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Sample records for amino terminal fragment

  1. Immunolocalization of an Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E in the Pick's Disease Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Rohn, Troy T.; Day, Ryan J; Catlin, Lindsey W; Brown, Raquel J.; Rajic, Alexander J.; Poon, Wayne W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the risk factor for apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been well described, the role that apoE plays in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Pick's disease, is not well established. To examine a possible role of apoE in Pick's disease, an immunohistochemical analysis was performed utilizing a novel site-directed antibody that is specific for an amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE cleava...

  2. Uniform {sup 15}N- and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeling of proteins in mammalian cells and solution structure of the amino terminal fragment of u-PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.P.; Petros, A.M.; Meadows, R.P.; Mazar, A.P.; Nettesheim, D.G.; Pederson, T.M.; Fesik, S.W. [Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is a 54-kDa glycoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, a broad-specificity protease responsible for the degradation of fibrin clots and extracellular matrix components. The u-PA protein consists of three individual modules: a growth factor domain (GFD), a kringle, and a serine protease domain. The amino terminal fragment (ATF) includes the GFD-responsible for u-PA binding to its receptor-and the kringle domains. This protein was expressed and uniformly {sup 15}N-and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled in mammalian cells by methods that will be described. In addition, we present the three-dimensional structure of ATF that was derived from 1299 NOE-derived distance restraints along with the {phi} angle and hydrogen bonding restraints. Although the individual domains in the structures were highly converged, the two domains are structurally independent. The overall structures of the individual domains are very similar to the structures of homologous proteins. However, important structural differences between the growth factor domain of u-PA and other homologous proteins were observed in the region that has been implicated in binding the urokinase receptor. These results may explain, in part, why other growth factors show no appreciable affinity for the urokinase receptor.

  3. Interaction of tau with the neural plasma membrane mediated by tau's amino-terminal projection domain

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The neuronal microtubule-associated protein tau is required for the development of cell polarity in cultured neurons. Using PC12 cells that stably express tau and tau amino-terminal fragments, we report that tau interacts with the neural plasma membrane through its amino-terminal projection domain. In differentiated PC12 transfectants, tau is found in growth cone-like structures in a nonmicrotubule-dependent manner. In hippocampal neurons, tau is differentially extracted by detergent and enri...

  4. Complete amino acid sequence of globin chains and biological activity of fragmented crocodile hemoglobin (Crocodylus siamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihongthong, Saowaluck; Pakdeesuwan, Anawat; Daduang, Sakda; Araki, Tomohiro; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2012-08-01

    Hemoglobin, α-chain, β-chain and fragmented hemoglobin of Crocodylus siamensis demonstrated both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the hemoglobin did not depend on the heme structure but could result from the compositions of amino acid residues and structures present in their primary structure. Furthermore, thirteen purified active peptides were obtained by RP-HPLC analyses, corresponding to fragments in the α-globin chain and the β-globin chain which are mostly located at the N-terminal and C-terminal parts. These active peptides operate on the bacterial cell membrane. The globin chains of Crocodylus siamensis showed similar amino acids to the sequences of Crocodylus niloticus. The novel amino acid substitutions of α-chain and β-chain are not associated with the heme binding site or the bicarbonate ion binding site, but could be important through their interactions with membranes of bacteria. PMID:22648692

  5. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic "NEA" peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  6. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  7. Comparative evaluation of recombinant HSP70 (N & C-terminal) fragments in the detection of equine trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, A; Yadav, S C

    2016-06-15

    Trypanosomosis (Surra) is an economically important disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi which is an extracellular parasite present in the plasma, tissues and other body fluids of a wide range of hosts including domesticated animals. Currently, serological reports are based on detection of antibodies by ELISA using whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen, which has a limitation of persistence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies after successful treatment of the disease. Moreover, it has some ethical issues also like requirement of mice for in vivo maintenance of parasite for preparing the antigen. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro production of recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) for detection of antibodies in experimentally infected ponies. The amino acid sequence analysis of HSP70 revealed that N-terminal region of the protein was highly conserved while the C-terminal region was most divergent. The four different regions of HSP70 protein viz. HSP-1, HSP-2, HSP-3 and HSP-4 were cloned and expressed, among which HSP-1 (N-terminal region) & HSP-2 (C-terminal region) were truncated while HSP-3 & HSP-4 were complete C-terminal proteins. The recombinant fragments were probed with sequentially pooled experimental serum samples where antibodies were detected in these fragments from 10(th) day post infection till the termination of the experiment. Further, these recombinant fragments were also comparatively evaluated with WCL antigen in ELISA using experimental as well as field serum samples. It was observed that after successful treatment of infected ponies, there was a sharp fall in antibodies (within 90 days) when tested with recombinant HSP's fragments, while antibodies persisted even after 469 days when tested against WCL antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of all HSP70 fragments were also estimated from field serum samples with reference to WCL antigen ELISA. The HSP-1 showed minimum sensitivity (41.03%) among all the

  8. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  9. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of Escherichia coli Lon protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium-resolution structure of the N-terminal fragment of E. coli Lon protease shows that this part of the enzyme consists of two compact domains and a very long α-helix. The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1–245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 Å resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The molecule consists of two compact subdomains and a very long C-terminal α-helix. The structure of the first subdomain (residues 1–117), which consists mostly of β-strands, is similar to that of the shorter fragment previously expressed and crystallized, whereas the second subdomain is almost entirely helical. The fold and spatial relationship of the two subdomains, with the exception of the C-terminal helix, closely resemble the structure of BPP1347, a 203-amino-acid protein of unknown function from Bordetella parapertussis, and more distantly several other proteins. It was not possible to refine the structure to satisfactory convergence; however, since almost all of the Se atoms could be located on the basis of their anomalous scattering the correctness of the overall structure is not in question. The structure reported here was also compared with the structures of the putative substrate-binding domains of several proteins, showing topological similarities that should help in defining the binding sites used by Lon substrates

  10. Antral content, secretion and peripheral metabolism of N-terminal progastrin fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In addition to the acid-stimulatory gastrins, progastrin also release N-terminal fragments. In order to examine the cellular content, secretion and peripheral metabolism of these fragments, we developed an immunoassay specific for the N-terminal sequence of human progastrin. RESULTS: ...

  11. Influence of the environment on the fragmentation of amino acids provoked by low-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With highly charged ions at low energy, molecules can be ionised on fs timescale at large distances without appreciable energy transfer. Their interaction with small amino acids leads to the fragmentation by cleavage of the weakest bond similarly to the other radiation induced fragmentation. A protective effect of the environment is observed when the molecules are embedded in a cluster of amino acids. The molecular cluster acts as a 'buffer' dissipating the excess energy.

  12. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the Coccidioides immitis chitinase/immunodiffusion-complement fixation protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, S M; Zimmermann, C R; Pappagianis, D

    1993-01-01

    A chitinase isolated from Coccidioides immitis was subjected to amino-terminal protein sequence analysis. The resulting 18-amino-acid sequence was compared with the previously reported amino acid sequence of coccidioidal immunodiffusion-complement fixation (IDCF) antigen. From the homology of the two sequences, the results support the identification of the IDCF antigen with a chitinase.

  13. Relevance of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 C-terminal fragments in pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    PETERS, HALEY L.; Tuli, Amit; Wang, Xiaojian; Liu, Cuiling; Pan, Zenggang; Ouellette, Michel M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; MacDonald, Richard G.; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    In some cellular systems, particularly neurons, amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), and its highly homologous family member amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been linked to cellular growth. APLP2 and APP undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis to produce C-terminal fragments. In this study, we found comprehensive expression of APLP2 C-terminal fragments in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines; however, APP C-terminal fragments were notably limited to the BxPC3 cell line. Exte...

  14. Mg and Mc: mutations within the amino-terminal region of glycophorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furthmayr, H; Metaxas, M N; Metaxas-Bühler, M

    1981-01-01

    M and N are the two common ("normal") alleles at the MN locus of the MNSs blood group system. The antigens M and N that they determine are located within the amino-terminal region of glycophorin A. In the serologically active and glycosylated (*) fragment of glycophorin AN the sequence is Leu-Ser*-Thr*-Thr*-Glu-, and in that of glycophorin AM it is Ser-Ser*-Thr*-Thr*-Gly-. Mg and Mc are very rare ("variant") alleles of M and N; as to the corresponding antigens, Mg is serologically quite distinct from M and N, while Mc is a compound of both. Erythrocytes of genotypes MgN, MgM, MgMg, and McM, which were the object of the present study, contain normal amounts of glycophorin A in their membrane. In glycophorin AMg the amino-terminal sequence is related to that of glycophorin AN by substitution of asparagine for threonine in position 4, and it is nonglycosylated: Leu-Ser-Thr-Asn-Glu-. The corresponding structure of glycophorin AMc is Ser-Ser*-Thr*-Thr*-Glu-; it is thus closely related to that of glycophorin AN and AM, by substitution of the amino acids in positions 1 or 5, respectively. All of these substitutions can be explained by single base changes. The distinctions in chemical structure not only confirm the location of M and N in this region of glycophorin A, because they are the only differences observed, but also indicate, because they are correlated with the distinctions in antigenic specificity, that M and N are structural genes coding for amino acid sequences. The finding that Mc contains structural features of both M and N suggests that these two forms of glycophorin A have evolved from a common ancestral gene by single base substitutions at sites in the genome coding for amino acids in positions 1 and 5 of the sequence. Carbohydrate structures, however, are also necessary for full expression of antigens M and N. Glycosylation during biosynthesis of residues within the polypeptide appears to depend on a particular protein structure. PMID:6166001

  15. Enhancement of humoral immune responses to HBsAg by heat shock protein gp96 and its N-terminal fragment in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Li; Jia-Bin Yan; Jing Li; Ming-Hai Zhou; Xiao-Dong Zhu; Yu-Xia Zhang; Po Tien

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Most studies on the immune effect of gp96 were focused on its enhancement of CTLs. It is interesting to know whether gp96 could influence the humoral immune response, and whether the recombinant N-terminal fragment of gp96 could substitute native gp96 to stimulate the immune system.METHODS: gp96 isolated from livers of normal mice and its N-terminal fragment (amino acid 22-355) expressed in E coli were used for immunization of BALb/c mice. Eight groups of mice received one of the following regiments subcutaneously in 100 μL phosphate buffered saline (PBS)at an interval of 3 wk. Group 1: PBS only; group 2:gp96 only; group 3: N-terminal fragment only; group 4: HBsAg only; group 5: HBsAg+gp96; group 6: HBsAg+N-terminalfragment; group 7: HBsAg+incomplete Freud's adjuvant; group 8: HBsAg+N-terminal fragment (95 ℃ heated for 30 min). Serum anti-HBsAg antibody levels were assayed by ELISA. CTL responses in splenocytes were analyzed by ELISPOT after the last vaccination.RESULTS: The average titer of serum anti-HBsAg antibodyin the mice immunized with HBsAg together with gp96 or its N-terminal fragment were much higher than those immunized with HBsAg alone detected by ELISA. The cellular immune response of the mice immunized with HBsAg together with gp96 or its N-terminal fragment was not different with those immunized with HBsAg alone measured by ELISPOT assay.CONCLUSION: gp96 or its N-terminal fragment greatly improved humoral immune response induced by HBsAg, but failed to enhance the CTL response, which demonstrated the potential of using gp96 or its N-terminal fragment as a possible adjuvant to augment humoral immune response against HBV infection.

  16. Primary structure of human alpha 2-macroglobulin. IV. Primary structure of two large CNBr fragments, located in the COOH-terminal part and accounting for 337 residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Wierzbicki, D M; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequences have been determined for two CNBr fragments of human alpha 2-macroglobulin which, due to the presence of an uncleaved Hse-Thr bond, form an Mr = 40,000 fragment. These fragments are located in the COOH-terminal part of alpha 2-macroglobulin (CB21, residues 955-1185 and CB......, residues 1186-1291). CB21 contains one glucosamine-based carbohydrate group attached to Asn-14 and one internal disulfide bridge (Cys-102 bound to Cys-150). CB21 and CB22 account for 337 of the 1451 residues of the subunit of alpha 2-macroglobulin....

  17. The effects of amino acid composition of glutamine-rich domains on amyloid formation and fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I Alexandrov

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of amyloid polymers by the chaperone Hsp104 allows them to propagate as prions in yeast. The factors which determine the frequency of fragmentation are unclear, though it is often presumed to depend on the physical strength of prion polymers. Proteins with long polyglutamine stretches represent a tractable model for revealing sequence elements required for polymer fragmentation in yeast, since they form poorly fragmented amyloids. Here we show that interspersion of polyglutamine stretches with various amino acid residues differentially affects the in vivo formation and fragmentation of the respective amyloids. Aromatic residues tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine strongly stimulated polymer fragmentation, leading to the appearance of oligomers as small as dimers. Alanine, methionine, cysteine, serine, threonine and histidine also enhanced fragmentation, while charged residues, proline, glycine and leucine inhibited polymerization. Our data indicate that fragmentation frequency primarily depends on the recognition of fragmentation-promoting residues by Hsp104 and/or its co-chaperones, rather than on the physical stability of polymers. This suggests that differential exposure of such residues to chaperones defines prion variant-specific differences in polymer fragmentation efficiency.

  18. An amino-terminal variant of the central cannabinoid receptor resulting from alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, D; Carillon, C; Kaghad, M; Calandra, B; Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Le Fur, G; Caput, D; Ferrara, P

    1995-02-24

    The cDNA sequences encoding the central cannabinoid receptor, CB1, are known for two species, rat and human. However, little information concerning the flanking, noncoding regions is presently available. We have isolated two overlapping clones from a human lung cDNA library with CB1 cDNA inserts. One of these, cann7, contains a short stretch of the CB1 coding region and 4 kilobase pairs (kb) of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), including two polyadenylation signals. The other, cann6, is identical to cann7 upstream from the first polyadenylation signal, and in addition, it contains the whole coding region and extends for 1.8 kb into the 5'-UTR. Comparison of cann6 with the published sequence (Gérard, C. M., Mollereau, C., Vassart, G., and Parmentier, M. (1991) Biochem. J. 279, 129-134) shows the coding regions to be identical, but reveals important differences in the flanking regions. Notably, the cann6 sequence appears to be that of an immature transcript, containing 1.8 kb of an intronic sequence in the 5'-UTR. In addition, polymerase chain reaction amplification of the CB1 coding region in the IM-9 cell line cDNA resulted in two fragments, one containing the whole CB1 coding region and the second lacking a 167-base pair intron within the sequence encoding the amino-terminal tail of the receptor. This alternatively spliced form would translate to an NH2-terminal modified isoform (CB1A) of the receptor, shorter than CB1 by 61 amino acids. In addition, the first 28 amino acids of the putative truncated receptor are completely different from those of CB1, containing more hydrophobic residues. Rat CB1 mRNA is similarly alternatively spliced. A study of the distribution of the human CB1 and CB1A mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the presence of both CB1 and CB1A throughout the brain and in all the peripheral tissues examined, with CB1A being present in amounts of up to 20% of CB1. PMID:7876112

  19. Targeted amino-terminal acetylation of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Johnson

    Full Text Available One major limitation in the expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacteria is an inability to post-translationally modify the expressed protein. Amino-terminal acetylation is one such modification that can be essential for protein function. By co-expressing the fission yeast NatB complex with the target protein in E.coli, we report a simple and widely applicable method for the expression and purification of functional N-terminally acetylated eukaryotic proteins.

  20. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  1. Metabolism of radioiodinated carboxy-terminal fragments of bovine parathyroid hormone in normal and anephric rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [125I]Carboxy-terminal fragments were produced by incubating [125I]bovine PTH(1-84) with plasma membranes from the rat renal cortex. After purification by gel chromatography and characterization by sequence analysis, these fragments, mainly [125I]bovine PTH(41-84), were injected into normal and acutely nephrectomized rats during two different experiments. In each case, blood was obtained from five rats at various time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 96 min); tissue was taken after they had been killed (4, 8, 24, and 96 min). Plasma and weighted aliquots of tissues were counted. Plasma at each time point and the extract of various tissues at the 8-min mark were further analyzed by gel chromatography. Each radioactivity peak on each profile was identified and quantitated planimetrically. [125I]Carboxy-terminal fragments were extracted from serum biexponentially: the first exponential had a half-life of 2.3 min and the second 27.2 min in normal rats. These values increased to 3.2 min (X 1.4) and 74.0 min (X 2.7) in nephrectomized rats. In normal rats, 125I-extraction was 33.4% (kidney), 15.9% (muscle), 6.9% (bone), less than 2.7% (liver), and under 1% in other tissues. In nephrectomized rats, these values were significantly (P less than 0.005) increased to 24.6% (muscle), 10% (bone), and 6.8% (liver) with less than 1% in other tissues. Most of the 125I-radioactivity present in these tissues at the 8-min time point migrated in the same manner as injected fragments or smaller degradation products generated in situ. Tissues which play a secondary role in circulating carboxy-terminal fragment extraction in normal rats can therefore increase this activity in anephric animals

  2. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M; Petri, T; Løber, D; Nielsen, L S; Schleuning, W D; Blasi, F; Appella, E; Danø, K

    1990-01-01

    -PA. The purified protein shows a single 55-60 kDa band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. It is a heavily glycosylated protein, the deglycosylated polypeptide chain comprising only 35 kDa. The glycosylated protein contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic...... acid, but no N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Glycosylation is responsible for substantial heterogeneity in the receptor on phorbol ester-stimulated U937 cells, and also for molecular weight variations among various cell lines. The amino acid composition and the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence are reported...

  3. Isolation, purification, and characterization of fragment B, the NH2-terminal half of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, M.; Lei, D L; N. Sugimoto; Ozutsumi, K; Okabe, T.

    1989-01-01

    Fragment B, the N-terminal half of the heavy chain, an important domain of the tetanus neurotoxin molecule, was isolated for the first time. Tetanus toxin (composed of three domains, A, B, and C) was prepared from culture filtrates. Fragment A-B, derived from the toxin treated mildly with papain, was used for the isolation of fragment B. Fragment A-B obtained was dissociated into fragments A and B by reduction with 100 mM dithiothreitol and treatment with 2 M urea. Fragment B was separated fr...

  4. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation

  5. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.Y.; Yang, L.X. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Z.F. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education in China, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-12-02

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation.

  6. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells

  7. Synthesis of Novel Cellulose Carbamates Possessing Terminal Amino Groups and Their Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Kristin; Wiegand, Cornelia; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cellulose phenyl carbonates are an excellent platform to synthesize a broad variety of soluble and functional cellulose carbamates. In this study, the synthesis of cellulose carbamates with terminal amino groups, namely ω-aminoethylcellulose- and ω-aminoethyl-p-aminobenzyl-cellulose carbamate, is discussed. The products are well soluble and their structures can be clearly described by NMR spectroscopy. The cellulose carbamates exhibit a bactericide and fungicide activity in vitro. The ω-aminoethylcellulose carbamate possesses a strong activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 of 0.02 mg mL(-1) and 0.05 mg mL(-1)). The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity can be improved by p-amino-benzylamine (ABA) as an additional substituent. The mixed cellulose carbamate exhibits a high biocompatibility (LC50 of 3.18 mg mL(-1)) and forms films on cotton and PES, which exhibit a strong activity against S. aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:26612063

  8. Identification of a premature termination of DNA polymerization in vitro by Klenow fragment mutants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guojie Zhao; Hua Wei; Yifu Guan

    2013-06-01

    DNA polymerization products by Klenow fragment (KF) are blunt-ended. In the present study, we found that the Klenow fragment mutants with partial deletions of thumb subdomain were unable to extend primers to the 5′ terminal of templates, thus creating 5′ overhanging sticky ends 2 nt long. We termed this phenomenon as PmTP (premature termination of polymerization). The KF mutants produced homogenous sticky-ended products only under mild reaction conditions, whereas under vigorous reaction conditions, the sticky ends were prone to be blunt-ended. It was also identified that deletions of more than four residues of KF thumb subdomain could induce PmTP, and two-residue deletion of KF thumb subdomain only induced PmTP in a lower-concentration situation. Structure modelling analysis suggested that shortening or destruction of helix H1 at the tip of the thumb subdomain was crucial to PmTP, while the conserved residues in front of helix was less important. PmTP might be caused by the reduced DNA-binding affinity of the mutants. The sticky ends made by PmTP have potential applications in gene splicing and molecular cloning techniques.

  9. Phosphorylation sites in the amino-terminal region of mouse p53.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Eckhart, W

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an attractive mechanism for regulating the functions of p53. The p34cdc2 kinase, which is involved in regulation of the cell cycle, phosphorylates serine-315 of human p53 in vitro. Casein kinase II phosphorylates serine-389 of mouse p53 in vitro. The amino-terminal region of mouse p53 contains a cluster of potential serine phosphorylation sites. Those sites have been proposed to be sites for phosphorylation by a double-stranded DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PK) from HeLa cells ...

  10. The carboxy-terminal 14 amino acids of phage lambda N protein are dispensable for transcription antitermination.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The analogous N proteins encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages lambda, 21, and 22 are very different in amino acid sequence, except at their carboxy-terminal ends. Since N lambda remains functional despite the deletion of most of its terminal region of homology to N21, that region of homology cannot represent a region of conserved function.

  11. Differential localization of processed fragments of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen and further processing of its N-terminal 47 kDa fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mitamura, Toshihide; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Horii, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    The serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. It has been shown that 120 kDa SERA was proteolytically processed into N-terminal 47 kDa fragment (P47), central 56 kDa fragment (P56) that was further converted to 50 kDa (P50), and C-terminal 18 kDa fragment (P18). Here, we have examined the processing of SERA and the localization of its processed fragments by using mouse antibodies directed against recombinant proteins corresponding to different domains of SERA. Western blot analysis showed that all the processing events occurred inside parasitized erythrocytes at the stage just prior to the schizont rupture, that P47 was further processed into two 25 kDa fragments and that the two fragments, which were linked to P18 through disulfide bonds, were associated with the merozoite. In contrast, P50 was completely shed into culture medium and absent from the merozoite. This observation was further supported by the results of indirect immunofluorescence assay. These results could account for the findings that antibodies against P47 were inhibitory to the parasite growth in vitro but those against P50 were not. Finally, we demonstrated that the further processing of P47 is allelic type-dependent. The results of the present study would help in vaccine designing based on SERA. PMID:12421632

  12. Fate of circulating amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen in conscious pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Risteli, J; Olesen, H P; Nielsen, M D; Lorenzen, I

    The amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP, M(r) 42,000) is a promising marker for the formation of type III collagen of granulation tissue in experimental and clinical studies. The disposal kinetics of circulating PIIINP is, however, almost unknown. In conscious pigs with a...... of the plasma disappearance curve originated from the formation and disappearance of a high and a low molecular weight (MW) fraction as part of the degradation of PIIINP. The high MW fraction (approximately M(r) 90,000) was similar to a previously described, but not further characterized, PIIINP...... immunoreactive component. The existence of the low MW fraction (approximately M(r) 20,000) has not been reported before. The lymphatic recirculation of intact PIIINP was rapid, and the lymph-serum ratio was almost constant within 1 h of injection. We conclude that the t1/2 of circulating PIIINP is 58 min, that...

  13. Adsorption behavior of oxidized galactomannans onto amino terminated surfaces and their interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierakowski, M.-R; Silva, Maria R.V. da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Biopolimeros]. E-mail: mrbiopol@quimica.ufpr.br; Freitas, R.A.; Moreira, Jose S.R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Fujimoto, J.; Petri, D.F.S.; Cordeiro, Paulo R.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dfsp@quim.iq.usp.br; Andrade, Fabiana D

    2001-07-01

    A galactomannan (CF) extracted from Cassia fastuosa seeds was purified and oxidized with (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) to form a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (CFOX) with a degree of oxidation (DO) of 0.22. The chemical structures of CF and CFOX were characterized. The adsorption behavior of CF and CFOX onto amino-terminated surfaces was studied by means of ellipsometric measurements. The influence of p H and ionic strength on the adsorption was also investigated. At p H 4, there was a maximum in the adsorbed amount caused by strong electrostatic attraction between the substrate and the oxidized galactomannans. There was no ionic strength effect on the adsorption behavior. The immobilization of bovine serum albumin onto CF and CFOX was studied as a function of p H. At the isoelectric point a maximum in the adsorbed amount was found. (author)

  14. Identification of a natural mutant of HBV X protein truncated 27 amino acids at the COOH terminal and its effect on liver cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHANG; Xiao-dong ZHANG; Chang-liang SHAN; Nan LI; Xuan ZHANG; Xue-zhi ZHANG; Fu-qing XU; Shuai ZHANG; Li-yan QIU; Li-hong YE

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To identify mutants of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) gene and inves-tigate the effect of the natural mutant on liver cell proliferation. Methods:We identified natural mutants of the HBx gene from 188 sera and 48 tissues of Chinese patients infected with HBV by PCR, respectively. Based on the identification of the mutants ofHBx gene, we cloned the fragments of the mutants into the pcDNA3 vector. The biological activities of the mutants were investigated. Results:We identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene with deletion from 382 to 401 base pairs from 3 sera out of 188 patients, which resulted in the expression deletion of the HBx protein from the 128th amino acid at the COOH terminal. The similar mutant with deletion from 382 base pair at the COOH terminal was identified from 5 cases of genomes out of 48 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Regarding the biological activities of the mutant, we found that the mutant of the HBx protein failed to induce apoptosis by transient transfection, but promoted proliferation of human liver immortalized L-O2 cells by stable transfection, compared with the wild-type HBx protein. The data showed that the proliferation of the mutant stably-trans-fected L-O2-X-Sera cells and fragment stably-transfected L-O2-X△127 cells was enhanced by the BrdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Lu-ciferase reporter gene assay showed that the transcriptional activities of NF-kB, survivin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase were upregulated, and West-ern blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of c-Myc and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were upregulated in the cells. Conclusion:Our find-ings suggest that the natural HBx mutant truncated 27 amino acids at the COOH terminal promotes cell proliferation.

  15. High efficiency adenovirus-mediated expression of truncated N-terminal huntingtin fragment (htt552) in primary rat astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linhui Wang; Fang Lin; Junchao Wu; Zhenghong Qin

    2009-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of polyglutamine tract in N-terminus of huntingtin (htt).The mutation of htt leads to dysfunction and premature death of striatal and cortical neurons. However, the effects of htt mutation on glia remain largely unknown.This study aimed to establish a glia HD model using an adenoviral vector to express wild-type and mutant N-terminal huntingtin fragment 1-552 amino acids (htt552) in rat primary cortical astrocytes. We have eval-uated optimal conditions for the infection of astrocytes with adenovirai vectors, and the kinetics of the expression of htt552 in astrocytes. The majority of astroeytes expressed the transgene after infection. At 24 h post-infection, the highest rate of infection was 89 + 3% for the wild-type (htt552-18Q) with a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) of 80, and the highest rate of infection was 91 +4% for the mutant type (htt552-100Q) with the same viral dose. The duration of expression of htt552 lasted for about 7 days with a relatively high level from 1 to 4 days post-infection. Mutant huntingtin (htt552-100Q) pro-duced the characteristic HD pathology after 3 days by the appearance of cytoplasmic aggregates and intranue-lear inclusions. The result of MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu mbromide)assay showed that the inhibition of viability by virus on astrocytes was also dose-dependent. To obtain high infection rate and low toxicity, the viral dose with an m.o.i, of 40 was optimal to our cell model. The present study demonstrates that adenovirai-mediated expression of mutant htt provides an advantageous system for his-tological and biochemical analysis of HD pathogenesis in primary cortical astrocyte cultures.

  16. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  17. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type III procollagen amino-terminal propeptide and hyaluronan in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Boesby, S;

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic and renal clearance of the amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and of the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan (HA) were investigated in a catheterization study of seven healthy anesthetized pigs. Two assays were used, in order to distinguish between the metabolism of...

