Sample records for aminobenzenesulfonic acid-para

  1. Photochromism emergence in N-salicylidene p-aminobenzenesulfonate diallylammonium salts. (United States)

    Jacquemin, Pierre-Loïc; Robeyns, Koen; Devillers, Michel; Garcia, Yann


    N-Salicylidene p-aminobenzenesulfonate salts were prepared by in situ condensation of p-aminobenzenesulfonate diallylammonium salt and salicylaldehyde. Modulation of thermo- and photochromism was achieved by varying the alkyl chain length of the diallylammonium counter-cation. A structural-optical properties investigation reveals that both crystal packing and dihedral angle between aromatic rings of the N-salicylidene aniline switch are not sufficient to predict the occurrence of photochromism in the solid state. The available free space around the N-salicylidene p-aminobenzenesulfonate, in addition to the flexibility of the nearby environment, is shown to be of major importance for the cis→trans isomerisation to occur as well as for the stabilisation of the trans-keto form. Emergence of photochromic properties was determined from the diallylhexylammonium cation within the series of investigated counter-cations. High stability is observed for the trans-keto form of one polymorph of N-salicylidene p-aminobenzenesulfonate diallylhexylammonium salt (k = 2.4×10(-7)  s(-1)). PMID:25765250

  2. (4-Aminobenzenesulfonatoheptaaquagadolinium(III 4-aminobenzenesulfonate nitrate 4,4′-bipyridyl tetrasolvate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Hao


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Gd(C6H6O3S(H2O7](C6H6O3S(NO3·4C10H8N2·2H2O, the GdIII ion is octacoordinated by seven water molecules and one O-bonded 4-aminobenzenesulfonate anion in a square-antiprismatic arrangement. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...O, O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. Equilibrium of Extraction of p—Aminobenzenesulfonic Acid by Aliquat 336

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等


    p-Aminobenzenesulfonic acid was selected as a typical solute with amphoteric functional groups to be separated from dilute solution.A quaternary ammonium chloride,Aliquat 336, was used as the extractant. The effects of pH, extractant concentration and diluent types on distribution coefficient,D,were investigated. Meanwhile,the ion exchange reaction for Aliquat 336 with p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid in the extraction process was discussed.The description of D was proposed according to the mass action law.The results show that the D in non-polar diluents,kerosene and CCl4,is larger than that in polar diluent,1-octanol and chloroform.The sodium sulfate in aqueous phase affects D strongly due to exchange of sulfate ions with Aliquat 336. Finally,the removal of 4,4′-diaminostibene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD) acid), an amino sulfonic acid,was successfully achieved from wastewater by the extraction with Aliquat 336.

  4. In Situ UV- Vis Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of the Copolymerization of Aniline and o-Aminobenzenesulfonic Acid%苯胺与邻-氨基苯磺酸电化学共聚的原位紫外-可见光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文华; 王百木; 郎秋华; 张雷


    运用原位紫外-可见吸收光谱法和红外光谱法分别研究了苯胺(AN)和邻-氨基苯磺酸(ABSA)在0.1mol/L HCIO4溶液中的单独聚合及共聚过程.结果表明,在AN和ABSA的共聚过程中,ABSA首先被氧化生成其阳离子自由基,然后ABSA阳离子自由基与继而生成的AN阳离子自由基和溶液中的AN及ABSA单体发生交互反应,生成混合低聚物中间体,在吸收光谱中对应于550 nm处的吸收峰.另外,随着混合溶液中AN浓度的增加,AN的聚合逐渐占主导地位,说明AN与ABSA的共聚过程与单体浓度比有关.红外光谱分析表明ABSA有效地连接在聚苯胺(PAN)骨架上,得到了自掺杂聚苯胺.%In situ UV- Vis spectroelectrochemical spectra of the electrochemical copolymerization of aniline(AN) and o-aminobenzenesulfonic acid(ABSA) was investigated in 0. 1 mol/L HClO4. The homopolymerization of ABSA and AN also arised independently in the same medium. The results indicated that ABSA was firstly oxidized to its cation radical, then a mixed oligomer intermediate was formed by the cross - reaction of ABSA and AN cation radicals with their monomers. The absorption peak at 550 nm in the UV - Vis spectra was assigned to this intermediate. The intermediates then reacted with each other to form the polymer finally. The results also indicated that the polymerization of AN became dominant with the increase of the AN amount in the mixed solutions, which demonstrated that the copolymerization mechanism was related to the concentration ratio of ABSA and AN. Fourier transform infrared spectra also indicated the effective attachment of ABSA on the PAN backbone formed the self-doped PAN.

