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Sample records for amino sugars

  1. A single amino acid change converts the sugar sensor SGLT3 into a sugar transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3 does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For this reason SGLT3 was suggested to be a sugar sensor rather than a transporter. Despite 70% amino acid identity between hSGLT3 and hSGLT1, their sugar transport, apparent sugar affinities, and sugar specificity differ greatly. Residue 457 is important for the function of SGLT1 and mutation at this position in hSGLT1 causes glucose-galactose malabsorption. Moreover, the crystal structure of vibrio SGLT reveals that the residue corresponding to 457 interacts directly with the sugar molecule. We thus wondered if this residue could account for some of the functional differences between SGLT1 and SGLT3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mutated the glutamate at position 457 in hSGLT3 to glutamine, the amino acid present in all SGLT1 proteins, and characterized the mutant. Surprisingly, we found that E457Q-hSGLT3 transported sugar, had the same stoichiometry as SGLT1, and that the sugar specificity and apparent affinities for most sugars were similar to hSGLT1. We also show that SGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in a living organism. We expressed hSGLT3 and E457Q-hSGLT3 in C. elegans sensory neurons and found that animals sensed glucose in an hSGLT3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrate that hSGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in vivo and that mutating a single amino acid converts this sugar sensor into a sugar transporter similar to SGLT1.

  2. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tushar Kanti Chakraborty; Pothukanuri Srinivasu; Subhasish Tapadar; Bajjuri Krishna Mohan

    2004-06-01

    To meet the growing demands for the development of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists have started working on many new concepts that can help to assimilate knowledge-based structural diversities more efficiently than ever before. Emulating the basic principles followed by Nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create `nature-like’ and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature’s molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of peptidomimetic studies. Advances made in the area of combinatorial chemistry can provide the necessary technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acidbased libraries exploiting the diversities of their carbohydrate frameworks and well-developed solidphase peptide synthesis methods. This perspective article chronicles some of the recent applications of various sugar amino acids, furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. and many other related building blocks in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies.

  3. Predictable conformational diversity in foldamers of sugar amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyhard, Dora K; Hudaky, Ilona; Jákli, Imre; Juhász, György; Perczel, András

    2017-03-27

    Systematic conformational search was carried out for monomers and homohexamers of furanoid β-amino acids: cis-(S,R) and trans-(S,S) stereoisomers of aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), two different aminofuranuronic-acids (AFU(α) and AFU(β)), their isopropylidene derivatives (AFU(ip)) as well as the key intermediate β-aminotetrahydrofurancarboxylic acid (ATFC). Stereochemistry of the building blocks was chosen to match with that of natural sugar amino acid (xylose and ribose) precursors. Results show that hexamers of cis furanoid β-amino acids show great variability: while hydrophobic cyclopentane (cis(ACPC)6), and hydrophilic (cisXylAFU(α/β))6 foldamers favor two different zigzagged conformation as hexamers, the backbone fold turns into a helix in case of (cisATFC)6 (10-helix) and (cisAFU(ip))6 (14-helix). Trans stereochemistry resulted in hexamers exclusively of right-handed helix conformation, (H12(P))6, regardless of their polarity. We found that the preferred oligomeric structure of cis/(S,R)AFU(α/β) is conformationally compatible with β-pleated sheets, while that of the trans/(S,S) units match with α-helices of α-proteins.

  4. Internally protected amino sugar equivalents from enantiopure 1,2-oxazines: synthesis of variably configured carbohydrates with C-branched amino sugar units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrengle, Fabian; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-10-18

    A stereodivergent synthesis of differently configured C2-branched 4-amino sugar derivatives was accomplished. The Lewis acid mediated rearrangement of phenylthio-substituted 1,2-oxazines delivered glycosyl donor equivalents that can directly be employed in glycosidation reactions. Treatment with methanol provided internally protected amino sugar equivalents that have been transformed into the stereoisomeric methyl glycosides 28, ent-28, 29, ent-29 and 34 in two simple reductive steps. Reaction with natural carbohydrates or bicyclic amino sugar precursors allowed the synthesis of homo-oligomeric di- and trisaccharides 44, 46 and 47 or a hybrid trisaccharide 51 with natural carbohydrates. Access to a bivalent amino sugar derivative 54 was accomplished by reaction of rearrangement product 10 with 1,5-pentanediol. Alternatively, when a protected L-serine derivative was employed as glycosyl acceptor, the glycosylated amino acid 60 was efficiently prepared in few steps. In this report we describe the synthesis of unusual amino sugar building blocks from enantiopure 1,2-oxazines that can be attached to natural carbohydrates or natural product aglycons to produce new natural product analogues with potential applications in medicinal chemistry.

  5. Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars sand bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid(Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter(SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter...

  6. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of alditol acetates of neutral and amino sugars in bacterial cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A; Morgan, S L; Hudson, J R; Zhu, Z T; Lau, P Y

    1983-02-18

    Several improvements in the preparation of alditol acetates of neutral and amino sugars and in the preparation of glass capillary columns for their separation are described. Modifications in sample preparation permitted the simultaneous processing of multiple samples and eliminated extraneous background peaks. Efficient and inert columns were tailor-made for the separation of alditol acetates of neutral and amino sugars by leaching glass capillaries with aqueous hydrochloric acid and dynamically coating with SP-2330.

  7. Microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter elucidated by amino acid and amino sugar analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases

  8. Free amino acids and sugars in the flower of Carthamus tinctorius L.

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    Yoshiyuki Takahasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free amino acids and sugars in the extracts from freshly collected florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. were performed by combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC, automatic amino acid analysis and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Sixteen amino acids were detected and their quantitative relations were investigated. Alditol acetate derivatives of free sugars were examined by GLC. The retention time and resolution pattern of the following monosaccharides, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and glucose, were ultimately investigated.

  9. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological...... production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic...

  10. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days) with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol%) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol%). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%), followed by glucose (22 mol%) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol%). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  11. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jørgensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol% and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol%. DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%, followed by glucose (22 mol% and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol%. The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  12. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

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    R. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e. equivalent to ~ 8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Our results obtained from δ13C analysis of amino sugars in selected marine sediment samples showed that muramic acid had isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities, whereas glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus. The analysis of stable carbon isotopic compositions of amino sugars opens a promising window for the investigation of microbial metabolisms in marine sediments and the deep marine biosphere.

  13. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  14. Sugar-assisted kinetic resolution of amino acids and amplification of enantiomeric excess of organic molecules.

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    Córdova, Armando; Sundén, Henrik; Xu, Yongmei; Ibrahem, Ismail; Zou, Weibiao; Engqvist, Magnus

    2006-07-17

    The origins of biological homochirality have intrigued researchers since Pasteur's discovery of the optical activity of biomolecules. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a novel alternative for the evolution of homochirality that is not based on autocatalysis and forges a direct relationship between the chirality of sugars and amino acids. This process provides a mechanism in which a racemic mixture of an amino acid can catalyze the formation of an optically active organic molecule in the presence of a sugar product of low enantiomeric excess.

  15. The Synthesis of cis- and trans-Fused Bicyclic Sugar Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risseeuw, Martijn D.P.; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tuin, Adriaan W.; Leeuwenburgh, Michiel A.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Four isomeric bicyclic sugar amino acids (SAAs) were prepared from an α-acetylenic-C-glucoside by employing a Petasis olefination and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. The applicability of the resulting SAAs in solid-phase peptide synthesis was demonstrated by the synthesis of a tetrapep

  16. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petanidou, T.; Van Laere, A.; Ellis, W.; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer

  17. Naturally occurring hybrids derived from γ-amino acids and sugars with potential tail to tail ether-bonds

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    Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The basic substances of life include various amino acids and sugars. To search such molecules is the precondition to understand the essential nature. Here we reported four unprecedented hybrids of γ-amino acids and sugars from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus, which possess potential tail to tail ether-connected (6,6-ether-connected) modes in the sugar moiety. The structures of these hybrids were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectra and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) method.

  18. Content and vacuole extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1979-07-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. ..gamma..-methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents.

  19. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological...... production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial...

  20. Short communication: Amino trap column improves the separation of methylimidazoles, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and sugars in Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian-Bing; Liu, Ding-Bo; Yu, Shu-Juan; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Yu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    A simultaneous analysis of methylimidazoles, reducing sugars, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in the Maillard reaction was improved by use of an amino trap column. Analysis was carried out by using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) coupled with an amino trap column. The amino trap column was a useful tool to improve the separation of methylimidazoles, reducing sugars, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde. This technique is useful for simultaneous analysis of methylimidazoles, reducing sugars, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in risk assessment for dairy products.

  1. Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-08-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group-radicals was described a relatively long time ago. Louis Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have the capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice as high. Another alkaliphilic strain SCA T (= ATCC BAA-1084 T = JCM 12857 T = DSM 17722 T = CIP 107910 T) was found to be capable of growth on L-ribose and L-arabinose. It is interesting that this strain was incapable of growth on D-arabinose, which suggests the involvement of some alternative mechanism of enzyme activity. In this paper, we describe the preliminary results of

  2. On the origin of single chirality of amino acids and sugars in biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jason E; Blackmond, Donna G

    2012-12-18

    The process of delineating the origins of the chemistry of life starts with the consideration of the molecules that might have existed on prebiotic earth and extends to the discussion of potential mechanisms for assembly of these molecules into informational polymers capable of self-replication and transmittance of genetic information. At some point along this pathway, the property of single chirality emerges as the hallmark of the amino acids and sugars present in biological molecules. In the 20th century, researchers developed abstract mathematical theses for the origin of biomolecular homochirality from a presumably racemic collection of prebiotic molecules. Before the end of that century, experimental findings corroborated a number of basic features of these theoretical models, but these studies involved chemical systems without direct prebiotic relevance. Currently researchers are examining prebiotically plausible conditions that couple chemical and physical processes leading to single chirality of sugars and amino acids with subsequent chemical reactions that enhance molecular complexity. While these studies have been conducted for the most part in the context of the RNA World hypothesis, the experimental findings remain relevant to a "metabolism first" model for the origin of life. To many chemists interested in chembiogenesis, the synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides under potentially prebiotic conditions by Sutherland's group provided a landmark demonstration of what Eschenmoser has described as "an intrinsic structural propinquity" between certain elementary chemical structures and modern biological molecules. Even while some synthetic issues for plausible prebiotic construction of RNA remain unsolved, our work has focused on coupling these synthetic advances with concepts for the evolution of biomlolecular homochirality. Drawing on our own findings as well as those from others, we present an intriguing "chicken or egg" scenario for the

  3. Sequestration of organic nitrogen in a paddy soil chronosequence as assessed by amino sugars molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philipp; Lehndorff, E.; Cao, Z.; Amelung, W.

    2010-05-01

    Available nitrogen is a limiting factor in paddy rice systems due to ammonia volatilization, denitrification and stabilization in organic complexes. Soil organic nitrogen (SON) might therefore constitute a critical component of the nitrogen cycle in rice systems. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of microorganisms for the sequestration of paddy N in organic forms. For this purpose we analyzed amino sugars as markers for the residues of bacteria and fungi in a chronosequence of soils that were used for paddy rice production for a period of 0 to 2000 years in the Hangzhou bay area in Southeast China. Within the soil profile, amino sugar concentrations were generally highest in the puddled Ap horizon and decreased with increasing depth along with organic carbon concentrations regardless of the time of rice cultivation. Nevertheless, a sharp increase of total amino sugar concentration from 0.1 g kg-1 to 0.3 g kg-1 was observed in the Ah horizon when comparing tidal wetland to salt marsh that had been impoldered 30 years ago, indicating an increasing importance of microbial residues in SON stabilization following the conversion of the semiaquatic marsh to a terrestrial system. With increased time of paddy rice cropping, amino sugar concentrations continued to increase up to a maximum of 2.1 g kg-1 after 300 years of paddy cultivation but declined again to 1 g kg-1 in soils with 700-2000 years history of cultivation despite increasing organic matter accumulation. Changes in the composition of the amino sugars were also most pronounced at initial stages of paddy rice management. The proportions of glucosamine (abundant in fungal chitin) decreased during the first 50 years of cultivation relative to mainly galactosamine (abundant in bacterial gums) and muramic acid (abundant in bacterial peptidoglycan), that remained at constantly low levels. At later stages of paddy rice cultivation, the ratios of glucosamine to galactosamine and to muramic acid re

  4. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  5. Amino Acids and Sugars in the Gas Phase: Microwave Data for Astrochemistry

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    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Peña, I.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; Sanz, M. E.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    Microwave spectroscopy, considered the most definitive gas phase structural probe, can distinguish between different conformational structures since they have unique spectroscopic constants and give separate rotational spectra. However it has been limited to molecular specimens having an appreciable vapor pressure. In general, molecules of biological importance have low vapor pressures and tend to undergo degradation upon heating. The combination of laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets (LA-MB-FTMW) which overcomes the problems of thermal decomposition has rendered accessible the gas phase structural studies of these molecules. To date different α-, β- and γ-amino acids have been studied using this technique. Even in conformationally challenging systems the preferred conformations can be identified by rotational spectroscopy, as has been illustrated with the assignment of seven low-energy conformers in serine and threonine, six in cysteine and aspartic acid , and nine in γ-amino butyric (gaba). This technique has been successfully applied to the study of monosaccarides. Three conformers of the prototypes α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose have been characterized for the first time in the gas phase. After the first experimental observation of the monohydrated cluster of glycine, complexes between amino acids and nitrogen bases with water have also been investigated to obtain information on the changes induced in the conformational or tautomeric preferences by the addition of solvent molecules. The information given here is relevant for the unambiguous identification of these amino acids and sugars in the interstellar medium.

  6. Aldolase as a chirality intersection of L-amino acids and D-sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane

    2015-06-01

    Aldolase plays an important role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis to produce D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (D-FBP) from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (D-GAP). This reaction is stereoselective and retains the D-GAP 2R configuration and yields D-FBP (with the configuration: 3S, 4S, 5R). The 3- and 4-position carbons are the newly formed chiral carbons because the 5-position carbon of D-FBP comes from the 2-position of D-GAP. Although four diastereomeric products, (3S, 4R, 5R), (3R, 4R, 5R), (3R, 4S, 5R), (3S, 4S, 5R), are expected in the nonenzymatic reaction, only the (3S, 4S, 5R) diastereomer (D-FBP) is obtained. Therefore, the chirality in the 3- and 4-positions is induced by the chirality of the enzyme composed of L-amino acid residues. D-Glucose-6-phosphate (D-G6P), which is generated from D-FBP in the gluconeogenesis pathway, produces D-ribose-5-phosphate (D-R5P) in the pentose phosphate pathway. D-R5P is converted to PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-α-pyrophosphate), which is used for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) uses the nucleotides as building blocks. The configurations of the 4R-carbon and of the 3S-carbon are retained. The stereochemical structure of RNA is based on 3S as well as 4R (D). The consideration above suggests that aldolase is a key enzyme that determines the 3S configuration in D-R5P. It is thus a chirality intersection between amino acids and sugars, because the sugar chirality is determined by the chiral environment of an L-amino acid protein, aldolase, to produce D-FBP.

  7. Aldolase as a Chirality Intersection of L-Amino Acids and D-Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane

    2015-06-01

    Aldolase plays an important role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis to produce D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (D-FBP) from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (D-GAP). This reaction is stereoselective and retains the D-GAP 2R configuration and yields D-FBP (with the configuration: 3S, 4S, 5R). The 3- and 4-position carbons are the newly formed chiral carbons because the 5-position carbon of D-FBP comes from the 2-position of D-GAP. Although four diastereomeric products, ( 3S, 4R, 5R), ( 3R, 4R, 5R), ( 3R, 4S, 5R), ( 3S, 4S, 5R), are expected in the nonenzymatic reaction, only the ( 3S, 4S, 5R) diastereomer (D-FBP) is obtained. Therefore, the chirality in the 3- and 4-positions is induced by the chirality of the enzyme composed of L-amino acid residues. D-Glucose-6-phosphate (D-G6P), which is generated from D-FBP in the gluconeogenesis pathway, produces D-ribose-5-phosphate (D-R5P) in the pentose phosphate pathway. D-R5P is converted to PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-α-pyrophosphate), which is used for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) uses the nucleotides as building blocks. The configurations of the 4R-carbon and of the 3S-carbon are retained. The stereochemical structure of RNA is based on 3S as well as 4R (D). The consideration above suggests that aldolase is a key enzyme that determines the 3S configuration in D-R5P. It is thus a chirality intersection between amino acids and sugars, because the sugar chirality is determined by the chiral environment of an L-amino acid protein, aldolase, to produce D-FBP.

  8. A compendium of cyclic sugar amino acids and their carbocyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Martijn; Overhand, Mark; Fleet, George W J; Simone, Michela I

    2013-10-01

    This compendium focuses on functionalised sugar amino acids (SAAs) and their 3- to 6-membered nitrogen heterocyclic and carbocyclic analogues. The main benefit of using SAAs and their related nitrogen and carbon congeners in the production of peptidomimetics and glycomimetics is that their properties can be readily altered via modification of their ring size, chemical manipulation of their numerous functional groups and fine-tuning of the stereochemical arrangement of their ring substituents. These building blocks provide access to hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide isosteres whose physical properties allow entry to a region of chemotherapeutic space which is still under-explored by medicinal chemists. These building blocks are also important in providing amino acids whose inherent conformational bias leads to predisposition to secondary structure upon oligomerisation in relatively short sequences. These foldamers, particularly those containing ω-amino acids, provide an additional opportunity to expand access to the control of structures by artificial peptides. The synthesis and biological evaluation of these building blocks in glycomimetics and peptidomimetics systems keep expanding the reach of the glycosciences to the medical sciences, provide a greater outlook onto the wide range of cellular functions of saccharides and their derivatives involved and greater insight into the nature of oligosaccharide and protein folding.

  9. Structure and Mechanism of ORF36, an Amino Sugar Oxidizing Enzyme in Everninomicin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vey, Jessica L.; Al-Mestarihi, Ahmad; Hu, Yunfeng; Funk, Michael A.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T.M. (Vanderbilt)

    2010-12-07

    Everninomicin is a highly modified octasaccharide that belongs to the orthosomycin family of antibiotics and possesses potent Gram-positive antibiotic activity, including broad-spectrum efficacy against multidrug resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Among its distinctive structural features is a nitro sugar, L-evernitrose, analogues of which decorate a variety of natural products. Recently, we identified a nitrososynthase enzyme encoded by orf36 from Micromonospora carbonacea var. africana that mediates the flavin-dependent double oxidation of synthetically generated thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-L-epi-vancosamine to the corresponding nitroso sugar. Herein, we utilize a five-enzyme in vitro pathway both to verify that ORF36 catalyzes oxidation of biogenic TDP-L-epi-vancosamine and to determine whether ORF36 exhibits catalytic competence for any of its biosynthetic progenitors, which are candidate substrates for nitrososynthases in vivo. Progenitors solely undergo single-oxidation reactions and terminate in the hydroxylamine oxidation state. Performing the in vitro reactions in the presence of {sup 18}O{sub 2} establishes that molecular oxygen, rather than oxygen from water, is incorporated into ORF36-generated intermediates and products and identifies an off-pathway product that correlates with the oxidation product of a progenitor substrate. The 3.15 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of ORF36 reveals a tetrameric enzyme that shares a fold with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and class D flavin-containing monooxygenases, including the nitrososynthase KijD3. However, ORF36 and KijD3 have unusually open active sites in comparison to these related enzymes. Taken together, these studies map substrate determinants and allow the proposal of a minimal monooxygenase mechanism for amino sugar oxidation by ORF36.