  18. The amino-terminal segment in the β-domain of δ-cadinene synthase is essential for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Verónica; Grundy, Daniel J; Faraldos, Juan A; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2016-08-21

    Despite its distance from the active site the flexible amino-terminal segment (NTS) in the β-domain of the plant sesquiterpene cyclase δ-cadinene synthase (DCS) is essential for active site closure and desolvation events during catalysis. PMID:27431578

  19. Role of the Amino-Terminal Region of Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbriae in Adherence to Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Han, Yiping; Hamada, Nobushiro; Sharma, Ashu; Genco, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae elicit many responses in eukaryotic cells, including mitogenicity, cytokine production, epithelial cell invasion, and cellular immune response. Specific domains of the major fimbrial protein (FimA) have been shown to be important in triggering some of these functions. The goal of the present study was to identify the domain(s) of P. gingivalis FimA responsible for specific interaction with human mucosal epithelial cells. Fimbriated P. gingivalis strains have been shown to bind to buccal epithelial cells, whereas nonfimbriated strains bind at low levels or not at all. This and other studies provide evidence that FimA mediates the adherence of P. gingivalis to oral epithelial cells. To determine the specific region(s) of P. gingivalis FimA involved in epithelial cell binding, specific antipeptide antibodies were used to inhibit the binding of iodinated purified fimbriae as well as the binding of P. gingivalis cells to epithelial cells. Antibodies directed against peptides 49 to 68 (VVMANTAGAMELVGKTLAEVK) and 69 to 90 (ALTTELTAENQEAAGLIMTAEP) were found to highly inhibit both the binding of fimbriae and the binding of P. gingivalis cells to epithelial cells. The antibody against FimA peptides 69 to 90 also reacted with P. gingivalis fimbriae in immunogold labeling and immunoblot analysis, thereby indicating that this peptide domain is exposed on the surface of fimbriae. Our results suggest that the amino-terminal domain corresponding to amino acid residues 49 to 90 of the fimbrillin protein is a major epithelial cell binding domain of P. gingivalis fimbriae. PMID:10531284

  20. The C-Terminal Region of G72 Increases D-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Li-Yun Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The schizophrenia-related protein G72 plays a unique role in the regulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO in great apes. Several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are linked to overexpression of DAO and G72. Whether G72 plays a positive or negative regulatory role in DAO activity, however, has been controversial. Exploring the molecular basis of the relationship between G72 and DAO is thus important to understand how G72 regulates DAO activity. We performed yeast two-hybrid experiments and determined enzymatic activity to identify potential sites in G72 involved in binding DAO. Our results demonstrate that residues 123–153 and 138–153 in the long isoform of G72 bind to DAO and enhance its activity by 22% and 32%, respectively. A docking exercise indicated that these G72 peptides can interact with loops in DAO that abut the entrance of the tunnel that substrate and cofactor must traverse to reach the active site. We propose that a unique gating mechanism underlies the ability of G72 to increase the activity of DAO. Because upregulation of DAO activity decreases d-serine levels, which may lead to psychiatric abnormalities, our results suggest a molecular mechanism involving interaction between DAO and the C-terminal region of G72 that can regulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  1. Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Human TLE1 N-terminal Q Domain Fragment and Production of its Polyclonal Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su WANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective TLE1 is an important protein in regulating Wnt, Notch and EGFR signaling pathways. The TLE1 N-terminal Q domain regulates the pathways by mediating its oligomerization and interaction with LEF1. The aim of this study is to construct the human TLE1 N-terminal Q domain fragment in prokaryotic expression system, express and purify protein TLE1 N-terminal Q domain and prepare its polyclonal antibody. Methods The sequence of TLE1 N-terminal Q domain obtained by PCR from human lung adenocarcinoma cDNA, was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1 containing Glutathione S-transferase (GST. Vector pGEX-4T1-TLE1-Q was transformed into E.coli BL21 condon plus. The GST-TLE1-Q(1-136 fusion protein was induced by IPTG, digested by Thrombin, purified with glutathione-sepharose beads and FPLC, identified by SDS-PAGE. Then rabbits were immunized with the purified protein TLE1-Q(1-136 for obtaining the antiserum. The titers and specificity of antibodies were measured by ELISA and Western blot. Results The PCR identification and the sequencing of recombinant plasmid demonstrated that vector pGEX-4T1-TLE1-Q was successfully constructed. The SDS-PAGE shows target protein (14 000 Da is the interest protein TLE1-Q(1-136. The TLE1 N-terminal Q domain fragment TLE1-Q(1-136 and its polyclonal antibody have been acquired, with an antibody titer of 1:20 000. Conclusion Expression vector pGEX-4T1-TLE1-Q is correctly constructed. The TLE1 N-terminal Q domain fragment TLE1-Q(1-136 and its polyclonal antibody have been acquired. These work established the foundation for further biological study between TLE1 and lung cancers.

  2. Discrimination among individuals using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of bacteria derived from forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Eiji; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    DNA typing from forensic evidence is commonly used to identify individuals. However, when the quantity of the forensic evidence is insufficient, successful identification using DNA typing is impossible. Such evidence may also contain DNA from bacteria that occur naturally on the skin. In this study, we aimed to establish a profiling method using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLPs) of the amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. First, the extraction and digestion processes were investigated, and the T-RFLP profiling method using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon was optimized. We then used this method to compare the profiles of bacterial flora from the hands of 12 different individuals. We found that the T-RFLP profiles from one person on different days displayed higher similarity than those between individuals. In a principal component analysis (PCA), T-RFLPs from each individual were closely clustered in 11 out of 12 cases. The clusters could be distinguished from each other, even when the samples were collected from different conditions. No major change of the profile was observed after six months except in two cases. When handprints on glass plates were compared, 11 of 12 individuals were assigned to a few clusters including the cluster corresponding to the correct individual. In conclusion, a method for reproducible T-RFLP profiling of bacteria from trace amounts of handprints was established. The profiles were obtained for particular individuals clustered in PCA and were experimentally separable from other individuals in most cases. This technique could provide useful information for narrowing down a suspect in a criminal investigation. PMID:25335807

  3. Regulation of Presynaptic Ca2+, Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Conditioning by a N-terminal β-Amyloid Fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, James L.M.; Tong, Mei; Alfulaij, Naghum; Sherrin, Tessi; Contarino, Mark; White, Michael M.; Bellinger, Frederick P.; Todorovic, Cedomir; Nichols, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble β-amyloid has been shown to regulate presynaptic Ca2+ and synaptic plasticity. In particular, picomolar β-amyloid was found to have an agonist-like action on presynaptic nicotinic receptors and to augment long-term potentiation (LTP) in a manner dependent upon nicotinic receptors. Here, we report that a functional N-terminal domain exists within β-amyloid for its agonist-like activity. This sequence corresponds to a N-terminal fragment generated by the combined action of α- and β-secr...

  4. Studies on Fragmentation Pathways of N-Ethoxy(phenyl) phosphoryl Amino Acids by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The positive and negative ESI-MS/MS spectra of N-ethoxy(phenyl) phosphoryl amino acids(EPP-AA) were investigated by electrospray ionization(ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. The fragmentation pathways of [M + Na]+ and [M-H]- ions areproposed and rationalized. The observation may have some potential applications in the interpretation of the MS/MS spectra of novel N-phosphoryl compounds. The complexity of MS/MS spectra of EPP-AA [M + Na] + ions is decreased compared with that of N-dialkyloxyphosphoryl amino acid. Therefore, the new phosphonamidate method may be considered one of the superior methods that can be used in sequencing peptides and proteins extensively.

  5. C-Peptide and Its C-Terminal Fragments Improve Erythrocyte Deformability in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/hypothesis. Data now indicate that proinsulin C-peptide exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of an endogenous peptide hormone. This study aimed to investigate the influence of C-peptide and fragments thereof on erythrocyte deformability and to elucidate the relevant signal transduction pathway. Methods. Blood samples from 23 patients with type 1 diabetes and 15 matched healthy controls were incubated with 6.6 nM of either human C-peptide, C-terminal hexapeptide, C-terminal pentapeptide, a middle fragment comprising residues 11–19 of C-peptide, or randomly scrambled C-peptide. Furthermore, red blood cells from 7 patients were incubated with C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptides with/without addition of ouabain, EDTA, or pertussis toxin. Erythrocyte deformability was measured using a laser diffractoscope in the shear stress range 0.3–60 Pa. Results. Erythrocyte deformability was impaired by 18–25% in type 1 diabetic patients compared to matched controls in the physiological shear stress range 0.6–12 Pa (P<.01–.001. C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptide all significantly improved the impaired erythrocyte deformability of type 1 diabetic patients, while the middle fragment and scrambled C-peptide had no detectable effect. Treatment of erythrocytes with ouabain or EDTA completely abolished the C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptide effects. Pertussis toxin in itself significantly increased erythrocyte deformability. Conclusion/interpretation. C-peptide and its C-terminal fragments are equally effective in improving erythrocyte deformability in type 1 diabetes. The C-terminal residues of C-peptide are causally involved in this effect. The signal transduction pathway is Ca2+-dependent and involves activation of red blood cell Na+,K+-ATPase.

  6. Interfering amino terminal peptides and functional implications for heteromeric gap junction formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard David Veenstra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Connexin43 (Cx43 is widely expressed in many different tissues of the human body. In cells of some organs, Cx43 is co-expressed with other connexins (Cx, including Cx46 and Cx50 in lens, Cx40 in atrium, Purkinje fibers, and the blood vessel wall, Cx45 in heart, and Cx37 in the ovary. Interactions with the co-expressed connexins may have profound functional implications. The abilities of Cx37, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx50 to function in heteromeric gap junction combinations with Cx43 are well documented. Different studies disagree regarding the ability of Cx43 and Cx40 to produce functional heteromeric gap junctions with each other. We review previous studies regarding the heteromeric interactions of Cx43. The possibility of negative functional interactions between the cytoplasmic pore-forming amino terminal (NT domains of these connexins was assessed using pentameric connexin sequence-specific NT domain (iNT peptides applied to cells expressing homomeric Cx40, Cx37, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx50 gap junctions. A Cx43 iNT peptide corresponding to amino acids 9 to 13 (Ac-KLLDK-NH2 specifically inhibited the electrical coupling of Cx40 gap junctions in a transjunctional (Vj voltage-dependent manner without affecting the function of homologous Cx37, Cx46, Cx50, and Cx45 gap junctions. A Cx40 iNT (Ac-EFLEE-OH peptide counteracted the Vj-dependent block of Cx40 gap junctions, whereas a similarly charged Cx50 iNT (Ac-EEVNE-OH peptide did not, suggesting that these NT domain interactions are not solely based on electrostatics. These data are consistent with functional Cx43 heteromeric gap junction formation with Cx37, Cx45, Cx46, and Cx50 and suggest that Cx40 uniquely experiences functional suppressive interactions with a Cx43 NT domain sequence. These findings present unique functional implications about the heteromeric interactions between Cx43 and Cx40 that may influence cardiac conduction in atrial myocardium and the specialized conduction system.

  7. Use of amino terminal type III procollagen peptide (P3NP) assay in methotrexate therapy for psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S; Subedi, D; Chowdhury, M M U

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis continues to be a risk in patients receiving methotrexate for psoriasis. Measurement of amino terminal levels of type III procollagen (P3NP) has been advocated as an effective non‐invasive test for ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis that could avoid liver biopsies. An audit was conducted to assess the practice of P3NP monitoring using guidelines produced by Manchester and whether the agreed levels correlate with histological severity. Sixty five patients with 174 P3NP assays and 30...

  8. Long-lasting mnemotropic effect of substance P and its N-terminal fragment (SP1-7 on avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomaz

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the long-lasting effect of peripheral injection of the neuropeptide substance P (SP and of some N- or C-terminal SP fragments (SPN and SPC, respectively on retention test performance of avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats (220 to 280 g were trained in an inhibitory step-down avoidance task and tested 24 h or 21 days later. Immediately after the training trial rats received an intraperitoneal injection of SP (50 µg/kg, SPN 1-7 (167 µg/kg or SPC 7-11 (134 µg/kg. Control groups were injected with vehicle or SP 5 h after the training trial. The immediate post-training administration of SP and SPN, but not SPC, facilitated avoidance behavior in rats tested 24 h or 21 days later, i.e., the retention test latencies of the SP and SPN groups were significantly longer (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test during both training-test intervals. These observations suggest that the memory-enhancing effect of SP is long-lasting and that the amino acid sequence responsible for this effect is encoded by its N-terminal part

  9. The C-terminal fragment of prostate-specific antigen, a 2331 Da peptide, as a new urinary pathognomonic biomarker candidate for diagnosing prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most common cancers and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Mass screening has been carried out since the 1990s using prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in the serum as a PCa biomarker. However, although PSA is an excellent organ-specific marker, it is not a cancer-specific marker. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover new biomarkers for the diagnosis of PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We focused on urine samples voided following prostate massage (digital rectal examination [DRE] and conducted a peptidomic analysis of these samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS(n. Urinary biomaterials were concentrated and desalted using CM-Sepharose prior to the following analyses being performed by MALDI-TOF/MS(n: 1 differential analyses of mass spectra; 2 determination of amino acid sequences; and 3 quantitative analyses using a stable isotope-labeled internal standard. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of the MALDI-TOF/MS mass spectra of urinary extracts revealed a 2331 Da peptide in urine samples following DRE. This peptide was identified as a C-terminal PSA fragment composed of 19 amino acid residues. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the relationship between isotope-labeled synthetic and intact peptides using MALDI-TOF/MS revealed that this peptide may be a new pathognomonic biomarker candidate that can differentiate PCa patients from non-cancer subjects. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the 2331 Da peptide fragment of PSA may become a new pathognomonic biomarker for the diagnosis of PCa. A further large-scale investigation is currently underway to assess the possibility of using this peptide in the early detection of PCa.

  10. Effect of amino-terminated substrates onto surface properties of cellulose esters and their interaction with lectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Films of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) were deposited from ethyl acetate solutions onto bare silicon wafers (Si/SiO2) or amino-terminated surfaces (APS) by means of equilibrium adsorption. All surfaces were characterized by means of ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The presence of amino groups on the support surface favored the adsorption of CAB and CMCAB, inducing the orientation of most polar groups to the surface and the exposition of alkyl group to the air. Such molecular orientation caused increase of the dispersive component of surface energy (γsd) and decrease of the polar component of surface energy (γsp) of cellulose esters in comparison to those values determined for films deposited onto bare Si/SiO2 wafers. Adsorption behavior of jacalin or concanavalin A onto CAB and CMCAB films was also investigated. The adsorbed amounts of lectins were more pronounced on cellulose esters with high (γsp) and total surface energy (γst) values. - Highlights: ► Amino groups on the substrate induce the orientation of cellulose esters polar groups. ► Amino terminated substrate caused decrease of surface energy of cellulose ester films. ► Lectins adsorbed preferentially onto cellulose esters with high surface energy.

  11. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND356–58, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs

  12. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiheido, Hirokazu, E-mail: shiheido@ak.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  13. Effect of amino-terminated substrates onto surface properties of cellulose esters and their interaction with lectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amim, Jorge [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 748, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Macae, Av. Aluizio Gomes da Silva 50, 27930-560, Macae (Brazil); Petri, Denise F.S., E-mail: dfsp@usp.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 748, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Films of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) were deposited from ethyl acetate solutions onto bare silicon wafers (Si/SiO{sub 2}) or amino-terminated surfaces (APS) by means of equilibrium adsorption. All surfaces were characterized by means of ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The presence of amino groups on the support surface favored the adsorption of CAB and CMCAB, inducing the orientation of most polar groups to the surface and the exposition of alkyl group to the air. Such molecular orientation caused increase of the dispersive component of surface energy ({gamma}{sub s}{sup d}) and decrease of the polar component of surface energy ({gamma}{sub s}{sup p}) of cellulose esters in comparison to those values determined for films deposited onto bare Si/SiO{sub 2} wafers. Adsorption behavior of jacalin or concanavalin A onto CAB and CMCAB films was also investigated. The adsorbed amounts of lectins were more pronounced on cellulose esters with high ({gamma}{sub s}{sup p}) and total surface energy ({gamma}{sub s}{sup t}) values. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino groups on the substrate induce the orientation of cellulose esters polar groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino terminated substrate caused decrease of surface energy of cellulose ester films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lectins adsorbed preferentially onto cellulose esters with high surface energy.

  14. E2 polypeptides encoded by bovine papillomavirus type 1 form dimers through the common carboxyl-terminal domain: transactivation is mediated by the conserved amino-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, A A; Byrne, J C; Howley, P M

    1989-01-01

    The E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) encodes positive- and negative-acting factors that regulate viral gene expression. The full-length ORF encodes a transactivator, and two transcriptional repressors are expressed from the 3' half of the ORF. Previous analysis has shown that a conserved C-terminal region of 101 amino acids, which is shared by E2 transactivator and repressor proteins, contains the specific DNA binding activity. Further analysis of the E2 transactivator shows that a conserved N-terminal domain of approximately 220 amino acids is crucial for the transcriptional activation function, whereas the variable internal region is not required. The E2 proteins bind to a sequence, ACCGN4CGGT, several copies of which are sufficient to constitute an E2-dependent enhancer. By using a gel retardation assay and proteins derived by in vitro transcription and translation, we were able to show that the E2 polypeptides bind as dimers to a single DNA binding site. The dimeric E2 proteins are stable in the absence of DNA and dimerization is mediated through the DNA binding domain. This may reveal an additional mechanism of repression that could potentially result from the formation of inactive heterodimers between transactivator and repressor species. PMID:2536165

  15. C-TERMINAL FRAGMENT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA-INDUCED PROTEIN (TGFBIp) IS REQUIRED FOR APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN OSTEOSARCOMA CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Zamilpa, Rogelio; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Phelix, Clyde F.; Somaraki-Cormier, Maria; Haskins, William; Asmis, Reto; LeBaron, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp), is secreted into the extracellular space. When fragmentation of C-terminal portions is blocked, apoptosis is low, even when the protein is overexpressed. If fragmentation occurs, apoptosis is observed. Whether full-length TGFBIp or integrin-binding fragments released from its C-terminus is necessary for apoptosis remains equivocal. More importantly, the exact portion of the C-terminus that conveys the pro-apoptotic property of TGFBIp i...

  16. Analysis of proteolytic processes and enzymatic activities in the generation of huntingtin n-terminal fragments in an HEK293 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T N Tebbenkamp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt that terminate between residues 90-115, termed cleavage product A or 1 (cp-A/1, form intracellular and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD. These fragments appear to be proteolytic products of the full-length protein. Here, we use an HEK293 cell culture model to investigate huntingtin proteolytic processing; previous studies of these cells have demonstrated cleavage of htt to cp-A/1 like htt fragments. RESULTS: Recombinant N-terminal htt fragments, terminating at residue 171 (also referred to as cp-B/2 like, were efficiently cleaved to produce cp-A/1 whereas fragments representing endogenous caspase, calpain, and metalloproteinase cleavage products, terminating between residues 400-600, were inefficiently cleaved. Using cysteine-labeling techniques and antibody binding mapping, we localized the C-terminus of the cp-A/1 fragments produced by HEK293 cells to sequences minimally limited by cysteine 105 and an antibody epitope composed of residues 115-124. A combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches to inhibit potential proteases, including γ-secretase and calpain, proved ineffective in preventing production of cp-A/1. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that HEK293 cells express a protease that is capable of efficiently cleaving cp-B/2 like fragments of htt with normal or expanded glutamine repeats. For reasons that remain unclear, this protease cleaves longer htt fragments, with normal or expanded glutamine expansions, much less efficiently. The protease in HEK293 cells that is capable of generating a cp-A/1 like htt fragment may be a novel protease with a high preference for a cp-B/2-like htt fragment as substrate.

  17. Characterization and amino-terminal sequence of phospholipase A2-II from the venom of Agkistrodon bilineatus (common cantil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikai, T; Komori, Y; Ohara, A; Yagihashi, S; Ohizumi, Y; Sugihara, H

    1994-01-01

    1. Phospholipase A2 was isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon bilineatus by Sephadex G-75 and CM-Cellulose column chromatographies. 2. The purified phospholipase A2 gave a single band on disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ODS-HPLC. 3. The enzyme preparation had a mol. wt of 14,000, isoelectric point of pH 10.12 and possessed 121 amino acid residues. 4. The enzyme hydrolyzed the phospholipids phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl serine. 5. The contraction of mouse diaphragm was inhibited by phospholipase A2-II. 6. Phospholipase A2 activity of this preparation was inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, ethyleneglycol (beta-aminoethyl) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, p-bromophenacyl bromide or N-bromosuccinimide, but not by iodoacetic acid or diisopropyl fluorophosphate. 7. The amino-terminal sequence of the PLA2-II was determined. PMID:8138046

  18. Presence and in vivo biosynthesis of fragments of CPP (the C-terminal glycopeptide of the rat vasopressin precursor) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence and rate of formation of fragments of the 39-residue C-terminal glycopeptide of propressophysin (CPP1-39) was investigated in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Newly-prepared antisera to CPP were used to confirm the existence of smaller C-terminal fragments derived from CPP1-39. Radiolabelled fucose was injected into rats in vivo into the area of the supraoptic nucleus, and the labelled peptides formed in the neurohypophysis were examined at various time intervals up to five weeks after the injection. The products derived from the neurohypophyseal hormone precursors were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The level of the major immunoreactive C-terminal fragment (CPP22-39) was constant and represented about 5% of the intact CPP1-39 in the neurohypophysis. The appearance of newly-synthesized N-terminal fragment of CPP1-39 occurred only after 3 or 4 days. This fucose labelled fragment increased slowly thereafter until it reached the same level as the CPP C-terminal fragment immunoreactivity between 21 and 28 days after injection. The results suggest that CPP1-39 is extremely stable in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal neurons, and that the cleavage at Arg21-Leu22 is a delayed proteolytic event in the magnocellular neurons of the SON

  19. Increased urine level of amino-terminal peptide derivatives of type III procollagen in patients with liver diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Koide, Norio; Ukida,Minoru; Kondo, Hideaki; Jitoku,Michihiro; Ono,Ryosaku; Tanabe,Takayoshi; Nagashima,Hideo

    1986-01-01

    The amino-terminal peptides of type III procollagen (PIIIP) in the urine of 40 patients with various liver diseases were determined with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. The level of urinary PIIIP (uPIIIP) was correlated well with serum PIIIP (sPIIIP) in 9 patients, the coefficient of correlation being r = 0.836 (p less than 0.01) and the regression line being y = 1.42x + 24. Urinary PIIIP consisted of at least 4 different molecular species with molecular weights of 49 k, 18 k, 10 k and 4.6...

  20. Both the RGS Domain and the Six C-Terminal Amino Acids of Mouse Axin Are Required for Normal Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Ian V.; Kim, Min Jung; Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y.; Costantini, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Axin is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, which promotes the degradation of β-catenin, the major effector in this signaling cascade. While many protein-binding domains of Axin have been identified, their significance has not been evaluated in vivo. Here, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying modified Axin alleles in which either the RGS domain or the six C-terminal amino acids (C6 motif) were deleted. The RGS domain is required for APC-binding, while the C6 mot...

  1. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.; Frebort, I.; Jacobsen, Susanne; Faulhammer, H.G.; Pec, P.

    2001-01-01

    further purified to a final homogeneity (by the criteria of isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) using techniques of low pressure chromatography followed by two FPLC steps. The purified yellow enzyme showed visible absorption maxima of a flavoprotein at 380 and 450 nm: the presence of FAD as the cofactor...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of...

  2. Primary structure of human alpha 2-macroglobulin. I. Isolation of the 26 CNBr fragments, amino acid sequence of 13 small CNBr fragments, amino acid sequence of methionine-containing peptides, and alignment of all CNBr fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Stepanik, T M; Jones, C M; Lønblad, P B; Kristensen, Torsten; Wierzbicki, DM

    1984-01-01

    fragments account for 603 of the 1451 residues of the subunits of alpha 2-macroglobulin. CB2 contains two glucosamine-based carbohydrate groups attached to Asn-23 and Asn-38, and one internal disulfide bridge connecting Cys-16 with Cys-54. CB6 contains one glucosamine-based carbohydrate group attached to...... Asn-1 and two internal disulfide bridges (Cys-5 bound to Cys-53 and Cys-23 bound to Cys-41, respectively); Cys-32 is bound to Cys-16 in CB8. CB7 contains two glucosamine-based carbohydrate groups attached to Asn-78 and Asn-92, CB8 contains 1 Cys residue (Cys-16), bridged to Cys-32 of CB6. CB11...

  3. Method for the selective measurement of amino-terminal variants of procalcitonin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struck, J.; Strebelow, M.; Tietz, S.; Alonso, C.; Morgenthaler, N.G.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Bergmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established marker for diagnosing and monitoring bacterial infections. Full-length PCT [116 amino acids that make up procalcitonin (PCT1-116)] can be truncated, leading to des-Ala-Pro-PCT (des-Alanin-Prolin-Procalcitonin; PCT3-116). Current immunoassays for PCT

  4. Importance of the terminal α-amino group of bradykinin and some kynins on capillary permeability increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reliable method is described for the quantitative evaluation of vascular permeability increase induced by vasoactive drugs with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131. By using this method the importance of α-amino group of bradykinin (Bk), kallidin (Kd) and methionyl-kallidin (Met-Kd) on the biological activity were studied after reacting the kinins with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. Phosphopyridoxyl-kinins were formed leaving free the guanidino groups. Aminoacid analysis of phosphopyridoxyl-kinin showed that the efficiency of the reaction was extremely good in the blockage of α-amino groups [phosphopyridoxyl-bradikinin (PP-Bk) = 98,8%, phosphopyridoxyl-kallidin (PP-Kd) = 95,2%, phosphopyridoxyl-methionyl-kallidin (PP-Met-Kd) = 98,0%. Log dose-response curves were obtained for Bk, Kd, Met-Kd, acetyl-bradykinin (Ac-Bk), PP-Bk, PP-Kd and PP-Met-Kd and the relative potencies calculated through the Lineweaver-Burk plots. The relative potencies were: PP-Bk about 16% the activity of Bk, Ac-Bk about 31% the activity of Bk, PP-Kd about 17% the activity of Kd, PP-Met-Kd about 12% the activity of Met-Kd. The results show that the terminal α-amino group of kinins is important in the mechanisms of biological activity. (Author)

  5. Covalent Bonding of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to Terminal Guanine Residues within Duplex and Hairpin DNA Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Mantaj, Julia; Jackson, Paul J. M.; Rahman, Khondaker M.; Thurston, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are covalent-binding DNA-interactive agents with growing importance as payloads in Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs). Until now, PBDs were thought to covalently bond to C2-NH2 groups of guanines in the DNA-minor groove across a three-base-pair recognition sequence. Using HPLC/MS methodology with designed hairpin and duplex oligonucleotides, we have now demonstrated that the PBD Dimer SJG-136 and the C8-conjugated PBD Monomer GWL-78 can covalently bond to a terminal...

  6. Amino-terminal extension present in the methionine aminopeptidase type 1c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is indispensible for its activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Sangaralingam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP is a ubiquitous enzyme in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which catalyzes co-translational removal of N-terminal methionine from elongating polypeptide chains during protein synthesis. It specifically removes the terminal methionine in all organisms, if the penultimate residue is non-bulky and uncharged. The MetAP action for exclusion of N-terminal methionine is mandatory in 50-70% of nascent proteins. Such an activity is required for proper sub cellular localization, additional processing and eventually for the degradation of proteins. Results We cloned genes encoding two such metalloproteases (MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and expressed them as histidine-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. Although they have different substrate preferences, for Met-Ala-Ser, we found, MtMetAP1c had significantly high enzyme turnover rate as opposed to MtMetAP1a. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies as well as monitoring of enzyme activity indicated high temperature stability (up to 50°C of MtMetAP1a compared to that of the MtMetAP1c. Modelling of MtMetAP1a based on MtMetAP1c crystal structure revealed the distinct spatial arrangements of identical active site amino acid residues and their mutations affected the enzymatic activities of both the proteins. Strikingly, we observed that 40 amino acid long N-terminal extension of MtMetAP1c, compared to its other family members, contributes towards the activity and stability of this enzyme, which has never been reported for any methionine aminopeptidase. Furthermore, mutational analysis revealed that Val-18 and Pro-19 of MtMetAP1c are crucial for its enzymatic activity. Consistent with this observation, molecular dynamic simulation studies of wild-type and these variants strongly suggest their involvement in maintaining active site conformation of MtMetAP1c. Conclusion Our findings unequivocally emphasized that N-terminal

  7. Analysis of Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle Given Silage and Probiotics Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONI RIDWAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rumen ecology is an important observation in evaluating the effectivity of silage and probiotic additives relating to their roles in cattle productivity. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of silage and probiotics on ruminal ecosystems in vivo using a molecular approach. Terminal-restriction fragment-length-polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis was used to detect changes of ecological communities based on 16S-ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S-rDNA. Two rumen canulated PO cattle were fed several diets i.e.; (R0 basal diet dry matter basis (Pennisetum purpureum 70% and commercial concentrate 30%, (R1 silage (basal diet fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum BTCC570, (R2 silage + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531, (R3 Basal diet + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531. Digesta samples were collected 3 h after feeding for pH and T-RFLP analysis. T-RFLP analysis was performed using the 16S-rDNA amplified from each sample. The lengths of the terminal restriction fragments were analysed after digestion with HhaI, HaeIII and MspI. Results showed the effectivenes of silage and probiotics, given together, on the index of Smith and Wilson evenness applied to T-RFLP ecology data (Evar with 0.89±0.04 being the highest. The diversity of rumen microorganisms is influenced by individual differences of each animal. T-RFLP analysis has a potency to be used for comparisons of complex bacterial communities, especially to detect changes in community structure in response to different variables and to show rumen bacteria diversity in the rumen.

