方程得到该体系的固化反应动力学参数,并通过外推法确定了理论固化工艺温度为:凝胶温度372.7 K,固化温度398.6 K,后处理温度405.1K.在此基础上,将水性酚醛环氧乳液和聚酰胺固化剂8536固化体系的固化条件确定为140℃、0.5h.由此得到的涂膜平整光滑,硬度达到6H,附着力与柔韧性好,具有优良的耐水性和耐化学介质性.

  16. Intestinal Bicarbonate Secretion in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke LL


    Full Text Available Gene-targeted disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR in mice results in an intestinal disease phenotype that is remarkably similar to bowel disease in cystic fibrosis patients. In the intestinal segment downstream from the stomach (i.e., the duodenum, CFTR plays an important role in bicarbonate secretion that protects the epithelium from acidic gastric effluent. In this report, we examine the role of CFTR in cAMP-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in the murine duodenum and the mechanisms of acid-base transport that are revealed in CFTR knockout (CF mice. Ion substitution, channel blocker and pH stat studies comparing duodena from wild-type and CF mice indicate that CFTR mediates a HCO(3(- conductance across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the presence of a favorable cell-to-lumen HCO(3(- gradient, the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- current accounts for about 80% of stimulated HCO(3(- secretion. Exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acidic pH reveals another role of CFTR in facilitating HCO(3(- secretion via an electroneutral, 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS sensitive Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange process. In CF duodenum, other apical membrane acid-base transporters retain function, thereby affording limited control of transepithelial pH. Activity of a Cl(--dependent anion exchanger provides near-constant HCO(3(- secretion in CF intestine, but under basal conditions the magnitude of secretion is lessened by simultaneous activity of a Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. During cAMP stimulation of CF duodenum, a small increase in net base secretion is measured but the change results from cAMP inhibition of NHE activity rather than increased HCO(3(- secretion. Interestingly, a small inward current that is sensitive to the anion channel blocker, 5-nitro-2(3-phenylpropyl amino-benzoate (NPPB, is also activated during cAMP stimulation of the CFTR-null intestine but the identity of the current is yet to be

  17. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C). (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel


    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are

  18. Site-directed mutagenesis of Arginine282 suggests how protons and peptides are co-transported by rabbit PepT1. (United States)

    Pieri, Myrtani; Hall, Dashiell; Price, Richard; Bailey, Patrick; Meredith, David


    The mammalian proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1 is the major route of uptake for dietary nitrogen, as well as the oral absorption of a number of drugs, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Here we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate further the role of conserved charged residues in transmembrane domains. Mutation of rabbit PepT1 arginine282 (R282, transmembrane domain 7) to a positive (R282K) or physiologically titratable residue (R282H), resulted in a transporter with wild-type characteristics when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Neutral (R282A, R282Q) or negatively charged (R282D, R282E) substitutions gave a transporter that was not stimulated by external acidification (reducing pH(out) from 7.4 to 5.5) but transported at the same rate as the wild-type maximal rate (pH(out) 5.5); however, only the R282E mutation was unable to concentrate substrate above the extracellular level. All of the R282 mutants showed trans-stimulation of efflux comparable to the wild-type, except R282E-PepT1 which was faster. A conserved negatively charged residue, aspartate341 (D341) in transmembrane domain 8 was implicated in forming a charge pair with R282, as R282E/D341R- and R282D/D341R-PepT1 had wild-type transporter characteristics. Despite their differences in ability to accumulate substrate, both R282E- and R282D-PepT1 showed an increased charge:peptide stoichiometry over the wild-type 1:1 ratio for the neutral dipeptide Gly-l-Gln, measured using two-electrode voltage clamp. This extra charge movement was linked to substrate transport, as 4-aminobenzoic acid, which binds but is not translocated, did not induce membrane potential depolarisation in R282E-expressing oocytes. A model is proposed for the substrate binding/translocation process in PepT1.

