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Sample records for amino acid profile

  1. Amino Acid Profile of Some New Vartieties of Oil Seeds

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    Satish Ingale and S.K. Shrivastava

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are large varieties of oil seeds and legumes in India, which are part of traditional food system but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determine and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-11, Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-8, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-12, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-40, and Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea JL-24 seeds with the aim of qualifying and quantifying chemical information that might serve as a guide to exploit its potentials and benefits for human and animal nutrition. The amino acid profile of these oil seed were carried out using standard methods. Amino acid analysis using technical sequential multisampling amino acid analyzer detected all essential and non essential amino acids. The seeds are rich in four amino acids (EAA and NEAA (g/16g N Glutamic acid (5.083, Aspartic acid (3.459, Proline (6.412 and Methionine (3.001%, respectively. The other amino acids compared well with the FAO reference protein, Serine appeared to be the most limiting amino acid percent. Based on results of this study, the lesser known and under-utilized oil seeds, they can be a potential source and energy supplements in livestock feed.

  2. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

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    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations.

  3. Serum amino acid profiles and their alterations in colorectal cancer.

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    Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Ceglarek, Uta; Kase, Julia; Conrad, Tim; Witzigmann, Helmut; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2012-08-01

    Mass spectrometry-based serum metabolic profiling is a promising tool to analyse complex cancer associated metabolic alterations, which may broaden our pathophysiological understanding of the disease and may function as a source of new cancer-associated biomarkers. Highly standardized serum samples of patients suffering from colon cancer (n = 59) and controls (n = 58) were collected at the University Hospital Leipzig. We based our investigations on amino acid screening profiles using electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiles were evaluated using the Analyst 1.4.2 software. General, comparative and equivalence statistics were performed by R 2.12.2. 11 out of 26 serum amino acid concentrations were significantly different between colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls. We found a model including CEA, glycine, and tyrosine as best discriminating and superior to CEA alone with an AUROC of 0.878 (95% CI 0.815-0.941). Our serum metabolic profiling in colon cancer revealed multiple significant disease-associated alterations in the amino acid profile with promising diagnostic power. Further large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the potential of our model also to discriminate between cancer and potential differential diagnoses. In conclusion, serum glycine and tyrosine in combination with CEA are superior to CEA for the discrimination between colorectal cancer patients and controls.

  4. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

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    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  5. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

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    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

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    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  7. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.

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    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.

  8. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

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    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Amino acids

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  10. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

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    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  11. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

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    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  12. PROFIL ASAM LEMAK DAN ASAM AMINO SUSU KAMBING SEGAR DAN TERFERMENTASI [Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fresh and Fermented Goat Milk

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    Maria Erna Kustyawati*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in fresh and fermented goa-milk. The milk was in oculated with 4% (v/v of L. casei and fermented at 37°C for 48 h. Analysis of fatty acids of fresh and fermented goat and cow’s milk was done by HPLC method, where as amino acid composition was analyzed by GC method. Twenty five semi-trained panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of fermented milk. Results showed that the fermentation process changed fatty acid profile in goat milk. The saturated fatty acids found in fermented goat-milk were lauric, misristic, and palmitic acid while the unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The total amount of saturated fatty acid of fermented goat-milk was higher while unsaturated fatty acid was lower than those in fresh goat milk. The aroma of goaty flavor, strong and musky or “prengus”, was slightly detected in fermented goat milk. Linoleic acid was not detected in fermented goat milk and therefore it was less susceptible from oxidativedeterioration. On the other hand, the fermentation process did not change the profile of amino acids in goat milk. Fermented dairy product made from whole goat milkand cow’s milk was accepted by the panelist as it hadslightly sour taste, yellowish color, and slightly goaty flavor, yet it had high amount of saturated fatty acids.

  13. LCMS analysis of fingerprints, the amino acid profile of 20 donors.

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    de Puit, Marcel; Ismail, Mahado; Xu, Xiaoma

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of amino acids present in fingerprints has been studied several times. In this paper, we report a method for the analysis of amino acids using an fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride-derivatization for LC separation and MS detection. We have obtained good results with regard to the calibration curves and the limit of detection and LOQ for the target compounds. The extraction of the amino acids from the substrates used proved to be very efficient. Analysis of the derivatized amino acids enabled us to obtain full amino acid profiles for 20 donors. The intervariability is as expected rather large, with serine as the most abundant constituent, and when examining the total profile of the amino acids per donor, a characteristic pattern can be observed. Some amino acids were not detected in some donors, or fell out of the range of the calibration curve, where others showed a surprisingly high amount of material in the deposition analyses. Further investigations will have to address the intravariability of the amino acid profiles of the fingerprints from donors. By the development of the analytical method and the application to the analysis of fingerprints, we were able to gain insight in the variability of the constituents of fingerprints between the donors.

  14. Predicting disordered regions in proteins using the profiles of amino acid indices

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    Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Feng, Zhi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrinsically unstructured or disordered proteins are common and functionally important. Prediction of disordered regions in proteins can provide useful information for understanding protein function and for high-throughput determination of protein structures. Results In this paper, algorithms are presented to predict long and short disordered regions in proteins, namely the long disordered region prediction algorithm DRaai-L and the short disordered region prediction algorithm DRaai-S. These algorithms are developed based on the Random Forest machine learning model and the profiles of amino acid indices representing various physiochemical and biochemical properties of the 20 amino acids. Conclusion Experiments on DisProt3.6 and CASP7 demonstrate that some sets of the amino acid indices have strong association with the ordered and disordered status of residues. Our algorithms based on the profiles of these amino acid indices as input features to predict disordered regions in proteins outperform that based on amino acid composition and reduced amino acid composition, and also outperform many existing algorithms. Our studies suggest that the profiles of amino acid indices combined with the Random Forest learning model is an important complementary method for pinpointing disordered regions in proteins. PMID:19208144

  15. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

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    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  16. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

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    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  17. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

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    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

  18. Profiles of amino acids and biogenic amines in the plasma of Cri-du-Chat patients.

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    Furtado, Danielle Zildeana Sousa; de Moura Leite, Fernando Brunale Vilela; Barreto, Cleber Nunes; Faria, Bernadete; Jedlicka, Leticia Dias Lima; de Jesus Silva, Elisângela; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Assunção, Nilson Antonio

    2017-03-21

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines. Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) was of particular concern with respect to CDCS redox balance. Increased serotonin (3-fold), methionine sulfoxide (2-fold), and Asp levels, and a little lower Orn, citrulline, Leu, Val, Ile, Asn, Gln, Trp, Thr, His, Phe, Met, and creatinine levels were found in the plasma of CDCS patients. Nitrotyrosine and Trp did not differ in normal and CDCS individuals.The accumulated metabolites may reflect, respectively, disturbances in the redox balance, deficient purine biosynthesis, and altered behavior, whereas the amino acid abatement in the latter group may affect the homeostasis of the urea cycle, citric acid cycle, branched chain amino acid synthesis, Tyr and Trp metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. The identification of enzymatic deficiencies leading to the amino acid burden in CDCS is further required for elucidating its molecular bases and eventually propose specific or mixed amino acid supplementation to newborn patients aiming to balance their metabolism.

  19. Seasonal variations in the amino acid profile and protein nutritional value of Saccharina latissima cultivated in a commercial IMTA system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds have potential for the provision of biomass for food and feed supplements. The demand is increasing especially for proteins as ingredients; however, the amino acid profile is essential for evaluation of the nutritional value of proteins. The year-round protein concentration and amino acid....... Aspartic and glutamic acids dominated the amino acid profile, accounting for up to 49 % of the total. Greatest seasonal differences in amino acid composition occurred in July, with leucine contributing most (22.7–26.7 %) of the observed differences. A maximal essential amino acid (EAA) score of 68...

  20. Quantitative amino acid profiling and stable isotopically labeled amino acid tracer enrichment used for in vivo human systemic and tissue kinetics measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    /ion exchange, derivatized using a phenylisothiocyanate reagent and each amino acid was quantitated with its own stable isotopically labeled internal standard (uniformly labeled-(13)C/(15)N). The method was validated according to general recommendations for chromatographic analytical methods. The calibration...... and plasma were 4.4 and 0.8%, and the interday variability was 3.4% and the recovery was 90.5%, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a method for quantitative amino acid profiling that meets the requirements for systemic and tissue human in vivo amino acid and protein turnover...

  1. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0...... to be caused by an unbalanced dietary AA profile and CAA supplementation, rather than inclusion of plant protein concentrate....

  2. Amino Acid Profiles in Term and Preterm Human Milk through Lactation: A Systematic Review

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    Zhiying Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA and free amino acid (FAA profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes.

  3. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

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    Jan Matysiak

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln, L-glutamic acid (Glu, L-methionine (Met and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  4. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

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    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets.

  5. Profiles of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Related with Insecticide Exposure in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

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    Martin-Park, Abdiel; Gomez-Govea, Mayra A.; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor Manuel; Torres-Sepúlveda, María del Rosario; López-Uriarte, Graciela Arelí; Villanueva-Segura, Olga Karina; Ruiz-Herrera, María del Consuelo; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita de la Luz; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Flores-Suárez, Adriana E.; White, Gregory S.; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura E.; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Black, William C.; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Irám Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a vector of many pathogens of humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Personal protection, reduction of larval habitats, and chemical control are the best ways to reduce mosquito bites and, therefore, the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Currently, to reduce the risk of transmission, the pyrethroids, and other insecticide groups have been extensively used to control both larvae and adult mosquitoes. In this context, amino acids and acylcarnitines have never been associated with insecticide exposure and or insecticide resistance. It has been suggested that changes in acylcarnitines and amino acids profiles could be a powerful diagnostic tool for metabolic alterations. Monitoring these changes could help to better understand the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance, complementing the strategies for managing this phenomenon in the integrated resistance management. The purpose of the study was to determine the amino acids and acylcarnitines profiles in larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus after the exposure to different insecticides. Bioassays were performed on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to the diagnostic doses (DD) of the insecticides chlorpyrifos (0.001 μg/mL), temephos (0.002 μg/mL) and permethrin (0.01 μg/mL). In each sample, we analyzed the profile of 12 amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines by LC-MS/MS. A t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences between groups and corrections of q-values. Results indicates three changes, the amino acids arginine (ARG), free carnitine (C0) and acetyl-carnitine (C2) that could be involved in energy production and insecticide detoxification. We confirmed that concentrations of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Cx. quinquefasciatus vary with respect to different insecticides. The information generated contributes to understand the possible mechanisms and metabolic changes occurring during insecticide exposure. PMID:28085898

  6. Quantitative amino acid profiling and stable isotopically labeled amino acid tracer enrichment used for in vivo human systemic and tissue kinetics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornø, Andreas; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-03-01

    An important area within clinical functional metabolomics is in vivo amino acid metabolism and protein turnover measurements for which accurate amino acid concentrations and stable isotopically labeled amino acid enrichments are mandatory not the least when tissue metabolomics is determined. The present study describes a new sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method quantifying 20 amino acids and their tracer(s) ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) in human plasma and skeletal muscle specimens. Before analysis amino acids were extracted and purified via deprotonization/ion exchange, derivatized using a phenylisothiocyanate reagent and each amino acid was quantitated with its own stable isotopically labeled internal standard (uniformly labeled-(13)C/(15)N). The method was validated according to general recommendations for chromatographic analytical methods. The calibration curve correlations for amino acids were on average; r(2)=0.998. Interday accuracy for amino acids determined in spiked plasma was on average 97.3% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 2.6%. The ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) enrichment CV's for machine reproducibility in muscle tissue fluid and plasma were 4.4 and 0.8%, and the interday variability was 3.4% and the recovery was 90.5%, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a method for quantitative amino acid profiling that meets the requirements for systemic and tissue human in vivo amino acid and protein turnover kinetics measurements. Moreover, citrulline, ornithine, π-methyl-histidine, τ-methyl-l-histidine, hydroxy-proline and carnitine were analysed but when similar precision and accuray are required an additional stable istopically labeled internal standard for these meatablites should be be added.

  7. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

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    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  8. Exploring the Lean Phenotype of Glutathione-Depleted Mice: Thiol, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K.; Jernerén, Fredrik; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; McMurray, Fiona; Cater, Heather; Hough, Tertius; Cox, Roger; Refsum, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Background Although reduced glutathione (rGSH) is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity and adiposity in humans and animal models. Objective To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice. Design Male C3H/HeH mice aged 11 weeks were fed a high-fat diet with or without BSO in drinking water (30 mmol/L) for 8 weeks. Amino acid and fatty acid changes were assessed, as well as food consumption, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body composition and liver vacuolation (steatosis). Results Despite higher food intake, BSO decreased particularly fat mass but also lean mass (both P<0.001), and prevented fatty liver vacuolation. Physical activity increased during the dark phase. BSO decreased plasma free fatty acids and enhanced insulin sensitivity. BSO did not alter liver rGSH, but decreased plasma total GSH (tGSH) and rGSH (by ~70%), and liver tGSH (by 82%). Glutamate accumulated in plasma and liver. Urine excretion of cysteine and its precursors was increased by BSO. tCys, rCys and cystine decreased in plasma (by 23–45%, P<0.001 for all), but were maintained in liver, at the expense of decreased taurine. Free and total plasma concentrations of the SCD products, oleic and palmitoleic acids were decreased (by 27–38%, P <0.001 for all). Conclusion Counterintuitively, block of GSH synthesis decreases circulating tCys, raising the question of whether the BSO-induced obesity-resistance is linked to cysteine depletion. Cysteine-supplementation of BSO-treated mice is warranted to dissect the effects of cysteine and GSH depletion on energy metabolism. PMID:27788147

  9. Amino acids profile of sugar cane spirit (cachaça), rum, and whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Francisco W B; Boso, Lisangela M; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

    2008-05-15

    An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of 20 amino acids in cachaças has been developed involving C18 solid phase cleanup, derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol, and reverse phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection limit was between 0.0050 (Cys) and 0.25 (Ser)mgL(-1), whereas the recovery index varies from 69.5 (Lys) to 100 (Tyr)%. Relative standard deviations vary from 1.39 (Trp) to 13.4 (Glu)% and from 3.08 (Glu) to 13.5 (His) for the repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. From the quantitative profile of amino acids in 41 cachaças, 5 rums, and 12 whisky samples, the following order of amino acids in significant quantities is observed: Gly=Serwhisky samples.