  5. Serotonin sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and poly(p-aminobenzenesulfonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a nanocomposite prepared from poly(p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid), multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan to obtain a differential pulse voltammetric sensor for serotonin that is remarkably stable and displays enhanced current response. Its peak current (at 0.38 V vs. Ag/AgCl) varied linearly with the concentration of serotonin in the 0.1–100 μM range, and the detection limit is 80 nM (at an S/N of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of serotonin in (spiked) human blood serum. (author)

  6. The electrochemical behavior of N-n-undecyl-N'-(sodium-p- amino-benzenesulfonate) thiourea and its interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xia Luo; Yang Du; Zhi Xin Guo


    In pH 5.5 phosphate buffer solution, N-n-undecyl-N'-(sodium-p-amino-benzenesulfonate) thiourea (UPT) produced a pair ofredox peaks on the bare glassy carbon electrode. At the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified electrode, theelectrochemical behavior of UPT enhanced greatly. In the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the peak currents ofUPT decreased linearly due to the formation of a super-molecular complex. This method was successfully applied to thedetermination of BSA in a bovine serum sample.2008 Hong Xia Luo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Estabilização de solo contaminado com zinco usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinzas de carvão Stabilization of zinc-contamined soil using zeolites synthesized from coal ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro


    Full Text Available The effect of synthetic zeolites on stabilizing Zn-contaminated soil using 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 leaching solution in batch experiments was investigated. The zeolites were synthesized from coal ash by hydrothermal treatment with alkaline solution. The additive enhanced the sorption capacity of the soil and reduced leaching. Zinc leaching was reduced by more than 80% using a minimum of 10% additive. The higher cation exchange capacity of the zeolite/soil mixtures and higher pH were responsible for stabilizing Zn in soil. The poly(2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid-coated mercury thin-film electrode was used for the determination of zinc.

  8. Interaction of APT with BSA or HSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Fengling; CUI Yanrui; LUO Hongxia; YAO Xiaojun; FAN Jing; LU Yan


    In this work, N-n-amyl-N'-(sodium p- aminobenzenesulfonate) thiourea (APT) containing saturated fatty hydrocarbon group was synthesized. Fluorescence quenching methods in combination with UV absorption spectra and molecule modeling method were used to study the interaction between APT and bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human serum albumin (HSA). The binding constants of APT with BSA or HSA were determined at different temperatures under the optimum conditions based on the fluorescence quenching results. The binding characteristics of APT and BSA or HSA were reported and the binding sites were obtained. The binding mode was suggested to be mainly hydrophobic interaction, which was consistent with molecular modeling study.

  9. Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization. (United States)

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Takenaka, Shinji; Kuntiya, Ampin; Klayraung, Srikarnjana; Murakami, Shuichiro; Aoki, Kenji


    Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 was isolated from soil of a dairy wastewater treatment plant and selected as the most active azo dye degrader of 19 isolates. Growing cells and freely suspended cells of this strain completely degraded methyl orange, thereby decolorizing the medium. The strain stoichiometrically converted methyl orange to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, which were identified by HPLC, GC, and GC-MS analyses. The enzyme activity responsible for the cleavage of the azo bond of methyl orange was localized to the cytoplasm of cells grown on modified MRS medium containing methyl orange. The effect of sugars, oligosaccharides, organic acids, metal ions, pHs, oxygen and temperatures on methyl orange decolorization by freely suspended cells was investigated. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of methyl orange by the Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 are incubation at 35 degrees C and pH 6 with sucrose provided as the energy source. PMID:17254626

  10. Antialgal effects of five individual allelochemicals and their mixtures in low level pollution conditions. (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ding, Ying; Jiang, Xiaofeng