  8. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.;

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first purification method developed for the isolation of an homogeneous polyamine oxidase (PAO) from etiolated barley seedlings. The crude enzyme preparation was obtained after initial precipitation of the extract with protamine sulphate and ammonium sulphate. The enzyme was...... further purified to a final homogeneity (by the criteria of isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) using techniques of low pressure chromatography followed by two FPLC steps. The purified yellow enzyme showed visible absorption maxima of a flavoprotein at 380 and 450 nm: the presence of FAD as the cofactor...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of...

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the Bag2 amino-terminal domain from Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino-terminal domain of the Hsp70 co-chaperone Bag2 from M. musculus has been crystallized in native and selenomethionyl forms diffracting to 2.27 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. Bag2, an atypical member of the Bag family of Hsp70 co-chaperones, acts as both an Hsp70 nucleotide-exchange factor and an inhibitor of the Hsp70-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein). The amino-terminal domain of Bag2 (Bag2-NTD), which is required for inhibition of CHIP, has no sequence homologs in the PDB. Native and selenomethionyl (SeMet) forms of Bag2-NTD were crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. Native Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 2.27 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.5, b = 84.7, c = 114.1 Å. SeMet Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 3.10 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 53.3, c = 86.7 Å. Phases for the SeMet Bag2-NTD crystal were solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Initial phasing and model building using the 3.10 Å resolution SeMet Bag2-NTD data set suggested that Bag2-NTD forms a dimer and adopts a fold distinct from those of any domains annotated in the Pfam or SMART domain databases

  10. Characterization of translational inhibitors from Phytolacca americana. Amino-terminal sequence determination and antibody-inhibitor conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn, M J; Larrick, J; Piatak, M; Wilson, K J

    1984-10-23

    Two translational inhibitors (pokeweed antiviral protein and pokeweed antiviral protein II) isolated from the leaves of the pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, were characterized as to their behavior during reverse-phase HPLC and their amino-terminal sequences. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that a substantial degree of homology was present (10 of 29 identical residues). Pokeweed antiviral protein was shown by reverse-phase chromatography to be composed of at least two components, pokeweed antiviral proteina and pokeweed antiviral proteinb, which comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, shared identical N-terminal amino-acid sequences through residue 31, and had similar specific activities in a cell-free translation inhibition assay. Pokeweed antiviral protein II was covalently coupled to a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the transferrin receptor (anti-transferrin receptor). The disulfide-linked conjugate inhibited protein synthesis in the human breast tumor cell line MCF-7, whereas anti-transferrin receptor, pokeweed antiviral protein II, or an immunotoxin composed of an irrelevant antiserum and pokeweed antiviral protein II, were nontoxic. The inhibitory dose 50% of anti-transferrin receptor-pokeweed antiviral protein II for MCF-7 cells was 0.7 nM, whereas the corresponding ricin A chain conjugate (anti-transferrin receptor-ricin A chain) was more potent with a inhibitory dose 50% of 0.1 nM. Pokeweed antiviral protein II can be added to the growing list of translation inhibitors that are effective as components of immunotoxins in vitro. Additional studies will be needed to determine whether pokeweed antiviral protein II immunotoxins provide advantageous properties for in vivo applications. PMID:6091760

  11. Amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide synergistically alleviate the toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenwu; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Zhuang, Xiangjin; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-06-15

    Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains, and is the causative agent of a lethal enterotoxemia in livestock animals and possibly in humans. However, many details of ETX structure and activity are not known. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between ETX structure and activity. To explore the effect and mechanism of ETX amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide on toxicity, four recombinant proteins, rETX (without 13 N-terminal peptides and 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX-C (rETX with 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX(Y196E) (rETX with an amino acid residue substitution at Y196) and rETX(Y196E)-C (rETX-C with a Y196E mutation), were constructed in this study. Both the amino acid residue Y196E substitution and the C-terminal peptide reduce ETX toxicity to a similar extent, and the two factors synergistically alleviate ETX toxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that the C-terminal peptides and Y196E amino acid mutation reduce the toxin toxicity in two different pathways: the C-terminal peptides inhibit the binding activity of toxins to target cells, and the Y196E amino acid mutation slightly inhibits the pore-forming or heptamer-forming process. Interaction between the two factors was not observed in pore-forming or binding assays but toxicity assays, which demonstrated that the relationship between domains of the toxin is more complicated than previously appreciated. However, the exact mechanism of synergistic action is not yet clarified. PMID:25912943

  12. The N-terminal region of the 37-kDa translocated fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A aborts translocation by promoting its own export after microsomal membrane insertion.

    OpenAIRE

    Theuer, C P; Buchner, J; Fitzgerald, D; Pastan, I

    1993-01-01

    The 37-kDa C-terminal fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE; termed PE37 and composed of aa 280-613 of PE) translocates to the cell cytosol to cause cell death. PE37 requires a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence to be cytotoxic, indicating that the toxin may translocate to the cytosol from the endoplasmic reticulum. We show here that the N-terminal region of nascent PE37 can be inserted into the membrane of canine pancreatic microsomes by the preprocecropin signal sequence b...

  13. Truncated N-terminal huntingtin fragment with expanded-polyglutamine (htt552-100Q)suppresses brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription in astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linhui Wang; Fang Lin; Jin Wang; Junchao Wu; Rong Han; Lujia Zhu; Guoxing Zhang; Marian DiFiglia; Zhenghong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Although huntingtin (htt) can be cleaved at many sites by caspases,calpains,and aspartyl proteases,amino acid (aa) 552 was defined as a preferred site for cleavage in human Huntington disease (HD) brains in vivo.To date,the normal function of wild-type N-terminal htt fragment 1-552 aa (htt552) and its pathological roles of mutant htt552 are still unknown.Although mutant htt (mhtt) is also expressed in astrocytes,whether and how mhtt contributes to the neurodegeneration through astrocytes in HD remains largely unknown.In this study,a glia HD model,using an adenoviral vector to express wild-type htt552 (htt552-18Q) and its mutation (htt552-100Q) in rat primary cortical astrocytes,was generated to investigate the influence of htt552 on the transcription of brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results from enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the level of BDNF in astrocyte-conditioned medium was decreased in the astrocytes expressing htt552-100Q.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that htt552-100Q reduced the transcripts of the BDNF Ⅲ and Ⅳ, hence, repressed the transcription of BDNF.Furthermore,immunofluorescence showed that aggregates formed by htt552-100Q entrapped transcription factors cAMP-response element-binding protein and stimulatory protein 1,which might account for the reduction of BDNF transcription.These findings suggest that mhtt552 reduces BDNF transcription in astrocytes,which might contribute to the neuronal dysfunction in HD.

  14. Acyl-CoA-binding and self-associating properties of a recombinant 13.3 kDa N-terminal fragment of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 from oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosimann Steven C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20 catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1, 2-diacylglycerol to generate triacylglycerol and CoA. The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNAs encoding DGAT1 from plants and mammals exhibit a hydrophilic N-terminal region followed by a number of potential membrane-spanning segments, which is consistent with the membrane-bound nature of this enzyme family. In order to gain insight into the structure/function properties of DGAT1 from Brassica napus (BnDGAT1, we produced and partially characterized a recombinant polyHis-tagged N-terminal fragment of the enzyme, BnDGAT1(1–116His6, with calculated molecular mass of 13,278 Da. Results BnDGAT1(1–116His6 was highly purified from bacterial lysate and plate-like monoclinic crystals were grown using this preparation. Lipidex-1000 binding assays and gel electrophoresis indicated that BnDGAT1(1–116His6 interacts with long chain acyl-CoA. The enzyme fragment displayed enhanced affinity for erucoyl (22:1cisΔ13-CoA over oleoyl (18:1cisΔ9-CoA, and the binding process displayed positive cooperativity. Gel filtration chromatography and cross-linking studies indicated that BnDGAT1(1–116His6 self-associated to form a tetramer. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide of 15 amino acid residues representing a segment of BnDGAT1(1–116His6 failed to react with protein in microsomal vesicles following treatment with proteinase K, suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of BnDGAT1 was localized to the cytosolic side of the ER. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that BnDGAT1 may be allosterically modulated by acyl-CoA through the N-terminal region and that the enzyme self-associates via interactions on the cytosolic side of the ER.

  15. Yeast two-hybrid screening of proteins interacting with plasmin receptor subunit: C-terminal fragment of annexin A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun LI; Yves LAUMONNIER; Tatiana SYROVETS; Thomas SIMMET

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal fragment of annexin A2 (A21C),generated by plasmin cleavage of the plasmin receptor,a heterotetramer (AA2t) containing annexin A2.Methods:The gene that encodes the A21C fragment was obtained from PCR-amplifled cDNA isolated from human monocytes,and was ligated into the pBTM116 vector using a DNA ligation kit.The resultant plasmid (pBTM116-A21C) was sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.The expression of an A21C bait protein fused with a LexA-DNA binding domain (BD) was determined using Western blot analysis.The identification of proteins that interact with A21C and are encoded in a human monocyte cDNA library was performed using yeast two-hybrid screening.The DNA sequences of the relevant cDNAs were determined using an ABI PRISM BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit.Nucleotide sequence databases were searched for homologous sequences using BLAST search analysis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).Confirmation of the interaction between the protein LexA-A21C and each of cathepsin S and SNX17 was conducted using a small-scale yeast transformation and X-gal assay.Results:The yeast transformed with plasmids encoding the bait proteins were screened with a human monocyte cDNA library by reconstituting full-length transcription factors containing the GAL4-active domain (GAL4-AD) as the prey in a yeast two-hybrid approach.After screening 1×107 clones,23 independent β-Gal-positive clones were identified.Sequence analysis and a database search revealed that 15 of these positive clones matched eight different proteins (SNX17,ProCathepsin S,RPS2,ZBTB4,OGDH,CCDC32,PAPD4,and actin which was already known to interact with annexin A2).Conclusion:A21C A21C interacts with various proteins to form protein complexes,which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation induced by plasmin.The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient approach for investigating protein interactions.

  16. Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation of 1-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-2-alkyl/cycloalkyl Thioacetates: a Thioester Pyrolysis-type Rearrangement under Electron Impact Ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu XU; Jia Xi XU

    2006-01-01

    The mass spectrometric fragmentation of 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-2-alkyl/cycloalkyl thioacetates has been studied with the aid of mass-analysed ion kinetic energy spectrometry under electron impact ionization. All compounds show a tendency to eliminate a ketene, thioacetic acid, and benzyl carbamate molecule, or an acetyl and benzyloxy radicals. A thioester pyrolysis-type rearrangement under electron impact ionizations was observed.

  17. Measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) employing the ADVIA Centaur platform. Validation, reference interval and comparison to UniQ RIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Heickendorff, Lene; Nexo, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) was introduced as a part of the hepatic cirrhotic marker enhanced liver fibrosis™ test on the automated ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay platform (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA). In...

  18. Natural variation of the amino-terminal glutamine-rich domain in Drosophila argonaute2 is not associated with developmental defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hain

    Full Text Available The Drosophila argonaute2 (ago2 gene plays a major role in siRNA mediated RNA silencing pathways. Unlike mammalian Argonaute proteins, the Drosophila protein has an unusual amino-terminal domain made up largely of multiple copies of glutamine-rich repeats (GRRs. We report here that the ago2 locus produces an alternative transcript that encodes a putative short isoform without this amino-terminal domain. Several ago2 mutations previously reported to be null alleles only abolish expression of the long, GRR-containing isoform. Analysis of drop out (dop mutations had previously suggested that variations in GRR copy number result in defects in RNAi and embryonic development. However, we find that dop mutations genetically complement transcript-null alleles of ago2 and that ago2 alleles with variant GRR copy numbers support normal development. In addition, we show that the assembly of the central RNAi machinery, the RISC (RNA induced silencing complex, is unimpaired in embryos when GRR copy number is altered. In fact, we find that GRR copy number is highly variable in natural D. melanogaster populations as well as in laboratory strains. Finally, while many other insects share an extensive, glutamine-rich Ago2 amino-terminal domain, its primary sequence varies drastically between species. Our data indicate that GRR variation does not modulate an essential function of Ago2 and that the amino-terminal domain of Ago2 is subject to rapid evolution.

  19. Preliminary characterization of microbial communities in high altitude wetlands of northwestern Argentina by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Marcela; Farías, María E; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2004-01-01

    Laguna de Pozuelos is an extensive wetland in Morthwestern Argentina at 3,600 m above sea level in the Argentinean Andes. The principal lake, placed in the central depression of endorheic basin, is rich in minerals like Cu, As, Fe, etc. It collects water from underground courses and from two main tributaries, namely Santa Catalina River to the north and Cincel River to the south. Following the dry and rainy seasons, the surface of the lake is subject to an annual contraction-expansion cycle, with increasing of salinity during evaporation period. Prokaryotes inhabitants these particular environments have been not described and a few of such places have been surveyed for microbial diversity studies. To systematically explore the underlying communities of Bacteria from the water lake of Laguna de Pozuelos wetland and Cincel River, bacterial 16S rRNA genes (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Analysis of the microbial community with T-RFLP identified a minimum of 19 operational taxonomic units (OTU). T-RF patterns derived from multiple-enzyme digestion with RsaI, HaeIII and HhaI were analyzed in order to provide a preliminary picture of the relative diversity of this complex microbial community. By the combined use of the three restriction endonucleases bacterial populations of this particular place were identified. PMID:17061526

  20. Resonance assignment of an engineered amino-terminal domain of a major ampullate spider silk with neutralized charge cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Daniel; Bauer, Joschka; Schweimer, Kristian; Scheibel, Thomas; Rösch, Paul; Schwarzinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Spider dragline fibers are predominantly made out of the major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) 1 and 2. The assembly of dissolved spidroin into a stable fiber is highly controlled for example by dimerization of its amino-terminal domain (NRN) upon acidification, as well as removal of sodium chloride along the spinning duct. Clustered residues D39, E76 and E81 are the most highly conserved residues of the five-helix bundle, and they are hypothesized to be key residues for switching between a monomeric and a dimeric conformation. Simultaneous replacement of these residues by their non-titratable analogues results in variant D39N/E76Q/E81Q, which is supposed to fold into an intermediate conformation between that of the monomeric and the dimeric state at neutral pH. Here we report the resonance assignment of Latrodectus hesperus NRN variant D39N/E76Q/E81Q at pH 7.2 obtained by high-resolution triple resonance NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26892754

  1. Increased urine level of amino-terminal peptide derivatives of type III procollagen in patients with liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koide,Norio

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The amino-terminal peptides of type III procollagen (PIIIP in the urine of 40 patients with various liver diseases were determined with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. The level of urinary PIIIP (uPIIIP was correlated well with serum PIIIP (sPIIIP in 9 patients, the coefficient of correlation being r = 0.836 (p less than 0.01 and the regression line being y = 1.42x + 24. Urinary PIIIP consisted of at least 4 different molecular species with molecular weights of 49 k, 18 k, 10 k and 4.6 k as estimated by column chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Furthermore. uPIIIP was found to be significantly elevated in acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver diseases, in which the elevation of sPIIIP has been reported by others. The mean values +/- standard deviations of uPIIIP were 44.0 +/- 32.0, 60.4 +/- 32.0, 62.0 +/- 46.5, 53.0 +/- 27.1 and 48.1 +/- 22.8 ng/ml for the respective liver diseases, and 13.2 +/- 4.5 for the non-hepatic disease group.

  2. Improved bioactivity of antimicrobial peptides by addition of amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardo, M Daben; Cervantes, Jorge L; Salazar, Juan C; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates to help circumvent antibiotic resistance, which is an increasing clinical problem. Amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs are known to actively form reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon metal binding. The combination of these two peptidic constructs could lead to a novel class of dual-acting antimicrobial agents. To test this hypothesis, a set of ATCUN binding motifs were screened for their ability to induce ROS formation, and the most potent were then used to modify AMPs with different modes of action. ATCUN binding motif-containing derivatives of anoplin (GLLKRIKTLL-NH2), pro-apoptotic peptide (PAP; KLAKLAKKLAKLAK-NH2), and sh-buforin (RAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK-NH2) were synthesized and found to be more active than the parent AMPs against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. The lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the ATCUN-anoplin peptides are attributed to the higher pore-forming activity along with their ability to cause ROS-induced membrane damage. The addition of the ATCUN motifs to PAP also increases its ability to disrupt membranes. DNA damage is the major contributor to the activity of the ATCUN-sh-buforin peptides. Our findings indicate that the addition of ATCUN motifs to AMPs is a simple strategy that leads to AMPs with higher antibacterial activity and possibly to more potent, usable antibacterial agents. PMID:24803240

  3. Use of amino terminal type III procollagen peptide (P3NP) assay in methotrexate therapy for psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Subedi, D; Chowdhury, M M U

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis continues to be a risk in patients receiving methotrexate for psoriasis. Measurement of amino terminal levels of type III procollagen (P3NP) has been advocated as an effective non‐invasive test for ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis that could avoid liver biopsies. An audit was conducted to assess the practice of P3NP monitoring using guidelines produced by Manchester and whether the agreed levels correlate with histological severity. Sixty five patients with 174 P3NP assays and 30 liver biopsies were reviewed between the years 1999 and 2003. Total number of patient‐methotrexate years was 278.9 and the mean cumulative dose of methotrexate received was 2000 (SD 1838) mg. A higher cumulative dose of methotrexate correlated significantly with high mean and maximum P3NP levels. Of the 30 liver biopsies, 26 (86.6%) showed normal histology or mild to moderate steatosis, three had focal fibrosis, and one had early cirrhosis. A median P3NP value of 5.8 μg/l or higher had a stronger correlation with histological severity. It is concluded that P3NP assay is a valuable adjunct to the clinical management of patients receiving long term methotrexate that can avoid or reduce unnecessary liver biopsies. PMID:16679477

  4. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of C-terminal fragment of type I procollagen in detection of hidden heart failure in hypertensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnyk M.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to estimate diagnostic accuracy of C-terminal fragment of type I procollagen (PICP in hypertensive males with hidden chronic heart failure (CHF. The study included 220 men with uncomplicated arterial hypertension (mean age 52 (46-58 years. The control group consisted of 40 healthy men of similar age. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography was performed to all participants. All patients underwent treadmill test with post-exercise evaluation of left ventricular (LV filling pressure by tissue Doppler Е/е' ratio to reveal hidden CHF. The post-exercise Е/е'≥13 was considered to be pathological. PICP levels in plasma were determined by ELISA. The PICP concentration was significantly higher in men with hypertension (132,3 (81,3-216,8 ng/ml as compared with healthy subjects (93.2 (64,7-133 ng/ml (p=0,0068. The presence of LV hypertrophy did not affect the level of PICP (p=0,58. 16 patients presented pathological result of diastolic stress test revealing signs of hidden heart failure. PICP concentration was 2-fold higher in these individuals as compared with other patients (p=0.01. The ROC-analysis revealed, that optimal cut-off point is 170.2 ng/ml for PICP to detect hidden CHF (area under curve – 0,68±0,08; 95% confidence interval – 0,61-0,74; sensitivity – 68,7%, specificity – 69,6%. The PICP level exceeding 170,2 ng/mL testifies to hidden CHF in hypertensive males.

  6. Cell-free expression of the APP transmembrane fragments with Alzheimer's disease mutations using algal amino acid mixture for structural NMR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, Olga V; Urban, Anatoly S; Nadezhdin, Kirill D; Bocharov, Eduard V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    Structural investigations need ready supply of the isotope labeled proteins with inserted mutations n the quantities sufficient for the heteronuclear NMR. Though cell-free expression system has been widely used in the past years, high startup cost and complex compound composition prevent many researches from the developing this technique, especially for membrane protein production. Here we demonstrate the utility of a robust, cost-optimized cell-free expression technique for production of the physiologically important transmembrane fragment of amyloid precursor protein, APP686-726, containing Alzheimer's disease mutations in the juxtamembrane (E693G, Arctic form) and the transmembrane parts (V717G, London form, or L723P, Australian form). The protein cost was optimized by varying the FM/RM ratio as well as the amino acid concentration. We obtained the wild-type and mutant transmembrane fragments in the pellet mode of continuous exchange cell-free system consuming only commercial algal mixture of the (13)C,(15)N-labeled amino acids. Scaling up analytical tests, we achieved milligram quantity yields of isotope labeled wild-type and mutant APP686-726 for structural studies by high resolution NMR spectroscopy in membrane mimicking environment. The described approach has from 5 to 23-fold cost advantage over the bacterial expression methods described earlier and 1.5 times exceeds our previous result obtained with the longer APP671-726WT fragment. PMID:27071311

  7. 615小鼠血红蛋白α链的氨基酸组成 及个别肽段的氨基酸序列%Amino Acid Composition of the α Chain of Hemoglobin and Amino Acid Sequence of it′s Particular Peptide Fragment From 615 Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武金霞; 张贺迎; 王建平; 吴经才

    2001-01-01

    The α chain of hemoglobin of 615 mouse was isolated and purified on CM-Celullose-23 colomn chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid of the α chain was valine determined with DABITC/PITC method.The amino acid composition was determined and it was different from the parent(C57BL)in literature on the number of leucine residue,histine residue and valine residue.An undissoluble ‘core’ and dissoluble peptides were found when the α chain of 615 mouse was hydrolysised by trypsin and it was found that the eighth amino acid residue from N-terminal of one particular peptide fragment mutated from valine (C57BL) to leucine.%用CM-Cellulose-23柱层析分离纯化了615小鼠珠蛋白α链,测定其N端氨基酸残基为缬氨酸.615小鼠珠蛋白α链含有141个氨基酸残基,其中19个亮氨酸残基,10个组氨酸残基,9个缬氨酸残基,上述氨基酸残基的数目与文献中其亲本C57BL不同.用胰蛋白酶水解615小鼠珠蛋白α链,发现有不溶性的‘核心’和可溶性的酶解片段.其中一个酶解肽段从N端数第8位氨基酸残基发生了突变,由亲本的缬氨酸变为亮氨酸.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the single-chain variable fragment of antibody chA21 in complex with an N-terminal fragment of ErbB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antibody–antigen complex consisting of a single-chain variable fragment of the potential therapeutic antibody chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192) of the human ErbB2 extracellular domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.45 Å resolution. ErbB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, the overexpression of which causes abnormality and disorder in cell signalling and leads to cell transformation. Previously, an anti-ErbB2 single-chain chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was developed. Here, an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192, named EP I) of the ErbB2 extracellular domain was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.45 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal; the crystal belonged to space group P212121

  9. Helical hairpin structure of influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide stabilized by charge-dipole interactions between the N-terminal amino group and the second helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorieau, Justin L; Louis, John M; Bax, Ad

    2011-03-01

    The fusion domain of the influenza coat protein hemagglutinin HA2, bound to dodecyl phosphocholine micelles, was recently shown to adopt a structure consisting of two antiparallel α-helices, packed in an exceptionally tight hairpin configuration. Four interhelical H(α) to C═O aliphatic H-bonds were identified as factors stabilizing this fold. Here, we report evidence for an additional stabilizing force: a strong charge-dipole interaction between the N-terminal Gly(1) amino group and the dipole moment of helix 2. pH titration of the amino-terminal (15)N resonance, using a methylene-TROSY-based 3D NMR experiment, and observation of Gly(1 13)C' show a strongly elevated pK = 8.8, considerably higher than expected for an N-terminal amino group in a lipophilic environment. Chemical shifts of three C-terminal carbonyl carbons of helix 2 titrate with the protonation state of Gly(1)-N, indicative of a close proximity between the N-terminal amino group and the axis of helix 2, providing an optimal charge-dipole stabilization of the antiparallel hairpin fold. pK values of the side-chain carboxylate groups of Glu(11) and Asp(19) are higher by about 1 and 0.5 unit, respectively, than commonly seen for solvent-exposed side chains in water-soluble proteins, indicative of dielectric constants of ε = ∼30 (Glu(11)) and ∼60 (Asp(19)), placing these groups in the headgroup region of the phospholipid micelle. PMID:21319795

  10. Identification of a direct interaction between residue 19 in the helical portion of calcitonin and the amino-terminal domain of the calcitonin receptor from photoaffinity cross-linking and mutational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Calcitonins (CTs) are 32 amino acid hormones with both peripheral and central actions mediated via specific cell surface receptors, which belong to the superfamily of class II G-protein coupled receptors. Chimeric receptor and mutational data suggested that the helical portion (residues 8-22) of salmon CT (sCT) is important for high affinity binding to the amino-terminal extracellular domain of the human CT receptor (hCTR). In this study, we have developed photoactive sCT analogues [Arg11,18, Bpa19]sCT and [Arg11, 18, Bpa19]sCT(8-32) that incorporate a photolabile Bpa (p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine) into position 19 of the helical domain of the ligand and used this to determine a specific receptor fragment proximate to it. These analogues saturably bound to the CTR with high affinity (IC50 = 3 nM) which was similar to that of the natural sCT and its antagonist (IC50 = 2 nM and 20 nM, respectively). Upon photolysis, radioiodinated 125I-[Arg11,18, Bpa19]sCT and 125I-[Arg11,18, Bpa19]sCT(8-32) efficiently and specifically cross-linked to hCTR stably expressed in baby hamster kidney cells (Hollexl cells, ∼ 800,000 receptors per cell), generating a single radiolabeled band of ∼ 72-kDa on SDS/PAGE autoradiography. To identify the 'contact domain' within CTR involved in binding of 125I-[Arg11, 18, Bpa19]sCT and 125I-[Arg11,18, Bpa19]sCT(8-32), the radiolabeled band containing the ligand-receptor conjugate was subjected to chemical and enzymatic cleavage. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of the native receptor yielded a radiolabeled fragment of apparent Mr ∼ 31-kDa that shifted to Mr ∼ 14 kDa after deglycosylation. This receptor domain corresponded to amino acids 59-134 of the hCTR, located at the amino-terminal extracellular region of the receptor. These results provide the first direct demonstration of a contact domain between calcitonin and its receptor, and will contribute towards the modelling of CT-CTR interface. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of the yeast prion-remodeling factor Hsp104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An N-terminal fragment of S. cerevisiae Hsp104 has been crystallized. This is the first report of the crystallization of a eukaryotic member of the Hsp100 family of molecular chaperones. A 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp104 was crystallized in two different crystal forms. Native 1 diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.6, b = 75.8, c = 235.7 Å. Native 2 diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = 179.1, b = 179.1, c = 69.7 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization of a eukaryotic member of the Hsp100 family of molecular chaperones

  12. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of p65/RelA results in a carboxy-terminal fragment that inhibits IκBα and enhances HIV-1 replication in human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcamí José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of p65/RelA has been involved in both the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent activity and the onset of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB degradation are unclear and can vary depending on the cell type. Cleavage of p65/RelA can produce an amino-terminal fragment that was shown to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor of NF-κB, thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the opposite situation has also been described and the production of a carboxy-terminal fragment that contains two potent transactivation domains has also been related to the onset of apoptosis. In this context, a carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA (ΔNH2p65, detected in non-apoptotic human T lymphocytes upon activation, has been studied. T cells constitute one of the long-lived cellular reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Because NF-κB is the most important inducible element involved in initiation of HIV-1 transcription, an adequate control of NF-κB response is of paramount importance for both T cell survival and viral spread. Its major inhibitor IκBα constitutes a master terminator of NF-κB response that is complemented by degradation of p65/RelA. Results and conclusions In this study, the function of a caspase-3-mediated carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA, which was detected in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, was analyzed. Cells producing this truncated p65/RelA did not undergo apoptosis but showed a high viability, in spite of caspase-3 activation. ΔNH2p65 lacked most of DNA-binding domain but retained the dimerization domain, NLS and transactivation domains. Consequently, it could translocate to the nucleus, associate with NF-κB1/p50 and IκBα, but could not bind -κB consensus sites. However, although ΔNH2p65 lacked transcriptional activity by itself, it could increase NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner by hijacking IκBα. Thus, its expression resulted in a persistent

  13. Amino-terminal p53 mutations lead to expression of apoptosis proficient p47 and prognosticate better survival, but predispose to tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Phang, Beng Hooi; Othman, Rashidah; Bougeard, Gaelle; Chia, Ren Hui; Frebourg, Thierry; Tang, Choong Leong; Cheah, Peh Yean; Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the amino-terminal transactivation domain of the tumor-suppressor p53 are mostly insertions or deletions, and result in loss of full-length p53 expression. However, these changes concomitantly result in the expression of a truncated p47 isoform, which retains the ability to selectively transactivate some apoptotic target genes. The selectivity appears to be due to a default feature, stemming from the lack of acetylation on K382 at the carboxyl terminus, which requires the amino t...