  10. Albumin dialysis has a favorable effect on amino acid profile in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Teikari, Taru; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2008-12-01

    According to one popular theory, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is partly caused by an imbalance in plasma amino acid levels. The Fischer's ratio between branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) correlates with the degree of HE; the lower Fischer's ratio, the higher the grade of HE. Extra-corporeal liver support systems, like MARS(R)-albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System), can improve HE. The MARS(R) system uses a hyperosmolar albumin circuit to remove both water-soluble and albumin-bound substances. Plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids were analyzed in 82 consecutive patients with life-threatening liver failure admitted to our ICU. All patients fulfilled our indications for MARS treatment and most also fulfilled the criteria for liver transplantation (LTx). In patients with acute liver failure (ALF), as compared to those with acute decompensation of chronic liver failure (AcOChr), levels of leucine and isoleucine were significantly higher before MARS(R) treatment. In all patients, before MARS(R) treatment the higher the grade of HE grade the lower was the Fischer's ratio and higher were the levels of inhibitory neuroactive amino acids. During MARS(R) treatments the Fischer's ratio increased, and the grade of HE decreased. The increase in Fischer's ratio was mainly due to the decrease in AAAs. The plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids, methionine, glutamine, glutamate, histidine and taurine decreased during MARS(R)-treatment. In this study MARS(R)-albumin dialysis had a favorable effect on the plasma amino acid profile of patients with HE.

  11. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  12. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

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    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  13. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

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    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  14. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

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    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.

  15. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  16. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

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    Karen L Lindsay

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as

  17. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

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    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  18. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

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    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  19. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles in Japanese adult men.

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    Manabu Nishioka

    Full Text Available The plasma free amino acid (PFAA profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N or high protein meal (meal H at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  20. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

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    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  1. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  2. The profile of free amino acids in latent fingerprint of healthy and beta-thalassemic volunteers.

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    Khedr, Alaa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to apply a non-invasive test, using thumb fingerprint residue analysis, for detection of beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal). The relative percentages of free amino acids (AA) in the latent fingerprint of beta-Thal patients and healthy subjects were compared. The sample included 24 beta-Thal patient and 24 healthy subjects, aged 5-10 years old. Twenty-three AA plus ammonia were analyzed by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection. The profile of AA was calculated based on the percentage of relative amount of each AA to serine (Ser) as it found to be the predominant peak. The statistical and chromatographic profiles of beta-Thal patients were characterized by significant decrease of ornithine, lysine, and zero tyrosine, with significant increase of ammonia, and proline. Other amino acids that exist in low ratios were estimated statistically for significance changes. The relative percentages of each AA of healthy subjects were approximately constant. For this reason, these mentioned AA were assigned as major fingerprint markers of beta-Thal.

  3. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  4. Total amino acid profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines.

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    Ibegbulem, C O; Igwe, C U; Okwu, G N; Ujowundu, C O; Onyeike, E N; Ayalogu, E O

    2013-06-01

    Total amino acid (AA) profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines were studied. Heating their fresh wines to 85°C, cooling and diluting to original volumes distilled off ethanol, but did not change their moisture and nitrogen contents. R. hookeri wine contained more (pguineensis wine which contained more (p0.05). Glycine and Pro contents were low suggesting high globular protein concentrations. ∑basic AA/∑acidic AA ratios were >1 suggesting high basic protein contents. The E. guineensis and R. hookeri wines contained 58.25 ± 0.56% and 56.79 ± 0.4% essential AAs, respectively. Essential AA scores suggested Leu as their limiting AA. In conclusion, the wines can adequately meet daily nitrogen and essential AA needs when a 70 kg adult drinks 1425.45 ml.

  5. Metabolite Profiling for Leaf Senescence in Barley Reveals Decreases in Amino Acids and Glycolysis Intermediates

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    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a long developmental phase important for plant performance and nutrient management. Cell constituents are recycled in old leaves to provide nutrients that are redistributed to the sink organs. Up to now, metabolomic changes during leaf senescence have been mainly studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.. The metabolite profiling conducted in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during primary leaf senescence under two nitrate regimes and in flag leaf shows that amino acids, hexose, sucrose and glycolysis intermediates decrease during senescence, while minor carbohydrates accumulate. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA compounds changed with senescence only in primary leaves. The senescence-related metabolite changes in the flag leaf were globally similar to those observed in primary leaves. The effect of senescence on the metabolite changes of barley leaves was similar to that previously described in Arabidopsis except for sugars and glycolysis compounds. This suggests a different role of sugars in the control of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis and in barley.

  6. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

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    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  7. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

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    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  8. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  9. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency diagnosed by clinical metabolomic profiling of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Cardon, Aaron L; Bacino, C A; Sun, Qin; Emrick, L; Reid Sutton, V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting the biosynthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and catecholamines. We report a case of AADC deficiency that was detected using the Global MAPS platform. This is a novel platform that allows for parallel clinical testing of hundreds of metabolites in a single plasma specimen. It uses a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platform, and the resulting spectra are compared against a library of ~2500 metabolites. Our patient is now a 4 year old boy initially seen at 11 months of age for developmental delay and hypotonia. Multiple tests had not yielded a diagnosis until exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants of uncertain significance (VUS), c.286G>A (p.G96R) and c.260C>T (p.P87L) in the DDC gene, causal for AADC deficiency. CSF neurotransmitter analysis confirmed the diagnosis with elevated 3-methoxytyrosine (3-O-methyldopa). Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma and revealed marked elevation in 3-methoxytyrosine (Z-score +6.1) consistent with the diagnosis of AADC deficiency. These results demonstrate that the Global MAPS platform is able to diagnose AADC deficiency from plasma. In summary, we report a novel and less invasive approach to diagnose AADC deficiency using plasma metabolomic profiling.

  10. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  11. Pyruvate: immunonutritional effects on neutrophil intracellular amino or alpha-keto acid profiles and reactive oxygen species production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathioudakis, D.; Engel, J.; Welters, I.D.; Dehne, M.G.; Matejec, R.; Harbach, H.; Henrich, M.; Schwandner, T.; Fuchs, M.; Weismuller, K.; Scheffer, G.J.; Muhling, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the immunonutritional role of pyruvate on neutrophils (PMN), free alpha-keto and amino acid profiles, important reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced [superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))] as well as released myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity has been investiga

  12. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  13. iDNA-Prot|dis: identifying DNA-binding proteins by incorporating amino acid distance-pairs and reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Playing crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide sequences, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression, DNA-binding proteins are essential ingredients for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteomes. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is a critical challenge to develop automated methods for accurate and rapidly identifying DNA-binding proteins based on their sequence information alone. Here, a novel predictor, called "iDNA-Prot|dis", was established by incorporating the amino acid distance-pair coupling information and the amino acid reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC vector. The former can capture the characteristics of DNA-binding proteins so as to enhance its prediction quality, while the latter can reduce the dimension of PseAAC vector so as to speed up its prediction process. It was observed by the rigorous jackknife and independent dataset tests that the new predictor outperformed the existing predictors for the same purpose. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot|dis is accessible to the public at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNA-Prot_dis/. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step protocol guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get their desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematic equations that are presented in this paper just for the integrity of its developing process. It is anticipated that the iDNA-Prot|dis predictor may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins, or at the very least, play a complementary role to the existing predictors in this regard.

  14. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  15. Ammonia and amino acid profiles in liver cirrhosis: effects of variables leading to hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperammonemia and severe amino acid imbalances play central role in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the article is demonstrated that the main source of ammonia in cirrhotic subjects is activated breakdown of glutamine (GLN) in enterocytes and the kidneys and the main source of GLN is ammonia detoxification to GLN in the brain and skeletal muscle. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) decrease due to activated GLN synthesis in muscle. Aromatic amino acids (AAA; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and methionine increase due to portosystemic shunts and reduced ability of diseased liver. The effects on aminoacidemia of the following variables that may affect the course of liver disease are discussed: nutritional status, starvation, protein intake, inflammation, acute hepatocellular damage, bleeding from varices, portosystemic shunts, hepatic cancer, and renal failure. It is concluded that (1) neither ammonia nor amino acid concentrations correlate closely with the severity of liver disease; (2) BCAA/AAA ratio could be used as a good index of liver impairment and for early detection of derangements in amino acid metabolism; (3) variables potentially leading to overt encephalopathy exert substantial but uneven effects; and (4) careful monitoring of ammonia and aminoacidemia may discover important break points in the course of liver disease and indicate appropriate therapeutic approach. Of special importance might be isoleucine deficiency in bleeding from varices, arginine deficiency in sepsis, and a marked rise of GLN and ammonia levels that may appear in all events leading to HE.

  16. [Classification of anticancer drugs with different mechanisms based on amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaofei; Wang, Longxing; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin

    2011-04-01

    An approach for quantitative determination of amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed and validated, using o-phthalic dicarboxaldehyde (OPA) as the derivatizing reagent and norvaline as the internal standard. Mobile phase A was 10 mmol/L Na2HPO4Na2B4O7 buffer (pH 7.95), and mobile phase B was acetonitrile-methanol-water (45:45:10, v/v/v). The linear elution program was 5% B at the start and 52% B at the end in 35 min. The 17 free amino-acids (FAAs) were separated satisfactorily in 33 min. Following HeLa cells incubation in conditioned medias of taxol (4 micromol/L) and mitomycin (75 micromol/L), respectively, with control for 24 h, the media 17 amino-acid consumption profilings were determined, and then analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis based on Matlab7.1 software platform. Relation analysis performed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that in comparison with the control group, the media amino-acid consumption profiling can distinguish the two anticancer drugs with different mechanisms, which provides a new perspective for the pre-classification of drug action mechanisms during the screening of new anticancer drugs. Meanwhile, the idea from the outer into the inner has convenient and economic characteristics.

  17. Chemical composition and amino acid profile of differently processed feather meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adejumo Oluseun Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feather wastes represent potential alternative ingredients for animal feedstuffs which can ameliorate the protein shortage for food and feed. Previous attempts to provide information about the nutrient composition of feather meal are either too complicated for rural livestock farmers in developing countries or they provided incomplete information on chemical composition. Washed feathers were subjected to different processing techniques such as pre-soaking in distilled water, wood ash, 0.3M NaOH, a mixture of wood ash and 0.3M NaOH, incubated at 37°C and boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes. Treated feather meals were analysed for chemical composition and amino acid profile. The overall result showed that feather meal pre-soaked with wood ash for 24 hr boiled at 150oC for 60 minutes, those pre-soaked with 0.3M NaOH and wood ash incubated at 37°C for 24 hr boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes and raw feather meal pre-soaked in distilled water for 24 hr boiled at 150°C for 60 minutes gave better results. Wood ash and 0.3M NaOH and their mixture could enhance the nutritional value of feather meal.

  18. [Profiles of the utilization of 20 amino acids as the only source of nitrogen and carbon in bacteria of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolodskiĭ, E P

    2005-01-01

    The profiles of the utilization of 20 protein amino acids in 118 Klebsiella pneumoniae sub- sp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. mobilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marscescens, S. liquefaciens, Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical material were studied. The utilization of amino acids was determined on minimal saline agar containing amino acid as the only source of nitrogen and carbon; the results were evaluated after 72-hour incubation at 37 degrees C. 17 profiles of amino-acid utilization were thus determined, most of them genus-specific in enterobacteria: Klebsiella (profiles No. 1--6, 9, 10), Enterobacter (No. 11--13), Serratia (No. 14--16), Escherichia (No. 17). The full coincidence of amino-acid utilization profiles in bacteria of K. mobilis (No. 1, 6) and K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae with out of such profiles in bacteria of the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia was established, which confirmed that K. mobilis (formerly Enterobacter aerogenes) belonged to the genus Klebsiella.

  19. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  20. Amino Acid and Peptide Utilization Profiles of the Fluoroacetate-Degrading Bacterium Synergistetes Strain MFA1 Under Varying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lex E X; Denman, Stuart E; Hugenholtz, Philip; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Synergistetes strain MFA1 is an asaccharolytic ruminal bacterium isolated based on its ability to degrade fluoroacetate, a plant toxin. The amino acid and peptide requirements of the bacterium were investigated under different culturing conditions. The growth of strain MFA1 and its fluoroacetate degradation rate were enhanced by peptide-rich protein hydrolysates (tryptone and yeast extract) compared to casamino acid, an amino acid-rich protein hydrolysate. Complete utilization and preference for arginine, asparagine, glutamate, glycine, and histidine as free amino acids from yeast extract were observed, while the utilization of serine, threonine, and lysine in free form and peptide-bound glutamate was stimulated during growth on fluoroacetate. A predominant peptide in yeast extract preferentially utilized by strain MFA1 was partially characterized by high-liquid performance chromatography-mass spectrometry as a hepta-glutamate oligopeptide. Similar utilization profiles of amino acids were observed between the co-culture of strain MFA1 with Methanobrevibacter smithii without fluoroacetate and pure strain MFA1 culture with fluoroacetate. This suggests that growth of strain MFA1 could be enhanced by a reduction of hydrogen partial pressure as a result of hydrogen removal by a methanogen or reduction of fluoroacetate.

  1. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  2. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  3. Amino acid profile of saliva from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Indira; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2012-09-01

    Oral cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and it is the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Cancer cells utilize more glucose and amino acids than their benign counterparts. Diagnosis of disease via the analysis of saliva is potentially valuable, as the collection of fluid is associated with fewer compliance problems than the collection of blood. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the comprehensive amino acid profiling of saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study group comprised 16 subjects, of whom eight were classified as having well-differentiated oral squamous (OSCC) cell carcinoma (Group I) and eight were classified as having moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (Group II). Eight healthy individuals comprised the control group (Group III). The results showed increased salivary levels of all the amino acids in both groups of OSCC patients (Groups I and II) when compared with healthy controls (Group III). Hence, our study showed higher levels of all amino acids in the saliva of OSCC patients than in the saliva of healthy controls. The increased levels may serve as a "diagnostic and prognostic marker" for oral squamous cell carcinoma and for further detection of metastatic spread.

  4. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  5. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Harriet; Imianovsky, Ulisses; Oliveira, Jorge L B; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2008-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30°C, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 μmol photons.m(-2).s(-1) and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L(-1) NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L(-1), respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%), while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.

  6. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  7. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  8. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  9. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Nitrayová; Matej Brestenský; Jaroslav Heger; Peter Patráš; Ján Rafay; Alexander Sirotkin

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% h...