  19. Tautomeric and Microscopic Protonation Equilibria of Anthranilic Acid and Its Derivatives. (United States)

    Zapała, Lidia; Woźnicka, Elżbieta; Kalembkiewicz, Jan


    The acid-base chemistry of three zwitterionic compounds, namely anthranilic (2-aminobenzoic acid), N-methylanthranilic and N-phenylanthranilic acid has been characterized in terms of the macroconstants K a1, K a2, the isoelectric point pH I, the tautomerization constant K z and microconstants k 11, k 12, k 21, k 22. The potentiometric titration method was used to determine the macrodissociation constants. Due to the very poor water solubility of N-phenylanthranilic acid the dissociation constants pK a1 and pK a2 were determined in MDM-water mixtures [MDM is a co-solvent mixture, consisting of equal volumes of methanol (MeOH), dioxane and acetonitrile (MeCN)]. The Yasuda-Shedlovsky extrapolation procedure has been used to obtain the values of pK a1 and pK a2 in aqueous solutions. The pK a1 and pK a2 values obtained by this method are 2.86 ± 0.01 and 4.69 ± 0.03, respectively. The tautomerization constant K z describing the equilibrium between unionized form ⇌ zwitterionic form was evaluated by the K z method based on UV-VIS spectrometry. The method uses spectral differences between the zwitterionic form (found at isoelectric pH in aqueous solution) and the unionized form (formed in an organic solvent of low dielectric constant). The highest value of the K z constant has been observed in the case of N-methylantranilic acid (log10 K z = 1.31 ± 0.04). The values of log10 K z for anthranilic and N-phenylanthranilic acids are similar and have values of 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.05, respectively. The results indicate that the tested compounds, in aqueous solution around the isoelectric point pHI, occur mainly in the zwitterionic form. Moreover, the influence of the type of substituent and pH of the aqueous phase on the equilibrium were analyzed with regard to the formation and the coexistence of different forms of the acids in the examined systems.

  20. Factors affecting the production of folic acid by lactic acid bacteria%乳酸菌发酵代谢合成叶酸的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友群; 周方; 赵宏飞; 展海宁; 张柏林


    对嗜酸乳杆菌以及乳酸乳球菌发酵合成叶酸的影响因素进行了研究.结果表明,乳酸菌代谢合成叶酸的产率为17~100μg/L,菌种、培养时间、pH值、对氨基苯甲酸(PABA)质量浓度会影响乳酸菌合成叶酸的产量.与乳酸乳球菌乳酸亚种相比,嗜酸乳杆菌CH-2生成的叶酸产量要高.不同菌株生成叶酸的能力与pH值有关,嗜酸乳杆菌在pH值为4.2叶酸产率明显下降,乳酸乳球菌乳酸亚种产叶酸的能力则不受pH值影响.添加PABA可以显著提高乳酸菌的叶酸产率.选择适宜的乳酸菌菌株,优化发酵工艺参数可以提高乳及相关食品中叶酸的质量浓度,达到生物方式强化叶酸的效果.%The factors affecting the synthesis of folic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp.lactis were studied. Lactic acid bacteria produced folate of 17~100 μg/L by fermentation, depending on strains, fermentation time, pH and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). L. acidophilus strain CH-2 produced more folic acid than L. lactis subsp. lactis did. L. acidophilus CH-2 significantly had a low folate yield as pH in media decreased to 4.2, whereas the level of folic acid produced by L.lactis subsp.lactis might be pH-independent. Addition of PABA to media significantly improved the yields of folic acids formed by two lactic acid bacteria. The present study means that use of folateproducing strains, in combination with good fermentation, can fortify the contents of folic acid from milk or related foods.

  1. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt. (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir


    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  2. Synthesis of spirooxazines containing carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups%含羧基和酚羟基螺噁嗪的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广诚; 吴丽; 王颖伟; 杨志范