    An effective, environmentally friendly, and eco-sustainable approach for removing harmful microalgae is exploiting the allelopathic potential of aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we simulated field pollution conditions in the laboratory to investigate algal inhibition by allelochemicals, thereby providing insights into field practices. We tested five allelochemicals, i.e., coumarin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and a typical green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, under two conditions. In the unpolluted treatment, individual allelochemicals had strong algal inhibition effects, where coumarin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid had greater potential for algal inhibition than protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid based on the 50 % inhibitory concentration. However, when two or three allelochemicals were mixed in specific proportions, the algal inhibition rate exceeded 80 %, thereby indicating allelopathic synergistic interactions. Mixtures of four or five allelochemicals had weak effects on algal inhibition, which indicated antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the presence of low lead pollution significantly reduced the antialgal potential of individual allelochemicals, whereas the allelopathic synergistic interactions with mixtures between two or three allelochemicals were changed into antagonistic effects by low pollution. In particular, the allelopathic antagonistic interactions between four or five allelochemicals were increased by pollution. The allelopathic performance of these five allelochemicals may depend on various factors, such as the chemical species, mixture parameters, and algal strain. Thus, we found that low level pollution reduced the allelopathic inhibition of microalgae by allelochemicals. Therefore, the control of algae by the direct addition of allelochemicals should consider various environmental factors. PMID:27137194

  11. Monitoring of hydrogen peroxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with hemoglobin and a polypyrrole-based nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported on a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor that was fabricated by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a nanocomposite made from polypyrrole-poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) grafted with 4-aminobenzenesulfonate. Cyclic voltammograms of the modified GCE at pH 7 exhibited a pair of well-defined redox peaks, thus attesting the direct electron transfer from Hb to the electrode. The biosensor can be used to determine H2O2 and, if operated at a working voltage of −0.4 V, displays a linear response to H2O2 in the 0.8 μM to 460 μM concentration range, and a lower detection limit of 0.32 μM. The surface coverage of active Hb, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of immobilized Hb are, respectively, 1.52 × 10−9 mol cm−2, 1.3 s−1, and 0.45 mM. Additional features of this biosensor include stability, simplicity, and fast preparation at low-costs. It was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater samples where it displayed good accuracy and precision. (author)

  12. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220. (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil


    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  13. How UV photolysis accelerates the biodegradation and mineralization of sulfadiazine (SD). (United States)

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E


    Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation. PMID:25199943

  14. 紫外辐射加速磺胺嘧啶生物降解的机理%Mechanism of UV photolysis for accelerating sulfadiazine biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯硕豪; 潘诗卉; 刘辛悦; 蔡泽仁; 李恩杰; 张永明


    采用紫外光解与生物降解耦合的方法可以明显提高磺胺嘧啶(SD)的生物降解速率.经过分析,发现SD在紫外光解过程中首先生成对氨基苯磺酸(p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid,ABS)和2-氨基嘧啶(2-aminopyrimidine,2-AP),而ABS很快分解为苯胺(aniline,An)和SO42-.其中2-AP不能加速苯胺的生物降解,反而具有一定的生物抑制.而苯胺可以提高其生物降解速率.按比例同时将2-AP和An加入到SD溶液中,其生物降解速率与紫外光解耦合生物降解时相近,是单独生物降解速率的2倍.这是因为苯胺在生物氧化过程中,可以提供足够的电子并通过共基质作用加速SD的初始单加氧反应.

  15. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations. (United States)

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C


    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties. PMID:25163883

  16. Pd nanoparticles supported on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and electrooxidation for formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sudong; Mi, Hongyu; Ye, Xiangguo [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Zhang, Xiaogang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)