  10. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roze Ludmila V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine; we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1 Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2 VeA coordinates the

  11. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine); we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1) Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2) VeA coordinates the biosynthesis of secondary

  12. EFFECT OF DECREASING DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH OPTIMAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kamran, M. Aslam Mirza, Ahsan-ul-Haq1 and S. Mahmood1

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A six-week trial was conducted to study the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP level on the performance of broilers in hot climatic conditions. Four experimental rations having CP 23 (control group, 22, 21 and 20%, with optimal amino acid balance were prepared. All the four rations were isocaloric having ME 3200 kcal/kg with Energy: Protein (E:P 139.0, 146.5, 152.4 and 160 in diets A, B, C and D respectively. One hundred and twenty day-old chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units, each having 10 chicks. Rations were randomly allotted to experimental units such that each unit received three replicates. The experimental diets were fed to birds from day 1st to 42nd. Performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR. At the end of experiment, two birds per each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to record the data on carcass yield, breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat. Results of the trial suggested that weight gain was significantly (P<0.01 increased in birds on diets with CP 20 and 21%. Feed consumption and FCR remained un-changed for all the treatment groups. Eviscerated carcass yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher for the group fed on diet with 20% CP. Breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat also remained un-changed. Economic evaluation of the trial revealed that decreasing CP levels from 23 to 20% resulted in reduced feed cost per kg of live weight gain, which clearly indicated that this approach was useful especially in severe summer conditions. The overall picture of the study suggests that dietary protein level of broilers could be reduced from 23 to 20%, with beneficial effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics and increased economic returns in hot environmental conditions, provided that levels of essential amino acids are closely looked after.

  13. Amino acid profile of raw and locally processed seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis: potential antidotes to protein malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi U. Igwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing incidence of malnutrition occasioned by high incidence of hunger,worsening food situation in the world, insufficient availability and high cost of animal protein sources, has necessitated extensive research into and use of alternative plant protein sources especially underexploited leguminous seeds.Methods: Flours from raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis were evaluated for crude protein and amino acid (AA profiles, and their protein qualities determined. Results: Fermentation improved the protein contents of raw seeds of P. africana and R. communis by 18.70% and 3.95% respectively. In the raw and fermented P. africana seeds, glutamate at 132.60 ± 1.30 and 182.70 ± 3.02 mg/g crude protein (mg/gcp was the most abundant amino acid (AA, while leucine (62.80 ± 0.60 and 79.50 ± 2.01 mg/gcp was the most concentrated essential amino acid (EAA. Aspartate (151.90 ± 2.01 and 170.10 ± 2.00 mg/gcp and arginine (72.80 ± 2.01 and 78.60 ± 2.00 mg/gcp were the most concentrated and abundant non-essential amino acid (NEAA and EAA in the raw and fermented samples of R. communisrespectively. The total AA concentrations (mg/gcp of raw and fermented P. africana were 733.00 and 962.60 respectively, while those of R. communis were 823.50 and 894.10 respectively. The total EAA contents (mg/gcp for P. africana were 311.00 (raw and 404.50 (fermented, and for R. communis; 401.10 (raw and 430.30 (fermented. Threonine was the limiting EAA in raw and fermented P. africana, whereas lysine was the limiting EAA in R. communis raw sample. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05 increased the individual AA compositions of P. africana and R. communis by 94% and 53% respectively, while boiling reduced these parameters significantly (p<0.05 by 47% and 82% respectively. Conclusion: P. africana and R. communis seeds are potentially important plant sources of protein and essential amino acids, and so could be of great

  14. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  15. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.

  16. Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dicty_cDB Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expre...s of homology search), and expression profile Description of data contents Contig...TogoDB edition only. Annotation Translated Amino Acid sequence Representative ami....u-tokyo.ac.jp/ ), which is the program to predict the localization of proteins in the cell. Expression prof...o acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Expression profiles of the genes associated with metabolism and transport of amino acids and their derivatives in rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C S; Chang, C F

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids (AA) are components of protein and precursors of many important biological molecules. To address effects of the genes associated with metabolism and transport of AA and their derivatives during rat liver regeneration (LR), we firstly obtained the above genes by collecting databases data and retrieving related thesis, and then analyzed their expression profiles during LR using Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. The LR-associated genes were identified by comparing the gene expression difference between partial hepatectomy (PH) and sham-operation (SO) rat livers. It was approved that 134 genes associated with metabolism of AA and their derivatives and 26 genes involved in transport of them were LR-associated. The initially and totally expressing number of these genes occurring in initial phase of LR (0.5-4 h after PH), G0/G1 (4-6 h after PH), cell proliferation (6-66 h after PH), cell differentiation and structure-function reconstruction of liver tissue (72-168 h after PH) were respectively 76, 17, 79, 5 and 162, 89, 564, 195, illustrating that these LR-associated genes were initially expressed mainly in initial stage, and functioned in different phases. Frequencies of up-regulation and down-regulation of them being separately 564 and 357 demonstrated that genes up-regulated outnumbered those down-regulated. Categorization of their expression patterns into 22 types implied the diversity of cell physiological and biochemical activities. According to expression changes and patterns of the above-mentioned genes in LR, it was presumed that histidine biosynthesis in the metaphase and anaphase, valine metabolism in the anaphase, and metabolism of glutamate, glutamine, asparate, asparagine, methionine, alanine, leucine and aromatic amino acid almost were enhanced in the whole LR; as for amino acid derivatives, transport of neutral amino acids, urea, gamma-aminobutyric acid, betaine and taurine, metabolism of dopamine, heme, S-adenosylmethionine, thyroxine, and

  18. Effect of starter cultures and packaging methods on amino acid profile and eating quality characteristics of pork ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Protiva; Borpuzari, R N; Borpuzari, T; Hazarika, R A; Bora, J R

    2015-08-01

    Wet cured pork hams were inoculated with a mixed starter cultures comprising of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Micrococcus varians M483 at the dose level of 106 cfu/g and the un inoculated hams served as controls. The amino acid profile of hams of the treated and the control groups stored at 4oC under MAP and VP and evaluated on 60th day of storage revealed that treated hams liberated higher concentration of free amino acids except for proline and methionine which were found in higher concentration (P < 0.01) in the MAP control samples. The MAP control samples liberated glutamic acid (85.65 ± 1.40 ppm), cystine (21.56 ± 1.14 ppm) and tyrosine (16.63 ± 1.94 ppm) whereas, the treated samples did not release these amino acids. The VP control samples too liberated cystine (6.98 ± 1.36 ppm) and arginine (42.70 ± 2.78 ppm) but the treated ham of the VP did not liberate these amino acids. The VP hams had higher concentration (P < 0.01) of free proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine than the MAP samples. Colour analysis of ham using CIE Lab colour system revealed that the treated samples had significantly higher concentrations of L*, a* and b* components. The L* and a* values were higher in the MAP than under VP systems while the b* values were higher in the VP samples than the MAP samples. Neither the bacterial cultures nor the packaging system influenced the textural property of ham. Starter cultures inoculated hams were rated superior (P < 0.05) in terms of their sensory properties. Hams packaged under MAP were rated superior (P < 0.05) than those packaged under VP in terms of appearance, colour, taste, tenderness, flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability.

  19. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  20. Molecular features of the L-type amino acid transporter 2 determine different import and export profiles for thyroid hormones and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Katrin M; Neef, Dominik; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Köhrle, Josef; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2017-03-05

    The L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) imports amino acids (AA) and also certain thyroid hormones (TH), e.g. 3,3'-T2 and T3, but not rT3 and T4. We utilized LAT2 mutations (Y130A, N133S, F242W) that increase 3,3'-T2 import and focus here on import and export capacity for AA, T4, T3, BCH and derivatives thereof to delineate molecular features. Transport studies and analysis of competitive inhibition of import by radiolabelled TH and AA were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Only Y130A, a pocket widening mutation, enabled import for T4 and increased it for T3. Mutant F242W showed increased 3,3'-T2 import but no import rates for other TH derivatives. No export was detected for any TH by LAT2-wild type (WT). Mutations Y130A and N133S enabled only the export of 3,3'-T2, while N133S also increased AA export. Thus, distinct molecular LAT2-features determine bidirectional AA transport but only an unidirectional 3,3'-T2 and T3 import.

  1. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    .2-5.0 MJ/d diet. Maximum weight loss was obtained after 6 months (dF 12.8 +/- 5.4 kg; PL 13.8 +/- 9.2 kg, x +/- s.d., ns). Plasma Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA were found to be lower than in normal weight controls and were further reduced during treatment (p ... groups. Macronutrient selection was not affected by the dF treatment. In the placebo group weight loss was associated with a high pre-treatment energy intake and a high carbohydrate-protein ratio (p protein intake (%) and age was found to explain 82......% of the variation in weight loss (p food selection nor basal plasma amino acid profiles were predictors of weight loss during long-term treatment...

  2. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  3. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin L Sciascia; David Pacheco; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solut...

  4. Branched-chain amino acid ratios in low-protein diets regulate the free amino acid profile and the expression of hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related genes in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y H; Li, F N; Wen, C Y; Wang, W L; Guo, Q P; Li, Y H; Yin, Y L

    2017-03-06

    Liver metabolism is affected by nutrients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of low-protein diets (17% crude protein, CP) supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), on hepatic amino acid profile and lipid metabolism in growing pigs. The ratio of Leu : Ile : Val in all groups was 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1 : 1 : 1 (17% CP), 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 (17% CP), 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (17% CP) and 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 (17% CP) respectively. Results revealed that compared to the positive control group (1 : 0.51 : 0.63, 20% CP), the low-protein diets significantly augmented the concentrations of most essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids (p < .05), with the greatest values observed in the 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 group. Moreover, relative to the control, the low-protein diets with the Leu : Ile : Val ratio ranging from 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 to 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 markedly downregulated the mRNA abundance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP-4) (p < .05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT-1) (p < .05). Therefore, our data suggest that protein-restricted diets supplemented with optimal BCAA ratio, that is, 1 : 0.75 : 0.75-1 : 0.25 : 0.25, induce a shift from fatty acid synthesis to fatty acid oxidation in the liver of growing pigs. These effects may be associated with increased mitochondrial biogenesis.

  5. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine

    performances. The reason for this is often suggested to be related to difference in amino acid uptake kinetics during digestion, resulting in a temporal mismatch in amino acid availability, resulting in poorer at protein synthesis site. In addition to their role as building blocks in protein synthesis, amino...... acids also serve as substrates for synthesis of metabolic intermediates, and increasing evidence shows that amino acids also function as signaling factors in the regulation of intermediary metabolism and growth related pathways. The present thesis comprises four supporting papers, based on two...... (free or bound) on hepatic intermediary metabolism using the same diets as in Paper III. The diets were fed to rainbow trout for 6 weeks, followed by sampling for i) hepatic gene expressions, ii) hepatosomatic index (HSI), iii) postprandial ammonia excretion, and iv) plasma methionine levels...

  6. Amino Acid Profiles, Total Nitrogen Contents, and Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratios of Manihot esculenta Root and Dioscorea rotundata Tuber Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous roots of cassava and yam are major sources of dietary carbohydrate to human, alternative sources of energy in livestock feeds, and sources of starch in small-scale industries. Investigations on amino acid profiles, total nitrogen contents, and computed-protein efficiency ratios (C-PER of tuberous root peels of Manihot esculenta Crantz and Dioscorea rotundata Poir. were carried out. Amino acid analysis was carried out using ion-exchange chromatography methods. Total nitrogen content was measured using the micro-Kjeldahl methods. The C-PER was calculated using regression equation. The concentrations of amino acids detected in the cassava peels ranged from 0.54 to 6.54 g/100 g protein, whereas those of yam peels were between 0.37 and 6.25 g/100 g protein. The total amino acid concentration of the cassava peels was not significantly (p>0.05 higher than that of the yam peels. Essential amino acid scores showed that Phe + Tyr and Met + Cys were the most abundant and limiting amino acids, respectively, in cassava and yam peels. The percentage nitrogen content and C-PER of the cassava peels were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those of the yam peels. The cassava and yam peels were not sources of good quality proteins. Therefore, the use of cassava or yam peels as livestock feeds should be supplemented with other sources rich in good quality proteins.

  7. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...

  8. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (Parginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (Parginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  9. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  10. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-02

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology.

  11. DNA binding protein identification by combining pseudo amino acid composition and profile-based protein representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Shanyi; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins play an important role in most cellular processes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient predictor for identifying DNA-binding proteins only based on the sequence information of proteins. The bottleneck for constructing a useful predictor is to find suitable features capturing the characteristics of DNA binding proteins. We applied PseAAC to DNA binding protein identification, and PseAAC was further improved by incorporating the evolutionary information by using profile-based protein representation. Finally, Combined with Support Vector Machines (SVMs), a predictor called iDNAPro-PseAAC was proposed. Experimental results on an updated benchmark dataset showed that iDNAPro-PseAAC outperformed some state-of-the-art approaches, and it can achieve stable performance on an independent dataset. By using an ensemble learning approach to incorporate more negative samples (non-DNA binding proteins) in the training process, the performance of iDNAPro-PseAAC was further improved. The web server of iDNAPro-PseAAC is available at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNAPro-PseAAC/.

  12. Effects of dietary lysine levels on plasma free amino acid profile in late-stage finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Naresh; Wang, Taiji; Crenshaw, Mark A; Rude, Brian J; Wu, Guoyao; Liao, Shengfa F

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth requires a constant supply of amino acids (AAs) from the blood. Therefore, plasma AA profile is a critical factor for maximizing the growth performance of animals, including pigs. This research was conducted to study how dietary lysine intake affects plasma AA profile in pigs at the late production stage. Eighteen crossbred (Large White × Landrace) finishing pigs (nine barrows and nine gilts; initial BW 92.3 ± 6.9 kg) were individually penned in an environment controlled barn. Pigs were assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with sex as block and pig as experiment unit (6 pigs/treatment). Three corn- and soybean meal-based diets contained 0.43 % (lysine-deficient, Diet I), 0.71 % (lysine-adequate, Diet II), and 0.98 % (lysine-excess, Diet III) l-lysine, respectively. After a 4-week period of feeding, jugular vein blood samples were collected from the pigs and plasma was obtained for AA analysis using established HPLC methods. The change of plasma lysine concentration followed the same pattern as that of dietary lysine supply. The plasma concentrations of threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, and citrulline of pigs fed Diet II or III were lower (P pigs fed Diet I. The plasma concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and glycine of pigs fed Diet II or III were higher (P pigs fed Diet I. The change of plasma leucine and asparagine concentrations followed the patterns similar to that of plasma lysine. Among those affected AAs, arginine was decreased (P pigs may be further increased with a lysine-excess diet if the plasma concentration of arginine can be increased through dietary supplementation or other practical nutritional management strategies.