  10. In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-04-15

    Replacing amino acids with their binary metal complexes during the Maillard reaction can initiate various processes, including the oxidative degradation of their glucose conjugates, generating 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and its derivatives. These reactive amino sugars are not easily accessible under Maillard reaction conditions and are only formed in the presence of ammonia. To explore the generality of this observation and to study in particular the ability of fructose to generate glucosamine, the amino acid-metal complexes were heated in aqueous solutions with three aldohexoses and two ketohexoses at 110°C for 2 h and the dry residues were analysed by ESI/qTOF/MS/MS. All the sugars generated relatively intense ions at [M+H](+) 180 (C6H14NO5); those ions originating from ketohexoses exhibited MS/MS fragmentations identical to glucosamine and those originating form aldohexoses showed ions identical to fructosamine. Furthermore, the amino sugars were found to form fructosazine, react with other sugars and undergo dehydration reactions.

  11. Investigation by mass spectrometry of metal complexes of new molecular hosts: cyclic oligomer of sugar amino acid and sugar-aza-crown ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Françoise; Afonso, Carlos; Ménand, Mickaël; Hamon, Louis; Xie, Juan; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The affinity of cyclic oligomers of sugar amino acid and sugar-aza-crown ether compounds towards various transition metal cations (Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II)) was investigated with positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The binding between the receptors (M) and the different metals (Met) is evidenced mainly by the presence of the [M + Met(II)Cl](+) ion. The experimental results showed that all studied receptors present specificity to Cu(II). An attempt has been made with CuI but no complexation was obtained. The formation of these complexes can be rationalized by considering the presence of two oxygens and two nitrogens on the receptor rim. The lone electron pair can serve as the electron donor to Cu(II). Theoretical calculations were carried out in order to show the structure of the complex and, in particular, to determine if Cu(2+) is situated either on the outer surface, on the rim of the receptor or inside the cavity. Comparison of complex formation was carried out by mixing the four receptors with various amounts of Cu(II) (one equivalent and five equivalents). It appears that the best complexation was obtained with the sugar-aza-crown ethers (amine linker) for both benzylated and methylated compounds. In addition, the stereochemical effects have been investigated.

  12. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs.

  13. The synthesis of amino acids and sugars on an inorganic template from constituents of the prebiotic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, B. O.; Spencer, J. E. D.

    1990-05-01

    Inelastic Electron Tunnelling Spectroscopy (IETS) has been used to identify the reaction products present on an alumina surface when it is exposed to likely components of the earth's prebiotic atmosphere. The alumina barrier of Al-AlO x -Pb tunnelling junctions have been exposed to water; aqueous ammonia; wet carbon monoxide gas and to aqueous formaldehyde vapour under normal atmospheric conditions at room temperature. The water spectrum shows strong coincidence with that of a genuine sample of formic acid. It is proposed that atmospheric CO2 is involved in this surface catalyzed reaction. The aqueous ammonia spectrum is assigned as an amino acid species produced from ammonia, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. This spectrum compares very closely with the tunnelling spectrum of a genuine sample of glycine. The wet carbon monoxide spectrum and the aqueous formaldehyde spectrum have been produced by an infusion doping process. These spectra of CO and aqueous formaldehyde are assigned as a sugar like polymer or a sugar formed on the alumina surface. A tunnelling spectrum of D(-) fructose has been produced to aid this assignment. The role of an inorganic template such as alumina in the original prebiotic synthesis of amino acids and sugars is considered.

  14. Synthesis of D-Desosamine and Analogs by Rapid Assembly of 3-Amino Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Fukuzaki, Takehiro; Myers, Andrew G

    2016-01-11

    D-Desosamine is synthesized in 4 steps from methyl vinyl ketone and sodium nitrite. The key step in this chromatography-free synthesis is the coupling of (R)-4-nitro-2-butanol and glyoxal (trimeric form) mediated by cesium carbonate, which affords in crystalline form 3-nitro-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucose, a nitro sugar stereochemically homologous to D-desosamine. This strategy has enabled the syntheses of an array of analogous 3-nitro sugars. In each case the 3-nitro sugars are obtained in pure form by crystallization.

  15. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues.

  16. Amino Acid Quantification in the Presence of Sugars using HPLC and Pre-Column Derivatization with 3-MPA/OPA and FMOC-Cl

    OpenAIRE

    Cigic, I. K.; Vodosek, T. V.; Kosmerl, T.; Strlic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of free amino acids (AA) in musts and young wines using pre-column derivatization with 3-MPA/OPA for primary AA and FMOC-Cl for secondary AA was studied. As samples differ in their sugar content considerably, the influence of sugars on derivatization was investigated using two internal standards: (i) primary AA norvaline and (ii) secondary AA sarcosine, in real samples and in model fructose and glucose solutions. A strong matrix effect was observed, especially when concentration...

  17. Amino acids profile of sugar cane spirit (cachaça), rum, and whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Francisco W B; Boso, Lisangela M; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

    2008-05-15

    An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of 20 amino acids in cachaças has been developed involving C18 solid phase cleanup, derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol, and reverse phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection limit was between 0.0050 (Cys) and 0.25 (Ser)mgL(-1), whereas the recovery index varies from 69.5 (Lys) to 100 (Tyr)%. Relative standard deviations vary from 1.39 (Trp) to 13.4 (Glu)% and from 3.08 (Glu) to 13.5 (His) for the repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. From the quantitative profile of amino acids in 41 cachaças, 5 rums, and 12 whisky samples, the following order of amino acids in significant quantities is observed: Gly=Serwhisky samples.

  18. Self-assembling properties of all γ-cyclic peptides containing sugar amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Arcadio; Brea, Roberto J; Amorín, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; Granja, Juan R

    2012-11-28

    In this study, a novel dimer-forming cyclic peptide composed exclusively by cyclic γ-amino acids with a saccharide-like outer surface is described. The antiparallel β-sheet type hydrogen bonding interactions responsible for the large association constant in non-polar solvents constitute a suitable model for a novel class of self-assembling peptide nanotubes.

  19. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel amino sugar-containing fucan sulfate from commercial Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Nishioka, C; Ura, H; Nagumo, T

    1994-03-04

    Commercial crude fucoidan (Sigma) from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus was fractionated into its polysaccharide components by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography to clarify the structure-anticoagulant activity relationship. The products comprised a wide spectrum of fucans ranging from typical fucoidans (major components) containing mainly fucose, sulfate, and no uronic acid to low sulfate-containing heteropolysaccharide-like fucans (minor components) being composed of neutral sugars other than fucose and a high content of uronic acid(s). The polysaccharide components also had a wide range of molecular weight. The typical fucoidans showed a potent anticoagulant activity, whereas the other fucans had no or only slight activity. One of the fractions found as a minor component, was a novel polysaccharide containing an appreciable amount (11.5%) of glucosamine and a small amount (5.2%) of protein in addition to fucose and sulfate, and having a low apparent molecular weight of 6800. This is the first report that a proteoglycan-like, amino sugar-containing fucan sulfate, composed of fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, uronic acid, glucosamine, and sulfate in the molar ratio of 1.00:0.04:0.01:0.48:0.24:0.18:0.56:1.90, could be obtained from brown seaweed. However, this polysaccharide showed no anticoagulant activity.

  20. A novel ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations and cycling rates of carbohydrates and amino sugars in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horňák, Karel; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2014-10-24

    The concentrations of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars were determined in freshwater samples of distinct matrix complexity, including meso-, eu- and dystrophic lakes and ponds, using high-performance ion-exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In contrast to other methods, our approach allowed the quantification of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars at low nM concentrations without derivatization, de-salting or pre-concentration. New sample preparation procedures were applied prior to injection employing syringe and hollow fiber filtration. Analytes were separated on a strong cation exchange resin under 100% aqueous conditions using 0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase. To minimize background noise in MS, analytes were detected in a multiple reaction monitoring scan mode with double ion filtering. Detection limits of carbohydrates and amino sugars ranged between 0.2 and 2nM at a signal-to-noise ratio >5. Error ranged between 1 and 12% at 0.5-500nM levels. Using a stable isotope dilution approach, both the utilization and recycling of glucose in Lake Zurich was observed. In contrast, N-acetyl-glucosamine was equally rapidly consumed but there was no visible de novo production. The simple and rapid sample preparation makes our protocol suitable for routine analyses of organic compounds in freshwater samples. Application of stable isotope tracers along with accurate measures of carbohydrate and amino sugar concentrations enables novel insights into the compound in situ dynamics.

  1. Composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions of hot-water extractable soil organic matters from soils with plant residue compost or mineral fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriizumi, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Uezono, I.; Kato, N.

    2009-04-01

    The hot-water extractable organic nitrogen is well known as a laboratory index of mineralizable nitrogen. This available nitrogen is indispensable for growth of plants because of being absorbed in crops. We measured the composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions in hot-water extractable organic matters to understand the source of the available nitrogen in soils inserted a compost. Two soil samples were collected from fields (Soil Type; Andosol) in National Agricultural Research Center in Tsukuba, Japan. A plant residue compost of 2 kga-1y-1 during 25 year has been applied to a soil and another soil was under the mineral fertilization. Organic matters were extracted from the soils of 3 g in the water of 50 ml at 80 degree centigrade for16 hours. The molecular size distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matters was analyzed by HPSCE (column YMC Diol-120, elution; 50mM phosphate buffer under pH=7.0, flow rate 1 mlmin-1), and 20 fractions were collected at regular intervals in the retention time. The chromatograms were monitored under the absorbance at 280 nm and fluorescence intensity at Ex.280 nm: Em.330nm. The concentrations of the 15 amino acids and three amino sugars (muramic acid, glucosamine, and galactosamine) for the molecule weight fractions were measured by HPLC as o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives after the vapor HCl hydrolysis. Organic nitrogen concentrations of the hot-water extractable organic matters in the soil inserted the compost (C-soil) and the mineral fertilization soil (M-soil) were 133 and 35 mgkg-1, respectively. The extracted organic matters had the variable molecule weight (103- 104 Da). The concentrations of the amino acid and amino sugar of organic nitrogen in the C-soil were higher than those in the M-soil in all fractions. The fractions were classified into 3 groups (LW, MW, and SW) based on the molecule weight and spectroscopic characteristics. Each group had unique composition of the amino

  2. Effect of Initial Population Density of Criconemella xenoplax on Reducing Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Survival of Peach Seedlings over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Reilly, C C; Okie, W R

    1987-07-01

    Percentage of mortality, growth suppression, and changes in free amino acid and reducing sugar content in root and (or) stem tissue of Nemaguard peach seedlings were studied in the greenhouse in relation to time and eight different initial population densities (Pi) of Criconemella xenoplax. After 90 and 180 days, free amino acid content in root tissue significantly increased with increasing nematode numbers. Suppression of root volume, dry root and stem weight, height increase, plant survival, and content of reducing sugars in root tissue were detected at 180 and 270 days and following pruning. All criteria were negatively correlated with nematode Pi. Changes in growth, metabolic parameters, and survival percentage were attributed to Pi density of C. xenoplax, duration of the experiment, and nematode reproduction rate.

  3. The use of amino sugars by Bacillus subtilis: presence of a unique operon for the catabolism of glucosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugué, Isabelle; Oberto, Jacques; Putzer, Harald; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    B. subtilis grows more rapidly using the amino sugar glucosamine as carbon source, than with N-acetylglucosamine. Genes for the transport and metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (nagP and nagAB) are found in all the sequenced Bacilli (except Anoxybacillus flavithermus). In B. subtilis there is an additional operon (gamAP) encoding second copies of genes for the transport and catabolism of glucosamine. We have developed a method to make multiple deletion mutations in B. subtilis employing an excisable spectinomycin resistance cassette. Using this method we have analysed the contribution of the different genes of the nag and gam operons for their role in utilization of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Faster growth on glucosamine is due to the presence of the gamAP operon, which is strongly induced by glucosamine. Although the gamA and nagB genes encode isozymes of GlcN6P deaminase, catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine relies mostly upon the gamA gene product. The genes for use of N-acetylglucosamine, nagAB and nagP, are repressed by YvoA (NagR), a GntR family regulator, whose gene is part of the nagAB yvoA(nagR) operon. The gamAP operon is repressed by YbgA, another GntR family repressor, whose gene is expressed divergently from gamAP. The nagAB yvoA synton is found throughout the Bacilli and most firmicutes. On the other hand the ybgA-gamAP synton, which includes the ybgB gene for a small protein of unknown provenance, is only found in B. subtilis (and a few very close relatives). The origin of ybgBA-gamAP grouping is unknown but synteny analysis suggests lateral transfer from an unidentified donor. The presence of gamAP has enabled B. subtilis to efficiently use glucosamine as carbon source.

  4. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loreta Fernandes; Fraddry D’Souza; S G P Matondkar; Narayan B Bhosle

    2006-06-01

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m)at 6 locations during the 166th cruise of the ORV Sagar Kanya in the Bay of Bengal in July/August 2001.The SPM samples were analysed for particulate organic carbon (POC),particulate nitrogen (PN)and AS concentrations and composition.The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l.Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth.AS concentration decreased from the south to north.AS accounted for 0.01 to 0.71%and 0.05 to 2.37%of POC and PN,respectively. Rapid decrease in AS-C%and AS-N%with depth indicates that these compounds were preferentially degraded relative to bulk POC and PN.The composition of AS suggests that glucosamine (GLU-N)and galactosamine (GAL-N)were present in the surface SPM samples,and their abundance decreased from surface downwards.Relatively,low values of GLU-N/GAL-N ratio indicate that the organic matter was mostly derived from the detritus of micro-organisms.Our data suggest that chitin,a polymer of the glucosamine produced by many marine organisms was not the major source of AS in the Bay.Rapid cycling of these compounds indicates their importance in the cycling of nitrogen in marine waters.

  5. Distribution of amino sugars in forest soil profiles of the Changbai Mountain%长白山森林土壤剖面氨基糖的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解宏图; 李维福; 白震; 何红波; 张旭东

    2008-01-01

    The vertical distribution of three amino sugars and the contribution to organic matter pools in the soil profiles of the Changbai Mountain were discussed. The composite samples of organic layers and mineral horizons were collected at three sites (altitude, 600m, 1680m and 2580m) on the northern slope of the mountain. The contribution of three amino sugars to the total amounts of amino sugars was in the order glucosamine (GlucN) > galactosamine (GalN)> muramic acid (MurAc). The contents of amino sugars and the proportion of amino sugars to soil organic matter in the profiles increased from the top organic layer until A horizons, but they varied among the subsoil horizons. The ratios of GlucN/MurAc and GlucN/GalN in the soil horizons at different altitudes indicated that they might originate from different microbial communities.%研究了长白山土壤剖面中3种氨基糖的垂直分布规律及其对土壤有机质库的贡献,样品采自长白山北坡3个样点(海拔分别为600m,1680m和2580m).3种氨基糖对总氨基糖的贡献为氨基葡萄糖>氨基半乳糖>胞壁酸,剖面中氨基糖的含量及氨基糖对土壤有机质的贡献,在表层土壤中随土壤剖面深度增加而增加,但在矿质层中规律不同.不同纬度的氨基葡萄糖/胞壁酸比值与氨基葡萄糖/氨基半乳糖比值不同,说明它们来源于不同的微生物种群.

  6. Stabilization of glucose-C in microbial cell membranes (PLFA) and cell walls (amino sugars) evaluated by 13C-labelling in a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms control carbon (C) cycle and strongly contribute to formation of soil organic matter. Strong differences in the turnover of microbial groups and cellular compounds complicate the assessment of their contribution to microbial food webs and C sequestration in soil in situ. The uptake and incorporation of 13C labeled glucose by microbial groups were traced during 50 days after the labeling under field conditions. 13C was analysed: i) in the cytosolic pool by chloroform fumigation extraction, ii) in cell membranes by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), iii) in cell walls by amino sugars, and iv) remaining in bulk soil. This allowed tracing C in microbial groups as well as cellular compounds. Mean residence times (MRT) of C in PLFA and the cytosol were 47 and 150 days, respectively. Such long cytosol MRT depends on its heterogeneous composition, which includes high and low molecular weight organics. Amino sugars were mainly originated from microbial residues and thus, observation periods higher than 1 year are required for estimation of their MRT. Relative 13C incorporation (13C portion in total pool C) was the highest for PLFAs (~1.5% at day 3), whereas 13C content of the cytosol and amino sugars was one and two orders of magnitude less, respectively. Relative 13C incorporation into amino sugars of living microorganisms showed only 0.57% on day 3. Therefore, the turnover of cell membrane components is two times faster than that of cell walls, even in living microorganisms. Both PLFAs and amino sugars showed that glucose C was preferentially used by bacteria. 13C incorporation into bacterial cell walls and membranes decreased with time, but increased or remained constant for fungi, reflecting faster turnover of bacteria than fungi. Consequently, bacteria contribute more to the decomposition of low molecular weight organics, whereas fungi consume bacterial products or necromass and contribute more to long-term C stabilisation. Thus, tracing of 13C in cellular

  7. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat.

  8. Amino acids interference on the quantification of reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay mislead carbohydrase activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the interference of the amino acids tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, hydroxyproline, leucine, proline, serine, glycine, valine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and methionine on the measurement of reducing sugars using a phenol-free 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent. It was found that in reaction mixtures containing 20mM of either tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, or hydroxyproline the measurement of 3.7 mM glucose was overestimated by 76%, 50%, 35%, 18%, and 10%, respectively. The amino acids valine, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine did not affect the DNS reaction, while methionine decreased the color development by 5%. The measurement of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose at the 3.7-12.4 mM range in the presence of 20 mM cysteine resulted in an overestimated concentration of 34.8-50%. Enzymatic assays for measuring xylanolytic and filter paper activity (FPAse) were conducted in the presence of 20-60 mM cysteine, and compared to cysteine-free assays. In the presence of cysteine, the measured xylanase activity increased threefold and the FPAse activity increased twofold due to the overestimation of the reducing sugar concentrations in the assays. The interference from cysteine was reduced to a maximum of 8.6% when a DNS reagent containing phenol was used.

  9. Effective atomic number of some sugars and amino acids for scattering of (241)Am and (137)Cs gamma rays at low momentum transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaykumar, L; Umesh, T K

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the effective atomic number of some H, C, N and O based sugars and amino acids. These have been determined by using a handy expression which is based on the theoretical angle integrated small angle (coherent+incoherent) scattering cross sections of seven elements of Z≤13 in four angular ranges of (0-4°), (0-6°), (0-8°) and (0-10°)for (241)Am (59.54 keV) and (137)Cs (661.6 keV) gamma rays. The theoretical scattering cross sections were computed by a suitable numerical integration of the atomic form factor and incoherent scattering function compilations of Hubbell et al. (1975) which make use of the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (NRHF) model for the atomic charge distribution of the elements in the angular ranges of interest. The angle integrated small angle scattering cross sections of the H, C, N and O based sugars and amino acids measured by a new method reported recently by the authors were used in the handy expression to derive their effective atomic number. The results are compared with the other available data and discussed. Possible conclusions are drawn based on the present study.

  10. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  11. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  12. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Sugar 101 Updated:Oct 11,2016 Naturally occurring sugars ... sugars Discretionary calories and added sugars Naturally occurring sugars and added sugars There are two types of ...