    Researchers have paid high attention to photochiomic polymer materials in recent years, and research objects are mainly graft polymer, copolymerizalion and polymer blend. In this article 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid was synthesized from p-aminobenzoic acid by diazotizalion, restoration and neutralization. And then N-methyl-5-carboxyl-9-hydroxyl spirooxazine, namely SO-1, were also synthesized. Furthermore, 3-bromopropionic acid was synthesized from acrylic acid and hydrobromic acid. N-Carboxy ethyl-9'- hydroxy spirooxazine, namely SO-2, were synthesized from 3-bromopropionic acid that was in place of the traditional 3-iodopropionic acid. The structure of SO-2 was proved with melting point test and nuclear magnetism. Two compounds, SO-1 and SO-2, which had not been reported in literature, both contain two kinds of functional groups, can self-condense or graft different polymers to obtain better photochromic properties.%光致变色高分子材料近年来得到了研究者的高度关注,一般以接枝、共聚和共混为主要研究对象.文章用对氨基苯甲酸经过重氮化、还原、中和,合成了对羧基苯肼,并进一步合成了N-甲基-5-羧基-9'-羟基螺噁嗪,即SO-1;以及用丙烯酸和氢溴酸合成了3-溴丙酸,代替了传统的3-碘丙酸合成N-羧乙基-9'-羟基螺噁嗪,即SO-2.通过熔点测试和核磁确定了其结构.两种未见文献报道的化合物均含两种官能团,可以进行自身的缩合,也可以接枝上不同的聚合物以获得更优良的光致变色性能.

  3. Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species. (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; McCoy, Andrea J; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Maurelli, Anthony T


    Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the "missing genes" and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. Importance: Collectively, the involvement of TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway completes our understanding of folate biosynthesis in Chlamydia. Moreover, the novel roles for TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway are sophisticated examples of how enzyme evolution plays a vital role in the

  4. Rapid and sensitive screening of N-glycans as 9-fluorenylmethyl derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography: a method which can recover free oligosaccharides after analysis. (United States)

    Kamoda, Satoru; Nakano, Miyako; Ishikawa, Rika; Suzuki, Shigeo; Kakehi, Kazuaki


    There are a large number of labeling methods for asparagine-type oligosaccharides with fluorogenic and chromophoric reagents. We have to choose the most appropriate labeling method based on the purposes such as mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Asparagine-type glycans are released from core proteins as N-glycosylamine at the initial step of the releasing reaction when glycoamidase F is employed as the enzyme. The N-glycosylamine-type oligosaccharides thus released by the enzyme are subjected to hydrolysis or mutarotation to form free-form oligosaccharides. In the detailed studies on the enzyme reaction, we found a condition in which the released N-glycosylamine-type oligosaccharides were exclusively present at least during the course of enzyme reaction, and developed a method for in situ derivatization of the glycosylamine-type oligosaccharides with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc-Cl). The Fmoc labeled sialo- and asialo- (or high-mannose and hybrid) oligosaccharides were successfully analyzed on an amine-bonded polymer column and amide-silica column, respectively. The present method showed approximately 5 times higher sensitivities than that using 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA). The separation profile was similar to that observed using 2-AA method as examined by the analyses of carbohydrate chains derived from several glycoproteins including complex-type, high-mannose type and hybrid type of N-linked oligosaccharides. The labeled oligosaccharides were stable at least for several months when stored at -20 degrees C. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that the Fmoc-derivatized oligosaccharides could be easily recovered as free reducing oligosaccharides simply by incubation with morpholine in dimethylformamide solution. We obtained a pure triantennary oligosaccharide with 3 sialic acid residues as a free reducing form from fetuin in good yield after isolation of the corresponding Fmoc oligosaccharide followed

  5. Synthesis of new AB monomers of amino modified PBO%单氨基改性PBO的AB型新单体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德明; 吴锋; 陈中海; 吴纯鑫; 张建庭; 金宁人