  13. Profile of digested feed amino acids from untreated and expander treated feeds estimated using in situ methods in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2008-01-01

     °C decreased feed lysine content, probably due to formation of complex compounds. Effective rumen degradability and total tract digestibility of protein, total amino acids, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, and phenylalanine were compared to values for the untreated feeds.......Guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, peas, maize, rye, wheat and barley were subjected to expander treatment at different temperatures (95-150 °C), and effect on amino acid availability was assessed using rumen nylon bag and mobile bagin situ methods. Expander treatment of rapeseed cake at 142...

  14. Novel, objective, multivariate biomarkers composed of plasma amino acid profiles for the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakazu Hisamatsu

    amino acid profiles can serve as novel, non-invasive, objective biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of IBD, providing us with new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  15. Ideal amino acid profile and dietary lysine specification for broiler chickens of 20 to 40 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, S.; Bercovici, D.; Groote, G. de; Leclercq, B.; Lippens, M.; Pack, M.; Schutte, J.B.; Cauwenberghe, S. van

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to determine the ideal ratio of the essential amino acids lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), arginine (Arg), valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) and to assess the required dietary lysine concentration for optimum performance in broiler chicke

  16. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-06-21

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  17. Influence of poultry manure application on the leaf amino acid profile, growth and yield of moringa (Moringa oleifera lam plants plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UCHENNA MABEL NDUBUAKU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to determine the amino acid profile, morphological growth pattern and yield of Moringa oleifera plants as influenced by poultry manure application. Three levels of poultry manure (0 tonne/ha, 5 tonnes/ha and 10 tonnes/ha were used. The moringa seeds used were collected from three locations of Nigeria i.e Nsukka (Enugu State, Dutse (Jigawa State and Jos (Plateau State. The experiment was a 3 x 3 factorial trial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Records of first, 50% and 100% seedling emergence were taken between five and 21 days after planting. Morphological growth and yield characteristics were recorded. Succulent and older leaves were sampled monthly for laboratory analysis of amino acid content. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in the effects of the different poultry manure rates on days to seedling emergence and the total percentage emergence. Moringa plants grown with 10 tonnes/ha of poultry manure had the highest values of plant height, stem girth and leaf number in the first 12 weeks of planting followed by those gown with 5 tonnes/ha and 0 tonne/ha in that order. Moringa plants grown with 5 tonnes/ha of poultry manure flowered most promptly. Plants grown with 10 tonnes/ha of poultry manure had the highest values of all the yield parameters. Levels of poultry manure did not have any significant effect (p > 0.05 on essential and non-essential amino acid contents of the leaves. Young succulent leaves had higher values of the amino acids than older leaves except tryptophan, argenine (essential amino acids, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine (non-essential amino acids.

  18. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  19. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis Dark Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%, hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%, and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03% and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively, small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides, low molecular weights (524.78 kDa, and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11. This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes.

  20. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile

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    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile leaves. Methods: Dried leaves of C. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months, threonine for children (6 months to 3 years, while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions: These results indicated the leaves of C. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  1. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

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    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  2. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

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    Wenkai Ren

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment. Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5% or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK-myosin light chain (MLC20, were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05. Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05 influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  3. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-03-15

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  4. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  5. Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chyba, Christopher F.

    2000-05-01

    Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D/L) molecules. We calculate D/L ratios for seven biological, α-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization by the time they are recovered on Earth. If the mechanism of amino acid formation imposes some enantiomeric preference on the amino acids, a chiral signature can be retained through the entire history of the meteorite. Original enantiomeric excesses in meteorites such as Murchison, which have undergone apparently short and cool alteration scenarios, should have persisted to the present time. Of the seven amino acids for which relevant data are available, we expect glutamic acid, isoleucine, and valine, respectively, to be the most likely to retain an initial enantiomeric excess, and phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine the least. Were the D/L ratio initially identical in each amino acid, final D/L ratios could be used to constrain the initial ratio and the thermal history experienced by the whole suite.

  6. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content...... concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected...

  7. Repeated post-exercise administration with a mixture of leucine and glucose alters the plasma amino acid profile in Standardbred trotters

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    Nostell Katarina EA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The branched chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion. Used in combination with glucose it can increase the insulin response and the post exercise re-synthesis of glycogen in man. Decreased plasma amino acid concentrations have been reported after intravenous or per oral administration of leucine in man as well as after a single per oral dose in horses. In man, a negative correlation between the insulin response and the concentrations of isoleucine, valine and methionine have been shown but results from horses are lacking. This study aims to determine the effect of repeated per oral administration with a mixture of glucose and leucine on the free amino acid profile and the insulin response in horses after glycogen-depleting exercise. Methods In a crossover design, after a glycogen depleting exercise, twelve Standardbred trotters received either repeated oral boluses of glucose, 1 g/kg body weight (BW at 0, 2 and 4 h with addition of leucine 0.1 g/kg BW at 0 and 4 h (GLU+LEU, or repeated boluses of water at 0, 2 and 4 h (CON. Blood samples for analysis of glucose, insulin and amino acid concentrations were collected prior to exercise and over a 6 h post-exercise period. A mixed model approach was used for the statistical analyses. Results Plasma leucine, isoleucine, valine, tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations increased after exercise. Post-exercise serum glucose and plasma insulin response were significantly higher in the GLU+LEU treatment compared to the CON treatment. Plasma leucine concentrations increased after supplementation. During the post-exercise period isoleucine, valine and methionine concentrations decreased in both treatments but were significantly lower in the GLU+LEU treatment. There was no correlation between the insulin response and the response in plasma leucine, isoleucine, valine and methionine. Conclusions Repeated post-exercise administration with a mixture of leucine

  8. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  9. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets.

  10. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

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    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  11. Different flour microbial communities drive to sourdoughs characterized by diverse bacterial strains and free amino acid profiles

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    GIUSEPPE CELANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermanni were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy, so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF using irradiated flour and the other (C using non-irradiated flour.As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF. Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics, irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem.

  12. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (pexperiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  13. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

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    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  14. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  15. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  16. Synthesis of new isoxazoline-based acidic amino acids and investigation of their affinity and selectivity profile at ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Andrea; Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni;

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of four new isoxazoline-based amino acids being analogues of previously described glutamate receptor ligands is reported and their affinity for ionotropic glutamate receptors is analyzed in comparison with that of selected model compounds. Molecular modelling investigations have been...

  17. Nontargeted LC–MS Metabolomics Approach for Metabolic Profiling of Plasma and Urine from Pigs Fed Branched Chain Amino Acids for Maximum Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic response in plasma and urine of pigs when feeding an optimum level of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) for best growth performance is unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the metabolic phenotype associated with the BCAAs intake level that could be linked...... to the animal growth performance. Three dose–response studies were carried out to collect blood and urine samples from pigs fed increasing levels of Ile, Val, or Leu followed by a nontargeted LC–MS approach to characterize the metabolic profile of biofluids when dietary BCAAs are optimum for animal growth...... metabolites to the optimum dietary Ile. The optimum dietary Leu was associated with reduced plasma creatine and urinary 2-aminoadipic acid and elevated urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and choline. The optimum dietary Val had a less pronounced metabolic response reflected in plasma or urine than other BCAA....

  18. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  19. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...... valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  20. Effects of eccentric exercise on branched-chain amino acid profiles in rat serum and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Z; Xinkai, Y; Jing, W

    2014-04-01

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is often used to attenuate exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and promote adaptation, but no definitive conclusion on the benefits of BCAA on muscle recovery after injurious exercise can be drawn. Exploration of the systematic BCAA alteration in muscular injury-repair stage per se without any BCAA supplement should provide some useful information in favour of BCAA application in muscle regeneration after injury. One bout of 90-min downhill-running exercise was performed to cause rat skeletal muscle injury. After exercise, myofibrillar BCAA concentrations showed minor changes compared with exercise before, while serum concentrations of BCAA were lower after exercise. Especially, serum leucine, isoleucine and total BCAA concentrations 2 weeks post-run were significantly lower than normal values of exercise before (p = 0.008, p = 0.041, p = 0.015). The data demonstrate that a single eccentric exercise can significantly decrease the serum BCAA concentrations, which mean high utilization of BCAA for myogenesis after injurious exercise.

  1. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-An Chen

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  2. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  3. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  4. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  5. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  6. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  7. Storage protein profile and amino acid content in wild rice Oryza glumaepatula Perfil da proteína de reserva e conteúdo de aminoácidos no arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Freire D'eça Nogueira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available - The objective of this work was to determine the total protein profile and the contents of the four major protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin and of the amino acids in the endosperm of the rice wild species Oryza glumaepatula. The experiment was performed with 29 accessions of this species, collected from 13 Brazilian locations, and two commercial cultivars. Protein samples were prepared using dried, polished, and ground grains to obtain homogeneous, dry flour used in the preparation of extracts. Oryza glumaepatula accessions were identified with the highest levels of total protein, albumin and glutelin protein fractions, and amino acids (with the exception of tryptophan in comparison to the two analized rice cultivars. The albumin and glutelin profiles in SDS-Page were distinct between rice cultivars and O. glumaepatula. This wild species has the potential to increase the nutritional quality of rice storage protein through interspecific crosses.- O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os perfis de proteína total e o conteúdo das quatro principais frações proteicas (albumina, globulina, prolamina e glutelina e de aminoácidos no endosperma da espécie de arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula. O experimento foi realizado com 29 acessos dessa espécie, coletados em 13 locais no Brasil, e duas cultivares comerciais. Amostras de proteínas foram preparadas com grãos secos, polidos e moídos, para obtenção de uma farinha seca e homogênea, usada no preparo dos estratos. Acessos de O. glumaepatula foram identificados com os maiores níveis de proteína total, frações proteicas de albumina e glutelina, e aminoácidos (com exceção do triptofano, em comparação às duas cultivares de arroz avaliadas. Os perfis de albumina e glutelina em SDS-PAGE foram distintos entre as cultivares de arroz e O. glumaepatula. Essa espécie silvestre tem o potencial de aumentar a qualidade nutricional da proteína de reserva do arroz por

  8. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  9. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  10. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  11. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air) in three different culture media: (1) Paoletti medium (control), (2) Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water) and (3) Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino ...

  12. Bioavailability Studies and in vitro Profiling of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitor UCPH‐102

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haym, Isabell; Huynh, Tri H. V.; Hansen, Stinne W.

    2016-01-01

    . In the present study, per os (p.o.) administration (40 mg kg−1) of the closely related analogue UCPH‐102 in rats yielded respective plasma and brain concentrations of 10.5 and 6.67 μm after 1 h. Three analogue series were designed and synthesized to improve the bioavailability profile of UCPH‐102, but none...

  13. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  14. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  15. Changes in composition and amino acid profile during dry grind ethanol processing from corn and estimation of yeast contribution toward DDGS proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianchun; Liu, Keshun

    2010-03-24

    Three sets of samples, consisting of ground corn, yeast, intermediate products, and DDGS, were provided by three commercial dry grind ethanol plants in Iowa and freeze dried before chemical analysis. On average, ground corn contained 70.23% starch, 7.65% protein, 3.26% oil, 1.29% ash, 87.79% total carbohydrate (CHO), and 17.57% total nonstarch CHO, dry matter basis. Results from Plant 1 samples showed that compared to ground corn, there was a slight but significant increase in the contents of protein, amino acids (AA), oil, and ash before fermentation, although starch/dextrin decreased sharply upon saccharification. After fermentation, starch content further decreased to about 6.0%, while protein, oil, and ash contents increased over 3-fold. AA increased 2.0-3.5-fold. Total CHO content decreased by 40%, and the content of total nonstarch CHO increased over 2.5-fold. Concentrations of these attributes fluctuated slightly in the remaining downstream products, but oil and ash were concentrated in thin stillage, while protein was concentrated in distiller grains upon centrifugation. When AA composition is expressed in relative % (protein basis), its changes did not follow that of protein concentration, but the influence of yeast AA profiles on those of downstream products became apparent. Accordingly, a multiple linear regression model for the AA profile of a downstream product as a function of AA profiles of ground corn and yeast was proposed. Regression results indicated that, with an r(2) = 0.95, yeast contributed about 20% toward DDGS proteins, and the rest came from corn. Data from Plants 2 and 3 confirmed those found with Plant 1 samples.

  16. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  17. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni Pomegranates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhadi Fatima A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds used rely on a wide range of internal mechanisms and physio-chemical factors to ensure their germination under favorable environmental conditions. Most plant seeds have complex process of germination, including water, oxygen, temperature availability, genome-wide gene expression, signal transduction, hormones stimulations, inhibitors removal and catalytic protein synthesis. In addition, influences of seeds nutrient values such as, protein, lipids, sugars and free amino acids have a special importance. Regarding, seeds free amino acids. Discussion of these individual factors needs to be put in context of their role in germination processes. Regarding, free amino acids seed storage, there is limited information about their relevant functions in activation and/or deactivation of required metabolic mechanisms and interactive compounds involved in this process in commercial plant cultivars. Therefore, current study was aimed to determine the probable influence of free amino acid compositions of seeds on germination process of two different (Punica granatum L. pomegranate cultivars including wild type Automi cultivar and edible Khazemi cultivar. In particular, we focused on the impact of amino acids contents variations on germination process and associated AAs compositional changes during various stages of germination and seedlings establishment. Amino acid analysis using HPLC detected all the essential and non-essential amino acids in the raw seeds of the studied cultivars, Automi and Khazemi along with AAs compositional changes occurred during different stages of seed germination. These AAs have been extensively analyzed in the context of their role in dormancy breaking capacities in plants species. Automi raw seeds are rich in Phe, that, is strongly related to ABA synthesis and hence might be responsible for the dormancy of Automi seeds, Khazemi raw seeds have sufficient levels of Arg, Glu and Met that have been reported to enhance

  18. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  19. Proteomic investigation of protein profile changes and amino acid residue-level modification in cooked lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum: The effect of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2016-09-01

    Protein modifications of meat cooked by typical dry-heat methods (e.g., roasting) are currently not well understood. The present study utilised a shotgun proteomic approach to examine the molecular-level effect of roasting on thin lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum patties, in terms of changes to both the protein profile and amino acid residue side-chain modifications. Cooking caused aggregation of actin, myosin heavy chains and sarcoplasmic proteins. Longer roasting time resulted in significantly reduced protein extractability as well as protein truncation involving particularly a number of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, e.g., 6-phosphofructokinase, beta-enolase, l-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, alpha-actinin-3, actin and possibly myosin heavy chains. Modifications that have potential influence on nutritional properties, including carboxyethyllysine and a potentially glucose-derived N-terminal Amadori compound, were observed in actin and myoglobin after roasting. This study provided new insights into molecular changes resulting from the dry-heat treatment of meat, such as commonly used in food preparation.