  13. Analysis on Compositions and Contents of Sugars and Amino Acids in Fruits of Chinese Olive%橄榄果实中糖和氨基酸组成与含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万继锋; 吴如健; 韦晓霞; 陈瑾; 胡菡青; 潘少霖

    2013-01-01

    The compositions and contents of sugars and amino acids in fruits of Chinese olive from 5 different cultivars (strains) were analyzed.The results showed that the contents of total soluble sugar,sucrose and reducing sugar in the fruits of Chinese olive were between 2.43% ~ 4.47%,1.08% ~ 2.90% and 1.15% ~ 1.48%,respectively.All fruits of Chinese olive from 5 cultivars (strains) contained 17 kinds of amino acids,including seven human body essential amino acids such as phenylalanine,threonine,lysine and so on (tryptophan not detected),two children essential amino acids (histidine and arginine),two semi-essential amino acids (cystine and tyrosine) and 6 kinds of non-essential amino acids.The total content of amino acids in the fruits of Chinese olive from 5 different cultivars (strains) ranged from 688.26 to 1 109.52 mg · hg-1.The ratios of essential amino acids,taste amino acids and medicinal amino acids to total amino acids were between 24.13% ~25.80%,90.41% ~91.47 % and 67.98% ~72.97%,respectively.There was correlation between the contents of soluble sugars and amino acids in fruits of Chinese olive.The content of total soluble sugar was highly significantly positive correlated with the content of sucrose,and significant positive correlated with the contents of sweet amino acids such as serine,alanine and histidine.The content of reducing sugar was significant positive correlated with the content of aspartic acid.%对5个橄榄品种(系)果实中糖与氨基酸组成与含量进行分析.结果表明,橄榄果实中可溶性总糖含量为2.43%~4.47%,蔗糖含量为1.08%~2.90%,还原糖含量为1.15%~1.48%.橄榄果实均含有17种氨基酸,包括苯丙氨酸、苏氨酸和赖氨酸等7种人体必需氨基酸(色氨酸未检测),组氨酸和精氨酸2种儿童必需氨基酸,胱氨酸和酪氨酸2种半必需氨基酸及6种非必需氨基酸,总氨基酸含量为688.26~1 109.52mg·hg-1,必需氨基酸、

  14. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar and they aren't alcohol. They are carbohydrates that occur naturally in certain fruits and can also be manufactured. They get their name because they have a chemical structure similar to sugar and to alcohol. Sugar alcohols ...

  15. 极大螺旋微藻(分节螺旋属)在一六面体光合生物反应器中生物合成13C标识氨基酸和糖%Biosynthesis of 13C-Labeled Amino Acids and Sugars by Spirulina (Arthrospira) Maxima in a Parallelepiped Photobioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金兰; 聂珍媛

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation on biosynthesis of high-value-added amino acids and sugars labeleduniformly with stable isotope 13C by microalga Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a parallelepiped photobioreactor.The kinetic data of both batch and continuous cultures with characterization of the amino acids and sugars areshown. The continuous culture without nutrients deficiency is for biosynthesis of amino acids, with tyrosine as oneof the principal constituents, and the batch culture with deficiency in nitrogen is for biosynthesis of labeled glucosethat is up to 64% versus dry mass of cells.

  16. Biochemical distributions (amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin phenols) among size-classes of modern marine sediments from the Washington coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard G.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Giddings, J. Calvin; Hedges, John I.

    1998-04-01

    In order to examine relationships of organic matter source, composition, and diagenesis with particle size and mineralogy in modern marine depositional regimes, sediments from the continental shelf and slope along the Northwest Pacific rim (Washington coast, USA) were sorted into hydrodynamic size fractions (sand: >250, 63-250 μm; silt: 35-63, 17-35, 8-17, 3-8 μm; and clay-sized: 1-3, 0.5-1, fucose and rhamnose. Organic matter in the silt fractions, though degraded, is not as diagenetically altered as in the clay fractions. Enrichment of pollen grains in the silt-size material is reflected by high cinnamic acid to ferulic acid lignin phenol ratios. The highest pollen biochemical signal is observed in the silt fractions of the deepest station (1835 m), where pollen abundances are also highest. Organic matter tightly bound in the silt and sand-sized fractions are enriched in aldoses and show indications of enhanced microbial biomass as reflected by high weight percentages of ribose. Distinct organic debris was composed of relatively unaltered vascular plant remains as reflected by high lignin phenol yields and low acid/aldehyde ratios. Clay-size fractions are enriched in nitrogenous components, as reflected by elevated yields of total and basic amino acids (especially lysine). Silt- and sand-size fractions rich in quartz and albite show slightly higher yields of neutral amino acids. Consistent trends across all size classes and among the different depositional settings illustrates that only a small portion of the organic matter is present as distinct organic debris (e.g. pollen, vascular plant tissues, etc.), but that this debris can be isolated in specific size classes. The data for surface-associated organic matter are consistent with, but not conclusive of, selective partitioning of some organic matter to specific mineral surfaces. The dominant size class-specific trends in organic matter composition are due to changes in both source and diagenetic alteration.

  17. Lanthanum Affects Bell Pepper Seedling Quality Depending on the Genotype and Time of Exposure by Differentially Modifying Plant Height, Stem Diameter and Concentrations of Chlorophylls, Sugars, Amino Acids, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Atonaltzin; Gómez-Merino, Fernando C; Tejeda-Sartorius, Olga; Trejo-Téllez, Libia I

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is considered a beneficial element, capable of inducing hormesis. Hormesis is a dose-response relationship phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Herein we tested the effect of 0 and 10 μM La on growth and biomolecule concentrations of seedlings of four sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties, namely Sven, Sympathy, Yolo Wonder, and Zidenka. Seedling evaluations were performed 15 and 30 days after treatment applications (dat) under hydroponic greenhouse conditions. Seedling height was significantly increased by La, growing 20% taller in Yolo Wonder plants, in comparison to the control. Similarly, La significantly enhanced shoot diameter, with increases of 9 and 9.8% in measurements performed 15 and 30 dat, respectively, as compared to the control. Likewise, La-treated seedlings had a higher number of flower buds than the control. An increase in the number of leaves because of La application was observed in Yolo Wonder seedlings, both 15 and 30 dat, while leaf area was augmented in this variety only 30 dat. Nevertheless, La did not affect dry biomass accumulation. La effects on biomolecule concentration were differential over time. In all varieties, La stimulated the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a, b and total 15 dat, though 30 dat only the varieties Sympathy and Yolo Wonder showed enhanced concentrations of these molecules because of La. Total soluble sugars increased in La-treated seedlings 30 dat. Interestingly, while most varieties exposed to La showed a reduction in amino acid concentration 15 dat, the opposite trend was observed 30 dat. Importantly, in all varieties evaluated, La stimulated soluble protein concentration 30 dat. It is important to note that while chlorophyll concentrations increased in all varieties exposed to La, both 15 and 30 dat, those of soluble sugars and proteins consistently increased only 30 dat, but not 15 dat. Our results confirm that La may improve seedling quality by

  18. Synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-chloro-1-amino sugars and evaluation of their cytotoxicity against cancer cells%2-去氧-2-氯代-1-氨基糖的合成及抗肿瘤活性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鸣; 崔希凯; 孟祥豹; 李中军

    2013-01-01

    以文献报道具有显著抗肿瘤活性的化合物为先导化合物,以D-葡萄糖烯为原料经六步反应合成了一系列类似物,即取代的2-去氧-2-氯代-1-氨基糖.关键步骤是用(COCl)2-AgNO3-CH3CN体系高收率生成2-去氧-2-氯代-1-乙酰氨基糖,再经HCl-MeOH脱去保护基得目标化合物.经体外活性筛选,包括阳性药物在内的所有化合物均未表现出好的细胞毒活性.%Using the potent anticancer agent 2-deoxy-2-chloro-1-amino sugar as a lead compound,its analogs were prepared in 6 steps starting from D-glucal.The key step was the synthesis of 2-chloro-1-acetamido sugars using (COC1)2-AgNO3-CH3CN system in high yields.2-Deoxy-2-chloro-1-amino sugars were obtained by treating the corresponding acetamido sugars with HCl in MeOH.All the compounds,including the reference compound,displayed almost no cytotoxic activity to the selected cancer cell lines.

  19. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain a lot ... Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy and ...

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Neutral Sugar, Uronic Acid, Amino Sugar and Sialic Acid of Polysaccharides by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法同时测定多糖中的中性糖、糖醛酸、氨基糖和唾液酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 芦菲; 田素玉

    2011-01-01

    Neutral sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar and sialic acid were effectively determined simultaneously by gas chromatography after methanolysis and trimethylsilylation. Three standard monosaccharide mixtures (including Ara, Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Gal, Gle, GlcA, GalA, GalNAc, GlcNAc, Neu5Ac) and two polysaccharide samples (okara polysaccharide DFP, Coprinus comatus polysaccharide F32) were methanolysis by 1 mol/L HC1/methanol at 85 ℃ for 18 -24 h, neutralized with Ag2CO3 and re-N-acetylated by adding acetic anhydride for 24 h in the dark. After removing the silver salts, the dried residue was trimethylsilylated by adding silylation reagent (pyridine/hexamethyldisilazane/chlorotrimethylsilane = 5: 1:1 ) for 30 min at room temperature. Then the final products were analyzed by gas chromatography. This method needs fewer amount of sample, and has higher sensitivity and resolution. It can simultaneous detect kinds of monosaccharides. It will have a great potential for application.%采用甲醇解和硅烷衍生化,用气相色谱法同时测定样品中的中性糖、糖醛酸、N-乙酰氨基糖和唾液酸,取得了很好的效果。3种标准单糖混合物(包含阿拉伯糖、鼠李糖、岩藻糖、木糖、甘露糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖、葡萄糖醛酸、半乳糖醛酸、N-乙酰半乳糖、N-乙酰葡萄糖、5-乙酰唾液酸)和2种多糖样品(豆腐渣多糖DFP、鸡腿菇多糖F32)用1mol/L盐酸甲醇在85℃反应18~24h,碳酸银中和,加入乙酸酐室温暗处反应24h,使氨基糖重新引入N-乙酰基,除银盐,干燥,加入硅烷化试剂[y(吡啶):y(六甲基二硅氨烷):V(三甲基氯硅烷)=5:1:1),室温放置30min,最后用气相色谱进行分析。

  2. 美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸对肝纤维化模型大鼠的影响及机制%Effects and mechanisms of Periplaneta americana extract sticky sugar amino acid on a rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一晖; 马得宏; 李武; 刘丽辉; 王宏图; 张禄; 徐雪美; 冉慧粉; 钱忠义

    2016-01-01

    背景:慢性肝病肝纤维化是可逆转的。有研究表明,美洲大蠊提取物具有一定的抗纤维化作用,其对实验性肝纤维化大鼠起保护作用。  目的:观察美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸治疗大鼠肝纤维化效果,初步探讨黏糖氨酸抗肝纤维化的作用机制。方法:采用猪血清诱导免疫性肝纤维化模型大鼠,同时采用0.5,0.25,0.10 g/kg的黏糖氨酸灌胃治疗,放射免疫法检测肝纤4项;免疫组织化学检测肝组织转化生长因子β1、组织金属蛋白酶抑制物蛋白表达强度和阳性细胞率;检测不同浓度的黏糖氨酸与转化生长因子β1、组织金属蛋白酶抑制物相关性。结果与结论:①美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸能降低层粘连蛋白、Ⅲ型前胶原、Ⅳ型胶原和透明质酸酶水平(P0.9);③结果证实,美洲大蠊提取物黏糖氨酸可逆转肝纤维化的改变,其作用机制与黏糖氨酸抑制转化生长因子β1和组织金属蛋白酶抑制物1的表达有关。%BACKGROUND:Hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease can be reversed. Studies have shown that Periplaneta americana extract has anti-fibrosis effect, and has protective effect on the experimental hepatic fibrosis rats. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of Periplaneta americana extract sticky sugar amino acid on hepatic fibrosis, and to primarily explore the mechanism of sticky sugar amino acid against hepatic fibrosis. METHODS:Rat models of immune hepatic fibrosis were induced by pig serum and intragastricaly administered 0.5, 0.25, 0.10 g/kg sticky sugar amino acid. Four indexes of hepatic fibrosis were detected by radioimmunoassay. Immunohistochemical staining wasused to measure transforming growth factor beta 1, tissue inhibitor of metaloproteinase protein expression intensity and positive cel rate, to determine the correlation of different concentrations of sticky sugar amino acid, transformation growth factorbeta 1 and tissue

  3. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007492.htm Sweeteners - sugar substitutes To use the sharing features on this ... that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . They may also be ...

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  5. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  6. Nitrógeno de amino-azúcares en suelos: calibración y relación con el nitrógeno incubado anaeróbico Amino-sugar nitrogen in soils: calibration and relationship with anaerobically incubated soil nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Genovese

    2009-12-01

    estimated in order to improve NO3 - testing reliability. The currently used method to estimate this supply is the anaerobically incubated soil N test (Nan. The main inconvenient about Nan is the relatively long incubation period required. The purpose of this work was to calibrate the Illinois soil nitrogen test (ISNT for N-amino-sugar determination in southeastern Buenos Aires province, to evaluate its ability to identify different cropping systems and the relationship between ISNT and Nan. Diffusion units were designed and high N-glucosamine recovery percentages were reached, similar to those obtained with the original diffusion units. Recovery was greater when heating in enclosed griddles than heating in an incubator, thermostatic bath or oven. Similar ISNT values were obtained in our laboratory compared to standard samples from the University of Illinois. A weak relationship was determined between ISNT and years under cash-cropping, organic matter content and Nan. No differences in ISNT values were found between cropping systems (cash-crop years and tillage and nitrogen rates. In summary, even though an adequate calibration for the ISNT could be achieved, the method was not able to identify different cropping systems. Even though further research is required to evaluate the ISNT as a means of detecting different N fertilization response sites, the results from this work are not promising for that purpose.

  7. Cinética do escurecimeno não-enzimático com soluções modelo de açúcares e aminoácidos em pH neutro e ácido = Kinetic of non-enzimatic browning with model solutions of sugar and aminoacids in neutral and acid pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Barbosa Brião

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cor dos alimentos é um importante atributo para a escolha do consumidor. O escurecimento é desejável em alguns alimentos pela cor e pelo aroma produzidos (como nos casos do pão e carne assada, mas, é indesejável em outros (como no tratamento térmico de leite. A reação de Maillard é influenciada pela natureza dos açúcares e aminoácidos envolvidos, bem como pelo pH e temperatura do processo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o escurecimento de soluções modelo contendo açúcares e aminoácidos pela reação de Maillard em pH neutro e ácido, obtendo as taxas de reação e avaliando a cinética dela. Doistipos de açúcares (glicose e lactose foram misturados com dois tipos de aminoácidos (glicina ou glutamato de sódio em pH 7,0 e pH 5,1. As soluções (2 mol L-1 foram aquecidas em água fervente (97ºC, e a absorbância medida (420 nm em intervalos de tempo. A glicose apresentou maior taxa de reação que a lactose, enquanto que entre os aminoácidos a glicina reagiu com intensidade semelhante ao glutamato. A redução do pH do meio retarda a reação, e o escurecimento demonstrou menor taxa de reação em pH ácido.The color of food is an important attribute for consumer choice. Browning is desirable in some foods due to the color and flavor itproduces (such as in bread and roasted meat, but is undesirable for others (such as heattreated milk. The Maillard reaction is influenced by the nature of the sugars and amino acids involved, as well as the pH and temperature of the process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the browning of model solutions containing sugars and amino acids due to the Maillard reaction in neutral and acid pH, and to calculate the reaction rate and the kinetics of the reaction. Two types of sugars (glucose or lactose were mixed with amino acids(glycine or sodium glutamate in pH 7.0 or pH 5.1. The solutions (2 mol L-1 were heated in boiling water (97ºC, and the absorbance was measured (420 nm at time

  8. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  9. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  10. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  11. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  12. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002426.htm Hyperactivity and sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ...

  13. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  14. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  15. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  16. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  17. 免耕秸秆还田和传统耕作方式下东北黑土氨基糖态碳的积累特征%ACCUMULATION OF AMINO SUGAR CARBON AFFECTED BY TILLAGE IN BLACK SOIL IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪丽; 张旭东; 杨学明; 张晓平

    2012-01-01

    以吉林德惠市中层黑土进行7年田间定位试验的小区土壤为研究对象,对免耕(NT)和传统耕作下(CT)耕层(0~20 cm)氨基糖态碳含量的变化特征进行了分析.结果表明,与传统耕作相比,实施免耕7年后整个耕层土壤中氨基糖态碳含量显著增加(p<0.05),以表层(0~5 cm)增加幅度最大,高达94.7%.说明在研究地区,免耕措施有利于微生物代谢物如细胞壁物质等作为潜在的碳源逐渐积累在土壤中.免耕土壤中不同微生物来源氨基糖态碳的含量均较传统耕作有显著增加,但是变化特征有所不同,其中免耕条件下真菌来源的氨基葡萄糖的积累量较传统耕作高出1倍多,而且氨基葡萄糖与细菌来源的胞壁酸的比值(6.9~7.3)显著高于传统耕作(4.7~5.4),暗示实施免耕秸秆还田7年后土壤中真菌已逐渐转为优势群体,而真菌占优势的农田生态系统具有更大的同碳潜力.%Soil tillage practices have been shown to have significant influence on microbial activity and community structure through changing soil chemical and physical properties, and as a further consequence on sequestration of soil organic carbon ( C). Analysis of soil amino sugar C helps us further understand the underlying microbial processes mediating soil organic carbon stabilization and turnover in soils under different tillage practices. Effects of no-tillage ( NT) vs. con- ventional tillage (CT) over 7 years on the accumulation of amino sugar C in the plow layer (0 -20 cm) in black soil of a 7-year-long experiment in Northeast China were analyzed. It was found that NT significantly increased the content of total amino sugar C in the whole plow layer (p <0. 05) , especially in the top soil (0 - 5 cm) by 94. 7% as compared with CT. The finding indicates that NT favors sequestration of microbial derived organic C in the black soils under study. The amounts of amino sugar C's of different sources all increased in NT over CT in

  18. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  19. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  20. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  1. Synthesis of 4-amino-5-H-2,3-dihydroisothiazole-1,1-dioxide ring systems on sugar templates via carbanion-mediated sulfonamide intramolecular cyclization reactions (CSIC protocols) of glyco-alpha-sulfonamidonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Laura; van Nhien, Albert Nguyen; Tomassi, Cyrille; Len, Christophe; Postel, Denis; Marco-Contelles, José

    2004-02-01

    The carbanion-mediated sulfonate intramolecular cyclizations (CSIC protocols) of glyco-alpha-sulfonamidonitriles derived from readily available monosaccharides have been extensively investigated using potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, n-BuLi, and LDA as bases. As a result, a series of enantiomerically pure spiro(4-amino-5-H-2,3-dihydroisothiazole-1,1-dioxide) derivatives have been prepared efficiently and isolated in good yield. The synthesis of these new bicyclic systems is key to accessing a novel range of aza analogues of TSAO nucleosides (ATSAOs).

  2. A Sensitive Derivatization Method for the Determination of the Sugar Composition after Pre-column Reductive Amination with 3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Ying; HUANG, Lin-Juan; WANG, Zhong-Fu

    2007-01-01

    3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) was employed for monosaccharide derivatization. The derivatives can be analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detection (wavelength: 254 nm).Monosaccharides were quantitatively derivatized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) at 70 ℃ for 60 min. The method was linear for all samples over the concentration range tested (r>0.999), the precision was found to be satisfactory (R.S.D.<3%), and the recovery ratios were >98.62%. The stability analysis showed R.S.D. Was between 1.81%-3.16%. Detection limits for the samples (D-glucose, L-xylose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose)ranged from 0.06 to 1.97 ng/mL (S/N=3). Under the optimized derivatization and HPLC conditions, five monosaccharides were well separated using a narrow bore C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm) with 0.1 mol/L ammonium acetate containing 25% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. As an application, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of monosaccharide compositions of three polysaccharides SPPA-1, SPPB-1 and SPPC- 1 of Spirulina platensis. This method also has potential application to oligosaccharide or glycan analyses.

  3. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  4. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  5. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  6. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi

    2016-09-16

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait.