    To improve the utilization and activity of anodic catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation, palladium (Pd) particles were loaded on the MWCNTs, which were functionalized in a mixture of 96% sulfuric acid and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, using sodium nitrite to produce intermediate diazonium salts from substituted anilines. The composition, particle size, and crystallinity of the Pd/f-MWCNTs catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements. The electrocatalytic properties of the Pd/f-MWCNTs catalysts for formic acid oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The results demonstrated that the catalytic activity was greatly enhanced due to the improved water-solubility and dispersion of the f-MWCNTs, which were facile to make the small particle size (3.8 nm) and uniform dispersion of Pd particles loading on the surface of the MWCNTs. In addition, the functionalized MWCNTs with benzenesulfonic group can provide benzenesulfonic anions in aqueous solution, which may combine with hydrogen cation and then promote the oxidation of formic acid reactive intermediates. So the Pd/f-MWCNTs composites showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation. (author)

  17. Degradation network reconstruction in uric acid and ammonium amendments in oil-degrading marine microcosms guided by metagenomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eBargiela


    Full Text Available Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyse the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA, or ammonium (AMM. We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180 to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA and 65 (AMM gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM, were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered

  18. Degradation Network Reconstruction in Uric Acid and Ammonium Amendments in Oil-Degrading Marine Microcosms Guided by Metagenomic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael


    Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyze the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy) amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA), or ammonium (AMM). We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180) to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA) and 65 (AMM) gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA) and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM), were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered for designing

  19. [Simultaneous determination of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) using spectrophotometry method]. (United States)

    Ma, Dong-Lan; Wang, Yun; Ma, Kuang-Biao; Wang, Jin-Ye


    The N-(m-methylphenyl)-N'-(sodium p-aminobenzenesulfonate)-thiourea (MMPT) was good reagent of water solubility. In the medium of an HAc-NaAc buffer solution and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), MMPT can react with platinum (IV) and palladium (II) to form green and brown soluble complex. The maximum absorbance of the complex was at lambdaPt(max) = 754.4 nm and lambdaPD(max) = 304.6 nm. Beer's law was obeyed with the concentration in the range of 0-32.0 microg Pt(IV)/25 mL and 0-25.0 microg Pd(II)/25 mL for platinum (IV) and palladium(II) respectively. The correlated coefficient was r754.4 = 0.999 5 for platinum (IV); and r304.6 = 0.999 9 for palladium (II). Their molar absorption coefficients were epsilonPT(754.4 = 8.6 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) and epsilonPd(304.6) = 7.4 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) respectively. The contents of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) were converted by determination of the absorbency of mix solution of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) at 754.4 and 304.6 nm. Only Cu2+ and Co2+ interfered with the determination of palladium (II) among 50 coexistent ions, so the selectivity was good. It can be used for the determination of content of synthesis samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 2.0%, and the recovery (%) was in the range of 96%-104%. The results are satisfactory. Because the reagent reacts with platinum (IV) and palladium (II) to form water soluble complex and does not require pre-separation for simultaneous determination of platinum (IV) and palladium (II), the method is easy to operate, rapid and environment-friendly. PMID:20038071

  20. Flux et sources des parabènes, du triclosan et du triclocarban en milieux urbains denses : comparaison entre Paris et Beyrouth


    Geara-Matta, Darine


    Le triclosan (TCS), le triclocarban (TCC) et les parabènes (esters de l'acide para-hydroxbenzoïque) sont employés en tant qu'antiseptiques et agents conservateurs dans les produits de soins corporels. Leur usage génère des inquiétudes sur leur devenir et leur effet potentiel sur la faune et la flore (Bazin et al., 2010). En effet, ils sont introduits dans le milieu récepteur principalement via les effluents des stations d'épuration et les rejets urbains de temps de pluie (McAvoy et al., 2002;...

  1. Optimización del enriquecimiento de nauplios de Artemia mediante el uso de emulsiones lipídicas formuladas a partir de aceites sintéticos ricos en DHA


    Viciano Delibano, Elena


    Los nauplios de Artemia se utilizan como presa viva en criaderos de organimos marinos de todo el mundo debido a su disponibilidad y digestibilidad, pero su valor nutricional no se ajusta a las demandas o necesidades de las larvas de peces, moluscos o crustáceos marinos, ya que carecen de los ácidos grasos esenciales (EFA, Essential Fatty Acids) para estos organismos. Por tanto, es indispensable llevar a cabo un enriquecimiento de los nauplios de Artemia. El enriquecimiento consiste en incubac...