  20. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

    2008-01-01

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

  1. Release of selected amino acids from zinc carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja Renata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an investigation of the release of selected amino acids (histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine from model suspensions prepared by co-precipitation with zinc chloride. It has been proven that the influence of the Zn(II/amino acid molar ratio on dissolution profiles of the tested amino acids and dissolution half-life (t1/2 of histidine or tryptophan is significant. The amount of amino acid in the dispersed phase (supporting dose is a determinant of the amino acid release profile. There is a minimal supporting dose (30.0 μmol of histidine or 17.4 μmol of tryptophan that provides release of similar amounts of amino acid (4.1–4.6 μmol of histidine or 8.7–9.9 μmol of tryptophan after the same time intervals. The tyrosine release profiles follow first order kinetics since the supporting dose (0.9–11.2 μmol is limited by the tyrosine low solubility in water.

  2. Quantitative analysis of 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves using an amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yihang; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-06-01

    A method was developed for quantifying 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves by using an A300 amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution. In the method, amino acids were eluted by the buffer solution on an ion-exchange column. After reacting with ninhydrin, the derivatives of amino acids were detected by ultraviolet detection. Most amino acids are separated by the elution program. However, five peaks of the derivatives are still overlapping. A non-negative immune algorithm was employed to extract the profiles of the derivatives from the overlapping signals, and then peak areas were adopted for quantitative analysis of the amino acids. The method was validated by the determination of amino acids in tobacco leaves. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) are all less than 2.54% and the recoveries of the spiked samples are in a range of 94.62-108.21%. The feasibility of the method was proved by analyzing the 17 amino acids in 30 tobacco leaf samples.

  3. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  4. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  5. Modelling the effects of dietary methionine level and form on postprandial plasma essential amino acid profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Feekings, Jordan P.; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2016-01-01

    essential amino acid (EAA) in rainbow trout. Twelve diets were formulated with pea and soya protein concentrate or fish meal as the main protein ingredients and were supplemented or not with increasing amount of either crystalline or agar-coated methionine. Fish were acclimatized to one of the 12 diets...

  6. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves ofClerodendrum volubile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Folashade Oluwayemisi Owolabi; Temiloluwa Adebola Adesioye; Deborah Olabisi Akinyele; Grace Ijeoma Okonrokwo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices ofClerodendrumvolubile (C. volubile) leaves. Methods:Dried leaves ofC. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months), threonine for children (6 months to 3 years), while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions:These results indicated the leaves ofC. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  7. Synthesis of Chiral Amino Cyclic Phosphoric Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chirai amino cyclic phosphoric acids, 5-amino-2-hydroxy-4- (4-nitrophenyl)-l, 3,2-dioxaphospho- rinane 2-oxide and 2-hydroxy-4- (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-phthalimido-1,3,2-dioxaphos phorinane 2-oxide are synthesized in good over yields (64. 2% and 72. 8% respectively) from 2-amino-l-aryl-l,3-propanediols. The different reaction conditions are necessary in hydrolysis reactions of amino cyclic phosphonyl chlorides.

  8. Plasma amino acid relationships during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, F E; Smits, B J

    1980-01-01

    The plasma amino acidfs of 17 patients were studied before and during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amino acid (AA) pattern changed similarly for all patients. The AA concentration changes relative to preinfusion (PAER) were the most informative index of change. Two groups of AA were defined, the "branched chain" group (five amino acids) and the "hepatic" group (four amino acids) based on the correlation of PAER values. Comparison of PAER values with the ratio of AA intake to requirement indicated that the requirements of the sick patients were more similar to those of children than those of healthy adults.

  9. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L -phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino acid for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets.

  10. Microbial production of natural poly amino acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of poly amino acids, poly-γ-glutamic acid, poly(ε-L-lysine) and multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid) can be synthesized by enzymatic process independently from ribosomal protein biosynthesis pathways in microorganism. These biosynthesized polymers have attracted more and more attentions because of their unique properties and various applications. In this review, the current knowledge on the biosynthesis, biodegradations and applications of these three poly amino acids are summarized.

  11. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  12. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig d

  13. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  14. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  15. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  16. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  17. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  18. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  19. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  20. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different...

  1. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni pomegranates

    OpenAIRE

    Alhadi Fatima A.; Adnan A.S. AL-Asbahi; Arif S.A. Alhammadi; Qais A.A. Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Plant seeds used rely on a wide range of internal mechanisms and physio-chemical factors to ensure their germination under favorable environmental conditions. Most plant seeds have complex process of germination, including water, oxygen, temperature availability, genome-wide gene expression, signal transduction, hormones stimulations, inhibitors removal and catalytic protein synthesis. In addition, influences of seeds nutrient values such as, protein, lipids, sugars and free amino acids have...

  2. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  3. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  5. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  6. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  7. Acute effects of breakfasts containing alpha-lactalbumin, or gelatin with or without added tryptophan, on hunger, 'satiety' hormones and amino acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-06-01

    Proteins are the most satiating macronutrients. Tryptophan (TRP) may contribute to the satiating effect, as it serves as a precursor for the anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. To address the role of TRP in the satiating properties of dietary protein, we compared three different breakfasts, containing either alpha-lactalbumin (high in TRP), gelatin (low in TRP) or gelatin with added TRP (gelatin+TRP, high in TRP), on appetite. Twenty-four subjects (22-29 kg/m2; aged 19-37 years) received a subject-specific breakfast at t = 0 with 10, 55 and 35 % energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat respectively in a randomised, single-blind design. Hunger, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, ghrelin, amino acid concentrations and energy intake during a subsequent lunch were determined. Suppression of hunger was stronger 240 min after the breakfast with alpha-lactalbumin compared with gelatin and gelatin+TRP. Total plasma amino acid concentrations were lower with alpha-lactalbumin compared with gelatin with or without TRP (from t = 180-240 min). TRP concentrations were higher after alpha-lactalbumin than after gelatin with or without TRP from t = 0-100 min, whereas from t = 100-240 min, TRP concentrations were lower after gelatin than after alpha-lactalbumin and gelatin+TRP. The plasma ratio of TRP to other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was, only at t = 100 min, lower after gelatin+TRP than after the other breakfasts. Plasma amino acid responses, TRP concentrations and TRP:LNAA ratios were not correlated with hunger. GLP-1 and ghrelin concentrations were similar for all diets. Energy intake during a subsequent lunch was similar for all diets. Summarised, an alpha-lactalbumin breakfast suppresses hunger more than a gelatin or gelatin+TRP breakfast. This cannot be explained by (possible) differences found in TRP concentrations and TRP:LNAA ratios in the breakfasts and in plasma, as well as in circulating total amino acids, GLP-1 and ghrelin.

  8. Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; vanderGaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Hoerz, F.; Barnes, G.; Chabin, A.; Brack, A.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most important prebiotic molecules as it is from these precursors that the building blocks of life were formed [1]. Although organic molecules were among the components of the planetesimals making up the terrestrial planets, large amounts of primitive organic precursor molecules are believed to be exogenous in origin and to have been imported to the Earth via micrometeorites, carbonaceous meteorites and comets, especially during the early stages of the formation of the Solar System [1,2]. Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions [3]. We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids [4-6]. Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites [7]. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite, used in our experiments. Two American teams have studied the effects of impact on various amino acids [8,9]. [8] investigated amino acids in saturated solution in water with pressure ranges between 5.1 and 21 GPa and temperature ranges between 412 and 870 K. [9] studied amino acids in solid form associated with and without minerals (Murchison and Allende meteorite extracts) and pressure ranges between 3 and 30 GPa. In these two experiments, the amino acids survived up to 15 GPa. At higher pressure, the quantity of preserved amino acids decreases quickly. Some secondary products such as dipeptides and diketopiperazins were identified in the [8] experiment.

  9. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  10. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Brinton, K L; McDonald, G D

    1999-08-03

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  11. An astrophysically-relevant mechanism for amino acid enantiomer enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Fletcher, S.; B. C. Jagt, R.; Feringa, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    The sublimation of low ee amino acids was examined while exploring simple mechanisms by which high ee amino acids can be generated under conditions that exist in space; significant enantioenrichment of a variety of amino acids by sublimation was achieved.

  12. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  13. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  14. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiangyun [San Diego, CA; Xie, Jianming [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2012-06-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  15. 4,4-Dimethyl- and diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-(2S)-glutamate analogues display distinct pharmacological profiles at ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Pickering, Darryl S; Gefflaut, Thierry;

    2009-01-01

    this approach has provided important insight into the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs), as well as the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In this work, three 4,4-disubstituted Glu analogues 1-3, which are hybrid structures......Subtype-selective ligands are of great interest to the scientific community, as they provide a tool for investigating the function of one receptor or transporter subtype when functioning in its native environment. Several 4-substituted (S)-glutamate (Glu) analogues were synthesized, and altogether...

  16. Evaluation of amino acids as turfgrass nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Luc, John E; Crow, William T

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials.

  17. Effects of Exogenous Amino Acids on the Contents of Amino Acids in Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-ping; LIU Guo-shun; ZHU Kai; PENG Sa; GUO Qiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    The effect of three amino acids on the growth of flue-cured tobacco was studied with water culture. The results showed that the three amino acids improved the growth of flue-cured tobacco and increased the contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tobacco. At the same time, the activities of NR (nitrate reductase), INV(invertase) and root growth activity were also significantly enhanced. The exogenous glutamic, aspartate and phenylalanine all increased the amino acid contents of tobacco leaves. Of these three amino acids, glutamic had the greatest effect, the next was aspartate,and phenylalanine had the least effect. These three amino acids all had significantly increased the accumulation of amino acids in the leaves of individual plants of tobacco; and the magnitude of accumulation indicated aspartate > glutamic >phenylalanine.

  18. Synthesis of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid: an amino acid component of apicidins

    OpenAIRE

    Linares de la Morena, María Lourdes; Agejas Chicharro, Francisco Javier; Alajarín Ferrández, Ramón; Vaquero López, Juan José; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis Of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (Aoda) is described. This is a rare amino acid component of apicidins, a family of new cyclic tetrapeptides, inhibitors of histone deacetylase. Aoda was synthesised in seven steps from L-glutamic acid along with some derivatives. Universidad de Alcalá Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá FEDER

  19. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  20. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral profiles of materials recovered from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processing by-products using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Tou, J C; Jaczynski, J

    2007-11-01

    Protein, lipid, and insolubles (bones, skin, scales, fins, insoluble protein, and more) were recovered from rainbow trout processing by-products by means of isoelectric solubilization/precipitation at basic pH and acidic pH. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the trout processing by-products resulted in the recovery of protein that was higher (P processing by-products. Basic pH treatments yielded a higher (P processing by-products, indicating that the pH treatments had no effect on these FAs. Ca and P contents of the processing by-products exceeded the recommended dietary allowances (RDA), but Fe and Mg did not. Basic pH treatments yielded protein with the lowest (P minerals and the highest (P processing by-products effectively removed minerals from the recovered protein without removal of the bones, skin, scales, fins, and so on, prior to processing. The results indicated that isoelectric solubilization/precipitation, particularly at basic pH, permitted recovery of high-quality protein and lipids from fish processing by-products for human food uses; also, the recovered insolubles may be used in animal feeds as a source of minerals.

  1. Amino acid survival in large cometary impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Chyba, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    A significant fraction of the Earth's prebiotic volatile inventory may have been delivered by asteroidal and cometary impacts during the period of heavy bombardment. The realization that comets are particularly rich in organic material seemed to strengthen this suggestion. Previous modeling studies, however, indicated that most organics would be entirely destroyed in large comet and asteroid impacts. The availability of new kinetic parameters for the thermal degradation of amino acids in the solid phase made it possible to readdress this question. We present the results of new high-resolution hydrocode simulations of asteroid and comet impact coupled with recent experimental data for amino acid pyrolysis in the solid phase. Differences due to impact velocity as well as projectile material have been investigated. Effects of angle of impacts were also addressed. The results suggest that some amino acids would survive the shock heating of large (kilometer-radius) cometary impacts. At the time of the origins of life on Earth, the steady-state oceanic concentration of certain amino acids (like aspartic and glutamic acid) delivered by comets could have equaled or substantially exceeded that due to Miller-Urey synthesis in a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Furthermore, in the unlikely case of a grazing impact (impact angle around 5 degrees from the horizontal) an amount of some amino acids comparable to that due to the background steady-state production or delivery would be delivered to the early Earth.

  2. Alterations in amino acid status in cats with feline dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Herb W.; Knottenbelt, Clare; Cave, Tom A.; MacDonald, Susan J.; Stratton, Joanna; Leon, Irene; Turner, Judith A.; Pirie, R. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses. Amino acids were quantified in plasma/serum from 14 FD cats, 5 healthy in-contact cats which shared housing and diet with the FD cats, and 6 healthy control cats which were housed separately from FD cats and which received a different diet. The adequacy of amino acids in the cats’ diet was assessed by determining the amino acid content of tinned and dry pelleted foods collected immediately after occurrences of FD. Compared with controls, FD cats had increased concentrations of many essential amino acids, with the exception of methionine which was significantly reduced, and reductions in most non-essential amino acids. In-contact cats also had inadequate methionine status. Artefactual loss of cysteine during analysis precluded assessment of the cyst(e)ine status. Food analysis indicated that the low methionine status was unlikely to be attributable to dietary inadequacy of methionine or cystine. Multi-mycotoxin screening identified low concentrations of several mycotoxins in dry food from all 3 premises. While this indicates fungal contamination of the food, none of these mycotoxins appears to induce the specific clinico-pathologic features which characterise FD and equivalent multiple system neuropathies in other species. Instead, we hypothesise that ingestion of another, as yet unidentified, dietary neurotoxic mycotoxin or xenobiotic, may cause both the characteristic disease pathology and the plasma SAA depletion. PMID:28333983

  3. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  4. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  5. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  6. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B;

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2...

  7. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... protein synthesis and breakdown, that is, reduced turnover with a minor increase in net muscle degradation. Very similar observations have been made in models of acute inflammation, induced by high-dose endotoxin injection. However, these changes were suggested not to be attributed to a direct effect...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  8. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  9. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (pamino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea.

  10. Metal induced amino acid adsorption on nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia M., E-mail: abinitio@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Research Center for the Remediation of Soil and Ground Water Pollution, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Jalbout, Abraham F. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora C.P., 83000 Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    In this work we detail the mechanism by which alkali metal encapsulation inside an armchair (9,9) single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) can affect external amino acid interactions. Based on our analysis, several configurations revealed that the physical properties of the SWNT systems are modified by using an internally situated Li atom. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that the most favorable interactions of the SWNT system is with tryptophan, threonine and proline that can be directly correlated to the backbone geometry of the amino acid species.