  7. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  8. Sugar Coated Taro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Taro is smooth and sticky in texture and rich in fat,protein and sugar.According to Chinese traditional medicine, taro nourishes the spine and stomach and helps energy. Ingredients:500 grams taro (peeled and chopped into diamond-shaped cubes), 15 grams sugar. 250 grams vegetable oil. Method: 1. Heat oil in a wok and add taro cubes. Fry unti they turn golden brown. 2. Take out the taro with a sieve and pour the oil into a container for later use. Add sugar and one tablespoon oil.Stir continuously to prevent burning. When the

  9. Synthesis of Novel C12 Sugar and Its Application in the Chiral Resolution of β-Amino Alcohol%新型C12糖的合成及其在β-氨基醇手性拆分中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯学会; 赵立魁; 张京玉

    2012-01-01

    以蔗糖为起始原料,经缩水、水解和缩合反应制得一种新型C12糖——2-[ 1R-(1,4∶3,6-二缩水果糖)]-异甘露醇(6),其结构经1H NMR.13C NMR和HR-MS表征.以6为手性拆分剂,(R,S)-β-氨基醇[(R,S)-7]在甲醇中被拆分为(R)-7(收率40.5%,>99%ee)和(S)-7(收率40.1%,>99%ee).%A novel C12 sugar, 1R-(l,4 : 3,6-dianhydrofructose)-isomannite(6) , was synthesized from sucrose by dehydration reaction, hydrolysis reaction and condensation reaction. The structure was characterized by 1H NMR, I3C NMR and HR-MS. Chiral resolution of β-amino alcohol[ (R,S)-7] was carried out using 6 as the resolution agent in methanol to give (R)-7(40. 5% , >99%ee) and (5)-7(40.1%, >99%ee).

  10. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  11. Automated sugar analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides MARQUES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (<0.3%. Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment.

  12. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  13. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  14. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  15. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  16. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  17. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2014-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotyp...

  18. Landscape of π-π and sugar-π contacts in DNA-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katie A; Wells, Rachael A; Abendong, Minette N; Anderson, Colin B; Kung, Ryan W; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    There were 1765 contacts identified between DNA nucleobases or deoxyribose and cyclic (W, H, F, Y) or acyclic (R, E, D) amino acids in 672 X-ray structures of DNA-protein complexes. In this first study to compare π-interactions between the cyclic and acyclic amino acids, visual inspection was used to categorize amino acid interactions as nucleobase π-π (according to biological edge) or deoxyribose sugar-π (according to sugar edge). Overall, 54% of contacts are nucleobase π-π interactions, which involve all amino acids, but are more common for Y, F, and R, and involve all DNA nucleobases with similar frequencies. Among binding arrangements, cyclic amino acids prefer more planar (stacked) π-systems than the acyclic counterparts. Although sugar-π interactions were only previously identified with the cyclic amino acids and were found to be less common (38%) than nucleobase-cyclic amino acid contacts, sugar-π interactions are more common than nucleobase π-π contacts for the acyclic series (61% of contacts). Similar to DNA-protein π-π interactions, sugar-π contacts most frequently involve Y and R, although all amino acids adopt many binding orientations relative to deoxyribose. These DNA-protein π-interactions stabilize biological systems, by up to approximately -40 kJ mol(-1) for neutral nucleobase or sugar-amino acid interactions, but up to approximately -95 kJ mol(-1) for positively or negatively charged contacts. The high frequency and strength, despite variation in structure and composition, of these π-interactions point to an important function in biological systems.

  19. The Observation on Clinical Application of Sugar, Whey Protein, and Branched- Chain Amino Acids Supplement for Athletes%运动员补糖、支链氨基酸和乳清蛋白的临床应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 侯菊花; 张立新

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the supplement of sugar drinks, whey protein, bran6hed - chain amino acids and other substances on the stage of the heavy load training to maintain or improve physical function and fatigue recovery. Methods : Arranged 10 athletes in the 30d Sanda physical training phase of the winter training stage, ac- cording to the nutritional supplement program for energy supplement, Selected the indexes of the output of the total body anaerobic power, maximum power, fatigue index, a ability to pull oxygen paddle time, power, paddle fre- quency, biochemical indicators of blood lactate (LA) blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GL), creatine ki- nase (CK) as the observation, Alternative 10 teammates as the control group, and observed the different before and after the training. Results: The total output power, maximum power after the training had significantly in- creased (P 〈 0.01 ) than before added of the observed team. Compared with the control group after added the ath- letes fatigue index and the paddle frequency was also improved significantly (P 〈 O. 05), and after -school train- ing blood glucose levels also had significantly increased (P 〈 0.05). The blood BUN and the recovery had signif- icant improvement (P 〈0. 001 ) more than the control groups after added whey protein, branched- chain amino acids. Conclusion: The training period added sugar, whey protein, branched -chain amino acids and substances such as energy, could significantly improve the athlete's aerobic capacity and anaerobic exercise performance, could significantly delayed the occurrence of exercise - induced fatigue and accelerate recovery of the exercise - induced fatigue.%目的:观察补充糖饮料、支链氨基酸和乳清蛋白等能量物质对阶段性大运动量训练维持或提高运动员身体机能和疲劳恢复的影响。方法:根据冬训阶段性训练计划安排,对10名散打运动员在30d的体能训

  20. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  1. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  2. Sugar Substrates for l-Lysine Fermentation by Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A.; Ledezma, M.; Carreño, R.

    1970-01-01

    The extracellular production of l-lysine in media with cane sugar, blackstrap molasses, or clarified sugar-cane juice by a previously obtained mutant of Ustilago maydis was studied. Enzymatically inverted clarified juice (medium J-3) gave 2.9 g of lysine per liter under the following conditions: inoculum, 5%; pH 5.8; temperature, 30 C; KLa in the fermentors, 0.41 mmoles of O2 per liter per min; fermentation time, 72 hr. The concentrate, obtained by direct evaporation and drying of the fermentation broth, could be used as a possible feed supplement because of its amino-acid and vitamin content. PMID:5485081

  3. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  4. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  5. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  6. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  7. Feeding behavior and nutrition of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2009-05-01

    Despite the sugar glider's popularity as a pet and a long-term history of captive management in zoologic institutions, little is known concerning their specific nutritional requirements, apart from low basal energy and protein needs. Sugar gliders feed on plant and insect exudates-saps, gums, nectar, manna, honeydew, and lerp-as energy sources and rely on pollen and arthropods for dietary protein. Captive diets based on nutritionally balanced, commercially available products developed for other species, with added produce, have been fed successfully in zoo and private glider colonies, but these diets may not promote optimal gut function or feeding behaviors. Diets commonly fed by private owners were examined in feeding trials and were found to be highly digestible, but contained excess protein that was likely imbalanced in amino acids, as well as in calcium and phosphorus, because of improper supplementation. Suggestions are outlined for areas of relevant research to improve nutritional husbandry of sugar gliders.

  8. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  9. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AHA recommend as a limit for daily added sugars intake? The American Heart Association recommends that no more ... zinc. Also, diets that are high in added sugars are typically low in fiber. This is ... energy intake, which can result in weight loss. Why are “ ...

  11. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  12. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  13. Molecular cloning, immunochemical localization to the vacuole, and expression in transgenic yeast and tobacco of a putative sugar transporter from sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, T J; Bush, D R

    1996-02-01

    Several plant genes have been cloned that encode members of the sugar transporter subgroup of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. Here we report the cloning, expression, and membrane localization of one of these porters found in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). This clone, cDNA-1, codes for a protein with 490 amino acids and an estimated molecular mass of 54 kD. The predicted membrane topology and sequence homology suggest that cDNA-1 is a member of the sugar transporter family. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that this putative sugar transporter is expressed in all vegetative tissues and expression increases with development in leaves. DNA gel blot analysis indicated that multiple gene copies exist for this putative sugar transporter in the sugar beet genome. Antibodies directed against small peptides representing the N- and C-terminal domains of the cDNA1 protein identified a 40-kD polypeptide in microsomes isolated from cDNA-1-transformed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Moreover, the same protein was identified in sugar beet and transgenic tobacco (Nicotaina tobacum L.) membrane fractions. Detailed analysis of the transporter's distribution across linear sucrose gradients and flotation centrifugations showed that it co-migrates with tonoplast membrane markers. We conclude that this carrier is located on the tonoplast membrane and that it may mediate sugar partitioning between the vacuole and cytoplasmic compartments.

  14. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  15. Synthesis of alkynes and alkynyl iodides bearing a protected amino alcohol moiety as functionalized amino acids precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AYED; Charfedinne; PICARD; Julien; LUBIN-GERMAIN; Nadège; UZIEL; Jacques; AUGE; Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid precursors in protected amino alcohol form are important synthons that can be used as building-blocks for the hemisynthesis of non-natural amino acids.Serine can be used as a common starting material for the synthesis of such compounds differently protected.Particularly,protected amino alcohols bearing an ethynyl and/or an iodoethynyl group can be used in cross-couplings,in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions and/or in Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi type reactions.We thus demonstrated that the efficiently protected amino alcohols derived from serine can be coupled to a sugar derivative by an indium mediated alkynylation reaction.The conditions of this coupling are compatible with such functionalized derivatives and allow envisaging an access to C-glycosylated amino acids.

  16. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  17. Syntrophic degradation of amino acids by thermophilic methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Waste water usually contains large amounts of different organic compounds. A variety of microbial processes are involved in the anaerobic methanogenic treatment of waste water, such as hydrolysis of lipids, polysaccharides and proteins, fermentation of sugars and amino acids, acetogenic conversion o

  18. Divergent selection for amino-nitrogen concentration in sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvements in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing quality, and therefore the cost-effectiveness of processing, will enhance beet sugar’s competitiveness with cane sugar and alternative sweeteners. Amino-nitrogen is one of the naturally occurring constituents of sugarbeet, referred to as impuri...

  19. Shock Chemistry of Sugars and Implications for Delivery by Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, N B

    2003-10-16

    Recent detection of the sugar glycolaldehyde in the interstellar molecular cloud Sagittarius B2(N) (Hollis et al. 2000) and models of its formation (Sorrell, 2001) have helped fuel the idea that biologically-relevant organic compounds can form easily in space and can be delivered to Earth or other planets by comets, meteorites, and asteroids. Glycolaldehyde is a useful bio-ingredient because it can polymerize into higher forms of carbohydrates, such as ribose, the sugar that makes up the backbone for RNA, and glucose, the sugar found in plant saps and fruits (Hollis et al. 2000; see Figure 1). Glycolaldehyde is reactive and can form various kinds of complex organic compounds; therefore, it may be an important ingredient for starting life on the early Earth. Its presence in space, while not ubiquitous, is an important clue for understanding the chemical routes that can lead to the formation of other molecules, both simple and complex. Meteorites contain materials coalesced from dense molecular clouds during or prior to formation of the Solar System. Carbonaceous chondrites are of special interest to studies of the origin of life because they contain carbon-based compounds, such as amino acids (e.g. Pizzarello et al. 1991; Botta and Bada, 2002) and sugars (Cooper et al. 2001, 2002), essential constituents of terrestrial organisms. Dihydroxyacetone, sugar acids, and sugar alcohols have been identified in the Murchison and Murray meteorites (Cooper et al. 2001, 2002), and laboratory analyses of simple sugar mass spectra have suggested that similar features exist in Comet Halley spectra (Robinson and Wdowiak, 1994). While shock experiments have already been carried out to understand the effects of pressure and temperature on the chemistry of amino acids with relevance to their delivery to Earth by comets (e.g. Blank et al. 2001), to date, no experiments regarding the impact delivery and survivability of sugars have been done. Here we propose studies that will focus on

  20. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  1. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Oogai, Yuichi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS) and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans. PMID:28036052

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...

  3. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2, and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  4. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  5. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  6. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transpor...

  7. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  8. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  9. Processing, disulfide pattern, and biological activity of a sugar beet defensin, AX2, expressed in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Nielsen, J E

    1999-01-01

    AX2 is a 46-amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide isolated from sugar beet leaves infected with the fungus Cercospora beticola (Sacc.). AX2 strongly inhibits the growth of C. beticola and other filamentous fungi, but has little or no effect against bacteria. AX2 is produced in very low amounts in sugar...

  10. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  11. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  12. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  13. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  15. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  16. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  17. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  18. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. S

  19. Starches and their sugar derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P. (Societe Roquette Freres, 62 - Lestrem (France))

    1982-12-01

    After reviewing the composition of natural starches and their uses, the author deals with starch transformation processes, either by physical processing or chemical treatment. He describes particularly the various starch hydrolysis products together with their derivatives, amongst which are sought products which could replace sugar.

  20. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

  1. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  3. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  4. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  5. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  6. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  9. Metabolic engineering for amino-, oligo-, and polysugar production in microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2016-03-01

    Amino-, oligo-, and polysugars are important for both medicinal and industrial applications. Microbial processes used in production of such sugars are not only carbon-intensive and energy-demanding processes but also have other distinct disadvantages such as low productivity, low yields, and by-product contamination. Therefore, metabolic engineering has emerged as an effective tool for developing engineered strains to deliver production strategies for many valuable sugars, which were previously difficult to manufacture by other means, in necessary amounts to support their applications. In this review, the recent strategies used for metabolic engineering are summarized and future prospects of this technique are discussed. We hope that this review will contribute to the development of functional and high-value sugar production by metabolic engineering strategies.

  10. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown.

  11. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T;

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...

  12. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2013-01-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counte...

  13. Synthesis of glycosyl-amino acids of biological interest; Sintese de glicoaminoacidos de interesse biologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Vanessa Leiria; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2008-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of the glycosylated amino acids {alpha}GlcNAc-Thr, {beta}GlcNAc-Thr and {alpha}LacNAc-Thr by the glycosylation reaction of the amino acid threonine with the corresponding glycosyl donors {alpha}GlcNAcCl and {alpha}LacN3Cl. The glycosylated amino acids containing the sugar units {alpha}-D-GlcNAc and {alpha}-D-LacNAc O-linked to threonine amino acids are related to O-glycans found in mucins of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, while the corresponding {beta}-D-GlcNAc isomer is involved in cellular signaling events. (author)

  14. Human umbilical cord hyaluronate. Neutral sugar content and carbohydrate-protein linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R; Varma, R S; Allen, W S; Wardi, A H

    1975-07-14

    Paper chromatography of neutral sugars and gas chromatography of their aldononitrile acetates indicated the presence of fucose, arabinose and a small amount of glucose in purified human umbilical cord hyaluronate. The molar ratios of serine, threonine and aspartic acid to neutral sugars were not unity, suggesting the non-involvement of the neutral sugars and the amino acids in a carbohydrate-protein linkage. The same was indicated by an increase in the percentage of the aforementioned amino acids and by the absence of sugar alditols in umbilical cord hyaluronate reduced eith NaBH4 -PdCl2, after alkali treatment. This reduction caused a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity and molecular wieght to about one-half and an appreciable decrease in the specific rota tion of hyaluronate, suggesting a separation of the two antiparallel chains o the double helical hyaluronate. The umbilical cord hyluronate containe contained bound silicon and it is possible that this bound silicon may cross-link the two chains at interspersed intervals through the uronic acid moiety and/or through neutral sugars.

  15. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  16. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  17. Mondo/ChREBP-Mlx-regulated transcriptional network is essential for dietary sugar tolerance in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Havula

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugars are important nutrients for many animals, but are also proposed to contribute to overnutrition-derived metabolic diseases in humans. Understanding the genetic factors governing dietary sugar tolerance therefore has profound biological and medical significance. Paralogous Mondo transcription factors ChREBP and MondoA, with their common binding partner Mlx, are key sensors of intracellular glucose flux in mammals. Here we report analysis of the in vivo function of Drosophila melanogaster Mlx and its binding partner Mondo (ChREBP in respect to tolerance to dietary sugars. Larvae lacking mlx or having reduced mondo expression show strikingly reduced survival on a diet with moderate or high levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. mlx null mutants display widespread changes in lipid and phospholipid profiles, signs of amino acid catabolism, as well as strongly elevated circulating glucose levels. Systematic loss-of-function analysis of Mlx target genes reveals that circulating glucose levels and dietary sugar tolerance can be genetically uncoupled: Krüppel-like transcription factor Cabut and carbonyl detoxifying enzyme Aldehyde dehydrogenase type III are essential for dietary sugar tolerance, but display no influence on circulating glucose levels. On the other hand, Phosphofructokinase 2, a regulator of the glycolysis pathway, is needed for both dietary sugar tolerance and maintenance of circulating glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we show evidence that fatty acid synthesis, which is a highly conserved Mondo-Mlx-regulated process, does not promote dietary sugar tolerance. In contrast, survival of larvae with reduced fatty acid synthase expression is sugar-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the transcriptional network regulated by Mondo-Mlx is a critical determinant of the healthful dietary spectrum allowing Drosophila to exploit sugar-rich nutrient sources.

  18. Mondo/ChREBP-Mlx-regulated transcriptional network is essential for dietary sugar tolerance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havula, Essi; Teesalu, Mari; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Seppälä, Heini; Hasygar, Kiran; Auvinen, Petri; Orešič, Matej; Sandmann, Thomas; Hietakangas, Ville

    2013-04-01

    Sugars are important nutrients for many animals, but are also proposed to contribute to overnutrition-derived metabolic diseases in humans. Understanding the genetic factors governing dietary sugar tolerance therefore has profound biological and medical significance. Paralogous Mondo transcription factors ChREBP and MondoA, with their common binding partner Mlx, are key sensors of intracellular glucose flux in mammals. Here we report analysis of the in vivo function of Drosophila melanogaster Mlx and its binding partner Mondo (ChREBP) in respect to tolerance to dietary sugars. Larvae lacking mlx or having reduced mondo expression show strikingly reduced survival on a diet with moderate or high levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. mlx null mutants display widespread changes in lipid and phospholipid profiles, signs of amino acid catabolism, as well as strongly elevated circulating glucose levels. Systematic loss-of-function analysis of Mlx target genes reveals that circulating glucose levels and dietary sugar tolerance can be genetically uncoupled: Krüppel-like transcription factor Cabut and carbonyl detoxifying enzyme Aldehyde dehydrogenase type III are essential for dietary sugar tolerance, but display no influence on circulating glucose levels. On the other hand, Phosphofructokinase 2, a regulator of the glycolysis pathway, is needed for both dietary sugar tolerance and maintenance of circulating glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we show evidence that fatty acid synthesis, which is a highly conserved Mondo-Mlx-regulated process, does not promote dietary sugar tolerance. In contrast, survival of larvae with reduced fatty acid synthase expression is sugar-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the transcriptional network regulated by Mondo-Mlx is a critical determinant of the healthful dietary spectrum allowing Drosophila to exploit sugar-rich nutrient sources.

  19. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.

  20. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  1. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  2. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  3. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  4. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  5. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  8. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  9. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  10. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  11. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  12. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  13. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose and hemi......The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology...... issues within pretreatment and hydrolysis remain to be solved. However, significant improvements in yield and cost reductions are expected, thus making large-scale fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates possible. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  14. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  15. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7),...

  17. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  18. Global welfare effects of transgenic sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    DILLEN Koen; Demont, Matty; Tollens, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Although the EU is still in a quasi moratorium stage concerning GM crops, doors for GM crops in the sugar industry seem to open. Herbicide tolerant sugar beet could mean a boost for the sugar beet sector. The ex ante impact assessment shows a created welfare of 15 billion during 1996-2014. The rule of thumb found in ex post impact studies of a sharing out between downstream and upstream sector of 2/3 versus 1/3 is seems to be applicable to this case as well. The sugar beet sector and consumer...