  14. Opposing actions of intact and N-terminal fragments of the human prolactin/growth hormone family members on angiogenesis: An efficient mechanism for the regulation of angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Struman, Ingrid; Bentzien, Frauke; Lee, Hsinyu; Mainfroid, Véronique; D’Angelo, Gisela; Goffin, Vincent; Weiner, Richard I.; Martial, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of development of a new microvasculature, is regulated by a balance of positive and negative factors. We show both in vivo and in vitro that the members of the human prolactin/growth hormone family, i.e., human prolactin, human growth hormone, human placental lactogen, and human growth hormone variant are angiogenic whereas their respective 16-kDa N-terminal fragments are antiangiogenic. The opposite actions are regulated in part via activ...

  15. The Carboxyl-Terminal Amino Acids Render Pro-Human LC3B Migration Similar to Lipidated LC3B in SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhixia; Billiar, Timothy R; Michael T. Stang; GAO, WENTAO

    2013-01-01

    LC3 is widely used marker for macroautophagy assays. After translation pro-LC3 is processed by Atg4 to expose C-terminal glycine residue for downstream conjugation reactions to accomplish the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. SDS-PAGE based Western blot (Wb) is generally utilized to quantify LC3-II levels where the LC3-I band migrates slower than LC3-II. We found that pro-human LC3B migrated at similar rate as LC3B-II in SDS-PAGE. The carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, particularly Lysine122 an...

  16. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. ► Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. ► Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. ► This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CSαβ-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized α-helical and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 μM. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  17. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bin [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China); Zhu, Shunyi, E-mail: Zhusy@ioz.ac.cn [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CS{alpha}{beta}-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet (CS{alpha}{beta}) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 {mu}M. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  18. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin carboxy-terminal fragment is a novel tumor-homing peptide for human ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of innovative, effective therapies against recurrent/chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer remains a high priority. Using high-throughput technologies to analyze genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer, we have discovered extremely high expression of the genes encoding the proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4. Because claudin-3 and -4 are the epithelial receptors for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and are sufficient to mediate CPE binding, in this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the carboxy-terminal fragment of CPE (i.e., CPE290-319 binding peptide) as a carrier for tumor imaging agents and intracellular delivery of therapeutic drugs. Claudin-3 and -4 expression was examined with rt-PCR and flow cytometry in multiple primary ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cell binding assays were used to assess the accuracy and specificity of the CPE peptide in vitro against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biodistribution assays were performed to evaluate the localization and uptake of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide in established tumor tissue. Using a FITC-conjugated CPE peptide we show specific in vitro and in vivo binding to multiple primary chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Bio-distribution studies in SCID mice harboring clinically relevant animal models of chemotherapy resistant ovarian carcinoma showed higher uptake of the peptide in tumor cells than in normal organs. Imunofluorescence was detectable within discrete accumulations (i.e., tumor spheroids) or even single chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells floating in the ascites of xenografted animals while a time-dependent internalization of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide was consistently noted in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian tumor cells by confocal microscopy. Based on the high levels of claudin-3 and -4 expression in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other highly aggressive human epithelial

  19. Crystallization of the two-domain N-terminal fragment of the archaeal ribosomal protein L10(P0) in complex with a specific fragment of 23S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateral L12-stalk (P1-stalk in Archaea, P1/P2-stalk in eukaryotes) is an obligatory morphological element of large ribosomal subunits in all organisms studied. This stalk is composed of the complex of ribosomal proteins L10(P0) and L12(P1) and interacts with 23S rRNA through the protein L10(P0). L12(P1)-stalk is involved in the formation of GTPase center of the ribosome and plays an important role in the ribosome interaction with translation factors. High mobility of this stalk puts obstacles in determination of its structure within the intact ribosome. Crystals of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10(P0) from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with a specific fragment of rRNA from the same organism have been obtained. The crystals diffract X-rays at 3.2 Å resolution.

  20. Anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Both the known AR antagonist nilutamide and the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction in the mammalian two-hybrid assay. However, cypermethrin was a weaker androgen antagonist than nilutamide. Highlights: ► We have developed the mammalian two-hybrid assay. ► The assay displayed appropriate response to DHT and nilutamide. ► The N/C interaction was induced by DHT in a dose-dependent manner. ► Nilutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. ► Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on DHT-induced AR N/C interaction. -- Abstract: The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been demonstrated to be an environmental anti-androgen in the androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene assay. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction is required for transcription potential of the AR. In order to characterize the anti-androgen effects of cypermethrin involved in the N/C interaction of AR, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-ARLBD and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The assay displayed appropriate response to the potent, classical AR agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and known AR antagonist nilutamide. The N/C interaction was induced by DHT from 10−11 M to 10−5 M in a dose-dependent manner. Nilutamide did not activate N/C interaction, while inhibited DHT-induced AR N/C interaction at the concentrations from 10−7 M to 10−5 M. Treatment of CV-1 cells with cypermethrin alone did not activate the reporter CAT. Cypermethrin significantly decreased the DHT-induced reporter CAT expression at the higher concentration of 10−5 M. The mammalian two-hybrid assay provides a promising tool both for defining mechanism involved in AR N/C interaction of EDCs and for screening of chemicals with androgen agonistic and antagonistic activities. Cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on the DHT-induced AR N

  1. Síntesis de lreidodipeptidos a partir de 0-succinimidil carbamatos derivados de a-aminoácidos protegidos de su función amino terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Lozano; Gilíes Guichard; Jean Paul Briand; José Libardo Torres-Castellanosq; Fabiolo Espejo; Manuel Elkín Patarroyo

    2010-01-01

    Una estrategia hacia el desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos e inmunoprofilácticos contra enfermedades transmisibles consiste en la alteración de la identidad química del enlace peptídico entre dos aminoácidos determinados, así como la modificación de la conformación de los carbonos alpha de tales residuos.

  2. A 19-kDa C-terminal tryptic fragment of the α chain of Na/K-ATPase is essential for occlusion and transport of cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptic digestion of pig renal Na/K-ATPase in the presence of Rb and absence of Ca ions removes about half of the protein but leaves a stable 19-kDa membrane-embedded fragment derived from the α chain, a largely intact β chain, and essentially normal Rb- and Na-occlusion capacity. Subsequent digestion with trypsin in the presence of Ca or absence of Rb ions leads to rapid loss of the 19-kDa fragment and a parallel loss of Rb occlusion, demonstrating that the fragment is essential for occlusion. The N-terminal sequence of the 19-kDa fragment is Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Asp-Lys-Leu-Val-Asn-Glu-Arg-Leu-Ile-Ser-Met-Ala, beginning at residue 830 and extending toward the C terminus. Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment have the following functional properties. (i) ATP-dependent functions are absent. (ii) The apparent affinity for occluding Rb is unchanged, the affinity for Na is lower than in the control enzyme, and activation is now strongly sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic. (iii) Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment can be reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and sustain slow Rb-Rb exchange. Thus the transport pathway is retained. The authors conclude that cation occlusion sites and the transport pathway within transmembrane segments are quite separate from the ATP binding sites, located on the cytoplasmic domain of the α chain. Interactions between cation and ATP sites, the heart of active transport, must be indirect - mediated, presumably, by conformational changes of the protein

  3. Detection and identification of bacterial pathogens of fish in kidney tissue using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, William B; Strom, Mark S

    2002-04-01

    We report the application of a nucleic acid-based assay that enables direct detection and identification of bacterial pathogens in fish kidney tissue without the need for bacterial culture. The technique, known as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), employs the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair that targets 2 highly conserved regions of the gene that encodes for the 16S small subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Each primer is 5' labeled with a different fluorescent dye, which results in each terminus of the resulting amplicon having a distinguishable fluorescent tag. The amplicon is then digested with a series of 6 restriction endonucleases, followed by size determination of the 2 labeled terminal fragments by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Comparison of the lengths of the full set of 12 terminal fragments with those predicted based on analyses of GenBank submissions of 16S sequences leads to presumptive identification of the pathogen to at least the genus, but more typically the species level. Results of T-RFLP analyses of genomic DNA from multiple strains of a number of fish bacterial pathogens are presented. The assay is further demonstrated on fish kidney tissue spiked with a known number of cells of Flavobacterium psychrophilum where a detection limit of ca. 30 CFU mg(-1) of tissue was estimated. A similar detection limit was observed for several other gram-negative pathogens. This procedure was also used to detect Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum in the kidney tissue of 2 naturally infected salmonids. PMID:12033704

  4. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  5. Characterization of anti-glucagon sera elicited against a C-terminal fragment of pancreatic glucagon and their use in glucagon radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results indicate that antiserum OAL-123 raised in the rabbit against a C-terminal fragment of pancreatic glucagon possesses immunological properties similar to those of antiserum 30 K and that it is useful for specific measurement of pancreatic glucagon. A radioassay was developed using OAL-123 which showed the highest sensitivity in the assay system used. It utilised human pancreatic monocomponent glucagon as standard and monoradioionated glucagon as tracer. Cross reactivities of extracts from dog jejuunm and stomach mucosa and of glucagen-related peptides and immunoreactivities in dog tissues and human blood were examined. (Auth./C.F.)

  6. Substances resembling C-terminal vasopressin fragments are present in the brain but not in the pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de; Burbach, J.P.H.; Wang, X.C.; Haaf, J.A. ten

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the endogenous occurrence of vasopressin fragments that have previously been found to be generated in vitro by brain peptidases and to have highly potent central activity, extracts of hypothalamus, hippocampus and the pituitary gland were fractionated by high pressure liquid

  7. N-terminal amino acids of bovine alpha interferons are relevant for the neutralization of their antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Filho J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure-function relationship of interferons (IFNs has been studied by epitope mapping. Epitopes of bovine IFNs, however, are practically unknown, despite their importance in virus infections and in the maternal recognition of pregnancy. It has been shown that recombinant bovine (rBoIFN-alphaC and rBoIFN-alpha1 differ only in 12 amino acids and that the F12 monoclonal antibody (mAb binds to a linear sequence of residues 10 to 34. We show here that the antiviral activities of these two IFNs were neutralized by the F12 mAb to different extents using two tests. In residual activity tests the antiviral activity dropped by more than 99% with rBoIFN-alphaC and by 84% with rBoIFN-alpha1. In checkerboard antibody titrations, the F12 mAb titer was 12,000 with rBoIFN-alphaC and only 600 with rBoIFN-alpha1. Since these IFNs differ in their amino acid sequence at positions 11, 16 and 19 of the amino terminus, only these amino acids could account for the different neutralization titers, and they should participate in antibody binding. According to the three-dimensional structure described for human and murine IFNs, these amino acids are located in the alpha helix A; amino acids 16 and 19 of the bovine IFNs would be expected to be exposed and could bind to the antibody directly. The amino acid at position 11 forms a hydrogen bond in human IFNs-alpha and it is possible that, in bovine IFNs-alpha, the F12 mAb, binding near position 11, would disturb this hydrogen bond, resulting in the difference in the extent of neutralization observed.

  8. Differential Localisation of PARP-1 N-Terminal Fragment in PARP-1+/+ and PARP-1−/− Murine Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiah, Ida Rachel; Skepper, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Human PARP family consists of 17 members of which PARP-1 is a prominent member and plays a key role in DNA repair pathways. It has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) encompassing the nuclear localisation signal (NLS), central automodification domain and C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP-1 accounts for majority of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymer synthesis that upon binding to numerous proteins including PARP itself modulates their activity. Reduced PARP-1 activity in ageing human samples and its...

  9. Torque Generation in F1-ATPase Devoid of the Entire Amino-Terminal Helix of the Rotor That Fills Half of the Stator Orifice

    OpenAIRE

    Kohori, Ayako; Chiwata, Ryohei; Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Furuike, Shou; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Adachi, Kengo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor in which the central γ-subunit rotates inside a cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. The amino and carboxyl termini of the γ rotor form a coiled coil of α-helices that penetrates the stator cylinder to serve as an axle. Crystal structures indicate that the axle is supported by the stator at two positions, at the orifice and by the hydrophobic sleeve surrounding the axle tip. The sleeve contacts are almost exclusively to the longer carboxyl-terminal...

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation within the amino-terminal domain of pp60c-src molecules associated with polyoma virus middle-sized tumor antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonemoto, W; Jarvis-Morar, M; Brugge, J S; Bolen, J B; Israel, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the in vitro phosphorylation of cellular src protein (pp60c-src) molecules associated with the polyoma virus middle-sized tumor antigen in polyoma virus-transformed cells. These pp60c-src molecules possessed an enhanced tyrosyl kinase activity, migrated aberrantly on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels, and contained a novel site of tyrosine phosphorylation within the amino-terminal region of the molecule. The pp60c-src molecules not associated with the middle-sized tumor antigen we...

  11. Keratin 8 phosphorylation in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase occurs within the amino- and carboxyl-terminal end domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tokui, T; Yano, T; Inagaki, M

    1996-04-01

    We reported earlier that phosphorylation in vitro of keratin filaments reconstituted from rat type I keratin 18 and type II keratin 8 by cAPM-dependent protein kinase induces disassembly of the keratin filament structure. Keratin 8 rather than keratin 18 was the major target of the kinase. We have now identified the sites on rat keratin 8 for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Sequential analysis of the purified phosphoropeptides, together with the known primary sequence, revealed that four major sites, Ser-12, Ser-23, Ser-36, and Ser-50, and three minor sites, Ser-8, Ser-33, Ser-42, are located in the amino-terminal head domain, while three minor sites, Ser-416, Ser-423 and Ser-425 locate in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain. PMID:8660345

  12. α1-antitrypsin and its C-terminal fragment attenuate effects of degranulated neutrophil-conditioned medium on lung cancer HCC cells, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Ulla

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor microenvironment, which is largely affected by inflammatory cells, is a crucial participant in the neoplastic process through promotion of cell proliferation, survival and migration. We measured the effects of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN conditioned medium alone, and supplemented with serine proteinase inhibitor α-1 antitrypsin (AAT or its C-terminal fragment (C-36 peptide, on cultured lung cancer cells. Methods Lung cancer HCC cells were grown in a regular medium or in a PMN-conditioned medium in the presence or absence of AAT (0.5 mg/ml or its C-36 peptide (0.06 mg/ml for 24 h. Cell proliferation, invasiveness and release of IL-8 and VEGF were analyzed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, Matrigel invasion and ELISA methods, respectively. Results Cells exposed to PMN-conditioned medium show decreased proliferation and IL-8 release by 3.9-fold, p Conclusions Our data provide evidence that neutrophil derived factors decrease lung cancer HCC cell proliferation and IL-8 release, but increase cell invasiveness. These effects were found to be modulated by exogenously present serine proteinase inhibitor, AAT, and its C-terminal fragment, which points to a complexity of the relationships between tumor cell biological activities and local microenvironment.

  13. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Gasek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM, where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔC44 are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p < 0.005 than thick filaments containing a full length flightin (fln+; 3.21 ± 0.05 μm and thick filaments containing an N-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔN62; 3.21 ± 0.06 μm. Persistence length was significantly reduced in flnΔN62 (418 ± 72 μm; p < 0.005 compared to fln+ (1386 ± 196μm and flnΔC44(1128 ± 193 μm. Statistical polymer chain analysis revealed that the C-terminal domain fulfills a secondary role in thick filament bending propensity. Our results indicate that the flightin amino and carboxy terminal domains make distinct contributions to thick filament biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM’s dual role in flight and courtship behaviors.

  14. Role of the amino-terminal domains of MEKKs in the activation of NF kappa B and MAPK pathways and in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Christelle; Guillon, Audrey; van Bemmelen, Miguel X; Gerwins, Pär; Johnson, Gary L; Widmann, Christian

    2002-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) kinases (MEKKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are upstream regulators of MAPKs. Here, the role of the amino-terminal (N-terminal) domain of MEKK1-4 on the regulation of different intracellular signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell proliferation has been assessed by comparing the responses induced by the full-length (FL) MEKKs to those induced by the kinase domains only. For each MEKK, the pattern of activation of NF kappa B, the ERK MAPK pathway, and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPK pathway markedly differed between the kinase domain and the FL form. Similarly, cell proliferation and apoptosis were differently regulated by the FL MEKK and the corresponding kinase domain. Our data show that the N-terminal domain of the MEKKs determines the specificity and the strength of activation of various intracellular signaling pathways and cellular responses. PMID:11781136

  15. Terminal sequence importance of de novo proteins from binary-patterned library: stable artificial proteins with 11- or 12-amino acid alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2012-06-01

    Successful approaches of de novo protein design suggest a great potential to create novel structural folds and to understand natural rules of protein folding. For these purposes, smaller and simpler de novo proteins have been developed. Here, we constructed smaller proteins by removing the terminal sequences from stable de novo vTAJ proteins and compared stabilities between mutant and original proteins. vTAJ proteins were screened from an α3β3 binary-patterned library which was designed with polar/ nonpolar periodicities of α-helix and β-sheet. vTAJ proteins have the additional terminal sequences due to the method of constructing the genetically repeated library sequences. By removing the parts of the sequences, we successfully obtained the stable smaller de novo protein mutants with fewer amino acid alphabets than the originals. However, these mutants showed the differences on ANS binding properties and stabilities against denaturant and pH change. The terminal sequences, which were designed just as flexible linkers not as secondary structure units, sufficiently affected these physicochemical details. This study showed implications for adjusting protein stabilities by designing N- and C-terminal sequences. PMID:22519540

  16. N-terminal peptide sequence repetition influences the kinetics of backbone fragmentation: a manifestation of the Jahn-Teller effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, David M; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of large (>10,000 entries) databases consisting of high-resolution tandem mass spectra of peptide dications revealed with high statistical significance (P phenomenon is likely to indicate the presence of the diketopiperazine structure for at least some b2 (+) ions. When consisting of two identical amino acids, these species should form through intermediates that have a symmetric geometry and, thus, must be subject to the Jahn-Teller effect that reduces the stability of such systems. PMID:23633015

  17. Lack of a 5.9 kDa peptide C-terminal fragment of fibrinogen α chain precedes fibrosis progression in patients with liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Marfà

    Full Text Available Early detection of fibrosis progression is of major relevance for the diagnosis and management of patients with liver disease. This study was designed to find non-invasive biomarkers for fibrosis in a clinical context where this process occurs rapidly, HCV-positive patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT. We analyzed 93 LT patients with HCV recurrence, 41 non-LT patients with liver disease showing a fibrosis stage F≥1 and 9 patients without HCV recurrence who received antiviral treatment before LT, as control group. Blood obtained from 16 healthy subjects was also analyzed. Serum samples were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and their proteomic profile was analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS. Characterization of the peptide of interest was performed by ion chromatography and electrophoresis, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. Marked differences were observed between the serum proteome profile of LT patients with early fibrosis recurrence and non-recurrent LT patients. A robust peak intensity located at 5905 m/z was the distinguishing feature of non-recurrent LT patients. However, the same peak was barely detected in recurrent LT patients. Similar results were found when comparing samples of healthy subjects with those of non-LT fibrotic patients, indicating that our findings were not related to either LT or HCV infection. Using tandem mass-spectrometry, we identified the protein peak as a C-terminal fragment of the fibrinogen α chain. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that TGF-β reduces α-fibrinogen mRNA expression and 5905 m/z peak intensity in HepG2 cells, suggesting that TGF-β activity regulates the circulating levels of this protein fragment. In conclusion, we identified a 5.9 kDa C-terminal fragment of the fibrinogen α chain as an early serum biomarker of fibrogenic processes in patients with liver disease.

  18. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    OpenAIRE

    Berrevoets, Cor; P. Doesburg; Steketee, Karine; Trapman, Jan; Brinkmann, Albert

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in this in vivo interaction were determined in more detail. Cotransfection experiments in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and two-hybrid experiments in yeast revealed that two regions in the NH2-terminal domain are involved in the ...

  19. Identification of the phosphorylation sites in early region 1A proteins of adenovirus type 5 by amino acid sequencing of peptide fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, M.L.; McGlade, C.J.; Gerber, G.E.; Branton, P.E.

    1988-05-05

    The authors have mapped the positions of three of the phosphorylation sites on the 289 and 243 residue (289R and 243R) early region 1A (E1A) proteins of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). These proteins, which play roles in both transcriptional control and oncogenic transformation, have identical sequences except for the presence in 289R of 46 additional internal amino acids. Phosphorylation was detected exclusively at serine residues. E1A proteins purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine- or (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate-labeled Ad5-infected cells were digested with trypsin, and two phosphopeptides were isolated by reverse-phase chromatography and subjected to automated Edman degradation. The major species was shown to contain a single phosphorylation site at Ser-219. The second phosphopeptide was shown to contain at least one phosphorylation site at Ser-231. A third phosphorylated tryptic peptide could not be eluted from the column but was isolated using an E1A-specific rat monoclonal antibody. Following subcleavage by Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease, this peptide was shown to contain at least one phosphorylation site at Ser-89. The present data indicate that both the 289R and 243R E1A proteins are phosphorylated at the same sites, at least one in the amino terminal half of the molecule, and at least two toward the carboxyl terminus.

  20. Identification of the phosphorylation sites in early region 1A proteins of adenovirus type 5 by amino acid sequencing of peptide fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have mapped the positions of three of the phosphorylation sites on the 289 and 243 residue (289R and 243R) early region 1A (E1A) proteins of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). These proteins, which play roles in both transcriptional control and oncogenic transformation, have identical sequences except for the presence in 289R of 46 additional internal amino acids. Phosphorylation was detected exclusively at serine residues. E1A proteins purified from [35S]methionine- or [32P]orthophosphate-labeled Ad5-infected cells were digested with trypsin, and two phosphopeptides were isolated by reverse-phase chromatography and subjected to automated Edman degradation. The major species was shown to contain a single phosphorylation site at Ser-219. The second phosphopeptide was shown to contain at least one phosphorylation site at Ser-231. A third phosphorylated tryptic peptide could not be eluted from the column but was isolated using an E1A-specific rat monoclonal antibody. Following subcleavage by Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease, this peptide was shown to contain at least one phosphorylation site at Ser-89. The present data indicate that both the 289R and 243R E1A proteins are phosphorylated at the same sites, at least one in the amino terminal half of the molecule, and at least two toward the carboxyl terminus

  1. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  2. Separation of polyethylene glycols and amino-terminated polyethylene glycols by high-performance liquid chromatography under near critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y-Z; Zhuo, R-X; Jiang, X-L

    2016-05-20

    The separation and characterization of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and amino-substituted derivatives on common silica-based reversed-phase packing columns using isocratic elution is described. This separation is achieved by liquid chromatography under the near critical conditions (LCCC), based on the number of amino functional end groups without obvious effect of molar mass for PEGs. The mobile phase is acetonitrile in water with an optimal ammonium acetate buffer. The separation mechanism of PEG and amino-substituted PEG under the near LCCC on silica-based packing columns is confirmed to be ion-exchange interaction. Under the LCCC of PEG backbone, with fine tune of buffer concentration, the retention factor ratios for benzylamine and phenol in buffered mobile phases, α(benzylamine/phenol)-values, were used to assess the ion-exchange capacity on silica-based reversed-phase packing columns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on separation of amino-functional PEGs independent of the molar mass by isocratic elution using common C18 or phenyl reversed-phase packing columns. PMID:27102303

  3. Purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and some properties of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) hepato-pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osatomi, K; Masuda, Y; Hara, K; Ishihara, T

    2001-04-01

    Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus hepato-pancreas. The purification of the enzyme was carried out by an ethanol/chloroform treatment and acetone precipitation, and then followed by column chromatographies on Q-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and Ultrogel AcA 54. On SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme gave a single protein band with molecular mass of 17.8 kDa under reducing conditions, and showed approximately equal proportions of 17.8 and 36 kDa molecular mass under non-reducing conditions. Three bands were obtained when the purified enzyme was subjected to native-PAGE, both on protein and activity staining, but the electrophoretic mobility of the purified enzyme differed from that of bovine erythrocyte Cu, Zn-SOD. Isoelectric point values of 5.9, 6.0 and 6.2, respectively, were obtained for the three components. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was determined for 25 amino acid residues, and the sequence was compared with other Cu, Zn-SODs. The N-terminal alanine residue was unacetylated, as in the case of swordfish SOD. Above 60 degrees C, the thermostability of the enzyme was much lower than that of bovine Cu, Zn-SOD. PMID:11290457

  4. Secondary structure and membrane topology of dengue virus NS4B N-terminal 125 amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Kim, Young Mee; Zou, Jing; Wang, Qing-Yin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Wong, Ying Lei; Lee, Le Tian; Xie, Xuping; Huang, Qiwei; Lescar, Julien; Shi, Pei-Yong; Kang, CongBao

    2015-12-01

    The transmembrane NS4B protein of dengue virus (DENV) is a validated antiviral target that plays important roles in viral replication and invasion of innate immune response. The first 125 amino acids of DENV NS4B are sufficient for inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling. Resistance mutations to NS4B inhibitors are all mapped to the first 125 amino acids. In this study, we expressed and purified a protein representing the first 125 amino acids of NS4B (NS4B(1-125)). This recombinant NS4B(1-125) protein was reconstituted into detergent micelles. Solution NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that there are five helices (α1 to α5) present in NS4B(1-125). Dynamic studies, together with a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment demonstrated that four helices, α2, α3, α4, and α5 are embedded in the detergent micelles. Comparison of wild type and V63I mutant (a mutation that confers resistance to NS4B inhibitor) NS4B(1-125) proteins demonstrated that V63I mutation did not cause significant conformational changes, however, V63 may have a molecular interaction with residues in the α5 transmembrane domain under certain conditions. The structural and dynamic information obtained in study is helpful to understand the structure and function of NS4B. PMID:26403837

  5. cDNA cloning of human DNA topoisomerase I. Catalytic activity of a 67.7-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cDNA clones encoding human topoisomerase I were isolated from an expression vector library (λgt11) screened with autoimmune anti-topoisomerase I serum. One of these clones has been expressed as a fusion protein comprised of a 32-kDa fragment of the bacterial TrpE protein linked to 67.7 kDa of protein encoded by the cDNA. Three lines of evidence indicate that the cloned cDNA encodes topoisomerase I. (i) Proteolysis maps of the fusion protein and human nuclear topoisomerase I are essentially identical. (ii) The fusion protein relaxes supercoiled DNA, an activity that can be immunoprecipitated by anti-topoisomerase I serum. (iii) Sequence analysis has revealed that the longest cDNA clone (3645 base pairs) encodes a protein of 765 amino acids that shares 42% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase I. The sequence data also show that the catalytically active 67.7-kDa fragment is comprised of the carboxyl terminus

  6. Facile Gold-Catalyzed Heterocyclization of Terminal Alkynes and Cyanamides Leading to Substituted 2-Amino-1,3-Oxazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassadin, Valentin A; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2015-07-17

    Facile gold-catalyzed heterocyclization based upon intermolecular trapping of the generated α-oxo gold carbenes with various cyanamides R(2)R(3)NCN (R(2)/R(3) = Alk/Alk, -(CH2)2O(CH2)2-, Ar/Ar, Ar/H) has been developed. In most cases, 2-amino-1,3-oxazoles functionalized at the nitrogen atom as well as at the fifth position of the heterocyclic ring (12 examples) were isolated in good to moderate yields. PMID:26135038

  7. [One amino acid mutation in an anti-CD20 antibody fragment that affects the yield bacterial secretion and the affinity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin-Xing; Xiong, Dong-Sheng; Fan, Dong-Mei; Shao, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yuan-Fu; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Yang, Chun-Zheng

    2003-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against CD20, either unmodified or in radiolabeled forms, have been successfully exploited in clinic as effective therapeutic agents in the management of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. The antibody fragment is a potential agent in image and therapy of tumor. To further improve the soluble expression of anti-CD20 antibody Fab' fragment, PCR was used to mutate the anti-CD20 VL and VH genes and its biological activity was identified. The expression vector of chimeric antibody Fab' was constructed and expressed in E. coli. The data of mutant clone DNA sequence showed that the amino acid of light chain gene of the parent anti-CD20 antibody (H47) was successful mutated as Ser (GAG)-Asn (CAG). The soluble expression of mutated anti-CD20 Fab' (CD20-7) was 3.8 mg/g dry cell weight, while the parent (CD20-2) was 1.3 mg/g dry cell weight. The affinity constant Ka of CD20-7 was 2.2 x 10(9) L/mol. The primary results of competitive assays by FACS showed that CD20-7 could partially block the sites through which parent antibody (HI47) bind to Raji cells. There was difference in the Raji cells (CD20+)-binding activity between the mutant CD20-7 and parent CD20-2. The site mutation of anti-CD20 Fab' gene make it possible that the anti-CD20 antibody fragment was succeeded to obtain higher expression. In this thesis, we succeeded in completing mutation and expression of anti-CD20 Fab' genes, distinguishing its biological activity, and obtaining its highly expression. These period results will lay a foundation for development of other kind of anti-CD20 engineering antibody (for instance: Fab' Diabody and miniantibody), and make it possible for anti-CD20 antibody to be applied to tumor therapy in civil in the future. PMID:15969005

  8. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing to assist the diagnostic evaluation of heart failure in symptomatic primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Collinson, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    When used for the evaluation of symptomatic patients in general practice, amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing is highly sensitive, with an excellent negative predictive value for cost-effective exclusion of the diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Importantly (similar...... to other NP assays), lower values for NT-proBNP are expected among patients with HF in the primary care setting compared with patients with acute dyspnea. Among primary care patients with dyspnea, a noncardiac source of dyspnea is most likely in patients with findings below the recommended age......-stratified NT-proBNP cut points. Conversely, an NT-proBNP result above the age-stratified primary care cut points does not absolutely indicate the presence of HF; a more directed cardiovascular workup is indicated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/4...