  11. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  12. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  13. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  14. Amino Acid Formation on Interstellar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Barbier, B.; Brack, A.; Thiemann, W.; Goesmann, F.; Rosenbauer, H.

    2003-04-01

    In the dense interstellar medium dust particles accrete ice layers of known molecular composition. In the diffuse interstellar medium these ice layers are subjected to energetic UV-irradiation. Here, photoreactions form complex organic molecules. The interstellar processes were recently successfully simulated in two laboratories. At NASA Ames Research Center three amino acids were detected in interstellar ice analogues [1], contemporaneously, our European team reported on the identification of 16 amino acids therein [2]. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins in living organisms. The identification of amino acids on the simulated icy surface of interstellar dust particles strongly supports the assumption that the precursor molecules of life were delivered from interstellar and interplanetary space via (micro-) meteorites and/or comets to the earyl Earth. The results shall be verified by the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission Rosetta [3]. [1] M.P. Bernstein, J.P. Dworkin, S.A. Sandford, G.W. Cooper, L.J. Allamandola: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 401-403. [2] G.M. Muñoz Caro, U.J. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, B. Barbier, A. Arcones Sergovia, H. Rosenbauer, W.H.-P. Thiemann, A. Brack, J.M. Greenberg: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 403-406. [3] U. Meierhenrich, W.H.-P. Thiemann, H. Rosenbauer: itshape Chirality \\upshape 11 (1999), 575-582.

  15. Amino acid modifications on tRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yuan; Kelly Sheppard; Dieter S(o)ll

    2008-01-01

    The accurate formation of cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) is essential for the fidelity of translation.Most amino acids are esterified onto their cognate tRNA isoacceptors directly by aa.tRNA synthetases.However,in the case of four amino acids (Gin,Asn,Cys and Sec),aminoacyl-tRNAs are made through indirect pathways in many organisms across all three domains of life.The process begins with the charging ofnoncognate amino acids to tRNAs by a specialized synthetase in the case of Cys-tRNAcys formation or by synthetases with relaxed specificity,such as the non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA,non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases.The resulting misacylated tRNAs are then converted to cognate pairs through transformation of the amino acids on the tRNA,which is catalyzed by a group of tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes,such as tRNA-dependent amidotransferases,Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase,O-phosphoseryi-tRNA kinase and Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase.The majority of these indirect pathways are widely spread in all domains of life and thought to be part of the evolutionary process.

  16. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  17. [Sublicons containing amino acids and nucleotides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭmakov, E A

    1979-01-01

    Sublicons have been obtained. Sublicons are threadlike structures appearing during sublimation of frozen solutions of small concentrations, containing racemate mixture of amino acids and nucleotides. It is suggested that close location of chains and their zonal distribution by the section of helix spire forming sublicon wall, should provide the formation of stereohomogenous and complementary successions of biomonomers of different clases.

  18. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives §...

  19. A Modified Amino Acid Analysis Using PITC Derivatization for Soybeans with Accurate Determination of Cysteine and Half-Cystine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts to change amino acid profile of seed protein and the assessment of genetic variation for amino acid composition among soybean germplasm resources have been hampered by lack of a rapid and inexpensive method for amino acid determination. A modified procedure presented here is based p...

  20. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can

  1. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  2. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  3. Microbial Production of Amino Acid-Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-11-22

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is the workhorse of the production of proteinogenic amino acids used in food and feed biotechnology. After more than 50 years of safe amino acid production, C. glutamicum has recently also been engineered for the production of amino acid-derived compounds, which find various applications, e.g., as synthons for the chemical industry in several markets including the polymer market. The amino acid-derived compounds such as non-proteinogenic ω-amino acids, α,ω-diamines, and cyclic or hydroxylated amino acids have similar carbon backbones and functional groups as their amino acid precursors. Decarboxylation of amino acids may yield ω-amino acids such as β-alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and δ-aminovalerate as well as α,ω-diamines such as putrescine and cadaverine. Since transamination is the final step in several amino acid biosynthesis pathways, 2-keto acids as immediate amino acid precursors are also amenable to production using recombinant C. glutamicum strains. Approaches for metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for production of amino acid-derived compounds will be described, and where applicable, production from alternative carbon sources or use of genome streamline will be referred to. The excellent large-scale fermentation experience with C. glutamicum offers the possibility that these amino acid-derived speciality products may enter large-volume markets.

  4. Substitution in Amino Acid 70 of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Changes the Adipokine Profile via Toll-Like Receptor 2/4 Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Uraki

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that amino acid (aa substitution at position 70 from arginine (70R to glutamine (70Q in the genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV core protein is associated with insulin resistance and worse prognosis. However, the precise mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the substitution at position 70 in HCV core protein on adipokine production by murine and human adipocytes.The influence of treatment with HCV core protein (70R or 70Q on adipokine production by both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes were examined with real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and triglyceride content was also analyzed. The effects of toll-like receptor (TLR2/4 inhibition on IL-6 production by 3T3-L1 induced by HCV core protein were examined.IL-6 production was significantly increased and adiponectin production was reduced without a change in triglyceride content by treatment with 70Q compared to 70R core protein in both murine and human adipocytes. IL-6 induction of 3T3-L1 cells treated by 70Q HCV core protein was significantly inhibited with anti-TLR2 antibody by 42%, and by TLR4 inhibitor by 40%.Our study suggests that extracellular HCV core protein with substitution at position 70 enhanced IL-6 production and reduced adiponectin production from visceral adipose tissue, which can cause insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and ultimately development of HCC.

  5. Amino acids regulate the intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease of Saccharomycescerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Esther J; Kaiser, Chris A

    2002-11-12

    The delivery to the plasma membrane of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the quality of the nitrogen source in the growth medium. In an effort to define how different nitrogen sources control Gap1p sorting, we find that mutations in GDH1 and GLN1 that decrease the flux through the glutamate and glutamine synthesis pathways result in increased Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Conversely, deletion of MKS1, which increases glutamate and glutamine synthesis, decreases Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Glutamate and glutamine are not unusual in their ability to regulate Gap1p sorting, because the addition of all natural amino acids and many amino acid analogs to the growth medium results in increased Gap1p sorting to the vacuole. Importantly, amino acids have the capacity to signal Gap1p sorting to the vacuole regardless of whether they can be used as a source of nitrogen. Finally, we show that rapamycin does not affect Gap1p sorting, indicating that Gap1p sorting is not directly influenced by the TOR pathway. Together, these data show that amino acids are a signal for sorting Gap1p to the vacuole and imply that the nitrogen-regulated Gap1p sorting machinery responds to amino acid-like compounds rather than to the overall nutritional status associated with growth on a particular nitrogen source.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Amino Acids-Based Trimethoprim Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal R. Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trimethoprim (TMP is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug.

  7. Recent advances in amino acid production by microbial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Amino acids have been utilized for the production of foods, animal feeds and pharmaceuticals. After the discovery of the glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum by Japanese researchers, the production of amino acids, which are primary metabolites, has been achieved using various microbial cells as hosts. Recently, metabolic engineering studies on the rational design of amino acid-producing microbial cells have been successfully conducted. Moreover, the technology of systems biology has been applied to metabolic engineering for the creation of amino acid-producing microbial cells. Currently, new technologies including synthetic biology, single-cell analysis, and evolutionary engineering have been utilized to create amino acid-producing microbial cells. In addition, useful compounds from amino acids have been produced by microbial cells. Here, current researches into the metabolic engineering of microbial cells toward production of amino acids and amino acid-related compounds are reviewed.

  8. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-02-15

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa.

  9. Rationale and design of a proof-of-concept trial investigating the effect of uninterrupted perioperative (parenteral nutrition on amino acid profile, cardiomyocytes structure, and cardiac perfusion and metabolism of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocchieri Riccardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is very common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Malnutrition can change myocardial substrate utilization which can induce adverse effects on myocardial metabolism and function. We aim to investigate the hypothesis that there is a disturbed amino acids profile in the cardiac surgical patient which can be normalized by (parenteral nutrition before, during and after surgery, subsequently improving cardiomyocyte structure, cardiac perfusion and glucose metabolism. Methods/Design This randomized controlled intervention study investigates the effect of uninterrupted perioperative (parenteral nutrition on cardiac function in 48 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients are given enteral nutrition (n = 16 or parenteral nutrition (n = 16, at least two days before, during, and two days after coronary artery bypass grafting, or are treated according to the standard guidelines (control (n = 16. We will illustrate the effect of (parenteral nutrition on differences in concentrations of amino acids and asymmetric dimethylarginine and in activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase and arginase in cardiac tissue and blood plasma. In addition, cardiomyocyte structure by histological, immuno-histochemical and ultrastructural analysis will be compared between the (parenteral and control group. Furthermore, differences in cardiac perfusion and global left ventricular function and glucose metabolism, and their changes after coronary artery bypass grafting are evaluated by electrocardiography-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography respectively. Finally, fat free mass is measured before and after intervention with bioelectrical impedance spectrometry in order to evaluate nutritional status. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2183

  10. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  11. Direct amino acid analyses of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, M N

    1985-12-01

    The amino acid content of mozzarella (low moisture, part skim milk) and asadero cheeses was determined by the column chromatographic method. Data from the direct analyses of the mozzarella cheeses were compared with the calculated amino acid composition reported in tables in Agriculture Handbook No. 8-1. Phenylalanine and tyrosine contents were found to be higher in the direct analyses than in the calculated data in Handbook No. 8-1 (1.390 gm and 1.127 gm for phenylalanine, and 1.493 gm and 1.249 gm for tyrosine per 100 gm edible portion, respectively). That is of particular concern in the dietary management of phenylketonuria, in which accuracy in computing levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine is essential.

  12. Rotational Study of Natural Amino Acid Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marcelino; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Recent improvements in laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) have allowed the investigation of glutamine (COOH-CH(NH2)-CH2-CH2-CONH2), a natural amino acid with a long polar side chain. One dominant structure has been detected in the rotational spectrum. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of two 14N nuclei has been totally resolved allowing the conclusive identification of the observed species.

  13. Metabolism profiling of amino-noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua-Jun; Qian, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Amino-noscapine is a promising noscapine derivative undergoing R&D as an efficient anti-tumor drug. In vitro phase I metabolism incubation system was employed. In vitro samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In vitro recombinant CYP isoforms screening was used to identify the drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino-noscapine. Multiple metabolics were formed, including the formation of metabolite undergoing cleavage of methylenedioxy group, hydroxylated metabolites, demethylated metabolites, and metabolites undergoing C-C cleavage. Nearly, all the CYP isoforms were involved in the metabolism of metabolites II, III, VII, IX, and X. CYP1A1 was demonstrated to be the major CYP isoform for the formation of metabolites IV and V. CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 mainly catalyzed the formation of metabolite VI. The metabolic formation of VIII was mainly catalyzed by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. CYP3A4 was the main enzyme for the formation of XI. CYP2C9 mainly catalyzed the generation of metabolite XII. In conclusion, the metabolic pathway of amino-noscapine was elucidated in the present study using in vitro phase I incubation experiment, including the structural elucidation of metabolites and involved phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes. This information was helpful for the R&D of amino-noscapine.

  14. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  15. A Green Synthesis of Diisopropyl Phosphoryl Amino Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report that diisopropyl phosphoryl amino acid could be prepared with reasonable yields under solvent-free condition by adding amino acid to the mixture of diisopropyl phosphite and N-chlorodiisopropylamine.

  16. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  17. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  18. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  19. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Blom (W.); J.G.M. Huijmans (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various eti

  20. Methionine and Choline Supply during the Periparturient Period Alter Plasma Amino Acid and One-Carbon Metabolism Profiles to Various Extents: Potential Role in Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET or rumen-protected choline (CHOL. Forty cows were fed from −21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile. Sulfur-containing compounds (cystathionine, cystine, homocystine, and taurine were greater in MET-fed cows, indicating an enriched sulfur-containing compound pool due to enhanced transsulfuration activity. Circulating essential AA and total AA concentrations were greater in cows supplied MET due to greater lysine, arginine, tryptophan, threonine, proline, asparagine, alanine, and citrulline. In contrast, CHOL supply had no effect on essential AA or total AA, and only tryptophan and cystine were greater. Plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration was lower in response to CHOL supply, suggesting less tissue protein mobilization in these cows. Overall, the data revealed that enhanced periparturient supply of MET has positive effects on plasma AA profiles and overall antioxidant status.

  1. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  2. Detection of D-amino acids in purified proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Homma, Hiroshi; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2010-05-01

    It has long been believed that amino acids comprising proteins of all living organisms are only of the L-configuration, except for Gly. However, peptidyl D-amino acids were observed in hydrolysates of soluble high molecular weight fractions extracted from cells or tissues of various organisms. This strongly suggests that significant amounts of D-amino acids are naturally present in usual proteins. Thus we analyzed the D-amino acid contents of His-tag-purified beta-galactosidase and human urocortin, which were synthesized by Escherichia coli grown in controlled synthetic media. After acidic hydrolysis for various times at 110 degrees C, samples were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) and separated on a reverse-phase column followed by a chiral column into D- and L-enantiomers. The contents of D-enantiomers of Ala, Leu, Phe, Val, Asp, and Glu were determined by plotting index D/(D + L) against the incubation time for hydrolysis and extrapolating the linear regression line to 0 h to eliminate the effect of racemization of amino acids during the incubation. Significant contents of D-amino acids were reproducibly detected, the D-amino acid profile being specific to an individual protein. This finding indicated the likelihood that D-amino acids are in fact present in the purified proteins. On the other hand, the D-amino acid contents of proteins were hardly influenced by the addition of D- or L-amino acids to the cultivation medium, whereas intracellular free D-amino acids sensitively varied according to the extracellular conditions. The origin of these D-amino acids detected in proteins was discussed.