  2. Targeted Delivery of LXR Agonist Using a Site-Specific Antibody-Drug Conjugate. (United States)

    Lim, Reyna K V; Yu, Shan; Cheng, Bo; Li, Sijia; Kim, Nam-Jung; Cao, Yu; Chi, Victor; Kim, Ji Young; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Schultz, Peter G; Tremblay, Matthew S; Kazane, Stephanie A


    Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists have been explored as potential treatments for atherosclerosis and other diseases based on their ability to induce reverse cholesterol transport and suppress inflammation. However, this therapeutic potential has been hindered by on-target adverse effects in the liver mediated by excessive lipogenesis. Herein, we report a novel site-specific antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers a LXR agonist to monocytes/macrophages while sparing hepatocytes. The unnatural amino acid para-acetylphenylalanine (pAcF) was site-specifically incorporated into anti-CD11a IgG, which binds the α-chain component of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) expressed on nearly all monocytes and macrophages. An aminooxy-modified LXR agonist was conjugated to anti-CD11a IgG through a stable, cathepsin B cleavable oxime linkage to afford a chemically defined ADC. The anti-CD11a IgG-LXR agonist ADC induced LXR activation specifically in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells in vitro (EC50-27 nM), but had no significant effect in hepatocytes, indicating that payload delivery is CD11a-mediated. Moreover, the ADC exhibited higher-fold activation compared to a conventional synthetic LXR agonist T0901317 (Tularik) (3-fold). This novel ADC represents a fundamentally different strategy that uses tissue targeting to overcome the limitations of LXR agonists for potential use in treating atherosclerosis. PMID:25945727

  3. Hepatic and intestinal blood flow following thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because cardiac output decreases after burn injuries, investigators have assumed, based upon dye clearance techniques, that hepatic and intestinal blood flow are also decreased following these injuries. Blood flow to the liver, stomach, small intestine, and kidney was determined by the uptake of 201thallium and 125I-labeled fatty acid (para-125I-phenyl-3-methyl pentanoic acid) in a 20% body surface area scald injury that also included plasma volume replacement resuscitation. Uptake of these radioisotopes was determined 15 minutes, 18 hours, and 72 hours after injury. The uptake of the 201thallium and 125I-labeled fatty acid by the gastrointestinal tissues was not statistically different at any of the time periods after comparison of the injured and control (sham-treated) animals. 201Thallium uptake by the kidney was significantly diminished 15 minutes after the burn injury (P less than 0.01). Based on these blood flow measurement techniques, the data suggest that the 20% body surface area scald injury did not alter blood flow to the liver or gastrointestinal tract within the initial 72 hours after the burn injury even though a decrease in renal blood flow was easily detected. These results suggest that the dysfunction of the gastrointestinal system or hepatic system observed after an acute burn injury is not simply the result of hypovolemic shock, which reduces both renal and mesenteric blood flow. These gastrointestinal and hepatic alterations may be related to a factor or factors other than intestinal ischemia

  4. Urinary pesticide metabolites in school students from northern Thailand. (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Barr, Dana B


    We evaluated exposure to pesticides among secondary school students aged 12-13 years old in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Pesticide-specific urinary metabolites were used as biomarkers of exposure for a variety of pesticides, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and selected herbicides. We employed a simple solid-phase extraction with analysis using isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A total of 207 urine samples from Thai students were analyzed for 18 specific pesticide metabolites. We found 14 metabolites in the urine samples tested; seven of them were detected with a frequency > or=17%. The most frequently detected metabolites were 2-[(dimethoxyphosphorothioyl) sulfanyl] succinic acid (malathion dicarboxylic acid), para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCY; metabolite of chlorpyrifos), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (c-DCCA and t-DCCA; metabolite of permethrin) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; metabolite of pyrethroids). The students were classified into 4 groups according to their parental occupations: farmers (N=60), merchants and traders (N=39), government and company employees (N=52), and laborers (N=56). Children of farmers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of pyrethroid insecticide metabolites than did other children (pmetabolite concentrations. Males had significantly higher values of PNP (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.009); however, no other sex-related differences were observed. Because parental occupation and agricultural activities seemed to have little influence on pesticide levels, dietary sources were the likely contributors to the metabolite levels observed. PMID:18760967