    Using 4-methoxycarbonyl-2-nitro-benzoic acid (β-MNT) and 4-amino-6- nitroresorcinolhydrochloride (ANR·HCl) as the starting materials,we synthesized the intermediates 4-(5-nitro-6- hydroxybenzoxazole-2-yl)-3-nitro-methyl benzoate (3-NMNC),4-(5-nitro-6-hydroxybenzoxazole- 2-yl)-3-nitrobenzoate (3-NMNB),4-(5-nitro -6-hydroxy benzoxazole-2-yl)-3-aminobenzoic acid (3-NNBA) and the final product 4-(5-amino-6-hydroxy benzoxazole-2-yl)-3-aminobenzoic acid (3-AABA) through a series of reaction,including acylchloride,N-acylation,cyclization,hydrolysis and catalytichydrogenation reduction reaction. The optimal cyclization,hydrolysis and catalytichydrogenation reduction conditions were obtained. The experimental results for the cyclization reaction showed that taking diethyleneglycol dimethyl ether as solvent,the polyphosphoric acid(PPA) as dehydrant and the content of P2O5 in PPA of 84%,w(3-NMNC)∶w(PPA)=1∶9.5,the reaction temperature of 140℃ and the reaction time of 8h,we obtained the yield of 3-NMNB of 73.16% and its purity was 99.10% as determined by HPLC. The experimental results for the hydrolysis reaction showed that using ethanol and water as solvent,n(K2CO3)∶n(3-NMNB) = 1.8:1 and the reaction time of 2h,we got the yield of 3-NNBA of 74.19% and the purity was 98.59% as determined by HPLC. The experimental results for the hydrogenation reduction reaction showed that using methanol as solvent, w(10%Pd/C)∶w(3-NNBA)=1∶20,pressure of hydrogen of 1.0 MPa,reaction temperature of 80℃, reaction time of 5h,we had the yield of 3-AABA of 65.08% based on 3-NNBA and the purity was 99.43% as determined by HPLC.%研究了以4-(甲氧羰基)-2-硝基苯甲酸(β-MNT)与4-氨基-6-硝基间苯二酚盐酸盐(ANR·HCl)为原料经酰氯化、N-酰化、环合、水解和催化加氢还原等一系列反应合成得到中间体4-((2,4-二羟基-5-硝基)氨甲酰基)-3-硝基苯甲酸甲酯(3-NMNC)、4-(5-硝基-6-羟基-2-苯并唑基)-3-

  6. Multilocus sequence typing analysis application in molecular epidemiological research of Escherichia coli O157 isolates in Zhejiang province%利用MLST技术对浙江省大肠杆菌O157的分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菊莲; 占利; 梅玲玲; 罗芸; 姚苹苹; 姜理平


    The objective was to investigate the molecular epidemiological feature of Escherichia coli O157 isolates in Zhejiang Province. A multilocus sequence typing(MLST) scheme was applied to identify sequences of 8 housekeeping genes including DNA polymerase( dinB). Isocitrate dehydrogenase(icdA), p-aminobenzoate synthase (pabB), polymerase PolII(polB), proline permease,(putP), tryptophan synthase subunit A(trpA) .tryptophan synthase subunit B(trpB) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) from 29 EHEC O157 isolated between 2005 and 2010 in Zhejiang Province and 882364 isolated in Jiangshu Province. DNAsp, eBURST and START2 were applied to analyze the polymorphism of the eight housekeeping genes and the evolution of the EHEC O157. Four sequence types(STs), named ST-284, ST-367, ST-125, and ST-296 were identified, which grouped into two lineages, Group 1 and Group 11. ST-284 had the most proportion of 90% (27/30). The proportion of variable sites ranged from 0. 4%(trpA) to 4. 6%(putP). The nucleotide diversity (Pi, average number of nucleotide differences per site between two randomly-selected isolates) ranged from 0. 00119(polB)-0. 00648(uidA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these STs belong to two CCs(clone complex). The data presented here provide new sights into molecular epidemiology feature of EHEC O157. MLST molecular typing of EHEC O157 isolates in Zhejiang Province call for intense surveillance efforts. It was an ideal tool to the investigation of the genetic evolution of. EHEC O157.%目的 对浙江省2005- 2010年大肠杆菌O157分离株进行分子分型研究,了解菌株间的遗传进化关系,为浙江省大肠杆菌O157监测及爆发疫情的控制提供基础.方法 选择Pasteur大肠杆菌多位点序列分型(Muhilocus SequenceTyping,MLST)方案,对大肠杆菌O157分离株及882364菌株进行MLST分型,确定菌株序列型(Sequence type,ST);采用DNAsp、eBURST、START2等软件进行分析.结果 30株菌中,27株O157:H7

  7. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers. (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa


    , for which the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potency) test is basically nonresponsive. The additivity of absorbances of all the tested antioxidants confirmed that antioxidants in the CUPRAC test do not chemically interact among each other so as to cause an intensification or quenching of the theoretically expected absorbance, and that a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay of serum is possible. As a distinct advantage over other electron-transfer based assays (e.g., Folin, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), CUPRAC is superior in regard to its realistic pH close to the physiological pH, favorable redox potential, accessibility and stability of reagents, and applicability to lipophilic antioxidants as well as hydrophilic ones. The CUPRAC procedure can also assay hydroxyl radicals, being the most reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield TBARS test, we use p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of [Fe(II)+EDTA] with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreases in the presence of (.)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. The developed method is less lengthy, more specific, and of a higher yield than the classical TBARS assay.