  3. Neighbor preferences of amino acids and context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions in human, mouse, and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-09-10

    Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  4. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  5. Amino Acid Uptake and Metabolism of Legionella pneumophila Hosted by Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunder, Eva; Gillmaier, Nadine; Kutzner, Erika; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Vroni; Lautner, Monika; Heuner, Klaus

    2014-07-25

    Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within a Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) of amoebae and macrophages. Less is known about the carbon metabolism of the bacteria within the LCV. We have now analyzed the transfer and usage of amino acids from the natural host organism Acanthamoeba castellanii to Legionella pneumophila under in vivo (LCV) conditions. For this purpose, A. castellanii was 13C-labeled by incubation in buffer containing [U-(13)C(6)]glucose. Subsequently, these 13C-prelabeled amoebae were infected with L. pneumophila wild type or some mutants defective in putative key enzymes or regulators of carbon metabolism. 13C-Isotopologue compositions of amino acids from bacterial and amoebal proteins were then determined by mass spectrometry. In a comparative approach, the profiles documented the efficient uptake of Acanthamoeba amino acids into the LCV and further into L. pneumophila where they served as precursors for bacterial protein biosynthesis. More specifically, A. castellanii synthesized from exogenous [U-13C6]glucose unique isotopologue mixtures of several amino acids including Phe and Tyr, which were also observed in the same amino acids from LCV-grown L. pneumophila. Minor but significant differences were only detected in the isotopologue profiles of Ala, Asp, and Glu from the amoebal or bacterial protein fractions, respectively, indicating partial de novo synthesis of these amino acids by L. pneumophila. The similar isotopologue patterns in amino acids from L. pneumophila wild type and the mutants under study reflected the robustness of amino acid usage in the LCV of A. castellannii.

  6. [Bound amino acids in local strains of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, A; Osinovski, E; Vasilevska, M

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid composition of water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins of 8 strains of Tr. vaginalis is studied. 17 amino acids are found in both protein hydrolyzates. Despite the complete coincidence of their qualitative compositions there are reliable differences in the quantitative contents of some amino acids. Differences in the contents of main amino acids of water-soluble proteins of different strains reflect the belonging of the latter to different sero-groups. No reliable differences in the quantitative contents of amino acids of both water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins in strains belonging to one sero-group are recognised.

  7. Characterization of amino acids using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Amanda L.; Larsen, Richard A.; Williams, Timothy B.

    2005-05-01

    A key process in the development of new drugs is elucidation of the interaction between the drug molecule and the target protein. Such knowledge then makes it possible to make systematic structural modifications of the drug molecule to optimize the interaction. Many analytical techniques can be applied to proteins in solution such as circular dichroism, ultraviolet, and fluorescence spectroscopy but these all have limitations. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using relatively simple, visible light Raman spectroscopic methods to investigate amino acids and related biopolymers.

  8. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  9. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  10. Ribosomal Synthesis of Peptides with Multiple β-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoshige; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2016-02-17

    The compatibility of β-amino acids with ribosomal translation was studied for decades, but it has been still unclear whether the ribosome can accept various β-amino acids, and whether the ribosome can introduce multiple β-amino acids in a peptide. In the present study, by using the Escherichia coli reconstituted cell-free translation system with a reprogramed genetic code, we screened β-amino acids that give high single incorporation efficiency and used them to synthesize peptides containing multiple β-amino acids. The experiments of single β-amino acid incorporation into a peptide revealed that 13 β-amino acids are compatible with ribosomal translation. Six of the tested β-amino acids (βhGly, l-βhAla, l-βhGln, l-βhPhg, l-βhMet, and d-βhPhg) showed high incorporation efficiencies, and seven (l-βhLeu, l-βhIle, l-βhAsn, l-βhPhe, l-βhLys, d-βhAla, and d-βhLeu) showed moderate incorporation efficiencies; whereas no full-length peptide was produced using other β-amino acids (l-βhPro, l-βhTrp, and l-βhGlu). Subsequent double-incorporation experiments using β-amino acids with high single incorporation efficiency revealed that elongation of peptides with successive β-amino acids is prohibited. Efficiency of the double-incorporation of the β-amino acids was restored by the insertion of Tyr or Ile between the two β-amino acids. On the basis of these experiments, we also designed mRNA sequences of peptides, and demonstrated the ribosomal synthesis of peptides containing different types of β-amino acids at multiple positions.

  11. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  12. EFFECT OF MICROORGANISMS ON FREE AMINO ACID AND FREE D-AMINO ACID CONTENTS OF VARIOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Csilla Albert; Gabriella Pohn; Katalin Lóki; Szidónia Salamon; Beáta Albert; P. Sára; Z. Mándoki; Jánosné Csapó; Csapó, J.

    2007-01-01

    Free amino acid and free D-amino acid contents of milk samples with different microorganism numbers and composition of dairy products produced from them were examined. Total microorganism number of milk samples examined varied from 1.25x106 to 2.95x106. It was established that concentration of both free D-amino acids and free L-amino acids increased with an increase in microorganism number. However, increase in D-amino acid contents was higher considering its proportion. There was a particula...

  13. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  14. Conformational properties of oxazoline-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staś, Monika; Broda, Małgorzata A.; Siodłak, Dawid

    2016-04-01

    Oxazoline-amino acids (Xaa-Ozn) occur in natural peptides of potentially important bioactivity. The conformations of the model compounds: Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4R-Me), Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4S-Me), and (gauche+, gauche-, anti) Ac-(S)-Val-Ozn(4R-Me) were studied at meta-hybrid M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) method including solvent effect. Boc-L-Ala-L-Ozn-4-COOMe and Boc-L-Val-L-Ozn-4-COOMe were synthesized and studied by FT-IR and NMR-NOE methods. The conformations in crystal state were gathered from the Cambridge Structural Data Base. The main conformational feature of the oxazoline amino acids is the conformation β2 (ϕ,ψ ∼ -161°, -6°), which predominates in weakly polar environment and still is accessible in polar surrounding. The changes of the conformational preferences towards the conformations αR (ϕ,ψ ∼ -70°, -15°) and then β (ϕ,ψ ∼ -57°, -155°) are observed with increase of the environment polarity.

  15. Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic

  16. Inadequacy of prebiotic synthesis as origin of proteinous amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J T; Bronskill, P M

    1979-07-18

    The production of some nonproteinous, and lack of production of other proteinous, amino acids in model prebiotic synthesis, along with the instability of glutamine and asparagine, suggest that not all of the 20 present day proteinous amino acids gained entry into proteins directly from the primordial soup. Instead, a process of active co-evolution of the genetic code and its constituent amino acids would have to precede the final selection of these proteinous amono acids.

  17. Determining important regulatory relations of amino acids from dynamic network analysis of plasma amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Nahoko; Maki, Yukihiro; Nakatsui, Masahiko; Mori, Masato; Noguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Takahashi, Michio; Kondo, Nobuo; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of plasma amino acids do not always follow the flow-based metabolic pathway network. We have previously shown that there is a control-based network structure among plasma amino acids besides the metabolic pathway map. Based on this network structure, in this study, we performed dynamic analysis using time-course data of the plasma samples of rats fed single essential amino acid deficient diet. Using S-system model (conceptual mathematical model represented by power-law formalism), we inferred the dynamic network structure which reproduces the actual time-courses within the error allowance of 13.17%. By performing sensitivity analysis, three of the most dominant relations in this network were selected; the control paths from leucine to valine, from methionine to threonine, and from leucine to isoleucine. This result is in good agreement with the biological knowledge regarding branched-chain amino acids, and suggests the biological importance of the effect from methionine to threonine.

  18. The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids - interstellar vs. atmospheric mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Schutte, W. A.; Barbier, B.; Arcones Segovia, A.; Rosenbauer, H.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    Until very recently, prebiotic amino acids were believed to have been generated in the atmosphere of the early Earth, as successfully simulated by the Urey-Miller experiments. Two independent studies now identified ice photochemistry in the interstellar medium as a possible source of prebiotic amino acids. Ultraviolet irradiation of ice mixtures containing identified interstellar molecules (such as H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and NH3) in the conditions of vacuum and low temperature found in the interstellar medium generated amino acid structures including glycine, alanine, serine, valine, proline, and aspartic acid. After warmup, hydrolysis and derivatization, our team was able to identify 16 amino acids as well as furans and pyrroles. Enantioselective analyses of the amino acids showed racemic mixtures. A prebiotic interstellar origin of amino acid structures is now discussed to be a plausible alternative to the Urey-Miller mechanism.

  19. Transfer of Asymmetry between Proteinogenic Amino Acids under Harsh Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevych, Arkadii V; Vives, Thomas; Snytnikov, Valeriy N; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-31

    The heating above 400 °C of serine, cysteine, selenocysteine and threonine leads to a complete decomposition of the amino acids and to the formation in low yields of alanine for the three formers and of 2-aminobutyric acid for the latter. At higher temperature, this amino acid is observed only when sublimable α-alkyl-α-amino acids are present, and with an enantiomeric excess dependent on several parameters. Enantiopure or enantioenriched Ser, Cys, Sel or Thr is not able to transmit its enantiomeric excess to the amino acid formed during its decomposition. The presence during the sublimation-decomposition of enantioenriched valine or isoleucine leads to the enantioenrichment of all sublimable amino acids independently of the presence of many decomposition products coming from the unstable derivative. All these studies give information on a potentially prebiotic key-reaction of abiotic transformations between α-amino acids and their evolution to homochirality.

  20. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  1. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Lodwig, S.N. [Centralia College, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  3. Twenty natural amino acids identification by a photochromic sensor chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Fengyu; Huang, Yu; Ran, Wei; Han, Dong; Song, Yanlin

    2015-01-20

    All 20 natural amino acids identification shows crucial importance in biochemistry and clinical application while it is still a challenge due to highly similarity in molecular configuration of the amino acids. Low efficiency, complicated sensing molecules and environment hindered the successful identification. Here, we developed a facile sensor chip composed of one photochromic molecule with metal ions spotted to form spirooxazine-metallic complexes, and successfully recognized all the 20 natural amino acids as well as their mixtures. The sensor chip gives distinct fluorescent fingerprint pattern of each amino acid, based on multistate of spirooxazine under different light stimulations and discriminated interaction between various metal ions and amino acids. The sensor chip demonstrates powerful capability of amino acids identification, which promotes sensing of biomolecules.

  4. Modulatory Effects of Dietary Amino Acids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Sangam, Supraj Raja; Singh, Shubham; Joginapally, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma. The brain diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) are the most common mental disorders that are currently widespread in numerous countries. The intricate biochemical and molecular machinery contributing to the neurological disorders is still unknown, and in this chapter, we revealed the involvement of dietary amino acids on neurological diseases.

  5. Surface Propensity of Atmospherically Relevant Amino Acids Studied by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Alexandra; Gomes, Anderson Herbert de Abreu; Araújo, Oscar Cardoso; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Bjorneholm, Olle

    2017-03-30

    Amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) compounds in aerosols and are involved in many processes in the atmosphere. In this work, we applied XPS to study aqueous solutions of four amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine and methionine, in their zwitterionic forms. We found that amino acids with hydrophilic side chains and smaller size, GLY and ALA, tend to stay in the bulk of the liquid, while the hydrophobic and bigger amino acids, VAL and MET, are found to concentrate more on the surface. We found experimental evidences that the amino acids have preferential orientation relative to the surface, with the hydrophobic side chain being closer to the surface than the hydrophilic carboxylate group. The observed amino acid surface propensity has implications in atmospheric science as the surface interaction play a central role in cloud droplet formation, and they should be considered in climate models.

  6. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  7. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  8. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  9. 早期断奶仔猪血浆氨基酸代谢谱动态变化研究%Dynamic Change of Plasma Amino Acid Profiles in Early Weaned Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英平; 陈安国; 代兵; 陈镜刚; 李开锋; 杨华

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究仔猪早期断奶过程中血浆氨基酸代谢谱的动态变化. 选取8头21日龄"杜×长×大"断奶仔猪,在断奶后0、1、3、5、7、10、15、30 d采集血液样本用于氨基酸分析. 结果表明,仔猪血浆精氨酸、瓜氨酸和鸟氨酸含量在断奶后1~5 d内显著下降(P0.05). 主成分分析显示,随着断奶后时间的延长,仔猪血浆氨基酸代谢谱与断奶后0d的代谢谱差异逐渐变大,然后逐渐向断奶后0d代谢谱位置靠拢,并趋于稳定,其中断后3~5d血浆氨基酸代谢谱变化幅度最大.偏最小二乘法判别分析模型表明,谷氨酸在NRC ( 1998 )饲养标准下区分断奶后各时间点血浆代谢谱最重要的氨基酸. 由此可见,仔猪在早期断奶阶段机体的蛋白质或者氨基酸代谢发生明显变化,且在断奶后3~5d变化幅度最为显著.%The time-course of plasma amino acid ( AA) following response to early weaning was investigated over a 30 d period in weaned piglets using AA analyzer. Eight 21-day-old "Duroc × Landrace × Large York-shire" weaned piglets were selected and their blood samples were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 30 post-weaning. The results showed as follows: plasma contents of arginine and its immediate precursors ( citrulline and ornithine) decreased ( P0.05) . In score plot of principal component analysis, the profiles of AA were gradually away from the profile of AA on day 0 post-weaning, and then were closed to that, and tended to be stable. On days 3 and 5 post-weaning, the profiles of AA were robustly altered. The pattern of partial least-square discriminant analysis demonstrated that glutamic acid played the most important role in differentiating the profiles of AA at different time points post-weaning. It is concluded that early weaning changes the metabolism of protein and amino acid in the body of piglets, especially on days 3 and 5 post-weaning.

  10. Discrimination of three typical amino acids using PARAFAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Wu, Yan; Zong, Junjun; Ye, Jiesong

    2016-10-01

    The intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenyloalanine were presented in this paper. The excitation/emission wavelength of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenyloalanine locate at λex/λem=280/350nm, 275nm/303 and 260/280nm respectively. The excitation and emission bands of these bio-fluorophores are quite overlapped within the EEM area whose excitation wavelength/emission wavelength scope is 230-270nm/260-340nm. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 tryptophan, tyrosine and phenyloalanine mixed solutions and three compound amino acids samples were successfully decomposed, the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved with high precision, and finally, the tyrosine and taurine were detected from 1st and 2nd sample respectively.

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SNAKE VENOM L- AMINO ACID OXIDASES

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Baby; Rajan Sheeja S; M.V Jeevitha; S.U Ajisha

    2011-01-01

    L-Amino acid oxidases are flavoenzymes which catalyze the stereospecific oxidative deamination of an L-amino acid substrate to a corresponding a-ketoacid with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia production. These enzymes, which are widely distributed in many different organisms, exhibit a marked affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, including phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and leucine. Snake venom LAAO induces platelet aggregation and cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. The enzyme has ...

  12. SIFT: predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pauline C.; Henikoff, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize substitutions for further study. We have shown that SIFT can distinguish between functionally neutral and deleterious amino acid changes in...

  13. A new synthetic protocol for coumarin amino acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride of the racemic amino acid (2-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylethylglycine, which can serve as a fluorescent probe in proteins, and two halogen derivatives of it, were synthesized by using a new synthetic protocol in five steps. It is less costly and relatively easy to prepare this kind of fluorescent amino acid with the new synthetic method. Furthermore, it can be applied to synthesize other derivatives of the coumarin amino acid with some specific properties.