  19. Putative pyrophosphate phosphofructose 1-kinase genes identified in sugar cane may be getting energy from pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, J; Mutton, M A; Ferro, M I T; Lemos, M V F; Pizauro, J M; Mutton, M J R; Di Mauro, S M Z

    2003-12-30

    Pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) has been detected in several types of plant cells, but the gene has not been reported in sugar cane. Using Citrus paradisi PPi-PFK gene (AF095520 and AF095521) sequences to search the sugar cane EST database, we have identified both the alpha and beta subunits of this enzyme. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 76 and 80% similarity with the corresponding alpha and beta subunits of C. paradisi. A high degree of similarity was also observed among the PFK b subunits when the alignment of the sugar cane sequences was compared to those of Ricinus communis and Solanum tuberosum. It appears that alpha and beta are two distinct subunits; they were found at different concentrations in several sugar cane tissues. It remains to be determined if the different gene expression levels have some physiological importance and how they affect sucrose synthesis, export, and storage in vacuoles. A comparison between the amino acid sequences of b PFKs from a variety of organisms allowed us to identify the two critical Asp residues typical of this enzyme's activity site and the other binding sites; these residues are tightly conserved in all members of this protein family. Apparently, there are catalytic residues on the b subunit of the pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme.

  20. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

  1. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  2. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  3. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  4. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the grow

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  6. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. If you like to keep track of your results on a computer or you email your doctor or diabetes health care team your blood sugar readings regularly, a glucose meter that syncs with ...

  7. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  8. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  9. A portable FRET analyzer for rapid detection of sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haseong; Kim, Hyo Sang; Ha, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung-Goo

    2015-05-21

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is widely used as a core process in biometric sensors to detect small molecules such as sugars, calcium ions, or amino acids. However, FRET based biosensors with innate weak signal intensity require the use of expensive, high-sensitive equipment. In the present study, these shortcomings were overcome with the fabrication of a sensitive, inexpensive, and portable analyzer which provides quantitative detection of small molecules in a liquid sample. The usability of the developed analyzer was successfully tested by measuring sucrose and maltose contents in commercially available beverage samples, with better performance than the conventional monochromator-type spectrofluorometer. It is anticipated that miniaturization of the equipment and improving the FRET based biosensors will contribute to the practical use of this hand-held analyzer in conditions where high-end equipment is not available.

  10. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  11. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  12. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  13. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  14. 5-Amino-1-naphthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czapik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H9NO, the amino and the hydroxy groups act both as a single donor and a single acceptor in hydrogen bonding. In the crystal, molecules are connected via chains of intermolecular ...N—H...O—H... interactions, forming a two-dimensional polymeric structure resembling the hydrogen-bonded molecular assembly found in the crystal structure of naphthalene-1,5-diol. Within this layer, molecules related by a translation along the a axis are arranged into slipped stacks via π–π stacking interactions [interplanar distance = 3.450 (4 Å]. The amino N atom shows sp3 hybridization and the two attached H atoms are located on the same side of the aromatic ring.

  15. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  16. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  17. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  18. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  19. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  1. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  2. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-02

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology.

  3. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  4. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Avena; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed....

  5. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  6. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water an...

  7. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  8. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  9. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  10. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  11. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  12. Fuel alcohol production: effects of free amino nitrogen on fermentation of very-high-gravity wheat mashes.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Although wheat mashes contain only growth-limiting amounts of free amino nitrogen, fermentations by active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were completed (all fermentable sugars consumed) in 8 days at 20 degrees C even when the mash contained 35 g of dissolved solids per 100 ml. Supplementing wheat mashes with yeast extract, Casamino Acids, or a single amino acid such as glutamic acid stimulated growth of the yeast and reduced the fermentation time. With 0.9% yeast extract as the supplem...

  13. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  14. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  15. Carbonaceous meteorites as a source of sugar-related organic compounds for the early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Kimmich, N; Belisle, W; Sarinana, J; Brabham, K; Garrel, L

    The much-studied Murchison meteorite is generally used as the standard reference for organic compounds in extraterrestrial material. Amino acids and other organic compounds important in contemporary biochemistry are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids and comets, where they may have played a role in the origin of life. Polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols) such as sugars, sugar alcohols and sugar acids are vital to all known lifeforms-they are components of nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), cell membranes and also act as energy sources. But there has hitherto been no conclusive evidence for the existence of polyols in meteorites, leaving a gap in our understanding of the origins of biologically important organic compounds on Earth. Here we report that a variety of polyols are present in, and indigenous to, the Murchison and Murray meteorites in amounts comparable to amino acids. Analyses of water extracts indicate that extraterrestrial processes including photolysis and formaldehyde chemistry could account for the observed compounds. We conclude from this that polyols were present on the early Earth and therefore at least available for incorporation into the first forms of life.

  16. Carbonaceous meteorites as a source of sugar-related organic compounds for the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Kimmich, N.; Belisle, W.; Sarinana, J.; Brabham, K.; Garrel, L.

    2001-01-01

    The much-studied Murchison meteorite is generally used as the standard reference for organic compounds in extraterrestrial material. Amino acids and other organic compounds important in contemporary biochemistry are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids and comets, where they may have played a role in the origin of life. Polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols) such as sugars, sugar alcohols and sugar acids are vital to all known lifeforms-they are components of nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), cell membranes and also act as energy sources. But there has hitherto been no conclusive evidence for the existence of polyols in meteorites, leaving a gap in our understanding of the origins of biologically important organic compounds on Earth. Here we report that a variety of polyols are present in, and indigenous to, the Murchison and Murray meteorites in amounts comparable to amino acids. Analyses of water extracts indicate that extraterrestrial processes including photolysis and formaldehyde chemistry could account for the observed compounds. We conclude from this that polyols were present on the early Earth and therefore at least available for incorporation into the first forms of life.

  17. Structural Basis for the Stereochemical Control of Amine Installation in Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengbin; Singh, Shanteri; Xu, Weijun; Helmich, Kate E; Miller, Mitchell D; Cao, Hongnan; Bingman, Craig A; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2015-09-18

    Sugar aminotransferases (SATs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes that catalyze the 5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent stereo- and regiospecific installation of an amino group from an amino acid donor (typically L-Glu or L-Gln) to a corresponding ketosugar nucleotide acceptor. Herein we report the strategic structural study of two homologous C4 SATs (Micromonospora echinospora CalS13 and Escherichia coli WecE) that utilize identical substrates but differ in their stereochemistry of aminotransfer. This study reveals for the first time a new mode of SAT sugar nucleotide binding and, in conjunction with previously reported SAT structural studies, provides the basis from which to propose a universal model for SAT stereo- and regiochemical control of amine installation. Specifically, the universal model put forth highlights catalytic divergence to derive solely from distinctions within nucleotide sugar orientation upon binding within a relatively fixed SAT active site where the available ligand bound structures of the three out of four representative C3 and C4 SAT examples provide a basis for the overall model. Importantly, this study presents a new predictive model to support SAT functional annotation, biochemical study and rational engineering.

  18. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  19. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  20. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  1. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  2. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  3. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  4. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  5. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  6. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in human food consumption, or to be refined and...

  7. Glycosyl hydrolases of cell wall are induced by sugar starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2007-03-01

    Three Arabidopsis genes encoding a putative beta-galactosidase (At5g56870), beta-xylosidase (At5g49360) and beta-glucosidase (At3g60140) are induced by sugar starvation. The deduced proteins belong to the glycosyl hydrolase families 35, 3 and 1, respectively. They are predicted to be secretory proteins that play roles in modification of cell wall polysaccharides based on amino acid similarity. The beta-galactosidase encoded by At5g56870 was identified as a secretory protein in culture medium of suspension cells by mass spectrometry analysis. This protein was specifically detected under sugar-starved conditions with a specific antibody. Induction of these genes was repressed in suspension cells grown with galactose, xylose and glucose, as well as with sucrose. In planta, expression of the genes and protein accumulation were detected when photosynthesis was inhibited. Glycosyl hydrolase activity against galactan also increased during sugar starvation. The amount of monosaccharide in pectin and hemicellulose in detached leaves decreased in response to sugar starvation. These findings suggest that the cell wall may function as a storage reserve of carbon in addition to providing physical support for the plant body.

  8. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  9. REPEATABILITY OF THE SUGAR ABSORPTION TEST, USING LACTULOSE AND MANNITOL, FOR MEASURING INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY FOR SUGARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; KOKKE, FTM; MULDER, AM; VANDEBROEK, WGM; MULDER, CJJ; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Differential sugar-absorption tests for measuring intestinal permeability for sugars have been studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. Their use in general practice has been hampered by a lack of data on reference values and repeatability of the test and the laboratory assay. In this stud

  10. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  11. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created fro

  12. Sugar transporters in efficient utilization of mixed sugar substrates: current knowledge and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Omumasaba, Crispinus A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in production of transportation fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, most desirably through biological fermentation. Considerable effort has been expended to develop efficient biocatalysts that convert sugars derived from lignocellulose directly to value-added products. Glucose, the building block of cellulose, is the most suitable fermentation substrate for industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Other sugars including xylose, arabinose, mannose, and galactose that comprise hemicellulose are generally less efficient substrates in terms of productivity and yield. Although metabolic engineering including introduction of functional pentose-metabolizing pathways into pentose-incompetent microorganisms has provided steady progress in pentose utilization, further improvements in sugar mixture utilization by microorganisms is necessary. Among a variety of issues on utilization of sugar mixtures by the microorganisms, recent studies have started to reveal the importance of sugar transporters in microbial fermentation performance. In this article, we review current knowledge on diversity and functions of sugar transporters, especially those associated with pentose uptake in microorganisms. Subsequently, we review and discuss recent studies on engineering of sugar transport as a driving force for efficient bioconversion of sugar mixtures derived from lignocellulose.

  13. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2013-06-06

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency.

  14. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  15. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  16. Ectoine production from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars by engineered Halomonas elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kosuke; Nakayama, Hideki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the water-retaining cyclic amino acid ectoine was produced from a variety of sugars, including glucose, xylose, cellobiose, and glucose/xylose mixture using engineered Halomonas elongata. When grown on xylose as the sole carbon source, H. elongata produced 333 mmol/kg fresh cell weight (FW) of ectoine, which was 1.4-fold higher than that produced from glucose. To improve ectoine production, an ectD deficient H. elongata mutant was constructed. The engineered H. elongata produced 377 mmol/kg FW of ectoine from a glucose/xylose mixture. Ectoine was also produced from rice straw hydrolysate. These results show that H. elongata can produce ectoine from a variety of sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass and thus has tremendous potential as a host for producing useful compounds from biomass resources.

  17. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  18. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  19. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  20. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  1. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  2. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  3. Sugar Addiction: The State of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Westwater, Margaret L.; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1229-6 Purpose As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying ‘food addiction’ (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addi...

  4. Functional analysis of anomeric sugar kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Louis P; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-09-02

    Anomeric sugar kinases perform fundamental roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Under- or overexpression of these enzymes, or mutations causing functional impairments can give rise to diseases such as galactosaemia and so the study of this class of kinase is of critical importance. In addition, anomeric sugar kinases which are naturally promiscuous, or have been artificially made so, may find application in the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates (for example, antibiotics), and natural or unnatural oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological functions of these enzymes, the tools which have been developed to investigate them, and the current frontiers in their study.

  5. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis, and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, we discuss the current understanding...... are given on some of the open questions of this research field....

  6. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  7. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  8. RELEASE OF INTROGENOUS SUBSTANCES BY BREWER'S YEAST. 3. SHOCK EXCRETION OF AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEWIS, M J; PHAFF, H J

    1964-06-01

    Lewis, M. J. (University of California, Davis), and H. J. Phaff. Release of nitrogenous substances by brewers' yeast. III. Shock excretion of amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 87:1389-1396. 1964.-When Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (two strains) and S. cerevisiae (one strain) were grown in static culture and the harvested, washed cells were suspended in a solution of glucose, amino acids were suddenly released and then rapidly reabsorbed in a space of about 2 hr. The phenomenon of amino acid release, which was termed shock excretion, varied in intensity with the strain of yeast and was shown to be dependent on the size of the pool of free amino acids within the cells. Shock excretion was independent of osmotic pressure of the suspending medium, but required the presence of a fermentable sugar. d-Galactose and maltose caused shock excretion only when yeast was previously adapted to these sugars. Limiting glucose concentrations prevented reabsorption of amino acids, and a further decrease in glucose concentration also limited excretion. Shock excretion was strikingly reduced when the temperature of the suspending medium was lowered.

  9. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  10. Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cigarette blend sugar and acetaldehyde formed in its smoke is a matter of current regulatory interest. This paper provides a re-analysis of data from 83 European commercial cigarettes studied in the 1970s and more modern data on sugar levels and acetaldehyde yields from a series of 97 European commercial cigarettes containing both inherent sugar and in other cases inherent and added sugar. It also provides data from 65 experimental cigarette products made from single curing grades of tobacco, having a wide range of inherent sugar levels but no added sugar.

  11. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  12. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.

  13. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  14. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  15. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  16. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  17. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  18. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  19. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  20. Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chyba, Christopher F.

    2000-05-01

    Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D/L) molecules. We calculate D/L ratios for seven biological, α-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization by the time they are recovered on Earth. If the mechanism of amino acid formation imposes some enantiomeric preference on the amino acids, a chiral signature can be retained through the entire history of the meteorite. Original enantiomeric excesses in meteorites such as Murchison, which have undergone apparently short and cool alteration scenarios, should have persisted to the present time. Of the seven amino acids for which relevant data are available, we expect glutamic acid, isoleucine, and valine, respectively, to be the most likely to retain an initial enantiomeric excess, and phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine the least. Were the D/L ratio initially identical in each amino acid, final D/L ratios could be used to constrain the initial ratio and the thermal history experienced by the whole suite.

  1. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  2. Quantitative measurement of endogenous amino acid absorption in unanaesthetized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerat, A; Vaissade, P; Vaugelade, P

    1988-06-01

    The present experiment was carried out with 11 pigs (mean body weight: 53.9 +/- 1.3 kg) fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein and carotid artery and with an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein. They were each subjected to 2 or 3 trials at 3 to 4-day intervals. During each trial the animals received after a previous fasting of 20 h a given amount of a protein-free diet (200 to 1200 g). The blood was collected either continuously for a quantitative determination of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars, urea and ammonia (number of meals 12, mean intake: 727 +/- 60 g) or discontinuously every 30 min between 0 and 8 h after the meal for amino acid analysis (number of meals 8; mean intake 709 +/- 105 g). A rather constant appearance (2 g/h) of amino acids in the portal blood was observed throughout the postprandial period. The intestinal absorption of each amino acid was however variable and represented between 10 and 50% of the daily requirements of the animal during the measuring period (8 h). Glutamine and to a less extent glutamic acid were exceptions as they were taken up by the gut wall from the arterial blood. There was also a marked synthesis of ornithine and citrulline by the latter. Because of the low blood level of urea, there were no apparent exchanges of urea between the blood and the intestine; in contrast, the ammonia absorption represented about 70% of that observed after ingestion of normal protein diets. Most amino acids are largely taken up by the liver and peripheral tissues, but in the case of alanine the syntheses exceed the uptake.

  3. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  4. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  5. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  6. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  7. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control ... factors. By Mayo Clinic Staff Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor ...

  8. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  9. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  10. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  11. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  12. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  13. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and si

  14. Sugar convertibility in the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, C.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of suitable sugar sources for adult parasitic wasps is an important cause of failure in biological control programs, but the metabolic constraints of sugar feeding are poorly understood. Here we investigated the suitability of 11 naturally occurring sugars as energy sources for the parasitoid C

  15. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling,...

  16. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  17. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  18. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Mc Cutchen, Carol M.; Li; Xu; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  19. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-01

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  20. A C-type lectin isolated from the skin of Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) binds a remarkably broad range of sugars and induces blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Dotsuta, Yuma; Ono, Ayaka; Suzuki, Masanari; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological role of skin lectins of the Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus). A skin extract was subjected to affinity chromatography using seven different sugars as ligands. Molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated elution of the same protein by each of the seven respective cognate ligands from sugar affinity columns. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA of this protein [designated as H. japonicus C-type-lectin (HjCL)] identified it as a novel fish subgroup VII C-type lectin evolutionarily related to snake venom lectins. HjCL was predicted to bind to mannose because of the presence of a Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) motif; however, haemagglutination inhibition assays and glycoconjugate microarray analysis demonstrated its binding to numerous structurally diverse sugars. Competitive sugar-binding assays using affinity chromatography indicated that HjCL bound multiple sugars via a common carbohydrate-recognition domain. The mRNA encoding HjCL was specifically detected in the skin, and immunohistochemical analysis detected its expression in uncharacterized large cells in the epidermis. HjCL agglutinated the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and promoted immediate clotting of shark blood, indicating that HjCL is involved in host defence on the skin surface especially when the shark is injured and bleeds.

  1. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to the manufacture of sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does...

  2. Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Sugar Transporter Genes is Associated with the Difference in Sugar Accumulation between Grasses and Eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Ma, Baiquan; Owiti, Albert; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-06-30

    Sugars play a variety of roles in plants, and their accumulation in seeds and/or surrounding pericarp tissues is distinctly different between grasses and eudicots. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of genes involved in sugar accumulation in these two major groups of flowering plants. Here, we compared evolutionary rates, gene duplication, and selective patterns of genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport between grasses and eudicots using six grass species and seven eudicot species as materials. Overall, sugar transporter genes exhibit divergent evolutionary patterns, whereas, sugar metabolism genes showing similar evolutionary pattern between monocots and eudicots. Sugar transporter genes have higher frequencies of recent duplication in eudicots than in grasses and their patterns of evolutionary rate are different. Evidence for divergent selection of these two groups of flowering plants is also observed in sugar transporter genes, wherein, these genes have undergone positive selection in eudicots, but not in grasses. Taken together, these findings suggest that sugar transporter genes rather than sugar metabolism genes play important roles in sugar accumulation in plants, and that divergent evolutionary patterns of sugar transporter genes are associated with the difference of sugar accumulation in storage tissues of grasses and eudicots.

  3. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  4. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  5. Fermentable sugars from biopolymers of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, K.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    Ethanol can replace oil as a fuel and its use would help in the conservation of the meagre oil reserves in India. The article indicates some convenient and cost-effective processes for the production of ethanol from biopolymers available in bagasse, an agricultural residue. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process produced a maximum of fermentable sugars at 35%. Calcium chloride used as a promoter enhanced production by 3.5%. Other promoters are under investigation. Agitation had a significant effect on production, complete hydrolysis being possible between 10-45 minutes depending on temperature. The fermentable sugars obtained, xylose and glucose, can then be fermented to ethanol in an integrated three-stage process. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  7. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  8. Biochemical studies on WbcA, a sugar epimerase from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Ari J; Brown, Haley A; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes yersiniosis, a zoonotic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract of humans, cattle, and pigs, among others. The lipopolysaccharide of Y. enterocolitica O:8 contains an unusual sugar, 6-deoxy-d-gulose, which requires four enzymes for its biosynthesis. Here, we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of WbcA, which catalyzes the third step in the pathway, namely an epimerization about the C-3' carbon of a CDP-linked sugar. The structure of WbcA was determined to 1.75-Å resolution, and the model was refined to an overall R-factor of 19.5%. The fold of WbcA places it into the well-defined cupin superfamily of sugar epimerases. Typically, these enzymes contain both a conserved histidine and a tyrosine residue that play key roles in catalysis. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignments, it was anticipated that the "conserved" tyrosine had been replaced with a cysteine residue in WbcA (Cys 133), and indeed this was the case. However, what was not anticipated was the fact that another tyrosine residue (Tyr 50) situated on a neighboring β-strand moved into the active site. Site-directed mutant proteins were subsequently constructed and their kinetic properties analyzed to address the roles of Cys 133 and Tyr 50 in WbcA catalysis. This study emphasizes the continuing need to experimentally verify assumptions that are based solely on bioinformatics approaches.

  9. Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field.