  5. Artificial Metalloenzymes through Chemical Modification of Engineered Host Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Zernickel, Anna


    With a few exceptions, all organisms are restricted to the 20 canonical amino acids for ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Addition of new amino acids to the genetic code can introduce novel functionalities to proteins, broadening the diversity of biochemical as well as chemical reactions and providing new tools to study protein structure, reactivity, dynamics and protein-protein-interactions. The site directed in vivo incorporation developed by P. G. SCHULTZ and coworkers, using an archeal orthogonal tRNA/aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthase) pair, allows site-specifically insertion of a synthetic unnatural amino acid (UAA) by reprogramming the amber TAG stop codon. A variety of over 80 different UAAs can be introduced by this technique. However by now a very limited number can form kinetically stable bonds to late transition metals. This thesis aims to develop new catalytically active unnatural amino acids or strategies for a posttranslational modification of site-specific amino acids in order to achieve highly enantioselective metallorganic enzyme hybrids (MOEH). As a requirement a stable protein host has to be established, surviving the conditions for incorporation, posttranslational modification and the final catalytic reactions. mTFP* a fluorescent protein was genetically modified by excluding any exposed Cys, His and Met forming a variant mTFP*, which fulfills the required specifications. Posttranslational chemical modification of mTFP* allow the introduction of single site metal chelating moieties. For modification on exposed cysteines different maleiimid containing ligand structures were synthesized. In order to perform copper catalyzed click reactions, suitable unnatural amino acids (para-azido-(L)-phenylalanine, para-ethynyl-(L)-phenylalanine) were synthesized and a non-cytotoxic protocol was established. The triazole ring formed during this reaction may contribute as a moderate σ-donor/π-acceptor ligand to the metal binding site. Since the cell limits the

  6. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum based foods and their functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar


    Full Text Available Background: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, considered a poor man’s cereal, may be a repository of dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, which provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical induced oxidative stress and probably play a role in the prevention of ageing and various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases.Objective: The present study focused on the identification of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids from seven commercial varieties of pearl millet and five samples of pearl millet-based traditional recipes of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India.Methods: Total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and individual polyphenol separation included the isolation and identification of (a flavonoids, (b phenolic acids, and (c glycoflavones involving interaction with diagnostic reagents and paper chromatographic separation of compounds and their UV-visible spectroscopic studies including hypsochromic and bathchromic shifts with reagents such as AlCl3, AlCl3/HCl, NaOMe, NaOAc,and NaOAc/H3PO3. Five traditional recipes consumed in the pearl millet producing belt of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India, were standardized in the laboratory and analyzed for phenol and individual flavonoids. Results: Total phenols in raw samples ranged from 268.5 - 420mg/100g of DW and 247.5 -Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7:251-264335mg/100g of DW in cooked recipes. The commonly identified flavonoids were tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin. Five phenolic acids were identified: namely vanilic acid, syringic acid, melilotic acid, para-hydroxyl benzoic acid, and salicylic acid.Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids, such as tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin, indicate the chemopreventive efficacy of pearl millet. They may be inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease and to the incidence

  7. Optimization of Detection System for Polyphenol and Its Compositions and Contents in Different Parts of Pomegranate Fruit%石榴果实酚类物质测定体系优化与不同部位组分及含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲玲; 苑兆和; 冯立娟; 杨尚尚; 朱峰