  8. 端基含希夫碱配合物的聚苯乙烯的合成及其荧光性能的研究%Synthesis and Fluorescent Properties of Schiff Base End Group Functionalized Polystyrene Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珍; 路建美; 李娜君


    An atom transfer radical polymerization process (ATRP) of styrene (St) was proceeded using 5-chloromethyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde as the initiator, CuCl as the catalyst and 2,2'-Bipyridine(Bpy) as the ligand. Fuctionalized polystyrene ligands containing schiff base end groups were obtained by condensation of p-methoxyanilin, aniline, p-nitroaniline and p-aminobenzoic acid with polystyrene containing a salicylaldehyde end group (PSt-S), respectively. Under microwave assisted conditions, polystyrene ligands containing schiff base end groups were applied to prepare Zn(II) complexes. The structure of polystyrene ligands and their complexes were characterized by 1H-NMR,IR and UV-Vis spectra. NMR results show that the proton of-CHO completely disappears and that of-CH=N appears in the spectra, so the condensation reaction of salicyladehyde with four kinds of aniline derivatives are completed. When excited at 330 nm, the four polystyrene Zn(II) complexes prepared emits intense green fluorescence. Moreover, these four polystyrene Zn(II) complexes are soluble in solvents and easy to form film. Moreover, the effects of different substitutional groups, molecular weights and microwave reaction conditions on Zn contents and fluorescent intensity were also discussed. The results show that electronic donor groups such as-OCH3 cause red shift of the fluorescence with an increase of intensity. By controlling molecular weight of polystyrene, the fluorescence intensity can be controlled. Compared to room temperature or heating conditions, microwave radiation can accelerate the reaction rate.%通过原子转移自由基聚合(ATRP)方法合成了含水杨醛端基的聚苯乙烯(PSt-S),并分别与对氨基苯甲酸、对甲氧基苯胺、苯胺以及对硝基苯胺反应,使其水杨醛端基转变成希夫碱可配位基团。这类含希夫碱端基的聚苯乙烯在微波辐射条件下分别与Zn(II)配位,得到端基为希夫碱-Zn(II)配位基团的聚苯乙烯配合物

  9. Tatuaje de henna en niños: ¿natural y temporal? Henna tattooing in children: natural or temporary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lasa


    with a few side-effects. Nowadays black henna tattoos are usually performed even in children. The addition of several chemical agents to improve its cosmetic properties has increased the risk of developing contact dermatitis after exposure. Our aim is to determine the causative agents of contact dermatitis in two children wearing henna tattoos. Material and Methods: Case 1: A 12-year-old girl with no atopy presented local vesicles 10 hours after a black henna tattoo was applied. She had presented similar symptoms with a previous tattoo. Case 2: A 7-year-old atopic boy presented vesicles 2 weeks after a black henna tattoo was applied. He had dyed his hair previously without side effects. Both patients cured, after 3-4 weeks of treatment with topic corticosteroids, with residual hypo-pigmentation. Skin prick test with natural and commercial henna and epicutaneous test with TRUE-TEST®, PABA derivatives compounds tests, textile dyes and natural and commercial henna were performed. Results: The epicutaneous tests were positive for p-Metilaminophenol, p-Aminobencene, p-Phenilendiamine and p-Toluenodiamine in both patients. The first patient had also positive tests for Benzocaine, Hydroquinone, Isobutyl p-aminobenzoate, Yellow 1 and Orange 1 disperse; the second one for Red 1 and Orange 1 disperse. In both cases the prick and epicutaneous tests for henna were negative. Conclusions: Two children presented contact dermatitis after black henna tattoo due to added additives such as paraphenilendiamine.