  10. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride on Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis, Soluble Sugar and Flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei ZHANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoids content determines the quality characteristics of Ginkgo biloba extract that could be increased by using of plant growth regulators. The objective of study was to investigate the effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC, an anti-gibberellin growth retardant, on photosynthesis, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalanine contents, flavonoid accumulation, and flavonoids enzyme activity in G. biloba leaves. The ginkgo seedlings were grown in the greenhouse conditions with foliar applications of 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC. Results showed that 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased photosynthetic rates of leaves, the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalnine in ginkgo leaves. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS and chalcone isomerase (CHI activities were all significantly increased by 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments. Foliar treatment with CCC therefore might be a useful means of improving pharmacological properties of G. biloba leaves.

  11. Crystal structure of the sugar binding domain of the archaeal transcriptional regulator TrmB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Michael; Lee, Sung-Jae; Diederichs, Kay; Boos, Winfried; Welte, Wolfram

    2006-04-21

    TrmB is an alpha-glucoside-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling two operons encoding maltose/trehalose and maltodextrin ABC transporters of Pyrococcus furiosus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal truncated derivative of TrmB (amino acids 2-109 deleted; TrmB(delta2-109)) was solved at 1.5 A resolution. This protein has lost its DNA binding domain but has retained its sugar recognition site. The structure represents a novel sugar-binding fold. TrmB(delta2-109) bound maltose, glucose, sucrose, and maltotriose, exhibiting Kd values of 6.8, 25, 34, and 160 microM, respectively. TrmB(delta2-109) behaved as a monomer in dilute buffer solution in contrast to the full-length protein, which is a dimer. Co-crystallization with bound maltose identified a binding site involving seven amino acid residues: Ser229, Asn305, Gly320, Met321, Val324, Ile325, and Glu326. Six of these residues interact with the nonreducing glucosyl residue of maltose. The nonreducing glucosyl residue is shared by all substrates bound to TrmB, suggesting it as a common recognition motif.

  12. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  13. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  14. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  15. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  16. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield.

  17. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  18. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits.

  19. Changes to Extractable Soil Amino Compounds Under Elevated CO2 and Ozone in an Aspen Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Forests growing under elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and ozone exhibit changes to root and foliar chemistry and quality that are related to changes in physiology, N limitation, and leaf damage. Additionally, there are documented changes to the activity of some understory invertebrate populations, and a variety of responses to soil organic matter ranging from accrual in the upper few centimeters to loss of soil C and N over the upper 20 cm. Under such conditions, however, the cycling of specific amino compounds is poorly understood. Knowledge of the role that new plant N plays in supporting soil microbial populations and soil C and N dynamics is important to fully understand relationships between N limitation under elevated CO2-induced productivity increases and available organic N pools in soil. We investigated the composition and concentration of hydrolysable amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars) in litter, roots, soil, and earthworm fecal matter from the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Under elevated CO2 amino acids, when normalized to total N, exhibited change in both amount (decrease) and composition among roots (amino acids showed only minor changes with depth in the ambient and ozone treatments. Ozonated rings exhibited a lower release of amino compounds (with respect to total N) compared to ambient and elevated CO2, which may suggest poorer quality input. For soil organic matter extractable amino acids (normalized to total soil N) exhibited changes similar to roots among the treatment. These results indicate that CO2 and ozone significantly influence amino compound dynamics in both soil and input which should impact the overall ability to decompose and preserve soils in such environments.

  20. U.S. - MEXICO SUGAR DISPUTE: IMPACT OF NAFTA ON THE SUGAR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Heboyan, Vahe; Ames, Glenn C.W.; Gunter, Lewell F.; Houston, Jack E.

    2001-01-01

    A side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) enables Mexico to ship more duty-free sugar to the United States than under the pre-1994 restrictive country-specific, tariff-rate quota (TRQ) policy. But U.S. and Mexican negotiators disagree over the issue of exactly how much sugar Mexico can actually export to the U.S. under the NAFTA side agreement. Disagreement focuses on which version of the NAFTA side agreement governs this issue. The U.S. argues that a 1993 side lette...

  1. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  2. Porous HMX initiation studies -- Sugar as an inert simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    For several years the authors have been using magnetic particle velocity gauges to study the shock loading of porous HMX (65 and 73% TMD) of different particle sizes to determine their compaction and initiation characteristics. Because it has been difficult to separate the effects of compaction and reaction, an inert simulant was needed with properties similar to HMX. Sugar was selected as the simulant for several reasons: (1) the particle size distribution of C and H granulated sugar is similar to the coarse HMX the authors have been using (120 {micro}m average size), (2) the particle size of C and H confectioners (powdered) sugar is similar to the fine HMX in the studies (10 {micro}m average size), (3) it is an organic material, and (4) sugar was readily available. Because the densities of HMX and sugar are somewhat different, the authors chose to do the experiments on sugar compacts at 65 and 73% TMD. As expected, no reaction was observed in the sugar experiments. Compaction wave profiles were similar to those measured earlier for the HMX, i.e., the compaction waves in the coarse sugar were quite disperse while those in the fine sugar were much sharper. This indicates that the compaction wave profiles are controlled by particle size and not reaction. Also, the coarse sugar gauge signals exhibited a great deal of noise, thought to the be result of fracto-emission.

  3. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboori, Seema C; Graham, David E

    2008-04-01

    Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted alpha-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD(+) to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B.

  4. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  5. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelian, Suren; Kleine, Michael; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Klein-Lankhorst, René M; Jung, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from hairy root clones and sugar beet plants infected or not with the beet cyst nematode and 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analysed. One TDF was found to be differentially expressed in both materials and was further investigated. Real-time PCR confirmed that this TDF is specifically up-regulated in resistant sugar beet upon nematode infection and its full-length cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis suggests that the gene encodes a 317 amino acid polypeptide of unknown function. No homology to any sequence present in the public databases could be detected. To further elucidate its function in resistance to the beet cyst nematode, the cDNA was transformed into hairy roots of susceptible sugar beet under the control of the 35S promoter and hairy root clones were inoculated with nematodes. The number of developing females was significantly reduced in 12 out of 15 clones resulting from independent transgenic events suggesting that the gene can be used for inducing cyst nematode resistance in plants.

  6. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhan S. Scully

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002, total polyphenols (p = 0.03 and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004 increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  7. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  8. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  9. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  10. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity.

  11. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz;

    2015-01-01

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller......In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... are employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate...

  12. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  13. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  14. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  15. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality.

  16. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  17. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  18. Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A

    2013-02-01

    Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced Beijing to introduce stricter food safety measures. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate the susceptibility of the amine groups of melamine to glycation with D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, sugars commonly found in milk, (2) to study the rate and extent of melamine's glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde, three highly reactive metabolites of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, and (3) to characterize, using mass spectrometry, the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) of melamine with sugars found commonly in milk and their metabolites. Incubation of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose with melamine revealed that D-galactose was the most potent glycator of melamine, followed by D-glucose, then lactose. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and DL-glyceraldehyde glycated melamine more extensively than D-galactose, with each yielding a broader range of AGEs. The non-enzymatic modification of melamine by sugars and sugar-like compounds warrants further investigation, as this process may influence melamine's toxicity in vivo.

  19. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    OpenAIRE

    Demont, M; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty, and irreversibility. We analyse the case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet and reassess whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit perspective using a real option approach. We show that the decision was correct, if households value possible annual irreversible costs of herbicide tolerant sugar beet with about 1 E or mor...

  20. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  1. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  2. SOUFFLE WITH REDUCED AMOUNT OF SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  3. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  4. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction.

  5. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  7. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  8. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  9. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  10. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  11. Structural and Functional Investigation of FdhC from Acinetobacter nosocomialis: A Sugar N-Acyltransferase Belonging to the GNAT Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Ari J; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2016-08-16

    Enzymes belonging to the GNAT superfamily are widely distributed in nature where they play key roles in the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoAs to primary amine acceptors. The amine acceptors run the gamut from histones to aminoglycoside antibiotics to small molecules such as serotonin. Whereas those family members that function on histones have been extensively studied, the GNAT enzymes that employ nucleotide-linked sugars as their substrates have not been well characterized. Indeed, though the structures of two of these "amino sugar" GNAT enzymes have been determined within the past 10 years, details concerning their active site architectures have been limited because of a lack of bound nucleotide-linked sugar substrates. Here we describe a combined structural and biochemical analysis of FdhC from Acinetobacter nosocomialis O2. On the basis of bioinformatics, it was postulated that FdhC catalyzes the transfer of a 3-hydroxybutanoyl group from 3-hydroxylbutanoyl-CoA to dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, to yield an unusual sugar that is ultimately incorporated into the surface polysaccharides of the bacterium. We present data confirming this activity. In addition, the structures of two ternary complexes of FdhC, in the presence of CoA and either 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose or 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, were solved by X-ray crystallographic analyses to high resolution. Kinetic parameters were determined, and activity assays demonstrated that FdhC can also utilize acetyl-CoA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, or hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, albeit at reduced rates. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments were conducted to probe the catalytic mechanism of FdhC. Taken together, the data presented herein provide significantly new molecular insight into those GNAT superfamily members that function on nucleotide-linked amino sugars.

  12. Amino acid residues involved in ligand preference of the Snf3 transporter-like sensor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietvorst, J.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Kielland-Brandt, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    -methylglucoside and 6-deoxyglucose. The signalling proficiency of a non-phosphorylatable analogue strongly supports the notion that sensing through Snf3 does not require sugar phosphorylation. Sequence comparisons of Snf3 to glucose transporters indicated amino acid residues possibly involved in sensing of sugars other...... than glucose. By site-specific mutagenesis of the structural gene, roles of specific residues in Snf3 could he established. Change of isoleucine-374 to valine ill transmembrane segment 7 of Snf3 partially abolished sensing of fructose mannose. while mutagenesis causing it change of phenylalanine-462 (4......) tyrosine ill transmembrane segment 10 of Snf3 abolished sensing of fructose. Neither of these amino :kill changes affected the ability of Snf3 to sense glucose, nor did they permit Snf3 to sense galactose. These data indicate it similarity between it ligand binding site of the sensor Snf3 and binding sites...

  13. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  14. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  15. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  16. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  17. Metabolite Profiling for Leaf Senescence in Barley Reveals Decreases in Amino Acids and Glycolysis Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a long developmental phase important for plant performance and nutrient management. Cell constituents are recycled in old leaves to provide nutrients that are redistributed to the sink organs. Up to now, metabolomic changes during leaf senescence have been mainly studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.. The metabolite profiling conducted in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during primary leaf senescence under two nitrate regimes and in flag leaf shows that amino acids, hexose, sucrose and glycolysis intermediates decrease during senescence, while minor carbohydrates accumulate. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA compounds changed with senescence only in primary leaves. The senescence-related metabolite changes in the flag leaf were globally similar to those observed in primary leaves. The effect of senescence on the metabolite changes of barley leaves was similar to that previously described in Arabidopsis except for sugars and glycolysis compounds. This suggests a different role of sugars in the control of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis and in barley.

  18. Synthesis of Chiral Amino Cyclic Phosphoric Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chirai amino cyclic phosphoric acids, 5-amino-2-hydroxy-4- (4-nitrophenyl)-l, 3,2-dioxaphospho- rinane 2-oxide and 2-hydroxy-4- (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-phthalimido-1,3,2-dioxaphos phorinane 2-oxide are synthesized in good over yields (64. 2% and 72. 8% respectively) from 2-amino-l-aryl-l,3-propanediols. The different reaction conditions are necessary in hydrolysis reactions of amino cyclic phosphonyl chlorides.

  19. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  20. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m(3), increased HHVmass and HHVvolume, greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel.

  1. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  2. Meteoritic Input of Amino Acids and Nucleobases: Methodology and Implications for the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 40 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origin(s) of life on Earth were aided by extraterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial review focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally, we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return mIssIons.

  3. Understanding Prebiotic Chemistry Through the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Amino Acids and Nucleobases in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 50 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origines) of life on Earth were aided by extrataterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally. we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return missions.

  4. Prebiotic synthesis in atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. I - Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, G.; Miller, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, HCN, H2CO, and NH3 using a spark discharge on various simulated primitive earth atmospheres at 25 C is investigated. Various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, N2, NH3, H2O, and H2 were utilized in different experiments. The yields of amino acids (1.2-4.7 percent based on the carbon) are found to be approximately independent of the H2/CH4 ratio and the presence of NH3, and a wide variety of amino acids are obtained. Glycine is found to be almost the only amino acid produced from CO and CO2 model atmospheres, with the maximum yield being about the same for the three carbon sources at high H2/carbon ratios,whereas CH4 is superior at low H2/carbon ratios. In addition, it is found that the directly synthesized NH3 together with the NH3 obtained from the hydrolysis of HCN, nitriles, and urea could have been a major source of ammonia in the atmosphere and oceans of the primitive earth. It is determined that prebiotic syntheses from HCN and H2CO to give products such as purines and sugars and some amino acids could have occurred in primitive atmospheres containing CO and CO2 provided the H2/CO and H2/CO2 ratios were greater than about 1.0.

  5. Understanding prebiotic chemistry through the analysis of extraterrestrial amino acids and nucleobases in meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S; Stern, Jennifer C; Elsila, Jamie E; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2012-08-21

    The discoveries of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in many meteorites over the last 50 years have revolutionized the Astrobiology field. A variety of non-terrestrial amino acids similar to those found in life on Earth have been detected in meteorites. A few amino acids have even been found with chiral excesses, suggesting that meteorites could have contributed to the origin of homochirality in life on Earth. In addition to amino acids, which have been productively studied for years, sugar-like molecules, activated phosphates, and nucleobases have also been determined to be indigenous to numerous meteorites. Because these molecules are essential for life as we know it, and meteorites have been delivering them to the Earth since accretion, it is plausible that the origin(s) of life on Earth were aided by extraterrestrially-synthesized molecules. Understanding the origins of life on Earth guides our search for life elsewhere, helping to answer the question of whether biology is unique to Earth. This tutorial review focuses on meteoritic amino acids and nucleobases, exploring modern analytical methods and possible formation mechanisms. We will also discuss the unique window that meteorites provide into the chemistry that preceded life on Earth, a chemical record we do not have access to on Earth due to geologic recycling of rocks and the pervasiveness of biology across the planet. Finally, we will address the future of meteorite research, including asteroid sample return missions.

  6. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  9. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  10. New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation at higher sugar concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R.; Laluce, C. (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (BR). Inst. de Quimica)

    1991-03-01

    New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian alcohol factories at the end of the sugar cane crop season. They were selected for their capacity for fermenting sugar cane syrup as well as high sucrose concentrations in synthetic medium with a conversion efficiency of 89.92%. The strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (author).

  11. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  12. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen

  13. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  14. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-be

  15. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit persp

  16. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  17. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-04-16

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents.

  18. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  19. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  20. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  1. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  2. DETERMINATION OF THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF LARGE SCALE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF SUGAR AND REDUCING SUGAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhong; ShuWenli; 等

    1996-01-01

    The parameter identification model of large scale chromatography separation process is proposed.The phase equilibrium constants and lumped mass transfer coefficients of sugar and reducing sugar adsorption on D1,D2 and D3 resins as well as the axial dispersion coefficients of the fluid through packed columns are determined by means of the pulse-response experiment technique with an inert substance as a tracer and the chromatography measuring technique.The elution curve calculated from these parameters is good agreement with the experimental elution curve.The sensitivity analysis of these parameters is carried out ,and the result shows that the elution curves of chromatography separation are more sensitive to the variations of the phase equilibrium relationship than to the variation of the axial dispersion as well as the lumped mass transfer coefficients.

  3. Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

    2008-06-01

    Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining.

  4. A study on cations and color removal from thin sugar juice by modified sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Tumen, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    This article describes the use of citric acid modified sugar beet pulp as new ion-exchanger sorbent for the removal of metal cations and colorants from thin juice. The results of batch adsorption runs concerning the effects of contact time, material dosage, temperature and pH drop were presented and discussed. Experimental data on the removal of metal cations showed that the sorption process was rapid and reached equilibrium in 60 min. Modified material in acidic form caused to a significant pH drop in thin juice, which could result with sucrose inversion. Uptake of metal cations increased with temperature whereas that of color decreased. Neutralised type modified product gave more satisfying results. After six successive contacts, 49.7%, 37.5% and 43.7% removals for Ca-Mg, K and color, respectively, were obtained by using neutralised form of modified sugar beet pulp.

  5. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SUGAR AT THE EXPENSE OF INTENSIFICATION SULPHITATION INTERMEDIATES OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zelepukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Applicable for sulfitation equipment should provide a high degree of utilization of sulfur dioxide, which should allow to reduce the cost of production of sugar by reducing fuel sulfur and improve the ecological situation in the placement of a sugar factory. Currently used as standard equipment the liquid-jet sulfitator type A2-PSK and A2-PSM have disadvantages, the main ones are: unsatisfactory performance when the flow solution to be treated and released into the atmosphere from the combustion products nutritionally sulfur. Modernized standard liquid spray sulfitator to improve performance without significant cost, even if the treated liquid flow. A positive result with this work sulfitator achieved due to the fact that the mixing chamber is provided with a device for controlling the flow cross section of holes disc formed as it moves in the ring attached thereto with tapered fingers. Sulfitator is a cylindrical body provided with a sulfited separator for separating liquid and flue gas. By using a separator attached flange connection mixing chamber sulfitation source liquid and a gas supply pipe provided with sulfur dioxide placed inside a disk having five openings for forming jets of high dynamic fluid flow control device and a disk hole section formed in a chamber in the movable ring attached to it, tapered fingers. The form allows the fingers to create a flow of fluid through the disc hole, flowing at high speed and maintain a constant positive pressure to drive the liquid in the mixing chamber. When changing the amount of fluid supplied to the sulfitation ring having tapered fingers moves the fingers and alter the orifice holes, maintaining the pressure of the sugar solution prior to manufacturing the disk constant. This improves the contact of the liquid with the gas. The designed device can improve the efficiency of physical and chemical treatment of liquid intermediates of sugar production.

  6. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50 μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  7. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国旺; R.Lehmann; 路鑫; H.M.Liebich; 张玉奎; 卢佩章

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  8. Sugar Cube Purity: Capacitive Sensing and Image Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, S.; Rajath, R.; Venkatanathan, N.; Raajan, N. R.; Sridharan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several methods have been implemented to find out if impurity is present in sugar cubes or powders so far. Several high end imaging techniques with X-ray scanners have been used to check the quality of the sugar. In this present study, without disturbing the physical nature of sugar, we have simply used the dielectric property analysis to check the purity of the sugar. This method can detect even infinitesimal amounts of impurity present in sugar with good accuracy. The positional accuracy is derived using artificial neural networks, which is been trained with various capacitance values when the impurity is present and gives the details on the change in capacitance value as the impurity position changes.

  9. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  10. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  11. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  12. Enzymatic conversion of cellulosic materials to sugars and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyosov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This techno-economic study deals with the production of sugars and alcohols from cellulosic materials. It covers such key subjects as: potential raw materials; the state-of-the-art on production technologies; the economics of extant processes; and finally infers implications for developing countries from the foregoing. It is clear that a large number of cellulose-, starch-, and sugar-containing plants can be processed to produce sugars and alcohols. Sugar-containing plants such as sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and nipa palm are the best candidates for the high-yield production of alcohol fuel. Likewise, the starch-containing crops such as cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, taro, and tannia are good candidates, but require an additional step to break down starch to sugar. However, the emphasis of this report is on the major part of biomass containing cellulose and which, therefore, needs special treatment before it can be used to produce glucose and alcohols. 21 references.