  9. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment

  10. Isolation of key amino acid residues at the N-terminal end of the core region Streptococcus downei glucansucrase, GTF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchois, V; Vignon, M; Russell, R R

    1999-11-01

    Related streptococcal and Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrases are enzymes of medical and biotechnological interest. Molecular modelling has suggested that the catalytic domain contains a circularly permuted version of the (beta/alpha)8 barrel structure found in the amylase superfamily, and site-directed mutagenesis has identified critical amino acids in this region. In this study, sequential N-terminal truncations of Streptococcus downei GTF-I showed that key amino acids are also present in the first one-third of the core domain. Mutations were introduced at Trp-344, Glu-349 and His-355, residues that are conserved in all glucansucrases and lie within a region which is a target for inhibitory antibodies. W344L, E349L and H355V substitutions were assayed for their effect on mutan synthesis and also on oligosaccharide synthesis with various acceptors. It appeared that Trp-344 and His-355 are involved in the action mechanism of GTF-I; His-355 may also play a role in a binding subsite necessary for oligosaccharide and glucan elongation. PMID:10570812

  11. Use of substance P fragments to differentiate substance P receptors of different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, M F; Dobry, P J; Einspahr, F J; Schroeder, L A; Masiques, N

    1982-05-01

    The C- and N-terminal fragments of substance P were compared to the parent molecule with respect to their ability to: (a) contract the isolated guinea pig ileum, (b) induce salivation in the rat, (c) excite single cat dorsal horn neurones, and (d) induce scratching by intracranial injections in mice. C-terminal fragments as small as the heptapeptide were potent SP agonists on all assay systems. C-terminal fragments containing five amino acids or less were, at most, only weakly active. The C-terminal hexapeptide was a potent SP receptor stimulant on the isolated guinea pig ileum and, when directly applied by microiontophoresis, on cat dorsal horn neurons. However, the same compound was only 2-5% as potent as substance P in eliciting salivation and scratching in vivo, an indication that this fragment may be especially labile to enzymatic degradation. N-terminal fragments were totally inactive on the isolated guinea pig ileum. On the rat salivation and central nervous system assays, however, N-terminal fragments were capable of weak SP-like activity. It is concluded that SP receptors exist in multiple forms which we have labelled SP1 and SP2 receptors for those insensitive or sensitive to N-terminal fragments, respectively. PMID:6180459

  12. A dielectric barrier discharge terminally inactivates RNase A by oxidizing sulfur-containing amino acids and breaking structural disulfide bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, J.-W.; Baldus, S.; Steinborn, E.; Edengeiser, E.; Kogelheide, F.; Langklotz, S.; Schneider, S.; Leichert, L. I. O.; Benedikt, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Bandow, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    RNases are among the most stable proteins in nature. They even refold spontaneously after heat inactivation, regaining full activity. Due to their stability and universal presence, they often pose a problem when experimenting with RNA. We investigated the capabilities of nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas to inactivate RNase A and studied the inactivation mechanism on a molecular level. While prolonged heating above 90 °C is required for heat inactivating RNase A, direct plasma treatment with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source caused permanent inactivation within minutes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that DBD-treated RNase A unfolds rapidly. Raman spectroscopy indicated methionine modifications and formation of sulfonic acid. A mass spectrometry-based analysis of the protein modifications that occur during plasma treatment over time revealed that methionine sulfoxide formation coincides with protein inactivation. Chemical reduction of methionine sulfoxides partially restored RNase A activity confirming that sulfoxidation is causal and sufficient for RNase A inactivation. Continued plasma exposure led to over-oxidation of structural disulfide bonds. Using antibodies, disulfide bond over-oxidation was shown to be a general protein inactivation mechanism of the DBD. The antibody’s heavy and light chains linked by disulfide bonds dissociated after plasma exposure. Based on their ability to inactivate proteins by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids and over-oxidation of disulfide bonds, DBD devices present a viable option for inactivating undesired or hazardous proteins on heat or solvent-sensitive surfaces.

  13. Soluble prion protein and its N-terminal fragment prevent impairment of synaptic plasticity by Aβ oligomers: Implications for novel therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-McKean, Jonah J; Surewicz, Krystyna; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Ruffin, Vernon A; Salameh, Ahlam I; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Costa, Alberto C S; Surewicz, Witold K

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenic process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to be closely linked to the neurotoxic action of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers bind with high affinity to the membrane-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It has also been proposed that this binding might mediate some of the toxic effects of the oligomers. Here, we show that the soluble (membrane anchor-free) recombinant human prion protein (rPrP) and its N-terminal fragment N1 block Aβ oligomers-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices, an important surrogate marker of cognitive deficit associated with AD. rPrP and N1 are also strikingly potent inhibitors of Aβ cytotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, experiments using hippocampal slices and neurons from wild-type and PrP(C) null mice (as well as rat neurons in which PrP(C) expression was greatly reduced by gene silencing) indicate that, in contrast to the impairment of synaptic plasticity by Aβ oligomers, the cytotoxic effects of these oligomers, and the inhibition of these effects by rPrP and N1, are independent of the presence of endogenous PrP(C). This suggests fundamentally different mechanisms by which soluble rPrP and its fragments inhibit these two toxic responses to Aβ. Overall, these findings provide strong support to recent suggestions that PrP-based compounds may offer new avenues for pharmacological intervention in AD. PMID:26949218

  14. Molecular mechanism of the intramembrane cleavage of the β-carboxyl terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho eMorishima-Kawashima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid β-protein (Aβ plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Aβ is generated through intramembrane proteolysis of the β-carboxyl terminal fragment (βCTF of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP by γ-secretase. The initial cleavage by γ-secretase occurs in the membrane/cytoplasm boundary of the βCTF, liberating the APP intracellular domain (AICD. The remaining βCTFs, which are truncated at the C-terminus (longer Aβs, are then cropped sequentially in a stepwise manner, predominantly at three residue intervals, to generate Aβ. There are two major Aβ product lines which generate Aβ40 and Aβ42 with concomitant release of three and two tripeptides, respectively. Additionally, many alternative cleavages occur, releasing peptides with three to six residues. These modulate the Aβ product lines and define the species and quantity of Aβ generated. Here, we review our current understanding of the intramembrane cleavage of the βCTF by γ-secretase, which may contribute to the future goal of developing an efficient therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  16. Experimental and computational evidence for hydrogen bonding interaction between 2′-deoxyadenosine conjugate adduct and amino-terminated organic film on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwajca, A., E-mail: Anna.Szwajca@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A" . Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Krzywiecki, M. [Institute of Physics-CSE, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Pluskota-Karwatka, D. [Faculty of Chemistry, A" . Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-08-03

    A simple method for immobilization of malonaldehyde-acetaldehyde conjugate adduct with DNA base onto an amino-terminated surface of silicon from water solution is proposed. The Si(001) surface which contains OH groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) to serve as a linker between the silica surface and the organic adduct. The 2′-deoxyadenosine adduct was adsorbed on the APTMS/Si surface from acetonitrile/water solution. This nucleoside derivative is stable under laboratory conditions and emits a natural fluorescence, allowing for its adsorption on the APTMS/Si surface to be easily verified by fluorescence microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The degree of surface coverage by the adduct was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of the XPS spectra revealed bands at 400.2 eV and 533.1 eV which are characteristic of a hydrogen bonded –NH{sub 2} and –OH group. This observation implies that the free electron donating –NH{sub 2} groups from the APTMS layer makes hydrogen bonds with the fluorescent adduct and immobilize it on the surface. The wetting angle of the APTMS/Si surface before and after adsorption of the nucleoside derivative does not differ significantly, which points to the involvement of an – OH group from 2′-deoxyadenosine to be involved in hydrogen bonding. These experimental results were further supported using quantum chemical calculations to demonstrate that the 2′deoxyadenosine adduct makes hydrogen bonds with the APTMS molecule. Furthermore, this hydrogen bond involves the –NH{sub 2} group from APTMS and –OH group at carbon atoms C3 and C6 from the deoxyribose ring of 2′deoxyadenosine. - Highlights: • DNA base adduct was immobilized onto amino-terminated silicon surface. • Hydrogen bonds were observed between aminosilane molecules and deoxyribose ring. • Fluorescent film was characterized by

  17. Experimental and computational evidence for hydrogen bonding interaction between 2′-deoxyadenosine conjugate adduct and amino-terminated organic film on Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for immobilization of malonaldehyde-acetaldehyde conjugate adduct with DNA base onto an amino-terminated surface of silicon from water solution is proposed. The Si(001) surface which contains OH groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) to serve as a linker between the silica surface and the organic adduct. The 2′-deoxyadenosine adduct was adsorbed on the APTMS/Si surface from acetonitrile/water solution. This nucleoside derivative is stable under laboratory conditions and emits a natural fluorescence, allowing for its adsorption on the APTMS/Si surface to be easily verified by fluorescence microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The degree of surface coverage by the adduct was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of the XPS spectra revealed bands at 400.2 eV and 533.1 eV which are characteristic of a hydrogen bonded –NH2 and –OH group. This observation implies that the free electron donating –NH2 groups from the APTMS layer makes hydrogen bonds with the fluorescent adduct and immobilize it on the surface. The wetting angle of the APTMS/Si surface before and after adsorption of the nucleoside derivative does not differ significantly, which points to the involvement of an – OH group from 2′-deoxyadenosine to be involved in hydrogen bonding. These experimental results were further supported using quantum chemical calculations to demonstrate that the 2′deoxyadenosine adduct makes hydrogen bonds with the APTMS molecule. Furthermore, this hydrogen bond involves the –NH2 group from APTMS and –OH group at carbon atoms C3 and C6 from the deoxyribose ring of 2′deoxyadenosine. - Highlights: • DNA base adduct was immobilized onto amino-terminated silicon surface. • Hydrogen bonds were observed between aminosilane molecules and deoxyribose ring. • Fluorescent film was characterized by spectroscopy and

  18. The amino-terminal GAF domain of Azotobacter vinelandii NifA binds 2-oxoglutarate to resist inhibition by NifL under nitrogen-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Richard; Dixon, Ray

    2003-08-01

    The expression of genes required for the synthesis of molybdenum nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii is controlled by the NifL-NifA transcriptional regulatory complex in response to nitrogen, carbon, and redox status. Activation of nif gene expression by the transcriptional activator NifA is inhibited by direct protein-protein interaction with NifL under conditions unfavorable for nitrogen fixation. We have recently shown that the NifL-NifA system responds directly to physiological concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, resulting in relief of NifA activity from inhibition by NifL under conditions when fixed nitrogen is limiting. The inhibitory activity of NifL is restored under conditions of excess combined nitrogen through the binding of the signal transduction protein Av GlnK to the carboxyl-terminal domain of NifL. The amino-terminal domain of NifA comprises a GAF domain implicated in the regulatory response to NifL. A truncated form of NifA lacking this domain is not responsive to 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NifL, suggesting that the GAF domain is required for the response to this ligand. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we demonstrate stoichiometric binding of 2-oxoglutarate to both the isolated GAF domain and the full-length A. vinelandii NifA protein with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microm. Limited proteolysis experiments indicate that the binding of 2-oxoglutarate increases the susceptibility of the GAF domain to trypsin digestion and also prevents NifL from protecting these cleavage sites. However, protection by NifL is restored when the non-modified (non-uridylylated) form of Av GlnK is also present. Our results suggest that the binding of 2-oxoglutarate to the GAF domain of NifA may induce a conformational change that prevents inhibition by NifL under conditions when fixed nitrogen is limiting. PMID:12759352

  19. Expression of the amino-terminal half-molecule of human serum transferrin in cultured cells and characterization of the recombinant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human liver cDNA library was screened with a synthetic oligonucleotide, complementary to the 5' region of human transferrin mRNA, as a hybridization probe. The full-length human cDNA clone isolated from this screen contained part of the 5' untranslated region, the complete coding region for the signal peptide and the two lobes of transferrin, the 3' untranslated region, and a poly(A) tail. By use of oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in vitro, two translational stop codons and a HindIII site were introduced after the codon for Asp-337. This fragment was inserted into two different expression vectors that were then introduced into Escherichia coli. As judged by NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis, however, recombinant hTF/2N was undetectable in bacteria transformed by these plasmids. Concurrently, the authors developed a plasmid vector for the expression of recombinant hTF/2N in eukaryotic cells. The recombinant hTF/2N appeared to behave identically with the proteolytically derived half-molecule, but to show a higher degree of monodispersity than the latter protein. Addition of m-fluorotyrosine to the culture medium resulted in random incorporation of this amino acid into cellular protein in lieu of tyrosine. Purified recombinant 19F-Tyr hTF/2N gave four well-resolved 19F NMR resonances of 20-40 Hz line width, two with suggestions of shoulders

  20. Expression of the Gene Encoding the Tetraploid of Carboxyl-terminal Peptide of β-hCG Containing Thirty-seven Amino Acid Residues in E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 沈卫英; 周清平; 申庆祥

    2000-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to investigate the possible enhancement of immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of β-hCG which is made up of 37 amino acid residues (109~145) and contains the specific epitope (antigenic determinant) of hCG.Materials & Methods hCGβ-CTP37 tetraploid cDNA was constructed by linking four hCGβ-CTP37 cDNAs together. The product was then subcloned into the E. coli expression vector pQE60 to construct the expression vector pQE60/ (hCGβ-CTP37)4. Recombinant (hCGβ-CTP37 ) 4 was expressed in E. coil-X-blue.Results Western blot analysis showed that the tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 had an apparent molecular weight of 20 kD and had relatively stronger anti-hCG antibody-binding activity compared with the diploid from.Conclusion The tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 may be a more potent immunogen for raising anti-hCG vaccines for fertility regulation or suppression of tumor.

  1. Improving solubility of NR2B amino-terminal domain of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contain binding sites for modulators and may serve as potential drug targets in neurological diseases. Here, three fusion tags (6xHis-, GST-, and MBP-) were fused to the ATD of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit (ATD2B) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each tag's ability to confer enhanced solubility to ATD2B was assessed. Soluble ATD2B was successfully obtained as a MBP fusion protein. Dynamic light scattering revealed the protein (1 mg/ml) exists as monodispersed species at 25 oC. Functional studies using circular dichroism showed that the soluble MBP-ATD2B bound ifenprodil in a dose-dependent manner. The dissociation constants obtained for ifenprodil were similar in the absence (64 nM) and presence (116 nM) of saturating concentration of maltose. Moreover, the yield of soluble MBP-ATD2B is 18 times higher than the refolded 6xHis-ATD2B. We have reported a systematic comparison of three different affinity tagging strategies and identified a rapid and efficient method to obtain large amount of ATD2B recombinant protein for biochemical and structural studies

  2. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  3. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  4. Comparison of human gut microbiota in control subjects and patients with colorectal carcinoma in adenoma: Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and next-generation sequencing analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The etiology of CRC has been linked to numerous factors including genetic mutation, diet, life style, inflammation, and recently, the gut microbiota. However, CRC-associated gut microbiota is still largely unexamined. This study used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare gut microbiota of Japanese control subjects and Japanese patients with carcinoma in adenoma. Stool samples were collected from 49 control subjects, 50 patients with colon adenoma, and 9 patients with colorectal cancer (3/9 with invasive cancer and 6/9 with carcinoma in adenoma) immediately before colonoscopy; DNA was extracted from each stool sample. Based on T-RFLP analysis, 12 subjects (six control and six carcinoma in adenoma subjects) were selected; their samples were used for NGS and species-level analysis. T-RFLP analysis showed no significant differences in bacterial population between control, adenoma and cancer groups. However, NGS revealed that i), control and carcinoma in adenoma subjects had different gut microbiota compositions, ii), one bacterial genus (Slackia) was significantly associated with the control group and four bacterial genera (Actinomyces, Atopobium, Fusobacterium, and Haemophilus) were significantly associated with the carcinoma-in-adenoma group, and iii), several bacterial species were significantly associated with each type (control: Eubacterium coprostanoligens; carcinoma in adenoma: Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides fragiles, Clostridium nexile, Fusobacterium varium, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Prevotella stercorea, Streptococcus gordonii, and Veillonella dispar). Gut microbial properties differ between control subjects and carcinoma-in-adenoma patients in this Japanese population, suggesting that gut microbiota is related to CRC prevention and development. PMID:26549775

  5. 1H NMR assignment and secondary structure of the Ca2+-free form of the amino-terminal epidermal growth factor like domain in coagulation factor X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood coagulation factor X is composed of discrete domains, two of which are homologous to the epidermal growth factor (EGF). The N-terminal EGF like domain in factor X (fX-EGFN), residues 45-86 of the intact protein contains a β-hydroxylated asparatic acid and has one Ca2+-binding site. Using 2D NMR techniques, the authors have made a full assignment of the 500-MHz 1H NMR spectrum of Ca2+-free fX-EGFN. On the basis of this assignment and complementary NOESY experiments, they have also determined the secondary structure of Ca2+-free fX-EGFN in water solution. Residues 45-49 are comparatively mobile, whereas residues 5-56 are constrained by two disulfide bonds to one side of an antiparallel β-sheet involving residues 59-64 and 67-72. Another antiparallel β-sheet involves residues 76-77 and 83-84. A small, parallel β-sheet connects residues 80-81 and 55-56 and thereby orients the two antiparallel β-sheets relative to each other. Four β-turns are identified, involving residues 50-53, 56-59, 64-67, 73-76. Residues 78-82 adopt an extended bend structure. On the basis of secondary structure and the location of the three disulfide bonds, they find that Asp 46, Asp 48, and Hya 63 are sufficiently close to each other to form a Ca2+-binding site. However, the amino terminus of the Ca2+-free form of fX-EGFN is not part of a triple-stranded β-sheet as in other EGF like peptides. Differences and similarities between fX-EGFN and murine EGF with respect to secondary structure and conformational shifts are discussed

  6. Serum procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in prostate cancer; pitfalls of its use as an early surrogate marker for bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) is a bone formation marker and has been shown to have a strong association with the extent of bone metastases (BM) in patients with advanced prostate cancer. More recently, its levels were found to be affected by androgen deprivation therapies and bisphosphonates. We investigated the role of P1NP as a surrogate marker of sub-radiological skeletal metastases in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure (BF). BePrepared is a prospective longitudinal substudy of RADAR trial in which serial P1NPs were collected at regular intervals for 123 patients who had completed RADAR protocol treatment. There was no trend identified in P1NP levels prior to diagnosis of BM. We found that there was no difference in P1NP concentrations at the time of diagnosis of BM in the group that developed BM compared with P1NP levels in groups with only nodal metastases or BF. In the group of patients who did not experience BF, P1NP was affected by previous luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-agonist and bisphosphonate therapy. Hence, patients who received an 18-month course of androgen deprivation without bisphosphonates had significantly higher P1NP values than patients with shorter androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) course combined with a course of bisphosphonates. P1NP is not a sensitive serum marker of early BM in high-risk prostate cancer patients with BF and low prostate-specific antigen levels as its levels are affected by prior history of bone remodelling therapies such as ADT and bisphosphonates.

  7. Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Delmar, Mario; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

  8. Role of the Acidic Hirudin-like COOH-Terminal Amino Acid Region of Factor Va Heavy Chain in the Enhanced Function of Prothrombinase†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Prothrombinase activates prothrombin through initial cleavage at Arg320 followed by cleavage at Arg271. This pathway is characterized by the generation of an enzymatically active, transient intermediate, meizothrombin, that has increased chromogenic substrate activity but poor clotting activity. The heavy chain of factor Va contains an acidic region at the COOH terminus (residues 680−709). We have shown that a pentapeptide from this region (DYDYQ) inhibits prothrombin activation by prothrombinase by inhibiting meizothrombin generation. To ascertain the function of these regions, we have created a mutant recombinant factor V molecule that is missing the last 30 amino acids from the heavy chain (factor VΔ680−709) and a mutant molecule with the 695DYDY698 → AAAA substitutions (factor V4A). The clotting activities of both recombinant mutant factor Va molecules were impaired compared to the clotting activity of wild-type factor Va (factor VaWt). Using an assay employing purified reagents, we found that prothrombinase assembled with factor VaΔ680−709 displayed an ∼39% increase in kcat, while prothrombinase assembled with factor Va4A exhibited an ∼20% increase in kcat for the activation of prothrombin as compared to prothrombinase assembled with factor VaWt. Gel electrophoresis analyzing prothrombin activation by prothrombinase assembled with the mutant molecules revealed a delay in prothrombin activation with persistence of meizothrombin. Our data demonstrate that the COOH-terminal region of factor Va heavy chain is indeed crucial for coordinated prothrombin activation by prothrombinase because it regulates meizothrombin cleavage at Arg271 and suggest that this portion of factor Va is partially responsible for the enhanced procoagulant function of prothrombinase. PMID:18590276

  9. Synthesis of Hemopressin Peptides by Classical Solution Phase Fragment Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anantha Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragment condensation solution phase assembly of the naturally occurring CB1 inverse agonist nonapeptides, Pro-Val-Asn-Phe-Lys-Phe/Leu-Leu-Ser-His-OH (hemopressins, and two other homologues: N-terminal 2-amino acid (dipeptide extended undecapeptide, Val-Asp-Pro-Val-Asn-Phe-Lys-Leu-Leu-Ser-His-OH, and three-amino acid (tripeptide extended dodecapeptide, Arg-Val-Asp-Pro-Val-Asn-Phe-Lys-Leu-Leu-Ser-His-OH, both CB1 agonists, is reported.

  10. PyroTRF-ID: a novel bioinformatics methodology for the affiliation of terminal-restriction fragments using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In molecular microbial ecology, massive sequencing is gradually replacing classical fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) combined with cloning-sequencing for the characterization of microbiomes. Here, a bioinformatics methodology for pyrosequencing-based T-RF identification (PyroTRF-ID) was developed to combine pyrosequencing and T-RFLP approaches for the description of microbial communities. The strength of this methodology relies on the identification of T-RFs by comparison of experimental and digital T-RFLP profiles obtained from the same samples. DNA extracts were subjected to amplification of the 16S rRNA gene pool, T-RFLP with the HaeIII restriction enzyme, 454 tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing, and PyroTRF-ID analysis. Digital T-RFLP profiles were generated from the denoised full pyrosequencing datasets, and the sequences contributing to each digital T-RF were classified to taxonomic bins using the Greengenes reference database. The method was tested both on bacterial communities found in chloroethene-contaminated groundwater samples and in aerobic granular sludge biofilms originating from wastewater treatment systems. Results PyroTRF-ID was efficient for high-throughput mapping and digital T-RFLP profiling of pyrosequencing datasets. After denoising, a dataset comprising ca. 10′000 reads of 300 to 500 bp was typically processed within ca. 20 minutes on a high-performance computing cluster, running on a Linux-related CentOS 5.5 operating system, enabling parallel processing of multiple samples. Both digital and experimental T-RFLP profiles were aligned with maximum cross-correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.92 for high- and low-complexity environments, respectively. On average, 63±18% of all experimental T-RFs (30 to 93 peaks per sample) were affiliated to phylotypes. Conclusions PyroTRF-ID profits from complementary advantages of pyrosequencing and T-RFLP and is particularly

  11. PyroTRF-ID: a novel bioinformatics methodology for the affiliation of terminal-restriction fragments using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissbrodt David G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In molecular microbial ecology, massive sequencing is gradually replacing classical fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP combined with cloning-sequencing for the characterization of microbiomes. Here, a bioinformatics methodology for pyrosequencing-based T-RF identification (PyroTRF-ID was developed to combine pyrosequencing and T-RFLP approaches for the description of microbial communities. The strength of this methodology relies on the identification of T-RFs by comparison of experimental and digital T-RFLP profiles obtained from the same samples. DNA extracts were subjected to amplification of the 16S rRNA gene pool, T-RFLP with the HaeIII restriction enzyme, 454 tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing, and PyroTRF-ID analysis. Digital T-RFLP profiles were generated from the denoised full pyrosequencing datasets, and the sequences contributing to each digital T-RF were classified to taxonomic bins using the Greengenes reference database. The method was tested both on bacterial communities found in chloroethene-contaminated groundwater samples and in aerobic granular sludge biofilms originating from wastewater treatment systems. Results PyroTRF-ID was efficient for high-throughput mapping and digital T-RFLP profiling of pyrosequencing datasets. After denoising, a dataset comprising ca. 10′000 reads of 300 to 500 bp was typically processed within ca. 20 minutes on a high-performance computing cluster, running on a Linux-related CentOS 5.5 operating system, enabling parallel processing of multiple samples. Both digital and experimental T-RFLP profiles were aligned with maximum cross-correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.92 for high- and low-complexity environments, respectively. On average, 63±18% of all experimental T-RFs (30 to 93 peaks per sample were affiliated to phylotypes. Conclusions PyroTRF-ID profits from complementary advantages of pyrosequencing and T

  12. Disposable amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the sensitive detection of the cardiac biomarker amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel and sensitive amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for NT-proBNP detection. •Indirect competitive immunoassay onto HOOC-MBs and Au/SPEs as transducers. •Excellent analytical performance at levels clinically relevant in human serum. •Useful in clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac diseases. -- Abstract: A novel amperometric magnetoimmunosensor using an indirect competitive format is developed for the sensitive detection of the amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The immunosensor design involves the covalent immobilization of the antigen onto carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) activated with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), and further incubation in a mixture solution containing variable concentrations of the antigen and a fixed concentration of an HRP-labeled detection antibody. Accordingly, the target NT-proBNP in the sample and that immobilized on the MBs compete for binding to a fixed amount of the specific HRP-labeled secondary antibody. The immunoconjugate-bearing MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable gold screen-printed electrode (Au/SPE). The amperometric responses measured at –0.10 V (vs. a Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as electron transfer mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate, are used to monitor the affinity reaction. The developed magnetoimmunosensor provides attractive analytical characteristics in 10-times diluted human serum samples, exhibiting a linear range of clinical usefulness (0.12–42.9 ng mL−1) and a detection limit of 0.02 ng mL−1, which can be used in clinical diagnosis of chronic heart failure in the elderly and for classifying patients at risk of death after heart transplantation. The magnetoimmunosensor was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked human serum samples

  13. Preparation of a well-defined amino-terminated self-assembled monolayer and copper microlines on a polyimide substrate covered with an oxide nanoskin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Asakura, Shuichi; Fuwa, Akio; Shirahata, Naoto; Kameyama, Tetsuya

    2005-08-30

    A well-ordered, uniform amino (NH(2))-terminated organosilane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was prepared on a polyimide (PI) substrate, the surface of which had silica-like reactivity. First, through chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent photooxidation using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light, an extremely thin silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) layer about 1 nm thick, which we call an "oxide nanoskin" (ONS), was prepared on a PI substrate. Due to the presence of this ONS layer, the PI surface's properties became almost identical with those of Si covered with native oxide (SiO(2)/Si) without any marked change in surface morphology, as evidenced by zeta-potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Next, this ONS-covered PI (ONS/PI) surface was exposed to vapor of a 12.5 vol % solution of N-(6-aminohexyl)(3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (AHAPS) molecules diluted with absolute toluene. On the basis of contact angle analysis, the surface energy of this AHAPS/ONS/PI sample was mostly consistent with that of a SiO(2)/Si substrate covered with an AHAPS-SAM (AHAPS/SiO(2)/Si). On the other hand, the surface energy of an AHAPS-treated PI (AHAPS/PI) substrate was much smaller than that of the AHAPS/ONS/PI substrate due to insufficient surface coverage by the AHAPS molecules. This was also confirmed by lateral force microscopy using photolithographically micropatterned samples. Fabricated micropatterns composed of AHAPS- and SiO(2)-covered regions were clearly imaged on the AHAPS/ONS/PI substrate through their difference in friction, while the friction contrast of the micropatterned AHAPS/PI substrate was unclear. This marked difference in packing density of the AHAPS molecules had a direct influence on the adsorption behavior of palladium colloids and subsequent electroless plating of copper (Cu). As confirmed by AFM and XPS, metallization proceeded only on the AHAPS-covered regions, while