  10. Pharmacokinetic study of inosiplex tablet in healthy volunteers%异丙肌苷片在健康人体内的药动学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇; 杨静; 李雪晴; 贾艳艳; 杨林; 周伦; 鹿成韬; 文爱东


    OBJECTIVE To study the pharmacokinetics of inosiplex in healthy subjects following multiple dosing of inosiplex tablet. METHODS 10 healthy volunteers (5 females and 5 males) were assigned to receive 1000 mg inosiplex tablet at morning, noon, and evening for consecutive 7 days. The plasma concentrations of N,N-dimethylamino-2 propanol(Dip) and p-acet-aminobenzoic acid (PACBA) were measured by fully validated LC-MS/MS and HPLC method, respectively The pharmacoki-netic parameters were calculated by DAS software. RESULTS The main pharmacokinetic parameters of single dosing of inosiplex tablet were as follows: for Dip, t max and Cmax were (1. 55 ± 0. 16)h and (2. 24 ± 0. 18)μg·mL-1 , respectively;t1/2 was (4. 42 ± 0. 81)h;AUC,-24 was(12.93 ± 2. 1)μg·h·mL-1 ; respectively. In the case of PACBA, t max and Cmax were(1.03 ±0. 51) h and (5. 18 ± 1.80 )μg·mL-1 , respectively; t 1/2 was(0. 95 ± 0. 13)h; AUC0-24 was (7. 69 ± 1. 13)μg·h·mL-1;The main pharmacokinetic parameters of multiple dosing of inosiplex tablet were as follows: for Dip, t max and C ss max were (1. 00 ± 0. 46)h and (2.49 ± 0. 11)μg·mL-1, respectively; t 1/2 was (5. 74 ± 1. 24) h; AUd-24 was (16. 06 ±2. 80) μg· h·mL-1,C ss av was (1. 36 ± 0. 19)μg·mL-1 ;DF was 1. 29 ± 0. 31 , respectively. In the case of PACBA, t max and C ss max were (0. 50 ± 0. 00) h and (7. 37 ± 0.94) μg·mL-1 , respectively; t1/2 was (1.04±0. 17) h; AUC0-24 was (7.90 ± 1. 16) μg·h·mL-1 ;C ss av was (0.99±0. 14)μg· mL-1 ;DF was 7. 44 ± 0. 90. CONCLUSION The method which we developed is sensitive, accurate and simple. And the Dip and PACBA have been accumulated after multi-dosing of inosiplex administration.%目的:探讨健康受试者多次口服异丙肌苷片1000 mg后体内药动学特点.方法:10例健康受试者,男女各半,每次口服1 000 mg异丙肌苷片,tid,连续7d,采用液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)和高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分别测定血浆中N,N-二甲氨基2

  11. 对羟基苯甲酸酯分子印迹电化学传感器的研制%Preparation of Electrochemical Sensor for Parabens Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方铖; 王阳; 曹玉华


    A molecularly imprinted polymers(MIPs) was synthesized by using ethyl paraben(EP) as template and methacrylic acid as functional monomer,and a molecularly imprinted electrode was constructed on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode for determination of parabens,such as EP,methyl paraben(MP),butyl paraben(BP) and propyl paraben(PP).Electrochemical oxidation behaviors of EP on the imprinted electrode were investigated by square wave voltammetric method.When using the incubation time of 15 min,the peak currents at oxidation potential of 0.95 V(vs SCE) were proportional to the concentration of EP in the range of 2.0×10-6 to 2.0×10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 1.0 μmol/L(S/N=3).The RSD(n=10) of the imprinted electrode for peak current was 4.3%(n=10).Under the same conditions,the extremely small responses of the control electrode were observed and independent of the analyte concentration.The oxidation potential of EP recorded with imprinted electrode was a slight positive shift comparing with that of the bare electrode.The imprinted electrode also displayed good specific binding MP,PP and BP,and their selective coefficients of imprinted electrode were 1.89,1.70 and 2.01,respectively.Structural analogs,such as phenol,p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid,only small responses electrode were observed.Moreover,structural unanalog vitamin C had almost no response.The imprinted electrode was used for analysis of parabens in actual samples with the spiked recoveries more than 90%.The molecularly imprinted polymer electrode showed good sensitivity and selectivity,and was simple to construct and operate.%利用分子印迹技术,以对羟基苯甲酸乙酯为模板分子,甲基丙烯酸为单体,在玻碳电极表面原位聚合分子印迹聚合物敏感膜.采用方波伏安法对对羟基苯甲酸乙酯在该印迹电极上的电化学行为进行了研究,当响应时间为15 min时,0.95 V(vs SCE)处的峰电流与对羟基苯甲酸乙酯的浓度在2.0×10