  13. Asparagine slows down the breakdown of storage lipid and degradation of autophagic bodies in sugar-starved embryo axes of germinating lupin seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Sławomir; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated. The sugar-starved isolated embryo axes contained more total lipid than axes fed with sucrose, and the content of this storage compound was even higher in sugar-starved isolated embryo axes fed with asparagine. Ultrastructural observations showed that asparagine significantly slowed down decomposition of autophagic bodies, and this allowed detailed analysis of their content. We found peroxisomes inside autophagic bodies in cells of sugar-starved Andean lupin embryo axes fed with asparagine, which led us to conclude that peroxisomes may be degraded during autophagy in sugar-starved isolated lupin embryo axes. One reason for the slower degradation of autophagic bodies was the markedly lower lipolytic activity in axes fed with asparagine.

  14. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  15. Electroantennogram response and attraction of Anastrepha suspensa to volatiles of various sugar sources and aged sugar sollutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the aim of finding new, sugar-based volatile attractants for economically important tephritid fruit fly species, we used electroantennography (EAG) to quantify olfactory responses of female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to volatiles of six different sugars (refined white and ...

  16. PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN, ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS, AND XYLANASE BY PENICILLIUM JANTHINELLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala B. Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biomass having 46% crude protein content and enriched with essential amino acids as well as extracellular xylanase activity (100-150 IU/ml was produced by an efficient fungal strain, Penicillium janthinellum (NCIM St-F-3b. Optimization studies for maximum xylanase and biomass production showed that the fungus required a simple medium containing bagasse hemicellulose as carbon source and ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source. Therefore bagasse, which is a waste product of the sugar industry, can be efficiently used in microbioal biomass protein preparation for animal feed.

  17. Sugars as the optimal biosynthetic carbon substrate of aqueous life throughout the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Our previous analysis of the energetics of metabolism showed that both the biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from sugars, and the fermentation of organic substrates, were energetically driven by electron transfer reactions resulting in carbon redox disproportionation (Weber, 1997). Redox disproportionation--the spontaneous (energetically favorable) direction of carbon group transformation in biosynthesis--is brought about and driven by the energetically downhill transfer of electron pairs from more oxidized carbon groups (with lower half-cell reduction potentials) to more reduced carbon groups (with higher half-cell reduction potentials). In this report, we compare the redox and kinetic properties of carbon groups in order to evaluate the relative biosynthetic capability of organic substrates, and to identify the optimal biosubstrate. This analysis revealed that sugars (monocarbonyl alditols) are the optimal biosynthetic substrate because they contain the maximum number of biosynthetically useful high energy electrons/carbon atom while still containing a single carbonyl group needed to kinetically facilitate their conversion to useful biosynthetic intermediates. This conclusion applies to aqueous life throughout the Universe because it is based on invariant aqueous carbon chemistry--primarily, the universal reduction potentials of carbon groups.

  18. Sugar beet M14 glyoxalase I gene can enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Ma, Chunquan; Pan, Yu; Gong, Shilong; Zhao, Chenxi; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2013-05-01

    Glyoxalase I is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound increased rapidly under stress conditions. Here we report cloning and characterization of a glyoxalase I from sugar beet M14 line (an interspecific hybrid between a wild species Beta corolliflora Zoss and a cultivated species B. vulgaris L). The full-length gene BvM14-glyoxalase I has 1,449 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,065 bp encoding 354 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows the conserved glyoxalase I domains, metal and glutathione binding sites and secondary structure (α-helixes and β-sheets). The BvM14-glyoxalase I gene was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of sugar beet M14 line and up-regulated in response to salt, mannitol and oxidative stresses. Heterologous expression of BvM14-glyoxalase I could increase E. coli tolerance to methylglyoxal. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing BvM14-glyoxalase I were generated. Both leaf discs and seedlings showed significant tolerance to methylglyoxal, salt, mannitol and H2O2. These results suggest an important role of BvM14-glyoxalase I in cellular detoxification and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  19. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R; g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd, adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D. between S(R during early (41.6 ± 6.2, med (54.5 ± 3.0,and late ontogeny (63.4 ± 2.4, corresponding, respectively to low, medium, and high S(R. Calibrationand validation Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models, using plant physical and chemical traits,predicted and validated sugar content of sugar beet leaves [S(L] and roots [S(R] throughout its ontogenywith significant probabilities. Most physical and all chemical traits exhibited dynamic changesthroughout plant ontogeny and, consequently, negatively or positively impacted S(R. The positiveimpact of S(L and root volume (RV on S(R diminished towards the end of the growing season;whereas, the positive impact of root density (RD and carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio in leaves [C:N(L] androots [C:N(R] persisted throughout plant ontogeny. Specific leaf area (SLA, in particular, exhibitednegative, then positive impact on S(R. The utility of physical and chemical traits of field-grown sugarbeets in building reliable PLS models was confirmed using multivariate analysis on secondary statistics(residual mean square errors, RMSE and validation coefficients of determination, Q2 whichdiscriminated between and correctly classified low (100%, medium (95% and high (97% S(R groups.The findings may have implications to design management practices that can enhance C:N ratio and Csequestrationin roots, maintain optimum, but not excessive, N level in developing leaves and roots,optimize root sugar content and minimize its variation under field conditions

  20. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  1. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium trifluoroacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C5H6ClN2+·C2F3O2−, contains two independent 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium cations and two independent trifluoroacetate anions. The F atoms of both anions are disordered over two sets of positions, with occupancy ratios of 0.672 (12:0.328 (12 and 0.587 (15:0.413 (15. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001.

  2. 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, a rare sugar from agar, a new anticariogenic sugar to replace xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Ah Reum; Kim, Jung Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mun; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-04-15

    The significance for anticariogenic sugar substitutes is growing due to increasing demands for dietary sugars and rising concerns of dental caries. Xylitol is widely used as an anticariogenic sugar substitute, but the inhibitory effects of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of tooth decay, are exhibited only at high concentrations. Here, the inhibitory effects of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a rare sugar from red macroalgae, were evaluated on S. mutans, in comparison with those of xylitol. In the presence of 5g/l of AHG, the growth of S. mutans was retarded. At 10g/l of AHG, the growth and acid production by S. mutans were completely inhibited. However, in the presence of xylitol, at a much higher concentration (i.e., 40g/l), the growth of S. mutans still occurred. These results suggest that AHG can be used as a new anticariogenic sugar substitute for preventing dental caries.

  3. The role of extrafloral nectar amino acids for the preferences of facultative and obligate ant mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Plants in some 300 genera produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) to attract ants as a means of indirect defence. Among Mesoamerican Acacia species, obligate myrmecophytes produce EFN constitutively to nourish symbiotic ant mutualists, while non-myrmecophytes induce EFN secretion in response to herbivore damage to attract non-symbiotic ants. Since symbiotic Acacia ants entirely depend on the host-derived food rewards while non-symbiotic ants need to be attracted to EFN, this system allows comparative analyses of the function of EFN components in ant nutrition and attraction. We investigated sugar and amino acid (AA) composition in EFN of two myrmecophytes (Acacia cornigera and Acacia hindsii) and two related non-myrmecophyte species (Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis juliflora). AA composition allowed a grouping of myrmecophytes vs. non-myrmecophytes. Behavioural assays with obligate Acacia inhabitants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus) and non-symbiotic ants showed that AA composition affected ant preferences at high but not at low AA/sugar ratios. Most interestingly, behavioural responses differed between the two types of ants tested: Symbiotic ants showed a clear preference for higher AA concentrations and preferred nectar mimics with those four AAs that most significantly characterised the specific nectar of their Acacia host plant. In contrast, non-symbiotic ants distinguished among nectars containing different sugars and between solutions with and without AAs but neither among nectars with different AA/sugar ratios nor among mimics containing different numbers of AAs. Our results confirm that both AAs and sugars contribute to the taste and attractiveness of nectars and demonstrate that the responses of ants to specific nectar components depend on their life style. AAs are a chemical EFN component that likely can shape the structure of ant-plant mutualisms.

  4. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters), sucrose, and monosacch...

  5. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  6. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  7. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  8. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  9. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  10. Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

    1999-10-01

    A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T).

  11. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  12. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.

  13. The role of sugar cane straw on soil reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretto,Roberto Antunes; Carneiro, Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga; Pavan,Marcos Antonio; Fioretto, Conrado Cagliari; Büll, Leonardo Theodoro

    2009-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of sugar cane straw on soil acidity. Sugar cane straw residues were added on the surface of a Typic Harplortox in a polyvinyl chlorid (PVC) column at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 76 g kg-1, the soil was incubated to field capacity with distilled water and incubated for 0, 7, 14, 45, and 90 days. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-25 cm depth. With the increase of sugar cane straw rates one verified the incr...

  14. Quality and management of wastewater in sugar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Pradeep Kumar; Sahu, Omprakash

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater from sugar industries is one that has complex characteristics and is considered a challenge for environmental engineers in terms of treatment as well as utilization. Before treatment and recycling, determination of physicochemical parameter is an important mechanism. Many different types of techniques are introduced and modified for the purpose, but depend upon the water quality parameters. The main aim of this study is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of sugar industry waste water by the standard method and minimize the fresh water consumption in sugar industry by water pinch methodology.

  15. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  16. Hemagglutinin gene shuffling among Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D yields distinct sugar recognition of the botulinum toxin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Keita; Suzuki, Tomonori; Hayashi, Shintaro; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum strains produce a large-sized toxin complex (TC) that is composed of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), non-toxic non-hemagglutinin and three different hemagglutinins (HA-70, HA-33 and HA-17). HA components enhance toxin delivery across the intestinal cell wall in a sugar chain-dependent manner. Here we characterized the sugar recognition of serotype D strain 1873 (D-1873) botulinum L-TC. Most L-TCs produced by serotype C and D strains bind to cells via interactions between HA-33 and cell surface sialo-oligosaccharides. However, like the previously reported L-TC produced by serotype C strain Yoichi (C-Yoichi), D-1873 L-TC binds only to cells that have been treated with neuraminidase, indicating that they recognize asialo-oligosaccharides. The D-1873 HA-33 amino acid sequence is similar to that of C-Yoichi, but had lower similarity to the majority of serotype C and D HA-33s. A comparison of TC component primary structures for 12 serotype C and D strains suggested that at least three types of HA-33 genes exist, and these are shuffled among the serotype C and D strains independently of BoNT serotype. This shuffling produces the distinct sugar recognition of serotype C and D botulinum TCs.

  17. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-08

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  18. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  19. Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1 litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124 g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals.

  20. Purification of Two Novel Sugar Acid-binding Lectins from Haplomitrium Mnioides (bryophyte, Plantae) and their Preliminary Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Two novel sugar acid-binding lectins were purified from Haplomitrium mnioides (Lindb.) Schust. using a procedure consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation, G-50 gel filtration, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and HW-50 gel filtration. We reported their partial physicochemical properties: molecular weight, affinity for carbohydrates and organic acids, pH stability, and dependence of their hemagglutination activity on metal ions. We also determined their N-terminal amino acid sequences. H. mnioides lectins (HMLs) were monomers (one with a molecular weight of approximately 27 kDa, and the other with a molecular weight of approximately 105 kDa) under both nonreducing and reducing conditions. They were named HML27 and HML105, respectively. Both HMLs had an affinity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, D-glucuronic acid, D-glucaric acid, bovine submaxillary mucin, heparin, and organic acids, such as citrate, 2-oxoglutaric acid, and D-2-hydroxyglutarate. Furthermore, HML27 had an affinity for α-D-galacturonic acid, D-malate, L-malate, and pyruvate, while HML105 had an affinity for D-gluconic acid. HML27 and HML105 are novel plant lectins: they have an affinity for sugar acids and organic acids and specifically recognize the carboxyl group, and there is no homology between their N-terminal amino acid sequences and those of the previously described lectins and agglutinins.

  1. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  2. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  3. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  4. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional characterization of candidate AAT genes in future studies.

  5. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  6. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  7. Sugar expressions on the vaginal epithelium in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Youhei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeta, Motowo; Matsuu, Aya; Asano, Atsushi; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.

  8. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Garcia-Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the problem of thistle detection in sugar beet fields under natural, outdoor conditions. In our experiments, we used a commercial color camera and extracted vegetation indices from the images. A total of 474 field images of sugar beet and thistles were collected....... Stepwise linear regression selected nine out of 14 features and offered the highest accuracy of 97%. The results of LDA and MD were fairly close, making them both equally preferable. Finally, the results were validated by annotating images containing both sugar beet and thistles using the trained...... classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...

  9. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  10. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  11. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, ad

  12. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  13. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

    2008-01-01

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

  14. Plasma amino acid relationships during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, F E; Smits, B J

    1980-01-01

    The plasma amino acidfs of 17 patients were studied before and during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amino acid (AA) pattern changed similarly for all patients. The AA concentration changes relative to preinfusion (PAER) were the most informative index of change. Two groups of AA were defined, the "branched chain" group (five amino acids) and the "hepatic" group (four amino acids) based on the correlation of PAER values. Comparison of PAER values with the ratio of AA intake to requirement indicated that the requirements of the sick patients were more similar to those of children than those of healthy adults.

  15. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  16. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectat...

  17. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Michelle

    2006-09-01

    Eleven of a group of 16 sugar gliders died acutely over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney. Immunostaining confirmed disseminated toxoplasmosis. Marsupials are susceptible to toxoplasmosis. It was thought that the sugar gliders acquired the infection through foraging in wood chips used as a substrate that were contaminated with feline fecal material.

  18. Molecular breeding for resistance to rhizomania in sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomania is one of the most destructive sugar beet diseases. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) vectored by the soilborne protoctist Polymyxa betae Keskin. The studies in this thesis evaluated natural and transgenic resistances to rhizomania in sugar beets. Also the genetic variability in the coat protein genes of BNYVV, Beet soil-borne virus, Beet virus Q and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus isolates was studied. Several natural sources of resistance to BNYVV are known, su...

  19. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  20. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  1. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  2. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  3. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent.

  4. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  5. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  6. Unique interplay between sugar and lipid in determining the antigenic potency of bacterial antigens for NKT cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Girardi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are an evolutionary conserved T cell population characterized by features of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Studies have shown that iNKT cells are required for protective responses to Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, and that these cells recognize bacterial diacylglycerol antigens presented by CD1d, a non-classical antigen-presenting molecule. The combination of a lipid backbone containing an unusual fatty acid, vaccenic acid, as well as a glucose sugar that is weaker or not stimulatory when linked to other lipids, is required for iNKT cell stimulation by these antigens. Here we have carried out structural and biophysical studies that illuminate the reasons for the stringent requirement for this unique combination. The data indicate that vaccenic acid bound to the CD1d groove orients the protruding glucose sugar for TCR recognition, and it allows for an additional hydrogen bond of the glucose with CD1d when in complex with the TCR. Furthermore, TCR binding causes an induced fit in both the sugar and CD1d, and we have identified the CD1d amino acids important for iNKT TCR recognition and the stability of the ternary complex. The studies show also how hydrogen bonds formed by the glucose sugar can account for the distinct binding kinetics of the TCR for this CD1d-glycolipid complex. Therefore, our studies illuminate the mechanism of glycolipid recognition for antigens from important pathogens.

  7. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.P.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    /l AS-C% AS-N% Molar #03 9openbulletN88openbulletE 2 6.97 0.97 7.1 10.4 0.57 0.64 0.35 10 4.96 0.65 7.6 7.7 0.60 0.70 0.45 30 5.86 0.78 7.5 7.2 0.48 0.55 0.36 60 4.27 0.55 7.8 3.4 0.30 0.33 0.11 100 4.08 0.52 7.8 4.2 0.39 0.71 0.29 300 5.13 0.73 7.0 2...

  8. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  9. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  10. Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Sugar Orthoesters Promoted by Anhydrous Sodium Acetate and Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晋忠; 魏善巧; 岳爱琴; 邵华武

    2012-01-01

    A convenient and alternative procedure for the synthesis of sugar orthoesters from glycosyl bromides with an- hydrous sodium acetate as base under ultrasound irradiation is described. Various sugar and sugar-sugar orthoesters were prepared in 70%-91% isolated yields.

  11. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of...

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  13. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...

  14. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program; Feedstock.... SUMMARY: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) proposes regulations with respect to general sugar... Secretary to purchase sugar to produce bioenergy as a means to avoid forfeitures of sugar loan...

  15. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n = 31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n = 11 733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P = .02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P sugar (71.4%) and approximately 10% consumed 25% or more in 2005-2010. During a median follow-up period of 14.6 years, we documented 831 CVD deaths during 163,039 person-years. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality across quintiles of the percentage of daily calories consumed from added sugar were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13), 1.23 (1.12-1.34), 1.49 (1.24-1.78), and 2.43 (1.63-3.62; P sugar with those who consumed less than 10.0% of calories from added sugar. These findings were largely consistent across age group, sex, race/ethnicity (except among non-Hispanic blacks), educational attainment, physical activity, health eating index, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Most US adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. We observed a significant relationship between added sugar consumption and increased risk for CVD

  16. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories.

  17. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  18. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L -phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino acid for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets.

  19. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  20. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  1. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig d

  2. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  3. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  4. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  5. Potential Role of Sugar Transporters in Cancer and Their Relationship with Anticancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Blanco Calvo; Angélica Figueroa; Enrique Grande Pulido; Rosario García Campelo; Luís Antón Aparicio

    2010-01-01

    Sugars, primarily glucose and fructose, are the main energy source of cells. Because of their hydrophilic nature, cells use a number of transporter proteins to introduce sugars through their plasma membrane. Cancer cells are well known to display an enhanced sugar uptake and consumption. In fact, sugar transporters are deregulated in cancer cells so they incorporate higher amounts of sugar than normal cells. In this paper, we compile the most significant data available about biochemical and b...

  6. The Mexican Sweeteners Market and Sugar Exports to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Andino, Jose; Taylor, Richard D; Koo, Won W.

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of a potential increase in sugar imports from Mexico on the U.S. sugar price, and its consequences for producers and consumers. Additional sugar imports would cause a substantial reduction of sugar prices in the United States and consequently an increase in consumption. Due to low commodity prices, acreage and total production of beet and cane sugar in the United States are expected to fall. Under these circumstances, social welfare in the United States may incr...

  7. 1999 OUTLOOK OF THE U.S. AND WORLD SUGAR MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates the U.S. and world sugar markets for 1998-2008 by using the World Sugar Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, population growth, weather conditions, and technological changes. Both the U.S. and world sugar economies are predicted to be strong for the next ten years. World demand for sugar is expected to grow faster than world supply, gradually increasing sugar prices. World trade volumes o...

  8. QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT IN RELATION TO WEATHER CONDITIONS AND DIFFERENT ATONIK DOSES

    OpenAIRE

    I ČERNÝ; V PAČUTA

    2004-01-01

    In the field trial carried out in 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different Atonik doses application on sugar beet quality (refined sugar, refined sugar yield) was studied. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. More favourable weather conditions in 1999 influenced high significantly increasing of refined sugar (+ 0,67 %, rel. 5,53 %) and refined sugar yield (+ 0,67 t.ha-1, rel. 9,75 %) comparin...

  9. Production of rare sugars from common sugars in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-05-15

    A new isomerization reaction was developed to synthesize rare ketoses. D-tagatose, D-xylulose, and D-ribulose were obtained in the maximum yields of 24%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, from the corresponding aldoses, D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-ribose, by treating the aldoses with 80% (v/v) subcritical aqueous ethanol at 180°C. The maximum productivity of D-tagatose was ca. 80 g/(Lh). Increasing the concentration of ethanol significantly increased the isomerization of D-galactose. Variation in the reaction temperature did not significantly affect the production of D-tagatose from D-galactose. Subcritical aqueous ethanol converted both 2,3-threo and 2,3-erythro aldoses to the corresponding C-2 ketoses in high yields. Thus, the treatment of common aldoses in subcritical aqueous ethanol can be regarded as a new method to synthesize the corresponding rare sugars.