  14. Disposable amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the sensitive detection of the cardiac biomarker amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta, E-mail: berta.efa@quim.ucm.es; Escamilla-Gómez, Vanessa, E-mail: vaneeg@quim.ucm.es; Campuzano, Susana, E-mail: susanacr@quim.ucm.es; Pedrero, María, E-mail: mpedrero@quim.ucm.es; Pingarrón, José M., E-mail: pingarro@quim.ucm.es

    2013-06-19

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel and sensitive amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for NT-proBNP detection. •Indirect competitive immunoassay onto HOOC-MBs and Au/SPEs as transducers. •Excellent analytical performance at levels clinically relevant in human serum. •Useful in clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac diseases. -- Abstract: A novel amperometric magnetoimmunosensor using an indirect competitive format is developed for the sensitive detection of the amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The immunosensor design involves the covalent immobilization of the antigen onto carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) activated with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), and further incubation in a mixture solution containing variable concentrations of the antigen and a fixed concentration of an HRP-labeled detection antibody. Accordingly, the target NT-proBNP in the sample and that immobilized on the MBs compete for binding to a fixed amount of the specific HRP-labeled secondary antibody. The immunoconjugate-bearing MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable gold screen-printed electrode (Au/SPE). The amperometric responses measured at –0.10 V (vs. a Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as electron transfer mediator and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the enzyme substrate, are used to monitor the affinity reaction. The developed magnetoimmunosensor provides attractive analytical characteristics in 10-times diluted human serum samples, exhibiting a linear range of clinical usefulness (0.12–42.9 ng mL{sup −1}) and a detection limit of 0.02 ng mL{sup −1}, which can be used in clinical diagnosis of chronic heart failure in the elderly and for classifying patients at risk of death after heart transplantation. The magnetoimmunosensor was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked human serum

  15. Expression and T cell recognition of hybrid antigens with amino-terminal domains encoded by Qa-2 region of major histocompatibility complex and carboxyl termini of transplantation antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroynowski, I; Forman, J; Goodenow, R S; Schiffer, S G; McMillan, M; Sharrow, S O; Sachs, D H; Hood, L

    1985-05-01

    Coding potential of the Q6 gene from the Qa-2a region of BALB/c Crgl mice was analyzed by a combination of hybrid class I gene construction and DNA-mediated gene transfer. Recombinant genes were created by exon shuffling of the 5' coding region of the Q6 gene and the 3' coding region of a gene encoding a transplantation antigen (Kd, Dd, or Ld), or the inverse. Some of these hybrid class I genes were expressed in the transfected mouse fibroblasts (L cells). The hybrid class I molecules encoded by the 5' end of the Q6 gene and the 3' end of the Ld gene precipitated as 45,000 mol wt molecules associated with beta 2-microglobulin. The expression of the hybrid proteins indicates that 926 basepairs of the 5' flanking region upstream of the structural Q6 gene contain a promoter that functions as a transcription initiation site in L cells. The 3' portion of the Q6 gene appears to be responsible for the lack of cell surface expression of the intact Q6 and the hybrid Ld/Q6 genes in mouse fibroblasts. Accordingly, this portion of the Q6 class I gene may play a regulatory role in tissue-specific expression. Serological analyses of hybrid Q6 proteins suggested that Q6 may be a structural gene for CR (H-2 crossreactive) antigen found normally on subpopulations of lymphocytes. If this identification is correct, Q6 gene will define a new category of class I genes encoding approximately 40,000 mol wt molecules and carrying a characteristic truncated cytoplasmic tail. Analysis of L cells transfected with Q6 hybrid genes demonstrated also that the cytotoxic T cells specific for Qa-2a region-coded antigens recognize the amino-terminal alpha 1-alpha 2 domain of Q6 fusion products. This recognition can be blocked by anti-Qa-2a alloantiserum and monoclonal antibodies reactive with the alpha 3-beta 2-microglobulin portion of the Q6 hybrids. We propose that the structural requirements for the anti-Qa-2a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-specific epitopes on target molecules are the same as for anti

  16. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  17. CTFβ表达纯化及生物学性质鉴定%Expression, purification and the biological activites of C-terminal fragment CTFβ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琳琳; 杨海强; 张莹; 何金生; 古应彩; 侯明旭; 刘楠楠

    2014-01-01

    目的 表达和纯化淀粉样前体蛋白(APP)的羧基末端水解片段CTFβ,并鉴定其生物学性质,为在阿尔茨海默病(AD)抗体筛选中的应用奠定基础.方法 以APP基因为模板,克隆CTFβ的基因并测序鉴定;将CTFβ基因克隆到表达载体pET-30a(+)上,构建重组表达质粒pET30a-CTFβ;转化大肠埃希菌BL21,IPTG诱导表达,利用Ni-NTA亲和层析对重组蛋白进行纯化,并用Western Blot和ELISA检测其免疫反应性,并初步探索其作为检测抗原的实验条件.结果 重组蛋白在大肠埃希菌中可溶性表达,Western Blot结果,用抗组氨酸标签抗体做为一抗,(10~25) ×103处显示与预计相对分子质量大小一致的条带;此外,在80×103以上的位置尚有较粗的蛋白条带.用抗Aβ的单抗进一步分析发现,(10~25) ×103及80×103以上的条带可以被抗Aβ(17-24)单抗4G8识别,而80×103以上的条带还可以被Aβ寡聚体单抗识别,说明表达产物还形成了高相对分子质量的聚集体,位于80×103以上.间接ELISA结果表明CTFβ用于AD抗体检测的最佳包被剂量是1 nv孔.结论 本研究成功表达和纯化了CTFβ,并鉴定了其单体和聚集体的免疫反应性,为其在AD检测中的应用提供实验依据.%Objective Proteolysis of the C-terminal fragment (CTFβ) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates the Aβ peptides associated with Alzheimer' s disease (AD).The metabolism of CTFβ may play key roles in early stage of AD before Aβ generation.The aim of this study was to express,identify and purify the CTFβ,so as to provide evidence for its application in the development of AD detection system.Methods APP gene was used as the template,and the gene of CTFβ was cloned to pMD18-T vector through PCR.After sequencing,the CTFβ gene was cloned into the expression vector pET-30a(+) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid pET30a-CTFβ.The expression plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 and the expression

  18. A study of fragmentation of protonated amides of some acylated amino acids by tandem mass spectrometry: observation of an unusual nitrilium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Erach R; Young, Sarah M; Dain, Ryan P; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2011-05-15

    A tandem mass spectrometric study of a series of secondary amides of acetylglycine and hippuric acid utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) was conducted. Among the fragment ions observed was an unusual one, which we have determined to be a nitrilium ion having the structure CH3-C≡N⊕-Ph or Ph-C≡N⊕-Ph by loss of the full mass of glycine as a neutral fragment. A mechanism that we propose involves an initial protonation of the oxygen atom at the N-terminus, followed by cyclization to a five-membered imidazolium ring, and its subsequent collapse to the nitrilium ion. This mechanism is supported by extensive isotopic labels and considerable variation of substituents. A similar study of the amides of acyl β-alanine and acyl γ-aminobutyric acid revealed that the former furnishes the same nitrilium ion, but not the latter. Thus, a six-membered intermediate is also possible and capable of losing the full mass of β-alanine as a neutral fragment. When the size of the ring is forced to be seven-membered, this pathway is blocked. When this study was expanded to include a variety of N-acylproline amides, the nitrilium ion was observed in 100% abundance only when the acyl group was acetyl. Thus a proline effect (involvement of a strained bicyclic [3.3.0] structure) is being observed. PMID:21488111

  19. TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts: searching for mRNA fragments with miRNA binding sites with encoded amino acid residues

    OpenAIRE

    Berillo, Olga; Régnier, Mireille; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNA molecules that inhibit the translation of target genes. microRNA binding sites are located in the untranslated regions as well as in the coding domains. We describe TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts developed using python as tools for the extraction of nucleotide sequences for miRNA binding sites with their encoded amino acid residue sequences. The scripts allow for retrieving a set of additional sequences at left and at right from the binding site. The scripts presents ...

  20. An Intrabody Drug (rAAV6-INT41) Reduces the Binding of N-Terminal Huntingtin Fragment(s) to DNA to Basal Levels in PC12 Cells and Delays Cognitive Loss in the R6/2 Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt. Compartmental fractionation 8 days after induction of Htt showed a 6-fold increased association of a dominate N-terminal mHtt fragment with DNA compared to N-terminal nHtt. Transduction with rAAV6-INT41 reduced DNA binding of N-terminal mHtt 6.5-fold in the nucleus and reduced nuclear translocation of the detected fragments. Subsequently, when rAAV6-INT41 is delivered to the striatum in the R6/2 mouse model, treated female mice exhibited executive function statistically indistinguishable from wild type, accompanied by reductions in Htt aggregates in the striatum, suggesting that rAAV6-INT41 is promising as a gene therapy for Huntington's disease. PMID:27595037

  1. An Intrabody Drug (rAAV6-INT41) Reduces the Binding of N-Terminal Huntingtin Fragment(s) to DNA to Basal Levels in PC12 Cells and Delays Cognitive Loss in the R6/2 Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, I Alexandra; Henderson, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt. Compartmental fractionation 8 days after induction of Htt showed a 6-fold increased association of a dominate N-terminal mHtt fragment with DNA compared to N-terminal nHtt. Transduction with rAAV6-INT41 reduced DNA binding of N-terminal mHtt 6.5-fold in the nucleus and reduced nuclear translocation of the detected fragments. Subsequently, when rAAV6-INT41 is delivered to the striatum in the R6/2 mouse model, treated female mice exhibited executive function statistically indistinguishable from wild type, accompanied by reductions in Htt aggregates in the striatum, suggesting that rAAV6-INT41 is promising as a gene therapy for Huntington's disease. PMID:27595037

  2. Plasmodium falciparum: an epitope within a highly conserved region of the 47-kDa amino-terminal domain of the serine repeat antigen is a target of parasite-inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B A; Xing-Li, P; Suzue, K; Horii, T; Bzik, D J

    1997-02-01

    Previously, the Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen has been shown to be protective in primate models of malaria immunity and also to be a target of in vitro parasite-inhibitory antibodies. To further define parasite-inhibitory epitopes a series of deletions from the amino-terminal 47-kDa domain of the serine repeat antigen (SERA) were constructed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins. Several GST-SERA fusion proteins were used to vaccinate mice with Freund's adjuvant and the resulting immune sera were used to assay for the inhibition of P. falciparum invasion of erythrocytes in vitro. The minimal epitope shown to be the target of invasion-blocking antibodies was SERA amino acids 17-165. Additional GST-SERA deletion constructs of the 47-kDa domain were developed and evaluated for reactivity, by Western immunoblot analysis, with a parasite-inhibitory murine monoclonal antibody (mAb 43E5), a parasite-inhibitory pooled goat polyclonal sera, and a pooled human Nigerian immune serum. The parasite-inhibitory epitope defined by mAb 43E5 was mapped to SERA amino acids 17-110 and, at least, part of the epitope was defined to include amino acids in the region of amino acids 59-72. The parasite-inhibitory epitope recognized by mAb 43E5 appears to be well conserved between diverse geographical isolates of P. falciparum. The results have relevance for malaria vaccine development and suggest that an appropriately designed recombinant SERA antigen produced from a synthetic gene in Escherichia coli may be an effective component of a candidate malaria vaccine. PMID:9030663

  3. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  4. Sequence and expression pattern of a novel human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPRC5B, a family C receptor with a short amino-terminal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2000-01-01

    Query of GenBank with the amino acid sequence of human metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGluR2) identified a predicted gene product of unknown function on BAC clone CIT987SK-A-69G12 (located on chromosome band 16p12) as a homologous protein. The transcript, entitled GPRC5B, was cloned f...

  5. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasek, Nathan S; Nyland, Lori R; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-01-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔC44)) are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM's dual role in flight and courtship behaviors. PMID:27128952

  6. Identification of a Chemical Probe for Bromo and Extra C-Terminal Bromodomain Inhibition through Optimization of a Fragment-Derived Hit

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Paul V.; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Bish, Gerwyn; Brennan, Paul E.; Bunnage, Mark E.; Cook, Andrew S.; Federov, Oleg; Gerstenberger, Brian S.; Jones, Hannah; Knapp, Stefan; Marsden, Brian; Nocka, Karl; Owen, Dafydd R.; Philpott, Martin; Picaud, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of chromatin through acetylation at selected histone lysine residues is governed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The significance of this subset of the epigenetic code is interrogated and interpreted by an acetyllysine-specific protein–protein interaction with bromodomain reader modules. Selective inhibition of the bromo and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomains with a small molecule is feasible, and this...

  7. Short communication: Measuring the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of an 8-amino acid (8mer) fragment of the C12 antihypertensive peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moushumi; Phillips, John G; Renye, John A

    2016-05-01

    An 8-AA (8mer) fragment (PFPEVFGK) of a known antihypertensive peptide derived from bovine αS1-casein (C12 antihypertensive peptide) was synthesized by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Its ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was assessed and compared with that of the parent 12mer peptide (FFVAPFPEVFGK) to determine the effect of truncating the sequence on overall hypotensive activity. The activity of the truncated 8mer peptide was found to be almost 1.5 times less active than that of the 12mer, with ACE-inhibiting IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 108 and 69μM, for the 8mer and 12mer, respectively. Although the 8mer peptide is less active than the original 12mer peptide, its overall activity is comparable to activities reported for other small proteins that elicit physiological responses within humans. These results suggest that microbial degradation of the 12mer peptide would not result in a complete loss of antihypertensive activity if used to supplement fermented foods and that the stable 8mer peptide could have potential as a blood pressure-lowering agent for use in functional foods. PMID:26971162

  8. The C-terminal 20 Amino Acids of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 Are Required for Binding to a BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) Domain-containing Protein, Mus101, and Fidelity of DNA Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Tsung Shane; Wu, Jianhong; Modrich, Paul; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2016-06-17

    Eukaryotic topoisomerase 2 (Top2) and one of its interacting partners, topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1) are two proteins performing essential cellular functions. We mapped the interacting domains of these two proteins using co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments with truncated or mutant Drosophila Top2 with various Ser-to-Ala substitutions. We discovered that the last 20 amino acids of Top2 represent the key region for binding with Mus101 (the Drosophila homolog of TopBP1) and that phosphorylation of Ser-1428 and Ser-1443 is important for Top2 to interact with the N terminus of Mus101, which contains the BRCT1/2 domains. The interaction between Mus101 and the Top2 C-terminal regulatory domain is phosphorylation-dependent because treatment with phosphatase abolishes their association in pulldown assays. The binding affinity of N-terminal Mus101 with a synthetic phosphorylated peptide spanning the last 25 amino acids of Top2 (with Ser(P)-1428 and Ser(P)-1443) was determined by surface plasmon resonance with a Kd of 0.57 μm In an in vitro decatenation assay, Mus101 can specifically reduce the decatenation activity of Top2, and dephosphorylation of Top2 attenuates this response. Next, we endeavored to establish a cellular system for testing the biological function of Top2-Mus101 interaction. Top2-silenced S2 cells rescued by Top2Δ20, Top2 with 20 amino acids truncated from the C terminus, developed abnormally high chromosome numbers, which implies that Top2-Mus101 interaction is important for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:27129233

  9. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  10. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  11. Influence of "alternative" C-terminal amino acids on the formation of [b3 + 17 + Cat]+ products from metal cationized synthetic tetrapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, V; Silva, A T M; Rajagopalachary, S; Bulleigh, K; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dissociation patterns, and in particular the relative abundance of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), for peptides with C-termini designed to allow transfer of the -OH required to generate the product ion, but not necessarily as the most favored pathway. Working with the hypothesis that formation of a five-membered ring intermediate, including intramolecular nucleophilic attack by a carbonyl oxygen atom, is an important mechanistic step, several model peptides with general sequence AcFGGX were synthesized, metal cationized by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID). The amino acid at position X was one that either required a larger ring intermediate (beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid to generate six-, seven- or nine- membered rings, respectively) to transfer -OH, lacked a structural element required for nucleophilic attack (aminoethanol) or prohibited cyclization because of the inclusion of a rigid ring (p- and m-aminobenzoic acid). For Ag(+), Li(+) and Na(+) cationized peptides, our results show that amino acids requiring the adoption of larger ring intermediates suppressed the formation of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), while amino acids that prohibit cyclization eliminated the reaction pathway completely. Formation of [b(3) - 1 + Cat](+) from the alkali metal cationized versions was not a favorable process upon suppression or elimination of the [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+) pathway: the loss of H(2)O to form [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) was instead the dominant dissociation reaction observed. Multiple-stage dissociation experiments suggest that [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) is not [b(4) - 1 + Cat](+) arising from the loss of H(2)O from the C-terminus, but may instead be a species that forms via a mechanism involving the elimination of an oxygen atom from an amide group. PMID:15170745

  12. Research on microbial community structure of cholesterol calculus patients by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism%胆固醇结石患者胆囊细菌的T-RFLP研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶吉云; 李洱花; 刘云霞; 田大广; 高波

    2013-01-01

    目的应用T-RFLP分析胆固醇结石中微生物群落结构。方法应用末端标记限制性片段长度多态性(Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism,T-RFLP)和克隆文库分析,以微生物群落16S rRNA基因(16S rDNA)为目标,对8例常规细菌培养阴性的纯胆固醇患者胆囊结石和胆汁中的微生物群落结构进行解析和比较。结果发现8例纯胆固醇结石患者胆汁中未找到细菌存在的证据,结石中细菌16S rDNA阳性率为37.5%(3/8),细菌16S rDNA片段测序表明细菌群落与肠杆菌科和微球菌科的微生物有较高的相似性,同时细菌群落中检出了大量的未培养微生物(Uncultured bacterium clone)。结论运用T-RFLP方法分析16S rDNA克隆片段能够有效评估纯胆固醇结石中的细菌群落结构的多样性。%Objective To analysis of microbial community structure in cholesterol calculus by T-RFLP (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Methods Small subunit rRNA gene (16S rDNA) was retrieved from 8 patients' gallstone and bile with cholesterol calculus. The microbial community structure of these cholesterol calculus patients' gallstone and bile were investigated by T-RFLP and clone libraries approaches. Results There was no bacterium found in bile from 8 patients with cholesterol calculus. The positive rate of bacterial 16S rDNA in stone was 37.5%(3/8). Bacterial 16S rDNA sequencing fragments showed that microbial community and Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae microorganisms had high similarity. Meanwhile, there were detected a number of uncultured bacterium from microbial community. Conclusion Analysis of 16S rDNA cloned fragment could effectively evaluate the diversity of bacterial community structure by T-RFLP method in cholesterol stone.

  13. A CaV2.1 N-terminal fragment relieves the dominant-negative inhibition by an Episodic ataxia 2 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahimene, Shehrazade; Page, Karen M; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Pratt, Wendy S; D'Arco, Marianna; Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-09-01

    Episodic ataxia 2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene CACNA1A that encodes the pore-forming CaV2.1 calcium channel subunit. The majority of EA2 mutations reported so far are nonsense or deletion/insertion mutations predicted to form truncated proteins. Heterologous expression of wild-type CaV2.1, together with truncated constructs that mimic EA2 mutants, significantly suppressed wild-type calcium channel function, indicating that the truncated protein produces a dominant-negative effect (Jouvenceau et al., 2001; Page et al., 2004). A similar finding has been shown for CaV2.2 (Raghib et al., 2001). We show here that a highly conserved sequence in the cytoplasmic N-terminus is involved in this process, for both CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 channels. Additionally, we were able to interfere with the suppressive effect of an EA2 construct by mutating key N-terminal residues within it. We postulate that the N-terminus of the truncated channel plays an essential part in its interaction with the full-length CaV2.1, which prevents the correct folding of the wild-type channel. In agreement with this, we were able to disrupt the interaction between EA2 and the full length channel by co-expressing a free N-terminal peptide. PMID:27260834

  14. The 5-amino acid N-terminal extension of non-sulfated drosulfakinin II is a unique target to generate novel agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, M; Heimonen, J; Brocke, T; Rasmussen, M; Bass, C; Palmer, G; Egle, J; Mispelon, M; Berry, K; Nichols, R

    2016-09-01

    The ability to design agonists that target peptide signaling is a strategy to delineate underlying mechanisms and influence biology. A sequence that uniquely characterizes a peptide provides a distinct site to generate novel agonists. Drosophila melanogaster sulfakinin encodes non-sulfated drosulfakinin I (nsDSK I; FDDYGHMRF-NH2) and nsDSK II (GGDDQFDDYGHMRF-NH2). Drosulfakinin is typical of sulfakinin precursors, which are conserved throughout invertebrates. Non-sulfated DSK II is structurally related to DSK I, however, it contains a unique 5-residue N-terminal extension; drosulfakinins signal through G-protein coupled receptors, DSK-R1 and DSK-R2. Drosulfakinin II distinctly influences adult and larval gut motility and larval locomotion; yet, its structure-activity relationship was unreported. We hypothesized substitution of an N-terminal extension residue may alter nsDSK II activity. By targeting the extension we identified, not unexpectedly, analogs mimicking nsDSK II, yet, surprisingly, we also discovered novel agonists with increased (super) and opposite (protean) effects. We determined [A3] nsDSK II increased larval gut contractility rather than, like nsDSK II, decrease it. [N4] nsDSK II impacted larval locomotion, although nsDSK II was inactive. In adult gut, [A1] nsDSK II, [A2] nsDSKII, and [A3] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II, and [A4] nsDSK II and [A5] nsDSK II were more potent; [N3] nsDSK II and [N4] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II. This study reports nsDSK II signals through DSK-R2 to influence gut motility and locomotion, identifying a novel role for the N-terminal extension in sulfakinin biology and receptor activation; it also led to the discovery of nsDSK II structural analogs that act as super and protean agonists. PMID:27397853

  15. Engineering of halophilic enzymes: Two acidic amino acid residues at the carboxy-terminal region confer halophilic characteristics to Halomonas and Pseudomonas nucleoside diphosphate kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Tokunaga, Hiroko; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Halomonas sp. 593 (HaNDK) exhibits halophilic characteristics. Residues 134 and 135 in the carboxy-terminal region of HaNDK are Glu–Glu, while those of its homologous counterpart of non-halophilic Pseudomonas NDK (PaNDK) are Ala–Ala. The double mutation, E134A-E135A, in HaNDK results in the loss of the halophilic characteristics, and, conversely, the double mutation of A134E-A135E in PaNDK confers halophilic characters to this enzyme, indicating that the cha...

  16. Cleavage of RseA by RseP requires a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic amino acid following DegS cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Boyuan; Feng, Lihui; Kang, Hui; Qi, Yang; Wang, Jiawei; Shi, Yigong

    2009-01-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) by the Site-2 protease (S2P) results in the release of a transmembrane signaling protein. Curiously, however, S2P cleavage must be preceded by the action of the Site-1 protease (S1P). To decipher the underlying mechanism, we reconstituted sequential, in vitro cleavages of the Escherichia coli transmembrane protein RseA by DegS (S1P) and RseP (S2P). After DegS cleavage, the newly exposed carboxyl-terminal residue Val-148 of RseA plays an essential role...

  17. Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive peptide fragments mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 and copeptin in hemodialysis patients: associated factors and prediction of mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Artunc

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin are vasoactive peptides that regulate vascular tone and might play a role in hypertensive diseases. Recently, laboratory assays have been developed to measure stable fragments of vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin. Little is known about their diagnostic and prognostic value in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we measured the plasma concentration of copeptin, mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-pro-ADM and C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 (CT-pro-ET1 in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239 and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. In all patients enrolled, the plasma concentrations of copeptin, MR-pro-ADM and CT-pro-ET1 were largely elevated with a median concentration of 132 pmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 78-192 for copeptin, 1.26 nmol/L (IQR 1.02-1.80 for MR-pro-ADM and 149 pmol/L (IQR 121-181 for CT-pro-ET1. The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin concentration and were negatively correlated to residual diuresis. The plasma concentration of MR-pro-ADM was a strong predictor of all-cause (univariate hazard ratio for a 10-fold increase 9.94 [3.14;32], p<0.0001 and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 34.87 [5.58;217], p = 0.0001 within a 3.8-year follow-up. The associations remained stable in models adjusted for dialysis specific factors and were attenuated in a full model adjusted for all prognostic factors. Plasma copeptin concentration was weakly associated with cardiovascular mortality (only in univariate analysis and CT-pro-ET1 was not associated with mortality at all. In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, increased release. Increased concentrations of MR-pro-ADM are predictive of mortality.

  18. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard; Christensen, Peter Astrup; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis; Goletz, Steffen; Clark, Brian F.C.; Kristensen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    constitute an easy and inexpensive method compared to hybridoma cultures. Such approaches have, however, often suffered from low yields and poor functionality. A general method is described here which enables expressions of functional antibody fragments when fused to the amino-terminal domain(s) of the...... heterologous expression systems will benefit present-day quests in structural and functional genomics where high amounts of active protein are required. One example, which has been the subject of considerable interest, is recombinant antibodies or fragments thereof as expressions of these in bacteria...

  19. Viscocidad de la Dieta y su Efecto sobre la Pérdidad de Aminoácidos Endógenos Recuperados en Íleon Terminal de Cerdos

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Chi-Moreno; Miguel Cervantes-Ramírez; J. Luis Figueroa-Velasco; Jorge Baeza-López; Manuel Cuca-García; Fernando Copado-Bueno; Jorge L. Yáñez-Hernández; Noemí Torrentera-Olivera

    2005-01-01

    La viscosidad de la dieta provocada por algunos compuestos antinutricionales en los cereales puede afectar la pérdida de aminoácidos (AA) endógenos. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto de la viscosidad de la dieta, producida por la adición de goma Guar, en la pérdida de AA endógenos recuperados al final del intestino delgado. Seis cerdos (62.0±2.5 kg peso) con cánulas en íleon terminal se utilizaron en tres periodos experimentales en un diseño en Cuadro Latino 3×3 repetido...

  20. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  1. Amino-terminal domain of the v-fms oncogene product includes a functional signal peptide that directs synthesis of a transforming glycoprotein in the absence of feline leukemia virus gag sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleotide sequence of a 5' segment of the human genomic c-fms proto-oncogene suggested that recombination between feline leukemia virus and feline c-fms sequences might have occurred in a region encoding the 5' untranslated portion of c-fms mRNA. The polyprotein precursor gP180/sup gag-fms/ encoded by the McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus was therefore predicted to contain 34 v-fms-coded amino acids derived from sequences of the c-fms gene that are not ordinarily translated from the proto-oncogene mRNA. The (gP180/sup gag-fms/) polyprotein was cotranslationally cleaved near the gag-fms junction to remove its gag gene-coded portion. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence of the resulting v-fms-coded glycoprotein, gp120/sup v-fms/, showed that the site of proteolysis corresponded to a predicted signal peptidase cleavage site within the c-fms gene product. Together, these analyses suggested that the linked gag sequences may not be necessary for expression of a biologically active v-fms gene product. The gag-fms sequences of feline sarcoma virus strain McDonough and the v-fms sequences alone were inserted into a murine retroviral vector containing a neomycin resistance gene. The authors conclude that a cryptic hydrophobic signal peptide sequence in v-fms was unmasked by gag deletion, thereby allowing the correct orientation and transport of the v-fms was unmasked by gag deletion, thereby allowing the correct orientation and transport of the v-fms gene product within membranous organelles. It seems likely that the proteolytic cleavage of gP180/gag-fms/ is mediated by signal peptidase and that the amino termini of gp140/sup v-fms/ and the c-fms gene product are identical

  2. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, n-Terminal Fragment of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Calcidiol Are Independently Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martín-Reyes

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of the Syntax Score (SS and coronary artery calcification (CAC, with plasma levels of biomarkers related to cardiovascular damage and mineral metabolism, as there is sparse information in this field.We studied 270 patients with coronary disease that had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS six months before. Calcidiol, fibroblast growth factor-23, parathormone, phosphate and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, galectin-3, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] levels, among other biomarkers, were determined. CAC was assessed by coronary angiogram as low-grade (0-1 and high-grade (2-3 calcification, measured with a semiquantitative scale ranging from 0 (none to 3 (severe. For the SS study patients were divided in SS<14 and SS≥14. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed.MCP-1 predicted independently the SS (RC = 1.73 [95%CI = 0.08-3.39]; p = 0.040, along with NT-proBNP (RC = 0.17 [95%CI = 0.05-0.28]; p = 0.004, male sex (RC = 4.15 [95%CI = 1.47-6.83]; p = 0.003, age (RC = 0.13 [95%CI = 0.02-0.24]; p = 0.020, hypertension (RC = 3.64, [95%CI = 0.77-6.50]; p = 0.013, hyperlipidemia (RC = 2.78, [95%CI = 0.28-5.29]; p = 0.030, and statins (RC = 6.12 [95%CI = 1.28-10.96]; p = 0.013. Low calcidiol predicted high-grade calcification independently (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.36-0.90]; p = 0.013 along with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (OR = 0.38 [95%CI = 0.19-0.78]; p = 0.006, diabetes (OR = 2.35 [95%CI = 1.11-4.98]; p = 0.028 and age (OR = 1.37 [95%CI = 1.18-1.59]; p<0.001. During follow-up (1.79 [0.94-2.86] years, 27 patients developed ACS, stroke, or transient ischemic attack. A combined score using SS and CAC predicted independently the development of the outcome.MCP-1 and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of SS, while low calcidiol plasma levels are associated with CAC. More studies are needed to confirm these data.