    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the analysis of polyphenol compositions and contents in different parts of ' Taishanhong' pomegranate fruit including peel, seed and juice. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil (250 mm×4. 6 mm, 5μm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile and 1% acetate acid solution for gradient elution. The column temperature was 30℃; the flow rate was 1. 1 ml/min and the wave length was 280 nm. The results indicated that thirteen phenolic compounds were identified in pomegranate peel and seed, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, catechin, vanillin, ferulic acid, benzoic acid, phloridzin, quercetin, cinnamic acid and phloretin. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified in pomegranate juice, and epicatechin was not detected. The content of polyphenols was the highest in pomegranate peel, followed by pomegranate juice and pomegranate seed. The major acidic phenolic compound and flavonoid compound in pomegranate peel were parahydroxybenzoic acid (0.828 mg/g) and epicatechin (0.915 mg/g) respectively, while those in pomegranate juice were parahydroxybenzoic acid (0. 12 mg/g) and catechin (0. 149 mg/g) respectively, and those in pomegranate seed were caffeic acid (0.026 mg/g) and phloridzin (0.075 mg/g) respectively.%以“泰山红”石榴为试材,利用高效液相色谱仪(HPLC)测定成熟期石榴果实中果皮、籽粒和果汁中酚类物质的组分及含量.色谱条件:色谱柱为Kromasil色谱柱(250mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈-1%乙酸水溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱.流速为1.1 ml/min,柱温30℃,检测波长280 nm.结果表明:在石榴皮和石榴籽中检测到13种酚类成分,包括没食子酸、绿原酸、对羟基苯甲酸、表儿茶素、咖啡酸、儿茶素、香草醛、阿魏酸、苯甲酸、根皮苷、槲皮素、肉桂酸、根皮素;在石榴汁中检测到上述12种酚类物质,未检测到表

  8. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç, T.


    Full Text Available Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants. After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. The free fatty acid, para-anisidine, iodine, and total polar component values of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.85, 57.1 and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.165, 11.80, 46.7, 11.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.151, 11.28, 49.2 and 10.5 for BHT-added oil; 0.140, 7.19, 51.7, 10.0 for carvacrol-added oil after 40 frying cycles. The results revealed that the use of carvacrol could significantly improve the oxidative stability of palm oil when compared to the control samples. This effect was also comparable to BHT. Using carvacrol in frying oil slowed down the rate of the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes compared to the oil with BHT and the control. The frying process significantly changed the viscosity of the oil samples.Las grasas y aceites se deterioran física y químicamente a las temperaturas de fritura debido a diferentes razones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del carvacrol en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de palma durante el proceso de fritura repetida. Se sometió a fritura repetida patatas en el aceite de palma con carvacrol agregado, en aceite de palma con BHT agregado y en aceite control (sin antioxidante. Después de cada décimo ciclo de fritura, se realizaron diferentes análisis sobre las muestras recogidas para evaluar el deterioro de los aceites. Ácidos grasos libre, para-anisidina, índice de yodo y componentes polares totales del aceite fresco fueron: 0,080, 2,85, 57,1 y 7,5, respectivamente

  9. Development of probes for bioanalytic applications of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering; Entwicklung neuer Sonden fuer bioanalytische Anwendungen der oberflaechenverstaerkten Raman-Streuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschulat, Andrea Isabel


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been established as a versatile tool for probing and labeling in analytical applications, based on the vibrational spectra of samples as well as label molecules in the proximity of noble metal nanostructures. The aim of this work was the construction of novel SERS hybrid probes. The hybrid probes consisted of Au and Ag nanoparticles and reporter molecules, as well as a targeting unit. The concept for the SERS hybrid probe design was followed by experiments comprising characterization techniques such as UV/Vis-spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), respectively. SERS experiments were performed for studying and optimizing the plasmonic properties of nanoparticles with respect to their enhancement capabilities. The SERS-probes had to meet following requirements: biocompatibility, stability in physiological media, and enhancement of Raman-signals from Raman reporter molecules enabling the identification of different probes even in a complex biological environment. Au and Ag nanoaggregates were found to be the most appropriate SERS substrates for the hybrid probe design. The utilization of Raman reporters enabled the identification of different SERS probes in multiplexing experiments. In particular, the multiplexing capability of ten various reporter molecules para-aminobenzenethiol, 2-naphthalenethiol, crystal violet, rhodamine (B) isothiocyanate, fluorescein isothiocyanate, 5,5'dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), para-mercaptobenzoic acid, acridine orange, safranine O und nile blue was studied using NIR-SERS excitation. As demonstrated by the results the reporters could be identified through their specific Raman signature even in the case of high structural similarity. Chemical separation analysis of the reporter signatures was performed in a trivariate approach, enabling the discrimination through an automated calculation of specific band ratios. The trivariate