  10. Effect of extrusion conditions and hydrolysis with fiber-degrading enzymes on the production of C5 and C6 sugars from brewers’ spent grain for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Heredia-Olea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioconversion of brewers’ spent grain into bioethanol was investigated in the present study using thermoplastic extrusion and the use of fiber degrading enzymes. The extrusion conditions i.e. tempering moisture, screws speed, and temperature of last zone of the barrel were taken into account in order to optimize the yield of C5 and C6 sugars during the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step of the fibers. The most important variable that affected the sugar yield was the extrusion temperature, followed by the screws speed. The best extrusion conditions were 20% tempering moisture, 200 rpm and 50 °C. No enzymatic and yeast inhibitors were detected in any of the enzymatically-treated fiber hydrolyzates. The fermentation resulted in 5.43 mL bioethanol per 100g of extruded brewers’ spent grain (dry weight basis. The only sugar consumed was glucose. The free amino nitrogen amount quantified in the hydrolyzates was as low as >20 mg L-1, negatively affecting sugars consumption during the fermentation and consequently the ethanol yield.

  11. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  12. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni pomegranates

    OpenAIRE

    Alhadi Fatima A.; Adnan A.S. AL-Asbahi; Arif S.A. Alhammadi; Qais A.A. Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Plant seeds used rely on a wide range of internal mechanisms and physio-chemical factors to ensure their germination under favorable environmental conditions. Most plant seeds have complex process of germination, including water, oxygen, temperature availability, genome-wide gene expression, signal transduction, hormones stimulations, inhibitors removal and catalytic protein synthesis. In addition, influences of seeds nutrient values such as, protein, lipids, sugars and free amino acids have...

  13. Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L

    2010-06-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

  14. Non-pollen particulates in honey and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebezeit, Gerd; Liebezeit, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A total of 19 honey samples, mostly from Germany but also from France, Italy, Spain and Mexico, were analysed for non-pollen particulates. Only coloured fibres and fragments were quantified. Transparent fibres, considered to be cellulosic because they could be stained with fuchsin, were not quantified. Coloured material was found in all the samples investigated. Fibre counts ranged from 40/kg to 660/kg of honey, with a mean value of 166 ± 147/kg of honey, whereas fragments were considerably less abundant (0-38/kg of honey; mean 9 ± 9/kg of honey). Sources are tentatively identified as environmental, that is particles having been transported by the bees into the hive, or having been introduced during honey processing or both. In addition, five commercial sugars were analysed. In all the refined samples, transparent and coloured fibres (mean 217 ± 123/kg of sugar) and fragments (32 ± 7/kg of sugar) were found. Unrefined cane sugar had 560 fibres and 540 fragments per kilogram of honey. In addition, in both honey and sugar samples, granular non-pollen material was observed.

  15. Performance of dairy females fed dried yeast from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal in dairy heifers’ diets. Twenty-four heifers, with an initial body weight (BW of 178 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were four levels of inclusion of dried yeast from sugar cane replacing to soybean meal (0, 33, 67 and 100% on a dry matter (DM basis. While there was no difference in DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy or roughage intakes, the intakes of non-fiber carbohydrates and concentrate were increased. The crude protein intake decreased according to the dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal. The digestibility coefficients of DM and NDF showed no difference. Replacement of soybean meal with dried yeast from sugar cane had no effect on performance, because average daily gain and body measurements studied were similar for all animals and inclusion levels. Soybean meal can be completely replaced with dried yeast from sugar cane in diets for growing dairy heifers without restrictions; this will not affect the intake, digestibility, physical development of animals or metabolization of protein compounds.

  16. Dietary sugar intake increases liver tumor incidence in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Marin E; Lahiri, Sujoy; Hargett, Stefan R; Chow, Jenny D Y; Byrne, Frances L; Breen, David S; Kenwood, Brandon M; Taddeo, Evan P; Lackner, Carolin; Caldwell, Stephen H; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-02-29

    Overnutrition can promote liver cancer in mice and humans that have liver damage caused by alcohol, viruses, or carcinogens. However, the mechanism linking diet to increased liver tumorigenesis remains unclear in the context of whether tumorigenesis is secondary to obesity, or whether nutrients like sugar or fat drive tumorigenesis independent of obesity. In male mice, liver tumor burden was recently found to correlate with sugar intake, independent of dietary fat intake and obesity. However, females are less susceptible to developing liver cancer than males, and it remains unclear how nutrition affects tumorigenesis in females. Herein, female mice were exposed to the liver carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed diets with well-defined sugar and fat content. Mice fed diets with high sugar content had the greatest liver tumor incidence while dietary fat intake was not associated with tumorigenesis. Diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and fasting hyperinsulinemia significantly correlated with tumor incidence, while tumor incidence was not associated with obesity and obesity-related disorders including liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, or elevated serum levels of estrogen, ALT, and lipids. These results simplify the pathophysiology of diet-induced liver tumorigenesis by focusing attention on the role of sugar metabolism and reducing emphasis on the complex milieu associated with obesity.

  17. Nucleotide-sugar transporters: structure, function and roles in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handford M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of glycoconjugates and the biosynthesis of polysaccharides depend on nucleotide-sugars which are the substrates for glycosyltransferases. A large proportion of these enzymes are located within the lumen of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, while many of the nucleotide-sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. Thus, nucleotide-sugars are translocated from the cytosol to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum by multiple spanning domain proteins known as nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs. These proteins were first identified biochemically and some of them were cloned by complementation of mutants. Genome and expressed sequence tag sequencing allowed the identification of a number of sequences that may encode for NSTs in different organisms. The functional characterization of some of these genes has shown that some of them can be highly specific in their substrate specificity while others can utilize up to three different nucleotide-sugars containing the same nucleotide. Mutations in genes encoding for NSTs can lead to changes in development in Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as alterations in the infectivity of Leishmania donovani. In humans, the mutation of a GDP-fucose transporter is responsible for an impaired immune response as well as retarded growth. These results suggest that, even though there appear to be a fair number of genes encoding for NSTs, they are not functionally redundant and seem to play specific roles in glycosylation.

  18. Acidogenic Potential of “Sugar-Free” Cough Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John A; Ritchie, John R

    2009-01-01

    A patient presented with extensive marginal ditching around restorations recently placed during whole-mouth rehabilitation. The patient was not xerostomic and was otherwise normal except for the self-reported excessive use of “sugar-free” cough drops sweetened with sorbitol and Isomalt® (an equimolar mix of glucosyl-mannitol and glucosylsorbitol). This prompted an in vitro investigation to determine whether Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, a cariogenic streptococcus, could grow and produce acid in growth medium containing an aqueous extract of such “sugar-free” cough drops. The results indicate that S. sobrinus 6715 uses Isomalt® and sorbitol extensively, producing terminal culture pH as low as 4.2 when grown on medium with cough drop extract containing these sugars. This pH is sufficient to demineralize dental enamel. Patients should be cautioned against the chronic overuse of “sugar-free” cough drops and other “sugar-free” confections sweetened with a mixture of Isomalt® and sorbitol. PMID:19444340

  19. Acidogenic potential of "sugar-free" cough drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John A; Ritchie, John R

    2009-03-06

    A patient presented with extensive marginal ditching around restorations recently placed during whole-mouth rehabilitation. The patient was not xerostomic and was otherwise normal except for the self-reported excessive use of "sugar-free" cough drops sweetened with sorbitol and Isomalt® (an equimolar mix of glucosyl-mannitol and glucosylsorbitol). This prompted an in vitro investigation to determine whether Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, a cariogenic streptococcus, could grow and produce acid in growth medium containing an aqueous extract of such "sugar-free" cough drops. The results indicate that S. sobrinus 6715 uses Isomalt® and sorbitol extensively, producing terminal culture pH as low as 4.2 when grown on medium with cough drop extract containing these sugars. This pH is sufficient to demineralize dental enamel. Patients should be cautioned against the chronic overuse of "sugar-free" cough drops and other "sugar-free" confections sweetened with a mixture of Isomalt® and sorbitol.

  20. Preservation of Sugar Content in Ensiled Sweet Sorghum Silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z. (Inst. of Grassland Research, Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100094 (China)). e-mail: yuzhu3@sohu.com; Sun, Q.Z. (Grassland Research Inst. of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Hohhot 010010 (China)). E-mail:sunqz@126.com

    2008-10-15

    This experiment chose Sweet sorghum as material, analyzing its sugar and other ingredients by adding different additives (formic acid, formaldehyde, formic acid + formaldehyde, formic acid + propionic acid, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ammonia). The results showed that adding formic acid and formaldehyde individual or together preserved the sugar well. When adding individual, the best leaves were both 0.5%. When adding together, 0.7% formic acid and formaldehyde was better than others. Adding formic acid and propionic acid together also had good effect on the preservation of sugar, and 0.5% leave was better. 0.5% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 0.7% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} can preserve the sugar well, while 0.3% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ammonia had no effect on the preservation of sugar

  1. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  2. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  3. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  4. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  5. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  6. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  7. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  8. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  9. Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; vanderGaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Hoerz, F.; Barnes, G.; Chabin, A.; Brack, A.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most important prebiotic molecules as it is from these precursors that the building blocks of life were formed [1]. Although organic molecules were among the components of the planetesimals making up the terrestrial planets, large amounts of primitive organic precursor molecules are believed to be exogenous in origin and to have been imported to the Earth via micrometeorites, carbonaceous meteorites and comets, especially during the early stages of the formation of the Solar System [1,2]. Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions [3]. We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids [4-6]. Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites [7]. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite, used in our experiments. Two American teams have studied the effects of impact on various amino acids [8,9]. [8] investigated amino acids in saturated solution in water with pressure ranges between 5.1 and 21 GPa and temperature ranges between 412 and 870 K. [9] studied amino acids in solid form associated with and without minerals (Murchison and Allende meteorite extracts) and pressure ranges between 3 and 30 GPa. In these two experiments, the amino acids survived up to 15 GPa. At higher pressure, the quantity of preserved amino acids decreases quickly. Some secondary products such as dipeptides and diketopiperazins were identified in the [8] experiment.

  10. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  11. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-03-15

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  12. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P intake

  13. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  14. SugarCRM亚洲总部落户上海

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    商业开源客户关系管理软件公司SugarCRM近日在上海召开精英联合峰会,宣布在上海设立亚洲总部、并任命资深软件管理专家徐允文为中国区总经理。据了解,徐允平于2005年加入SugarCRM,担任全球工程部副总裁期间带领组建全球研发团队,并设计实现了三代SugarCRM产品。会上。创始人Clint Oram重点介绍了公司的开源策略,并公布了中国市场扩张计划,

  15. Convergent and divergent mechanisms of sugar recognition across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Protein modules that bind specific oligosaccharides are found across all kingdoms of life from single-celled organisms to man. Different, overlapping and evolving designations for sugar-binding domains in proteins can sometimes obscure common features that often reflect convergent solutions to the problem of distinguishing sugars with closely similar structures and binding them with sufficient affinity to achieve biologically meaningful results. Structural and functional analysis has revealed striking parallels between protein domains with widely different structures and evolutionary histories that employ common solutions to the sugar recognition problem. Recent studies also demonstrate that domains descended from common ancestors through divergent evolution appear more widely across the kingdoms of life than had previously been recognized.

  16. A co-fermentation strategy to consume sugar mixtures effectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiteman Mark A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a new approach for the simultaneous conversion of xylose and glucose sugar mixtures into products by fermentation. The process simultaneously uses two substrate-selective strains of Escherichia coli, one which is unable to consume glucose and one which is unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective (glucose deficient strain E. coli ZSC113 has mutations in the glk, ptsG and manZ genes while the glucose-selective (xylose deficient strain E. coli ALS1008 has a mutation in the xylA gene. By combining these two strains in a single process, xylose and glucose are consumed more quickly than by a single-organism approach. Moreover, we demonstrate that the process is able to adapt to changing concentrations of these two sugars, and therefore holds promise for the conversion of variable sugar feed streams, such as lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  17. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  18. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay based on cupric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Akyüz, Esin; Özen, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-15

    As the concentration of reducing sugars (RS) is controlled by European legislation for certain specific food and beverages, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of RS in various food products is proposed. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) with reducing sugars in alkaline medium in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine: Nc), followed by the formation of a colored Cu(I)-Nc charge-transfer complex. All simple sugars tested had the linear regression equations with almost equal slope values. The proposed method was successfully applied to fresh apple juice, commercial fruit juices, milk, honey and onion juice. Interference effect of phenolic compounds in plant samples was eliminated by a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up process. The method was proven to have higher sensitivity and precision than the widely used dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) colorimetric method.

  19. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  20. High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévenier, R; Hall, R D; van der Meer, I M; Hakkert, H J; van Tunen, A J; Koops, A J

    1998-09-01

    We have transformed sugar beet into a crop that produces fructans. The gene encoding 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (1-SST), which was isolated from Helianthus tuberosus, was introduced into sugar beet. In H. tuberosus, 1-SST mediates the first steps in fructan synthesis through the conversion of sucrose (GF) into low molecular weight fructans GF2, GF3, and GF4. In the taproot of sugar beet transformed with the 1-sst gene, the stored sucrose is almost totally converted into low molecular weight fructans. In contrast, 1-sst expression in the leaves resulted in only low levels of fructans. Despite the storage carbohydrate having been altered, the expression of the 1-sst gene did not have any visible effect on phenotype and did not affect the growth rate of the taproot as observed under greenhouse conditions.

  1. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  2. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  3. Potential Role of Sugar Transporters in Cancer and Their Relationship with Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Blanco Calvo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugars, primarily glucose and fructose, are the main energy source of cells. Because of their hydrophilic nature, cells use a number of transporter proteins to introduce sugars through their plasma membrane. Cancer cells are well known to display an enhanced sugar uptake and consumption. In fact, sugar transporters are deregulated in cancer cells so they incorporate higher amounts of sugar than normal cells. In this paper, we compile the most significant data available about biochemical and biological properties of sugar transporters in normal tissues and we review the available information about sugar carrier expression in different types of cancer. Moreover, we describe the possible pharmacological interactions between drugs currently used in anticancer therapy and the expression or function of facilitative sugar transporters. Finally, we also go into the insights about the future design of drugs targeted against sugar utilization in cancer cells.

  4. Sugar Beet Performance Affected by Uniformity of N Fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with the majority of crop species, in sugar beet nutrition nitrogen is an important element due to its role in sucrose utilization and plant growth. Application of precision agriculture, in order to apply the right amount of input at the right time in the right area, is appropriate to decrease chemical use and increase plant growth. Problem statement: More often farmers apply fertilizers with low efficiency, low uniformity and high price such as spinner spreader, boom spreader or application with planting machines simultaneously. Fertigation can reduce labor cost and may improve uniformity, effectiveness and timeliness of application. Approach: The main objective of this study was to determine spatial variability of sugar beet performance affected by urea fertigation as well as established a management strategy based on spatial variability of tubers and soil total N. This study was conducted in Fesaran village, Isfahan Province of Iran and limited to sugar beet (monogerm seed. Urea applied through sprinklers. Soil samples were taken to determine soil total N as well as sugar beet tubers samples to specify yield. Results of soil and crop analysis were used to produce spatial variability maps through GS+ and ArcGIS 9.2 software. Semivariogram results were used to perform an ordinary kriging to obtain interpolated values of selected variables from the sample points through and across the study area. Results: It was found that there was a low spatial variability of soil total N and yield which indicates that the soil has a homogenous total N as well as homogenous yield through and across the field. Yield variability map of sugar beet properties demonstrated that the higher yield was seen in the southern part of the study area where laterals were closer to pump. Conclusion: The results of urea fertigation through sprinklers showed pipeline layout and pump station position impact on variability of sugar beet properties.

  5. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  6. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  7. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2016-10-20

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  8. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  9. An astrophysically-relevant mechanism for amino acid enantiomer enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Fletcher, S.; B. C. Jagt, R.; Feringa, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    The sublimation of low ee amino acids was examined while exploring simple mechanisms by which high ee amino acids can be generated under conditions that exist in space; significant enantioenrichment of a variety of amino acids by sublimation was achieved.

  10. Olive stones as a source of fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia-Moreno, A.; Guillen-Bejarano, R.; Fernandez-Bolanos, J.; Rivas-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of the olive stone and its woody fraction has been investigated for the varieties Gordal, Manzanilla, Hojiblanca and Verdial. The neutral detergent fiber method (NDF) of Van Soest was used to estimate dietary fiber. Cellulose was the main component of the fiber, followed by hemicelluloses and lignin. The NDF was hydrolyzed enzymatically and the sugars identified by gas chromatography. Glucose was the main sugar (46-51% in the stone and 47-63% in the woody fraction), followed by galactose (25%) and xylose (14%). Arabinose and mannose were also detected.

  11. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the...

  12. Sugar-Related Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Kimmich, N.; Belisle, W.; Sarinana, J.; Brabham, K.; Garrel, L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sugars and related polyols are critical components of all organisms and may have been necessary for the origin of life. To date, this class of organic compounds had not been definitively identified in meteorites. This study was undertaken to determine if polyols were present in the early Solar System as constituents of carbonaceous meteorites. Results of analyses of the Murchison and Murray meteorites indicate that formaldehyde and sugar chemistry may be responsible for the presence of a variety of polyols. We conclude that polyols were present on the early Earth through delivery by asteroids and possibly comets.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo. E-mail: lctimm@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Dourado-Neto, Durval [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Producao Vegertal; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biogeoquimica

    2000-09-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a {sup 15}N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The {sup 15}N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  14. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  15. Optical nanoprobes based on gold nanoparticles for sugar sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scampicchio, Matteo; Arecchi, Alessandra; Mannino, Saverio

    2009-04-01

    A novel optical nanoprobe for sugar sensing is reported. The assay used an electrospun polyamide mesh containing Au salts. The reaction of carbohydrates with these Au salts in alkaline media generates gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature without the need for Au seeds. The optical properties of the resulting AuNPs relate to the total reducing sugar content of the samples analysed. The development of such inexpensive disposable optical nanoprobes could find applications in a host of industrial, biomedical and clinical fields.

  16. Raman spectroscopic determination of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Ute; Strelau, Katharina K; Weber, Karina; Da Costa Filho, Paulo Augusto; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a method for the detection of norbixin and tartrazine in sugar by means of resonance Raman spectroscopy is presented. The extraction was done in four steps using methanol and the measurements were performed in aqueous solution. The excitation wavelength was 514 nm for norbixin and 488 nm for tartrazine samples. The characteristic resonance Raman signals of the dyes were fitted by different functions. Depending on the R² values of the different fits, each spectrum was classified as positive or negative response. A detection limit of 250 ng g⁻¹ for norbixin and 989 ng g⁻¹ for tartrazine in solid sugar samples could be reached by logistic regression.

  17. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  18. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  19. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  20. Bacillus methanolicus: a candidate for industrial production of amino acids from methanol at 50 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Trygve; Jakobsen, Øyvind M; Josefsen, Kjell D; Flickinger, Michael C; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2007-02-01

    Amino acids are among the major products in biotechnology in both volume and value, and the global market is growing. Microbial fermentation is the dominant method used for industrial production, and today the most important microorganisms used are Corynebacteria utilizing sugars. For low-prize bulk amino acids, the possibility of using alternative substrates such as methanol has gained considerable interest. In this mini review, we highlight the unique genetics and favorable physiological traits of thermotolerant methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus, which makes it an interesting candidate for overproduction of amino acids from methanol. B. methanolicus genes involved in methanol consumption are plasmid-encoded and this bacterium has a high methanol conversion rate. Wild-type strains can secrete 58 g/l of L: -glutamate in fed-batch cultures at 50 degrees C and classical mutants secreting 37 g/l of L: -lysine have been selected. The relative high growth temperature is an advantage with respect to both reactor cooling requirements and low contamination risks. Key genes in L: -lysine and L: -glutamate production have been cloned, high-cell density methanol fermentation technology established, and recently a gene delivery method was developed for this organism. We discuss how this new knowledge and technology may lead to the construction of improved L: -lysine and L: -glutamate producing strains by metabolic engineering.