  3. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, n-Terminal Fragment of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Calcidiol Are Independently Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Reyes, Roberto; Franco-Peláez, Juan Antonio; Lorenzo, Óscar; González-Casaus, María Luisa; Pello, Ana María; Aceña, Álvaro; Carda, Rocío; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Martín-Mariscal, María Luisa; Martínez-Milla, Juan; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Piñero, Antonio; Navarro, Felipe; Egido, Jesús; Tuñón, José

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the relationship of the Syntax Score (SS) and coronary artery calcification (CAC), with plasma levels of biomarkers related to cardiovascular damage and mineral metabolism, as there is sparse information in this field. Methods We studied 270 patients with coronary disease that had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) six months before. Calcidiol, fibroblast growth factor-23, parathormone, phosphate and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, galectin-3, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] levels, among other biomarkers, were determined. CAC was assessed by coronary angiogram as low-grade (0–1) and high-grade (2–3) calcification, measured with a semiquantitative scale ranging from 0 (none) to 3 (severe). For the SS study patients were divided in SS<14 and SS≥14. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results MCP-1 predicted independently the SS (RC = 1.73 [95%CI = 0.08–3.39]; p = 0.040), along with NT-proBNP (RC = 0.17 [95%CI = 0.05–0.28]; p = 0.004), male sex (RC = 4.15 [95%CI = 1.47–6.83]; p = 0.003), age (RC = 0.13 [95%CI = 0.02–0.24]; p = 0.020), hypertension (RC = 3.64, [95%CI = 0.77–6.50]; p = 0.013), hyperlipidemia (RC = 2.78, [95%CI = 0.28–5.29]; p = 0.030), and statins (RC = 6.12 [95%CI = 1.28–10.96]; p = 0.013). Low calcidiol predicted high-grade calcification independently (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.36–0.90]; p = 0.013) along with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (OR = 0.38 [95%CI = 0.19–0.78]; p = 0.006), diabetes (OR = 2.35 [95%CI = 1.11–4.98]; p = 0.028) and age (OR = 1.37 [95%CI = 1.18–1.59]; p<0.001). During follow-up (1.79 [0.94–2.86] years), 27 patients developed ACS, stroke, or transient ischemic attack. A combined score using SS and CAC predicted independently the development of the outcome. Conclusions MCP-1 and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of SS, while low calcidiol plasma levels

  4. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  5. The preparation and application of N-terminal 57 amino acid protein of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a candidate male contraceptive vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, which is expressed only on Sertoli cells and plays a key role in spermatogenesis, has been paid attention for its potential in male contraception vaccine research and development. This study introduces a method for the preparation and purification of human FSHR 57-amino acid protein (FSHR-57aa as well as determination of its immunogenicity and antifertility effect. A recombinant pET-28a(+-FSHR-57aa plasmid was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star TM (DE3 and the FSHR-57aa protein was separated and collected by cutting the gel and recovering activity by efficient refolding dialysis. The protein was identified by Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a band of nearly 7 kDa and a purity of 97.4%. Male monkeys were immunized with rhFSHR-57aa protein and a gradual rising of specific serum IgG antibody was found which reached a plateau on day 112 (16 weeks after the first immunization. After mating of one male with three female monkeys, the pregnancy rate of those mated with males immunized against FSHR-57aa was significantly decreased while the serum hormone levels of testosterone and estradiol were not disturbed in the control or the FSHR-57aa groups. By evaluating pathological changes in testicular histology, we found that the blood-testis barrier remained intact, in spite of some small damage to Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the rhFSHR-57aa protein might be a feasible male contraceptive which could affect sperm production without disturbing hormone levels.

  6. Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Philippa M; Maxwell, Gavin; Campo, M Saveria

    2002-02-01

    We have previously described a recombinant phagemid expression vector, pComBov, designed for the production of native sequence bovine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated by antibody phage display. Bovine mAb Fab fragments isolated from libraries constructed using pComBov in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue, which is routinely used for antibodies expressed on the surface of phage, were expressed at very low yields. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions for maximal expression of bovine Fab fragments in E. coli. By varying the E. coli strain, and the temperature and length of the culture growth, we were able to substantially increase the yield of soluble Fab fragments. A high yield of Fab fragments was found in the culture growth medium, which enabled us to devise a rapid and simple single-step method for the purification of native (nondenatured) Fabs based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography against a six-histidine amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension of the heavy-chain constant region. Using these methods we were able to express and purify antigen-specific bovine Fab fragments from E. coli. PMID:11812221

  7. 端胺基非异氰酸酯预聚体嵌段共聚聚醚型聚氨酯%Prepolymers of Amino-terminal Non-isocyanate Block Copolymerized with Polyether-based Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋赫; 邓新华; 孙元

    2012-01-01

    Modified polyether polyurethane and its film were prepared from prepolymer of amino- terminal non-isocyanate polyurethane and prepolymer of polyether-based polyurethane via block copolymerization. Synthesis condition of non-isocyanate prepolymer was analyzed; The impact of film-forming temperature and value of NCO and NH2 ratio on mechanical properties of membrane were investigated; Mechanical properties of different polyurethane materials were compared; Degree of phase separation was studied using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It showed that carbamate group was introduced into the amino-terminal non-isocyanate prepolymer; The best film-forming temperature was 140 ℃; When NCO/NH2 of prepolymer was 1/0. 9, the best performance was obtained, tensile strength of 25.1 MPa, modulus of 100% elongation of 5 MPa. Compared with regular polyurethane, polyurethane block with amino-terminal non-isocyanate polyurethane prepolymer had higher mechanical properties; DSC curves showed two different glass transition temperatures indicating phase separation.%用端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体与聚醚型聚氨酯预聚体嵌段共聚制备了改性聚醚型聚氨酯及其膜,分析了端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体,考查了聚醚型聚氨脂树脂成膜温度和预聚体的NCO/NH2配比对膜力学性能的影响,同时对比了聚氨酯材料的力学性能,采用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了相分离程度。结果表明,合成的端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体中成功地引入了氨基甲酸酯基团;最佳成膜温度为140℃;当预聚体的NCO/NH2=1/0.9(摩尔比,下同)时膜的性能最好,拉伸强度为25.1MPa,伸长100%模量为5MPa;与普通聚氨酯相比,端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体嵌段的聚氨酯力学性能更高;DSC曲线显示其有2个不同的玻璃化转变温度,相分离明昂。

  8. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca{sup 2+}-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Fumiaki [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ojima, Takao; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishita, Kiyoyoshi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611 (Japan); Ohtsuki, Iwao [Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2007-06-01

    Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca{sup 2+}-binding component of troponin and triggers muscle contraction. TnC of the invertebrate Akazara scallop can bind only one Ca{sup 2+} at the C-terminal EF-hand motif. Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.80 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.1, b = 42.2, c = 60.0 Å. The asymmetric unit was assumed to contain one molecular complex of the Akazara scallop TnC C-lobe and TnI fragment, with a Matthews coefficient of 1.83 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 33.0%.

  10. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor and its N-terminal fragment on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced progesterone secretion by granulosa cells in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perinaaz R Wadia; Smita D Mahale; Tarala D Nandedkar

    2007-09-01

    Intrafollicular factors play an important role in folliculogenesis. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-binding inhibitor (FSHBI), purified by our laboratory from human ovarian follicular fluid, has been shown to suppress ovulation and induce follicular atresia/apoptosis in mice as well as impair fertility in marmosets, the new world monkeys. The octapeptide, a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal region of human FSHBI (hFSHBI), has been synthesized and also shows FSHBI activity in vitro. In the present study, we have attempted to identify the mechanism of action of the peptide in granulosa cell cultures. Rat granulosa cell cultures were treated with varying concentrations of the octapeptide or partially purified hFSHBI (gel chromatography fraction hGF2) in the presence or absence of human FSH (hFSH) and the amount of progesterone (P4) secreted in the culture supernatants after 3 h/48 h was estimated. Both hGF2 and the octapeptide failed to alter basal levels as well as 8-bromo cAMP-induced P4 production, while FSH-induced P4 secretion was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. These studies reveal that the octapeptide, a fragment of FSHBI, and the native protein have similar activity in vitro and both compounds alter FSH action at the receptor level upstream of cAMP formation.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca2+-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca2+-binding component of troponin and triggers muscle contraction. TnC of the invertebrate Akazara scallop can bind only one Ca2+ at the C-terminal EF-hand motif. Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.80 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.1, b = 42.2, c = 60.0 Å. The asymmetric unit was assumed to contain one molecular complex of the Akazara scallop TnC C-lobe and TnI fragment, with a Matthews coefficient of 1.83 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 33.0%

  12. Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis to deliver genetically fused ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen target), a potent T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, into cytosol to elicit Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In vitro Th1 cytokines data and CTL assay proved that efficient delivery of LFn.ESAT-6 occurs in cytosol, in the presence of protective antigen (PA), and leads to generation of effective CTL response. Since CTL response is essential for protection against intracellular pathogens and, it is well known that only single T cell epitope or single antigenic protein is not sufficient to elicit protective CTL response due to variation or polymorphism in MHC-I alleles among the individuals, we suggest that as a fusion protein LFn can be used to deliver multiepitopes of T cells or multiproteins which can generate effective CTLs against intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis. It can be used to enhance the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine

  13. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  14. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF MATURE FRAGMENT OF HUMAN BMP4 GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the cloning and sequencing of mature fragment of human bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene. Methods The template DNA was obtained from the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS. By using RT- PCR method, the cDNA coding for the mature fragment of BMP-4 was amplified, cloned into the vector pUC19, and sequenced by Sanger Dideoxy-mediated Chain Termination method. Results The mature fragment of BMP4 cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and determined by sequencing. Through the computer search on Genebank, the analysis showed that the homology of nucleotides and amino acids between cDNA of rhBMP4 mature fragment of this study and the published sequence was 99%. Sequence analysis showed that there were two differences, one was at base 1154 (201): G→C, which had no influence on the corresponding amino acids (Val). Another was at basel222 (269):C→T, the mutation at the base 1222 had the change of Ala to Val. Conclusion The mature fragment of BMP4 gene has been cloned. The results will be of great significance in treatment of skeletal injuries and diseases.

  15. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on jet fragmentation, in particular recent results from e+e- and anti pp collisions, are presented in the framework of phenomenological models. The Lund string model and the Webber QCD cluster model turn out to describe the data quite well. Shortcomings of both models are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Antibody of predetermined specificity to a carboxy-terminal region of H-ras gene products inhibits their guanine nucleotide-binding function.

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, S. K.; Lacal, J C; Reynolds, S.H.; Aaronson, S A

    1985-01-01

    The high prevalence of ras oncogenes in human tumors has given increasing impetus to efforts aimed at elucidating the structure and function of their p21 products. To identify functionally important domains of the p21 protein, antibodies were generated against synthetic peptides corresponding to various regions of the protein. Antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide fragment corresponding to amino acid residues 161 to 176 in the carboxy-terminal region of the H-ras-encoded p21 molecul...

  17. Property-based design and synthesis of new chloroquine hybrids via simple incorporation of 2-imino-thiazolidine-4-one or 1h-pyrrol-2, 5-dione fragments on the 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline side chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Fernando A.; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V., E-mail: kouznet@uis.edu.co [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular, Escuela de Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In the present work, the syntheses of new 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline N-derivatives were performed by selective modification of the side chain amino group of N-(7-chloroquinoline-4-yl) alkyldiamines, basis framework of chloroquine (CQ) drug through the incorporation of heterocyclic 2-imino-thiazolidine-4-one and {sup 1}H-pyrrol-2,5-dione systems. These potential activity modulators were selected thanks to their characteristic properties, and evaluated by virtual screening employing the OSIRIS and Molinspirations platforms. Designed and synthesized quinolinic derivatives could increase the antimalarial activity of CQ analogues without affecting the lipophilicity as described in literature, suggesting them as candidates for further biological assessments. (author)

  18. Molecular determinants of interactions between the N-terminal domain and the transmembrane core that modulate hERG K+ channel gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernández-Trillo

    Full Text Available A conserved eag domain in the cytoplasmic amino terminus of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG potassium channel is critical for its slow deactivation gating. Introduction of gene fragments encoding the eag domain are able to restore normal deactivation properties of channels from which most of the amino terminus has been deleted, and also those lacking exclusively the eag domain or carrying a single point mutation in the initial residues of the N-terminus. Deactivation slowing in the presence of the recombinant domain is not observed with channels carrying a specific Y542C point mutation in the S4-S5 linker. On the other hand, mutations in some initial positions of the recombinant fragment also impair its ability to restore normal deactivation. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis of fluorophore-tagged proteins under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF conditions revealed a substantial level of FRET between the introduced N-terminal eag fragments and the eag domain-deleted channels expressed at the membrane, but not between the recombinant eag domain and full-length channels with an intact amino terminus. The FRET signals were also minimized when the recombinant eag fragments carried single point mutations in the initial portion of their amino end, and when Y542C mutated channels were used. These data suggest that the restoration of normal deactivation gating by the N-terminal recombinant eag fragment is an intrinsic effect of this domain directed by the interaction of its N-terminal segment with the gating machinery, likely at the level of the S4-S5 linker.

  19. Diversity of the marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences Diversidad de las picocianobacterias marinas Prochlorococcus y Synechococcus por medio de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal en secuencias del espaciador transcrito interno del ARNr 16S - 23S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARIS LAVIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the appropriateness of the use of internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for the study of population genetics of marine cyanobacteria, we amplified and cloned the 16S rRNA gene plus the 16S-23S ITS regions of six strains of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. We analyzed them by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP. When using the standard application of these techniques, we obtained more than one band or terminal restriction fragment (T-RF per strain or cloned sequence. Reports in literature have suggested that these anomalies can result from the formation of secondary structures. Secondary structures of the ITS sequences of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains were computationally modelled at the different temperatures that were used during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Modelling results predicted the existence of hairpin loops that would still be present at the extensión temperature; it is likely that these loops produced incomplete and single stranded PCR products. We modified the standard T-RFLP procedure by adding the labelled ITS primer in the last two cycles of the PCR reaction; this resulted, in most cases, in only one T-RF per ribotype. Application of this technique to a natural picoplankton community in marine waters off northern Chile, showed that it was possible to identify the presence, and determine the relative abundance, of several phylogenetic lineages within the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus inhabiting the euphotic zone. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences obtained by cloning and sequencing DNA from the same sample confirmed the presence of the different genotypes. With the proposed modification, T-RFLP profiles should therefore be suitable for studying the diversity of natural populations of cyanobacteria, and should become an important tool to study the factors influencing the genetic structure and

  20. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  1. Effects of deletion and insertion of amino acids on the activity of HelaTx1, a scorpion toxin on potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneur, Steve; Esaki, Nao; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-03-01

    Four analogs of HelaTx1, a 25-mer peptide from scorpion venom, were synthesized by deleting its C-terminal hexapeptide fragment and N-terminal Ser residue and by inserting an amino acid in the middle part of the molecule. CD spectrum of HelaTx1(1-19) was almost superimposable to that of native HelaTx1. Functional characterization showed that HelaTx1(1-19) retained its inhibitory activity on Kv1.1 channel although 3 times less potent than HelaTx1, indicating that C-terminal part of HelaTx1 was not essential for its conformation and activity. Further deletion of N-terminal Ser residue and insertion of Ala in the middle part of the molecule affected the CD spectra and resulted in the decrease of activity. PMID:26724500

  2. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...... developments within the construction sector imply a marginalized role for the architect, this strategy suggests a strong repositioning. In Danish building practice the construction industry is increasingly organized within terms like ”systemized prefab delivery” and ”digital building”. The building is divided...

  3. Isolation and characterization of Ts19 Fragment II, a new long-chain potassium channel toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Karla; Echterbille, Julien; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2016-06-01

    Ts19 Fragment II (Ts19 Frag-II) was first isolated from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Ts). It is a protein presenting 49 amino acid residues, three disulfide bridges, Mr 5534Da and was classified as a new member of class (subfamily) 2 of the β-KTxs, the second one described for Ts scorpion. The β-KTx family is composed by two-domain peptides: N-terminal helical domain (NHD), with cytolytic activity, and a C-terminal CSαβ domain (CCD), with Kv blocking activity. The extensive electrophysiological screening (16 Kv channels and 5 Nav channels) showed that Ts19 Frag-II presents a specific and significant blocking effect on Kv1.2 (IC50 value of 544±32nM). However, no cytolytic activity was observed with this toxin. We conclude that the absence of 9 amino acid residues from the N-terminal sequence (compared to Ts19 Frag-I) is responsible for the absence of cytolytic activity. In order to prove this hypothesis, we synthesized the peptide with these 9 amino acid residues, called Ts19 Frag-III. As expected, Ts19 Frag-III showed to be cytolytic and did not block the Kv1.2 channel. The post-translational modifications of Ts19 and its fragments (I-III) are also discussed here. A mechanism of post-translational processing (post-splitting) is suggested to explain Ts19 fragments production. In addition to the discovery of this new toxin, this report provides further evidence for the existence of several compounds in the scorpion venom contributing to the diversity of the venom arsenal. PMID:26116782

  4. The 8 and 5 kDa Fragments of Plasma Gelsolin Form Amyloid Fibrils by a Nucleated Polymerization Mechanism, while the 68 kDa Fragment is Not Amyloidogenic†

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, James P.; Isaac T. Yonemoto; Murray, Amber N; Price, Joshua L.; Powers, Evan T.; Balch, William E.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2009-01-01

    Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF), or gelsolin amyloidosis, is a systemic amyloid disease caused by a mutation (D187N/Y) in domain 2 of human plasma gelsolin, resulting in domain 2 misfolding within the secretory pathway. Upon passage through the Golgi, furin endoproteolysis within domain 2 occurs as a consequence of the abnormal conformations that enable furin to bind and cleave, resulting in the secretion of a 68-kDa C-terminal plasma gelsolin fragment (amino acids173–755, C68). Th...

  5. Regions within the N-terminal domain of human topoisomerase I exert important functions during strand rotation and DNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Rikke Frølich; Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Westergaard, Ole;

    2004-01-01

    The human topoisomerase I N-terminal domain is the only part of the enzyme still not crystallized and the function of this domain remains enigmatical. In the present study, we have addressed the specific functions of individual N-terminal regions of topoisomerase I by characterizing mutants lacking......, insensitivity towards the anti-cancer drug camptothecin in relaxation and the inability to ligate blunt end DNA fragments. The mutant lacking amino acid residues 1–202 was impaired in blunt end DNA ligation and showed wild-type sensitivity towards camptothecin in relaxation. Taken together, the presented data...... support a model according to which tryptophane-205 and possibly other residues located between position 191–206 coordinates the restriction of free strand rotation during the topoisomerization step of catalysis. Moreover, tryptophane-205 appears important for the function of the bulk part of the N-terminal...

  6. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK

  7. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nitai P., E-mail: nitai_sinp@yahoo.com [Biomedical Genomics Centre, PG Polyclinic Building, 5, Suburbun Hospital Road, Kolkata 700020 (India)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  8. Community Structure of Denitrifiers, Bacteria, and Archaea along Redox Gradients in Pacific Northwest Marine Sediments by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Nitrite Reductase (nirS) and 16S rRNA Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Braker, Gesche; Ayala-del-Río, Héctor L.; Devol, Allan H.; Fesefeldt, Andreas; Tiedje, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Steep vertical gradients of oxidants (O2 and NO3−) in Puget Sound and Washington continental margin sediments indicate that aerobic respiration and denitrification occur within the top few millimeters to centimeters. To systematically explore the underlying communities of denitrifiers, Bacteria, and Archaea along redox gradients at distant geographic locations, nitrite reductase (nirS) genes and bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and analyzed by terminal restrict...

  9. The three genes lipB, lipC, and lipD involved in the extracellular secretion of the Serratia marcescens lipase which lacks an N-terminal signal peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Akatsuka, H; Kawai, E; Omori, K.; Shibatani, T

    1995-01-01

    The extracellular lipase of Serratia marcescens Sr41, lacking a typical N-terminal signal sequence, is secreted via a signal peptide-independent pathway. The 20-kb SacI DNA fragment which allowed the extracellular lipase secretion was cloned from S. marcescens by selection of a phenotype conferring the extracellular lipase activity on the Escherichia coli cells. The subcloned 6.5-kb EcoRV fragment was revealed to contain three open reading frames which are composed of 588, 443, and 437 amino ...

  10. Investigation of peptidyl synthase activity of the Y Carboxypeptidase: influence of the primary structure of the substrate C-terminal fragment and application to radio-marking (3H or 14C) of three neuro hypophysis hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radio-marking of peptides of biological interest induced significant advances in the metabolism study, radio-immunology and molecular endocrinology, this research thesis reports investigation performed on hormonal peptides released by the post-hypophysis. The ultimate objective is to substitute in these hormones the C-terminal Gly-NH2 by its tritiated radioactive homologue to provide these peptides with a R.A.S equal to that of the tritiated Gly-NH2 in order to study reaction mechanisms and to generalize this method to a larger number of peptides

  11. Overexpression of C-terminal fragment of glutamate receptor 6 prevents neuronal injury in kainate-induced seizure via disassembly of GluR6-PSD-95-MLK3 signaling module

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Jie; Liu, Xiaomei; PEI, DONGSHENG

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that when glutamate receptor (GluR)6 C terminus-containing peptide conjugated with the human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein (GluR6)-9c is delivered into hippocampal neurons in a brain ischemic model, the activation of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is inhibited via GluR6-postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). In the present study, we investigated whether the recombinant adenovirus (Ad) carrying GluR6c could suppress the assemb...

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new model of arylpiperazines. Part 7: Study of the influence of lipophilic factors at the terminal amide fragment on 5-HT(1A) affinity/selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, María L; Ayala, David; Viso, Alma; Benhamú, Bellinda; de La Pradilla, Roberto Fernández; Zarza, Fernando; Ramos, José A

    2004-03-15

    The influence of lipophilic factors at the amide fragment of a new series of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[4-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)butyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 2 and of (+/-)-7a-alkyl-2-[(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazoles 3 has been studied. Variations of logP have been carried out by introducing different hydrocarbonated substituents (R(1)) at the position 7a of the bicyclohydantoin, namely the non-pharmacophoric part. All the new compounds exhibit high potency for the 5-HT(1A) receptor; however, affinities for the alpha(1) receptor are high for compounds 2a-l while compounds 3a-f are selective over this adrenergic receptor. On the other hand, differences in logP do not notably affect the K(i) values for the above receptors. PMID:15018929

  13. The amino-acid sequence of kangaroo pancreatic ribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, W; Welling, G W; Beintema, J J

    1978-05-01

    Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue by affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by automatic sequencing of overlapping large fragments and by analysis of shorter peptides obtained by digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. The polypeptide chain consists of 122 amino acid residues. Compared to other ribonucleases, the N-terminal residue and residue 114 are deleted. In other pancreatic ribonucleases position 114 is occupied by a cis proline residue in an external loop at the surface of the molecule. Other remarkable substitutions are the presence of a tyrosine residue at position 123 instead of a serine which forms a hydrogen bond with the pyrimidine ring of a nucleotide substrate, and a number of hydrophobichydrophilic interchanges in the sequence 51-55, which forms part of an alpha-helix in bovine ribonuclease and exhibits few substitutions in the placental mammals. Kangaroo ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses a recognition site for carbohydrate attachment in the sequence Asn-Val-Thr (62-64). The enzyme differs at about 35-40% of the positions from all other mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases sequenced to date, which is in agreement with the early divergence between the marsupials and the placental mammals. From fragmentary data a tentative sequence of red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) pancreatic ribonuclease has been derived. Eight differences with the kangaroo sequence were found. PMID:658039

  14. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  15. Novel fragmentation pathway for CID of (b(n) - 1 + Cat)+ ions from model, metal cationized peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Travis J; Talaty, Erach R; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    We report a new fragmentation pathway for the CID of (b3 - 1 + Cat)+ product ions derived from the model peptide AXAG, where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid, or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid. By changing the amino acid to the C-terminal side of the amino acid X, and incorporating 15N and 13C labeled residues at the same position, we conclude that the dissociation pathway most likely leads to a metal cationized nitrile. With respect to the various amino acids at position X, the putative nitrile product becomes more prominent, relative to the conventional (a3 - 1 + Cat)+ species, in the order beta-alanine < gamma-aminobutyric acid < epsilon-aminocaproic acid < 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid. The pathway is not observed for peptides with alpha-amino acids at position X. The product ion is observed most prominently during the CID of Li+ and Na+ cationized peptides, only to a small extent for Ag+ cationized peptides, and not at all from protonated analogues. PMID:15990332

  16. On the fragmentation of biomolecules: fragmentation of alanine dipeptide along the polypeptide chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander; Solov'yov, Andrey;

    2006-01-01

    The interaction potential between amino acids in alanine dipeptide has been studied for the first time taking into account exact molecular geometry. Ab initio calculation has been performed in the framework of density functional theory taking into account all electrons in the system. The fragment...... possible to estimate the characteristic fragmentation times and to determine the degree of applicability of classical electrodynamics for describing the system energy....

  17. THE ESCHERICHIA COLI SIGNAL PEPTIDE PEPTIDASE A IS A SERINE-LYSINE PROTEASE WITH A LYSINE RECRUITED TO THE NON-CONSERVED AMINO-TERMINAL DOMAIN IN THE S49 PROTEASE FAMILY

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Shim, Eunjung; Cravatt, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Richard; Schoeniger, Joe; Kim, Apollos C.; Paetzel, Mark; Dalbey, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    The E. coli signal peptide peptidase A (SppA) is a serine protease which cleaves signal peptides after they have been proteolytically removed from exported proteins by signal peptidase processing. We present here results of site-directed mutagenesis studies of all the conserved serines of SppA in the carboxyl-terminal domain showing that only Ser 409 is essential for enzymatic activity. Also, we show that the serine hydrolase inhibitor FP-biotin inhibits SppA and modifies the protein, but doe...

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaij, Mark J. van, E-mail: vanraaij@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fox, Gavin C. [Spanish CRG Beamline BM16, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L. [Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  19. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine

  20. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17, consisting of amino acids 371–553, has been crystallized. Diffraction data have been obtained to around 2.0 Å resolution from two different crystal forms. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress

  1. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  3. Study of the Interaction between Bacteriophage T4 asiA and Escherichia coli ς70, Using the Yeast Two-Hybrid System: Neutralization of asiA Toxicity to E. coli Cells by Coexpression of a Truncated ς70 Fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Umender K.; Ravishankar, Sudha; Shandil, Radha Krishan; Praveen, P.V.K.; Balganesh, T S

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of T4 phage-encoded anti-sigma factor, asiA, and Escherichia coli ς70 was studied by using the yeast two-hybrid system. Truncation of ς70 to identify the minimum region involved in the interaction showed that the fragment containing amino acid residues proximal to the C terminus (residues 547 to 603) was sufficient for complexing to asiA. Studies also indicated that some of the truncated C-terminal fragments (residues 493 to 613) had higher affinity for asiA as judged by the i...

  4. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  5. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  6. Electron-impact-induced tryptophan molecule fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our investigation, we have studied the interactions of low-energy (<70 eV) electrons with tryptophan molecule belonging to the essential amino acids in order to probe the intrinsic properties of the molecule and trace its change(s) under the electron impact. The fragmentation of a gas-phase tryptophan molecule by low-energy electrons was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Various positively charged fragments were observed and analyzed. A special attention was paid to the energy characteristics of the ionic fragment yield. The geometrical parameters of the initial molecule rearrangement were also analyzed. The fragmentation observed was due to either a simple bond cleavage or more complex reactions involving molecular rearrangements

  7. Effect of amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic face of amphiphilic peptides on membrane curvature and perturbation: N-terminal helix derived from adenovirus internal protein VI as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Tomo; Pujals, Sílvia; Hirose, Hisaaki; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-11-01

    The N-terminal amphipathic helical segment of adenovirus internal protein VI (AdVpVI) plays a critical role in viral infection. Here, we report that the peptide segment corresponding to AdVpVI (positions 33-55) can induce positive membrane curvature together with membrane perturbation. The enhanced perturbation ability of the peptide was observed for membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids. Based on the liposome leakage assay, substitution of leucine at position 40 to other aliphatic (isoleucine) and aromatic (phenylalanine and tryptophan) residues yielded a similar degree of membrane perturbation by the peptides, which was considerably diminished by the substitution to glutamine. Further studies using the wild-type AdVpVI (33-55) (WT) and phenylalanine-substituted peptides (L40F) demonstrated that both peptides have positive membrane-curvature-inducing ability. These peptides showed higher binding affinity to 50-nm large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) than to 200-nm LUVs. However, no enhanced perturbation by these peptides was observed for 50-nm LUVs compared to 200-nm LUVs, suggesting that both the original membrane curvature and the additional strain due to peptide insertion affect the membrane perturbation ability of these peptides. In the case of L40F, this peptide rather had a lower membrane perturbation ability for 50-nm LUVs than for 200-nm LUVs, which can be attributed to possible shallower binding of L40F on membranes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 430-439, 2016. PMID:27271816

  8. A synthetic peptide from the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin promotes focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; McCarthy, J B; Furcht, L T;

    1993-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin involves complex transmembrane signaling processes. Attachment and spreading of primary fibroblasts can be promoted by interactions of cell surface integrins with RGD-containing fragments of fibronectin, but the further process of...... focal adhesion and stress fiber formation requires additional interactions. Heparin-binding fragments of fibronectin can provide this signal. The COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin contains five separate heparin-binding amino acid sequences. We show here that all five sequences, as...... synthetic peptides coupled to ovalbumin, can support cell attachment. Only three of these sequences can promote focal adhesion formation when presented as multicopy complexes, and only one of these (WQPPRARI) retains this activity as free peptide. The major activity of this peptide resides in the sequence...

  9. Variation and Characterization Analysis of Partial Fragment of Fibroin Gene From Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenli(李文利); Jin Liji; An Lijia

    2003-01-01

    A 1.4Kb DNA fragment containing 3' flanking sequence of fibroin gene of silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, was obtained from the silk gland's mRNA of 5th larva. Analysis of this sequence with another A.pernyi fibroin protein (accession No. D83241) revealed that it consists of a completely open reading frame (ORF), which includes 14 polyalanine-containing units (motifs) and 100bp 3'-UTR. The sequence of the predicted amino acid reveals the highest level of overall identity (90%) with D83241. It was found that it loses a repeat region at the upstream of TAA codon and some mutations. A putative polyadenylation signal AATAAA tail was found in position 1300, which follows the termination codon.

  10. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Selmo F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  11. Parton Fragmentation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Metz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The field of fragmentation functions of light quarks and gluons is reviewed. In addition to integrated fragmentation functions, attention is paid to the dependence of fragmentation functions on transverse momenta and on polarization degrees of freedom. Higher-twist and di-hadron fragmentation functions are considered as well. Moreover, the review covers both theoretical and experimental developments in single-inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation, deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and proton-proton collisions.

  12. A Search for Amino Acids and Nucleobases in the Martian Meteorite Roberts Massif 04262 Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Baker, Eleni M.; Smith, Karen E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation into whether Mars contains signatures of past or present life is of great interest to science and society. Amino acids and nucleobases are compounds that are essential for all known life on Earth and are excellent target molecules in the search for potential Martian biomarkers or prebiotic chemistry. Martian meteorites represent the only samples from Mars that can be studied directly in the laboratory on Earth. Here, we analyzed the amino acid and nucleobase content of the shergottite Roberts Massif (RBT) 04262 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We did not detect any nucleobases above our detection limit in formic acid extracts; however, we did measure a suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids in hot-water extracts with high relative abundances of beta-alanine and gamma-amino-eta-butyric acid. The presence of only low (to absent) levels of several proteinogenic amino acids and a lack of nucleobases suggest that this meteorite fragment is fairly uncontaminated with respect to these common biological compounds. The distribution of straight-chained amine-terminal eta-omega-amino acids in RBT 04262 resembled those previously measured in thermally altered carbonaceous meteorites. A carbon isotope ratio of -24(0/00) +/- 6(0/00) for beta-alanine in RBT 04262 is in the range of reduced organic carbon previously measured in Martian meteorites (Steele et al. 2012). The presence of eta-omega-amino acids may be due to a high temperature Fischer-Tropschtype synthesis during igneous processing on Mars or impact ejection of the meteorites from Mars, but more experimental data are needed to support these hypotheses.

  13. Amino acid substitutions of cysteine residues near the amino terminus of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro abolishes virus transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amino-terminal half of HC-Pro of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is required for semi-persistent transmission by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The amino-proximal region of WSMV HC-Pro is cysteine-rich with a zinc finger-like motif. Amino acid substitutions were made in this re...

  14. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  15. Four phosphoproteins with common amino termini are encoded by human cytomegalovirus AD169

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors identify the proteins encoded by the 2.2-kilobase class of early transcripts arising from a region of the strain AD169 human cytomegalovirus genome (map units 0.682 to 0.713) which contains cell-related sequences. These transcripts, encoded by adjacent EcoRI fragments R and d, have a complex spliced structure with 5' and 3' coterminal ends. Antiserum directed against a synthetic 11-amino-acid peptide corresponding to the predicted amino terminus of the proteins was generated and found to immunoprecipitate four-infected-cell proteins of 84, 50, 43, and 34 kilodaltons. These proteins were phosphorylated and were associated predominantly with the nuclei of infected cells. The 43-kilodalton protein was the most abundant of the four proteins, and its level of expression remained relatively constant throughout the infection. Expression of the other proteins increased as the infection progressed. Pulse-chase analysis failed to show a precursor-product relationship between any of the proteins. A comparison of the [35S]methionine-labeled tryptic peptide maps of the four proteins from infected cells and an in vitro-generated polypeptide derived from the putative first exon showed that all four infected-cell proteins were of viral origin and contained a common amino-terminal region

  16. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    with this cDNA probe. Ten positives were colony-purified, and the largest plasmid cDNA insert, MH8 (4.4 kb), was sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. MH8 contained the complete coding sequence for the precursor of murine complement protein factor H (3702 bp), 100 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence......A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  17. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J; Skjødt, K

    The complete amino acid sequences of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulins have been determined by analyses of tryptic, V8-proteolytic and cyanogen bromide fragments, and by N-terminal sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken beta 2-microglobulin supports the sequence-derived Mr of 11......,048. The higher apparent Mr obtained for the avian beta 2-microglobulins as compared to human beta 2-microglobulin by SDS-PAGE is not understood. Chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin consist of 98 residues and deviate at seven positions: 60, 66, 74-76, 78 and 82. The chicken and turkey sequences are...... complex suggest that the seven chicken to turkey differences are exposed to solvent in the avian MHC class I complex. The key residues of beta 2-microglobulin involved in alpha chain contacts within the MHC class I molecule are highly conserved between chicken and man. This explains that heterologous...

  18. Heterogeneous distributions of amino acids provide evidence of multiple sources within the Almahata Sitta parent body, asteroid 2008 TC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-11-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-α-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both are polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of α-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  19. The N-terminal domain of the Drosophila retinoblastoma protein Rbf1 interacts with ORC and associates with chromatin in an E2F independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ahlander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor protein can function as a DNA replication inhibitor as well as a transcription factor. Regulation of DNA replication may occur through interaction of Rb with the origin recognition complex (ORC. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the interaction of Drosophila Rb, Rbf1, with ORC. Using expression of proteins in Drosophila S2 cells, we found that an N-terminal Rbf1 fragment (amino acids 1-345 is sufficient for Rbf1 association with ORC but does not bind to dE2F1. We also found that the C-terminal half of Rbf1 (amino acids 345-845 interacts with ORC. We observed that the amino-terminal domain of Rbf1 localizes to chromatin in vivo and associates with chromosomal regions implicated in replication initiation, including colocalization with Orc2 and acetylated histone H4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Rbf1 can associate with ORC and chromatin through domains independent of the E2F binding site. We infer that Rbf1 may play a role in regulating replication directly through its association with ORC and/or chromatin factors other than E2F. Our data suggest an important role for retinoblastoma family proteins in cell proliferation and tumor suppression through interaction with the replication initiation machinery.

  20. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  1. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  2. LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids and mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    We report the method of LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids with corresponding mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. Diagnostic product ions determined by mass spectrometry can support the qualitative identification and quantitative estimation of individual amino acids. Therefore, the optimization of chromatographic separation using the ion-pairing reagent (i.e., Nonafluoropentanoic acid, NFPA) is useful for the evaluation of target amino acid and for further compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acids.

  3. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  4. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    breaks down as the characters visit and re-visit the same episodes over and over, and we as spectators are never sure whether we are watching a narrative fragment in its "original" version, or one that has been altered. My paper will focus on the spectator's relation to the fragmented narrative that is...

  5. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Following a strand of narrative studies pointing to the living conditions of storytelling and the micro-level implications of working within fragmented narrative perspectives, this article contributes to narrative research on work stories by focusing on how meaning is created from fragmented stor...... of antenarrative practice approach that offers a contemporary method for exploring meaning creation in work stories.......Following a strand of narrative studies pointing to the living conditions of storytelling and the micro-level implications of working within fragmented narrative perspectives, this article contributes to narrative research on work stories by focusing on how meaning is created from fragmented...... stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  6. Analyzing internal fragmentation of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions during beam-type collisional dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kenneth R; Skinner, Owen S; Fellers, Ryan T; Kelleher, Neil L

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis. PMID:25716753

  7. Location of the interchain disulfide bonds of the fourth component of human complement (C4): evidence based on the liberation of fragments secondary to thiol-disulfide interchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of human C4 with chemical denaturants and heat produces rapid, autolytic peptide bond cleavage of the α-chain. These α-chain fragments are linked to the parent C4 molecule through disulfide bonds. On more prolonged heating, however, there is liberation of several peptides, including the β-chain, the γ-chain, and a C-terminal α-chain fragment. This reaction is inhibited by iodoacetamide. By using a fluorescent thiol reagent and 14C-iodoacetamide, the thiol group present on each peptide was analyzed. The results suggest that the thiol residue exposed by cleavage of the thioester bond induces thiol-disulfide interchange reactions to liberate the peptides. Based on the identification of fragments liberated, the kinetics of their appearance, their sulfhydryl content, and the reported primary structure of human C4, a model of the interchain disulfide bonds is proposed in which the amino terminal portion of the α-chain is disulfide-linked to both the β- and γ-chains, whereas the carboxyl terminal portion of the α-chain is disulfide-linked to only the γ-chain

  8. Radiation-induced destruction of hydroxyl-containing amino acids and dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of molecular products resulting from radiolysis of hydroxyl-containing amino acids and dipeptides under various conditions were determined. The possibility of a new radiation-induced destruction pathway has been shown for serine and threonine, as well as for the dipeptides having residues of these amino acids at the N-terminal part of the respective molecule. This process includes formation of N-centered radicals from the starting molecules followed by their decomposition with elimination of side substituents. On radiolysis, serine and threonine were also shown to undergo free-radical destruction to form acetaldehyde and acetone, respectively. A mechanism has been proposed including consecutive stages of fragmentation of α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals with elimination of ammonia and decomposition of the secondary radicals with elimination of CO2. The yields of CO2 obtained on radiolysis of serine and threonine were significantly higher (except for solutions at pH 12) than those for alanine and valine, which have no hydroxyl groups in their structures. The obtained data indicate that the hydroxyl-containing amino acids occupy a special place among other amino acids as regards the variety of radiation-induced reactions which they may undergo due to their structural features. - Highlights: ► Ser and Thr undergo several types of C--C destruction under radiolysis. ► Free-radical mechanisms for destruction of Ser and Thr have been proposed. ► Ser- and Thr-containing dipeptides can eliminate aldehydes via C--C bond cleavage. ► Photo-induced decomposition of dipeptides can lead to side chain elimination.

  9. Stratification of gallstone fragments: the key to more effective fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, J T; Laufer, I; Wisniewski, F; Malet, P F

    1992-04-01

    During previous experiments with in vitro fragmentation in a simulated gallbladder, we noticed that stone fragments tended to stratify with the dust and smaller fragments settled to the dependent portion, while the larger fragments settled on top. We reviewed the oral cholecystogram (OCG) of 10 patients examined 6 months following gallstone lithotripsy. In all cases with adequate visualization of stone fragments, the stratification phenomenon was observed. We hypothesized that adjusting the shock wave focus to target on these large fragments would improve the efficiency of fragmentation. To test this hypothesis, we fragmented three matched pairs of gallstones in vitro. For each pair, the stones were removed from the same gallbladder and the stone weights of the two stones were within 10%. The smaller member of each pair was fragmented using the "old method" with the focus on the fragment line. The larger stone was fragmented with the "new method" with the focus in the acoustic shadow deep to the echogenic line caused by the dust and small fragments in the dependent portion. The distribution of fragments was analyzed by passing the fragments through a series of filters. With the new method of targeting, the proportion of fragments less than 1.5 mm was doubled while the fragments greater than 5 mm were eliminated. The new method of targeting, taking into account the stratification of stone fragments, produces more effective fragmentation and should lead to more rapid clearance of fragments from the gallbladder. PMID:10149180

  10. Immunological detection of the type V collagen propeptide fragment, PVCP-1230, in connective tissue remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Simonsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Liver fibrosis involves excessive remodeling and deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which leads to malfunction of the organ, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether levels of a type V collagen fragment, the propeptide......) = 0.3305). CONCLUSIONS: Increased serum levels of CO5-1230 were associated with the extent of collagen deposition in two different models of fibrotic processes in the liver. The data indicate that formation of type V collagen may be of value as a disease-specific diagnostic biomarker that reflects the...... CO5-1230, indicate the amount of collagen deposited during liver fibrosis. METHODS: A specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure CO5-1230 levels. The sequence TAALGDIMGH located at the start of the C-terminal propeptide between amino acid position 1230...

  11. Synthesis of CCK-8 Tetrapeptide Fragment by Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Guangya (项光亚); Heiner Eckstein

    2003-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of a tetrapeptide Phac-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt, a fragment of thecholecystokinin C-terminal octapeptide CCK-8, was reported. This fragment was synthesized bycoupling Phac-Met-OEt with Gly-OMe, Trp-OMe and Met-OEt successively. These three stepswere catalyzed by α-chymotrpsin, Papain and α-chymotrpsin respectively. The results of FAB-MSshowed that all the products had the correct molecular mass.

  12. Fragmentation processes of OCS in collision with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation of (OCS)3+ and (OCS)4+ produced by 120 keV Ar8+ collision was studied by using a position-sensitive time-of-flight (PS-TOF) method. We identified stepwise processes involving CO2+ and CS2+ metastable species as well as the concerted process (simultaneous breakup of the two bonds). For the (OCS)4+ events, the stepwise processes were found for fragmentation channels containing a doubly-charged terminal atom

  13. The nonlinear fragmentation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the kinetics of nonlinear irreversible fragmentation. Here, fragmentation is induced by interactions/collisions between pairs of particles and modelled by general classes of interaction kernels, for several types of breakage models. We construct initial value and scaling solutions of the fragmentation equations, and apply the 'non-vanishing mass flux' criterion for the occurrence of shattering transitions. These properties enable us to determine the phase diagram for the occurrence of shattering states and of scaling states in the phase space of model parameters. (fast track communication)

  14. Isolation of active site and antibody-binding fragments of human erythrocyte transglutaminase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytically active human erythrocyte transglutaminase (TGase) was purified using an immunoaffinity column prepared from a monoclonal antibody to guinea pig liver TGase. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by incorporation of iodo[14C]acetamide to the level of 1 mole per 1 mole of TGase. The 14C-labeled TGase was digested with cyanogen bromide, subjected to HPLC, and four pure peptides were isolated with molecular weights ranging from 3-22 KDa. Only one of the peptides was radiolabeled and characterized as an active site peptide of 10 KDa. Another peptide of 18 KDa was identified as a monoclonal antibody-binding domain of TGase. Although the active site and the antibody-binding domain were present on different cyanogen bromide fragments, the mouse anti-TGase inhibited 100% of TGase activity. The results suggest that the antibody-binding site is not located on the enzyme active site sequence, but that the three dimensional space configuration of the antigen-antibody complex hinders substrate binding to the active site. The radiolabeled active site cysteine residue was not found in the N-terminal 21 amino acids of the 10 KDa peptide. Additional fragments of the active site peptide are currently being analyzed

  15. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of β-hairpin structure

    OpenAIRE

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal β-hairpin (residues 46–61), [IG(46–61)], of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG(46–61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from bo...

  16. Study on the Enhancement of Proton Affinity by N-Diisopropyloxy Phosphorylation of Amino Acid in Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With introduction of a diisopropyloxy phosphoryl group into the N terminal of amino acids, it was found that proton affinity (PA) of amino acid was enhanced in mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations showed that the energy for protonation of DIPP-amino acid is lower than that of amino acid, which means PA of DIPP-AA is higher than that of corresponding amino acid. These results, coincident with our empirical results, offer a useful interpretation of experimental observations.

  17. Isospin in nuclear fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, V. [Bucharest Univ., IFIN-HH (Romania); Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M. [Catania Univ., Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The isospin dynamics when we explore various reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies is discussed. We are concerned with its peculiarities in the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, in mid-rapidity fragment formation for semi-central collisions as well as in the diffusion process in binary, peripheral reactions. The connection of these effects to the density dependence of symmetry energy is analyzed in detail. In this work we showed how various reaction mechanism at Fermi energies can provide complementary information about the density dependence of symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state. In these reactions several observables are sensitive to the isovector channel: i) isospin distillation in multifragmentation, ii) isospin content of neck fragments, iii) iso-scaling parameters, and iv) isospin content of PLF (projectile-like fragments) and TLF (target-like fragments) in peripheral reaction.

  18. Fission fragment rocket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new propulsion scheme is outlined which may permit interstellar missions for spacecraft. This scheme is based on the idea of allowing fission fragments to escape from the core of a nuclear reactor. (orig.)

  19. Physics of projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  20. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  1. Electroeluting DNA Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzosa-Álvarez, Ana L.; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L.; Ma. Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification ...

  2. Landscape Fragmentation in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Einar Hjörleifsson 1988

    2014-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation measurements provide baseline data of direct human influence on landscape and habitat systems through land use. In 2011, the European Environment Agency, the EEA and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment or FOEN created a comprehensive report on the status of landscape fragmentation in 28 European countries, excluding Iceland. This thesis builds on EEA and FOEN methodology in order to create comparable data for Iceland. The Icelandic data set had to be adjusted ...

  3. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  4. Heterogeneous Distributions of Amino Acids Provide Evidence of Multiple Sources Within the Almahata Sitta Parent Body, Asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-01-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-alpha-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both arc polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of alpha-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  5. Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of bovine lung casein kinase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Takio, K.; Kuenzel, E A; Walsh, K. A.; Krebs, E G

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the 209-residue beta subunit of bovine lung casein kinase II has been determined. Excluding the amino-terminal blocking group, which was not identified, the molecular weight of the polypeptide chain is 24,239. A marked polarity of the beta subunit is indicated by clusters of negative charges in the amino-terminal region and of positive charges in the carboxyl-terminal region. Whereas the beta subunit shows no homology with any known protein, a segment of the sequenc...

  6. Characterization of cDNA for human tripeptidyl peptidase II: The N-terminal part of the enzyme is similar to subtilisin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripeptidyl peptidase II is a high molecular weight serine exopeptidase, which has been purified from rat liver and human erythrocytes. Four clones, representing 4453 bp, or 90% of the mRNA of the human enzyme, have been isolated from two different cDNA libraries. One clone, designated A2, was obtained after screening a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library with a degenerated oligonucleotide mixture. The B-lymphocyte cDNA library, obtained from human fibroblasts, were rescreened with a 147 bp fragment from the 5' part of the A2 clone, whereby three different overlapping cDNA clones could be isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence, 1196 amino acid residues, corresponding to the longest open rading frame of the assembled nucleotide sequence, was compared to sequences of current databases. This revealed a 56% similarity between the bacterial enzyme subtilisin and the N-terminal part of tripeptidyl peptidase II. The enzyme was found to be represented by two different mRNAs of 4.2 and 5.0 kilobases, respectively, which probably result from the utilziation of two different polyadenylation sites. Futhermore, cDNA corresponding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal part of tripeptidyl peptidase II hybridized with genomic DNA from mouse, horse, calf, and hen, even under fairly high stringency conditions, indicating that tripeptidyl peptidase II is highly conserved

  7. 利用12S rRNA基因的限制性酶切末端片段长度多态性鉴定动物种类%Identification of Animal Species by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪琦; 张昕; 赵大贺; 马海萍; 陈广全; 张惠媛

    2010-01-01

    目的:建立一种精确可靠的鉴定常见的10种动物(猪、狗、牛、山羊、绵羊、马、鸡、鼠、三文鱼和鹿)的方法.方法:利用12S rRNA基因的限制性酶切末端片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism,T-RFLP)鉴别动物种类.将线粒体12S rRNA基因通过引物的5'端用FAM荧光标记,从基因组DNA中扩增450bp的目的片段.引物对1(下游引物FAM标记,上游引物不标记)扩增的PCR产物用限制性内切酶Alu Ⅰ酶切.引物对2(上游引物FAM标记,下游引物不标记)扩增的PCR产物用限制性内切酶Tru9 Ⅰ酶切.得到的酶切产物分别在遗传分析仪ABI 3100上进行毛细管电泳,片段大小用Peak Scanner 1.0软件分析.结果:根据Alu Ⅰ酶切图谱能够区分鸡、马、猪和三文鱼,而鹿和牛、山羊和绵羊、鼠和狗因酶切图谱相同无法分开.根据Tru9 Ⅰ酶切图谱,能够进一步将鹿和牛、山羊和绵羊、鼠和狗分开.同一种动物不同个体的酶切图谱完全相同,结果具有可重复性.没有出现物种内多态的现象.大多数情况下,实际得到的末端片段长度与理论值非常接近,只存在2~5bp的差异.结论:该方法操作简单、结果精确,适用于鉴定动物种类.

  8. 中国明对虾血蓝蛋白C末端片段在毕赤酵母中的表达及其抗菌活性%Recombinant expression and antimicrobial activity analysis of hemocyanin C-terminal fragments from Fenneropenaeus chinensis in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱楚雯; 刘梅; 王宝杰; 蒋克勇; 孙姝娟; 孟晓林; 骆作勇; 王雷

    2013-01-01

    Two C-terminal coding sequences of Fenneropenaeus chinensis hemocyanin FCHc were cloned into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC9K to produce the pPIC9K/FcHC-C yeast expression vectors. The con-structed vectors pPIC9K/FcHC-C1 and pPIC9K/FcHC-C2 were linearized by Sal I enzyme, and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 using PEG-mediated transformation method. PCR identified transformants were screened by G418 selected YPD plates. The P. pastorist transfomants of pPIC9K/FcHC-C expressed the two hemocyanin C-terminal gene fragments by methanol induction. The results of Tricine-SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed that the recombinant FcHC-C1 and FcHC-C2 peptides (rFcHC-C1 and rFcHC-C2) were expressed successfully. An antimicrobial assay showed that rFcHC-C1 and rFcHC-C2 have antifungal and antibacterial activities as anionic AMPs.%  为研究中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)血蓝蛋白 C 末端(FcHC-C)的抗菌功能,将血蓝蛋白基因 FcHC 的2个 C 末端基因片段连接到毕赤酵母表达载体 pPIC9K 中,构建酵母表达载体pPIC9K/FcHC-C。该载体经Sal I酶切后,采用PEG法转化毕赤酵母(Pichia pastoris GS115)。转化子经过PCR鉴定后,阳性克隆通过含有G418的YPD平板筛选,获得高拷贝重组子。重组毕赤酵母利用甲醇诱导表达目的基因。经Tricine-SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析结果表明,利用酵母工程菌成功表达了血蓝蛋白C末端片段(rFcHC-C1和rFcHC-C2)。抑菌活性鉴定实验结果显示,重组蛋白rFcHC-C1和rFcHC-C2作为阴离子抗菌肽具有抗真菌和抗细菌的活性。

  9. Association of amino acids embedded in helium droplets detected by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Matthieu R.; Achazi, Georg; Reichwald, Sebastian; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2015-12-01

    Amino acids were embedded in helium droplets. The electron impact ionization allows for detecting positively charged glycine, valine, histidine, tryptophan and their principal fragments. Monomers and polymers with up to four amino acids are reported. Heterodimers of tryptophan and valine or histidine are observed as well as heterodimers of included fragments. The ability of these associations of molecules to form complexes with water is examined.

  10. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure-function relationship. PMID:26978354

  11. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  12. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Aravinda; N Shamala; Rituparna S Roy; P Balaram

    2003-10-01

    An overview of the use of non-protein amino acids in the design of conformationally well-defined peptides, based on work from the author’s laboratory, is discussed. The crystal structures of several designed oligopeptides illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and -amino acid residues have been used to expand the range of designed polypeptide structures.

  13. Fragment screening: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Andrew R; Hann, Michael M; Burrows, Jeremy N; Griffen, Ed J

    2006-09-01

    There are clearly many different philosophies associated with adapting fragment screening into mainstream Drug Discovery Lead Generation strategies. Scientists at Astex, for instance, focus entirely on strategies involving use of X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, AstraZeneca uses a number of different fragment screening strategies. One approach is to screen a 2000 compound fragment set (with close to "lead-like" complexity) at 100 microM in parallel with every HTS such that the data are obtained on the entire screening collection at 10 microM plus the extra samples at 100 microM; this provides valuable compound potency data in a concentration range that is usually unexplored. The fragments are then screen-specific "privileged structures" that can be searched for in the rest of the HTS output and other databases as well as having synthesis follow-up. A typical workflow for a fragment screen within AstraZeneca is shown below (Figure 24) and highlights the desirability (particularly when screening >100 microM) for NMR and X-ray information to validate weak hits and give information on how to optimise them. In this chapter, we have provided an introduction to the theoretical and practical issues associated with the use of fragment methods and lead-likeness. Fragment-based approaches are still in an early stage of development and are just one of many interrelated techniques that are now used to identify novel lead compounds for drug development. Fragment based screening has some advantages, but like every other drug hunting strategy will not be universally applicable. There are in particular some practical challenges associated with fragment screening that relate to the generally lower level of potency that such compounds initially possess. Considerable synthetic effort has to be applied for post-fragment screening to build the sort of potency that would be expected to be found from a traditional HTS. However, if there are no low-hanging fruit in a screening

  14. Fractal Fragmentation triggered by meteor impact: The Ries Crater (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Perugini, Diego; Rossi, Stefano; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    meteor impact occurred as a scale- invariant process. We hypothesize that fractal fragmentation of impact melts occurred shortly after melt generation, as a consequence of the high strain rate suffered by the melts upon radial ejection from the point of the impact. In particular, the high strain rate may have induced the melt to cross the glass transition domain. The result is that the melt does not deform viscously as a high-Schmidt number fluid, but undergoes fragile fragmentation. This hypothesis might explain a series of feature observed on outcrop, such as cuspate terminations of melt fragments (a typical feature of fragile rheology).

  15. Fragmentation and lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Thiruvenkatachar

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The lethality of a H.E. shell or bomb depends on its ability to produce high velocity fragments and blast. The relative importance of these two damaging agents depends on the nature of the targets it is proposed to destroy. Small, high-velocity fragments are effective for the attack of personnel in the open, but aircraft targets require larger fragments. The blast effect from shell-burst inside aircraft wings does considerable damage, but blast is of relatively little importance against heavily armoured targets such as tanks. Fragment effect ceases to be of primary importance here and if the HE shell is to be lethal to such targets it must carry a very large charge of explosive, which will either ""scab"" the armour or do extensive structural damage by blast and shock. For assessing the effectiveness of a fragmenting shell or bomb against a given type of target, we have to take into account different characteristics of ammunition and target. The solution of the problem of lethality of ammunition will involve a determination of fragmentation in regard to total number of a design with a specific level of lethality in a given situation, it will be necessary to predict the performance for given design data, a process which demands a theoretical treatment if possible, or at least a sufficient quantity of experimental data which can yield reliable empirical formulae. In this paper an account is given of the various theoretical and empirical aspects and a discussion of these with reference to certain special cases. "

  16. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  17. Fission Fragments Discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission reaction between Uranium-235 nucleus and thermal neutron caused the high energy fission fragments with uncertainly direction. The particle direction discrimination was determined. The 2.5 x 3.0 mm2 polyethylene gratings with 1-6 mm thickness were used. The grating was placed between uranium screen that fabricated from ammonium-diurinate compound and polycarbonate nuclear track film recorder irradiated by neutron from Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) facility. The nuclear track density was inversely with grating thickness. It's only fission fragments normal to uranium screen pass through film recorder when grating thickness was 4-6 mm

  18. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 106 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  19. ksoa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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