  14. A Novel Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Hui; LI Shuo; XU Pen-gFei

    2003-01-01

    @@ β-hydroxy-α-amino acids constitute an important class of compounds as naturally occurring amino acids and as components of many complex natural products possessing a wide range of biological activities. [1] As a consequence of the essential role played by these amino acids in the biological systems and their utility as synthetic building blocks, a number of useful strategies have been devised for their preparation. [2

  15. Amino Acid transport in protoplasts isolated from soybean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, C D; Lin, W

    1986-05-01

    We isolated large quantities of mesophyll protoplasts from source and sink leaves of soybean plants and examined them for amino acid uptake. Accumulation of amino acids in isolated protoplasts was linear for at least 40 minutes. Uptake kinetics revealed the presence of both saturable and linear components. Increasing external pH decreases the uptake. The uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone at 15 micromolar inhibited and fusicoccin at 10 micromolar stimulated amino acid uptake. Our data are consistent with a proton-cotransport mechanism for the uptake of l-glutamine and alpha-amino isobutyric acid into soybean mesophyll cells.

  16. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure.

  17. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  18. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andrew; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic racemize abiotically. Based on a heating experiment, we report Arrhenius parameters...... between different amino acids or depths. These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of D:L amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial...

  19. Synthesis of novel fullerene α-amino acid conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Yan Xia Wang; Feng Kang; Ying Ya Shao; Zong Jie Li; Xin Lin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aspartie acid and glutamic acid with protected α-amino and α-carboxyl groups had been used to react with the activated hydroxyl group of N-substituted 3,4-fuUero pyrrolidine.The products were deprotected,affording two monofullerene α-amino acids,monofullerene aspartic acid(mFas)and monofullerene glutamic acid(mFgu).Then a bifullerene glutamic acid conjugate (bFguC)was synthesized by reaction of mFgu containing protected amino group with N-subsfimted 3,4-fullero pyrrolidine.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of Chiral Amino Acids and Their Corresponding Amino Alcohols with Camphoric Backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-Fen; HUANG Wei; LI Hui-Hui; YAO Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Chiral amino acids and their corresponding amino alcohols bearing camphoric backbone were prepared from D-(+)-camphoric imide and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, ESI-MS, and NMR measurements. Among them, one intermediate (lS,3R)-3-amino-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid hydrochloride 3 was structurally elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. Versatile intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions observed in its packing structure result in a two-dimensional framework.

  1. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pernil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion.

  2. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Scarabelli, Carol; McCauley, Roy B; Yuan, Zhaokan; Di Rezze, Justin; Patel, David; Putt, Jeff; Raddino, Riccardo; Allebban, Zuhair; Abboud, John; Scarabelli, Gabriele M; Chilukuri, Karuna; Gardin, Julius; Saravolatz, Louis; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2008-06-02

    Sarcopenia is an inevitable age-related degenerative process chiefly characterized by decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and impaired mitochondrial function, leading to progressive loss of muscle mass. Here, we sought to probe whether long-term administration of oral amino acids (AAs) can increase protein and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged rats, enhancing functional performance. To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent treated group and underwent 1-month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30% reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50% reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats (p supplementation with mixed AAs significantly improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming their values to those of adult control animals (p energy substrates in the gastrocnemius muscle of treated aged rats paralleled a significant enhancement in functional performance assessed by swim test, with dramatic elongation of maximal exertion times compared with untreated senescent rats (p supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing functional performance and accelerating high-energy phosphate recovery after exhaustive exertion.

  3. MEKC-LIF method for analysis of amino acids after on-capillary derivatization by transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles mixing of reactants for assessing developmental capacity of human embryos after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celá, Andrea; Mádr, Aleš; Dědová, Tereza; Pelcová, Marta; Ješeta, Michal; Žáková, Jana; Crha, Igor; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating the physiological state of an organism is of clinical importance. In assisted reproduction, knowledge of the embryo's physiology is crucial for selecting the embryo with the highest developmental capacity to ensure high pregnancy rates. Amino acids (AAs) are involved in many biochemical processes during embryo development, which means that the determination of AA fluctuations in the embryo's surroundings can determine the embryo's physiological state. Since current embryo selection methods are mainly based on visual assessment, which lacks proper accuracy, a novel method for the analysis of AAs in the embryo's surroundings was developed. AAs were analyzed by means of MEKC-LIF after on-capillary derivatization by naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde. The reactants were injected under the three zone arrangement and mixed using the transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles methodology. The resulting derivatives of all the standard AAs were baseline resolved in the BGE comprised of 35 mM sodium tetraborate, 55 mM SDS, 2.7 M urea, 1 mM BIS-TRIS propane, and 23 mM NaOH within 50 min. The method was applied on an analysis of spent culture media used in assisted reproduction to culture embryos after in vitro fertilization.

  4. Studies related to primitive chemistry. A proton and nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance amino acid and nucleic acid constituents and a and their possible relation to prebiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, S. L.; Cohen, E. A.; Shiller, A. M.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were made to determine the applicability of this technique for the study of interactions between monomeric and polymeric amino acids with monomeric nucleic acid bases and nucleotides. Proton NMR results for aqueous solutions (D2O) demonstrated interactions between the bases cytosine and adenine and acidic and aromatic amino acids. Solutions of 5'-AMP admixed with amino acids exhibited more complex behavior but stacking between aromatic rings and destacking at high amino acids concentration was evident. The multisite nature of 5'-AMP was pointed out. Chemical shift changes for adenine and 5'-AMP with three water soluble polypeptides demonstrated that significant interactions exist. It was found that the linewidth-pH profile of each amino acid is unique. It is concluded that NMR techniques can give significant and quantitative data on the association of amino acid and nucleic acid constituents.

  5. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  6. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  7. Abc Amino Acids: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of New Photoelastic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Park, Dr Seung Bum [Seoul National University

    2006-01-01

    Photoisomerizable amino acids provide a direct avenue to the experimental manipulation of bioactive polypeptides, potentially allowing real-time, remote control of biological systems and enabling useful applications in nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report a new class of photoisomerizable amino acids intended to cause pronounced expansion and contraction in the polypeptide backbone, i.e., to be photoelastic. These compounds, termed Abc amino acids, employ a photoisomerizable azobiphenyl chromophore to control the relative disposition of aminomethyl and carboxyl substituents. Molecular modeling of nine Abc isomers led to the identification of one with particularly attractive properties, including the ability to induce contractions up to 13A in the backbone upon transa?cis photoisomerization. This isomer, designated mpAbc, has substituents at meta and para positions on the inner (azo-linked) and outer rings, respectively. An efficient synthesis of Fmoc-protected mpAbc was executed in which the biaryl components were formed via Suzuki couplings and the azo linkage was formed via amine/nitroso condensation; protected forms of three other Abc isomers were prepared similarly. A decapeptide incorporating mpAbc was synthesized by conventional solid-phase methods and displayed characteristic azobenzene photochemical behavior with optimal conversion to the cis isomer at 360 nm and a thermal cisa?trans half life of 100 min. at 80 AoC.

  8. EFFECT OF MICROORGANISMS ON FREE AMINO ACID AND FREE D-AMINO ACID CONTENTS OF VARIOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Albert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Free amino acid and free D-amino acid contents of milk samples with different microorganism numbers and composition of dairy products produced from them were examined. Total microorganism number of milk samples examined varied from 1.25x106 to 2.95x106. It was established that concentration of both free D-amino acids and free L-amino acids increased with an increase in microorganism number. However, increase in D-amino acid contents was higher considering its proportion. There was a particularly significant growth in the microorganism number range from 1.5x106 to 2.9x106. Based on analysis of curds and cheese samples produced using different technologies we have come to the conclusion that for fresh dairy products and for those matured over a short time there was a close relation between total microorganism number and free D-amino acid and free L-amino acid contents. At the same time it was found that the ratio of the enantiomers was not affected by the total microorganism number. For dairy products, however, where amino acid production capability of the microbial cultures considerably exceeds, production of microorganisms originally present in the milk raw material, free amino acid contents of the milk product (both D- and L-enantiomers seem to be independent of the composition of milk raw material.

  9. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  10. Vibrational and photoionization spectroscopy of biomolecules: aliphatic amino acid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjun; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2008-04-28

    The aliphatic amino acids glycine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are thermally placed into the gas phase and expanded into a vacuum system for access by time of flight mass spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the energy range of 2500-4000 cm(-1) (CH, NH, OH, and stretching vibrations). The isolated neutral amino acids are ionized by a single photon of 10.5 eV energy (118 nm), which exceeds by less than 2 eV their reported ionization thresholds. As has been reported for many hydrogen bonded acid-base systems (e.g., water, ammonia, alcohol, acid clusters, and acid molecules), the amino acids undergo a structural rearrangement in the ion state (e.g., in simplest form, a proton transfer) that imparts sufficient excess vibrational energy to the ion to completely fragment it. No parent ions are observed. If the neutral ground state amino acids are exposed to IR radiation prior to ionization, an IR spectrum of the individual isomers for each amino acid can be determined by observation of the ion intensity of the different fragment mass channels. Both the IR spectrum and fragmentation patterns for individual isomers can be qualitatively identified and related to a particular isomer in each instance. Thus, each fragment ion detected presents an IR spectrum of its particular parent amino acid isomer. In some instances, the absorption of IR radiation by the neutral amino acid parent isomer increases a particular fragmentation mass channel intensity, while other fragmentation mass channel intensities decrease. This phenomenon can be rationalized by considering that with added energy in the molecule, the fragmentation channel populations can be modulated by the added vibrational energy in the rearranged ions. This observation also suggests that the IR absorption does not induce isomerization in the ground electronic state of these amino acids. These data are consistent with theoretical predictions for isolated amino acid secondary structures and can be related to

  11. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  12. Amino acid adsorption on mesoporous materials: influence of types of amino acids, modification of mesoporous materials, and solution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Wujun; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Deng, Feng; Shen, Wanling

    2008-02-21

    In order to disclose the dominant interfacial interaction between amino acids and ordered mesoporous materials, the adsorption behaviors of five amino acids on four mesoporous materials were investigated in aqueous solutions with adjustable amino acid concentration, ion strength, and pH. The selected amino acids were acidic amino acid glutamic acid (Glu), basic amino acid arginine (Arg), and neutral amino acids phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu), and alanine (Ala), and the selected mesoporous materials were SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CH3(10%)-SBA-15, and CH3(20%)-SBA-15. The adsorption capacities of Glu and Arg were strongly dependent on pH and surface charge of the mesoporous adsorbent. The adsorption of Phe showed pH insensitivity but depended on the surface organic functionalization of mesoporous adsorbent. On the basis of the theoretical analysis about the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent, such a remarkable difference was attributed to the different nature of the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent. Arg could be readily adsorbed on the surface of SBA-15, especially Al-SBA-15, under appropriate pH in which the electrostatic interaction was predominant. The driving force of Phe adsorption on mesoporous adsorbent mainly came from the hydrophobic interaction. Therefore, the adsorption capability of Arg decreased with increasing ion strength of solution, while the adsorption capability of Phe increased with the increasing degree of CH3 functionalization on SBA-15. For neutral amino acid Phe, Ala, and Leu, the adsorption capability increased with the increase of the length of their side chains, which was another evidence of hydrophobic effect. Thus, all the adsorption of amino acids on mesoporous silica materials can be decided by the combined influence of two fundamental interactions: electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic effect.

  13. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  14. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Yuhei; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (4-7nm) were synthesized from tetraauric acid using various amino acids as reducing and capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were produced from the incubation of a AuCl4(-) solution with an amino acid at 80°C for 20min. Among the twenty amino acids tested, several amino acids produced gold nanoparticles. The color of the nanoparticle solutions varied with the amino acids used for the reduction. We adopted l-histidine as a reducing agent and investigated the effects of the synthesis conditions on the gold nanoparticles. The His and AuCl4(-) concentrations affected the size of the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates. The pH of the reaction solution also affected the reaction yields and the shape of the gold nanoparticles.

  15. Caracterização química e perfil aminoácidico da farinha de silagem de cabeça de camarão Chemical characterization and profile of the amino acids of the flour of shrimp head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Figueiredo Guilherme

    2007-06-01

    of shrimp head as an alternative in potential, that research had as objectives the elaboration, chemical characterization and the profile of the amino acids of the flour of silage of shrimp head, seeking to assist the demands nutritionals of amino acids in the feeding of fish. The experiment was driven in the Laboratory of Development of Fishing Products - LDFP - of the Department of Technology and Chemistry of Foods, UFPB. The flour of silage of shrimp head was elaborated and accomplished the chemical analysis (centesimal composition and dosage of calcium and match, accomplished in triplicate. The analysis of the composition of amino acids of the silage of shrimp head was accomplished in a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. The flour of silage of shrimp head was shown as an excellent source proteins (39,5% and lipids (12,5% besides having considerable amount of calcium, therefore it can serve as eventual substitute in the formularization of diets for fish.

  16. Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

    2008-01-08

    Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins.

  17. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  18. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis II. Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepka, W.; Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1948-05-25

    The radioactive amino acid's synthesized from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} by green algae both in the light and in the dark after CO{sub 2}-free preillumination have been separated and identified using paper chromatography and radioautography. The radioactive amino acids identified were aspartic acid, alanine and smaller amounts of 3- and 4-carbon amino acids. This finding as well as the total absence of radioactive glutamic acid substantiates the mechanism for reduction of CO{sub 2} previously postulated by members of this laboratory.

  19. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  20. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  1. Representation of protein-sequence information by amino acid subalphabets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.A.F.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    -sequence information, using machine learning strategies, where the primary goal is the discovery of novel powerful representations for use in AI techniques. In the case of proteins and the 20 different amino acids they typically contain, it is also a secondary goal to discover how the current selection of amino acids...

  2. Origin of Homochirality of Amino Acids in the Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosuke Kojo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions are made concerning realistic mechanisms for the origin of L-amino acids in the biosphere. As the most plausible mechanism, it is proposed that a mixture of racemic amino acids in the prebiotic sea caused spontaneous and effective optical resolution through self crystallization, even if asymmetric synthesis of a single amino acid has never occurred without the aid of an optically active molecule. This hypothesis is based on recrystallization of a mixture of D,L-amino acids in the presence of excess of D,L-asparagine (Asn. The enantiomeric excess (ee of each amino acid in the resulting crystals indicates that crystallization of co-existing amino acids with the configuration same as that of Asn took place, although it was incidental whether the enrichment occurred in L- or D-amino acids. In addition, the resulting ee was sufficiently high (up to 100% to account for the predominance of L-amino acids on the earth.

  3. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  4. Physiological and biochemical studies of bacterial amino acid amide metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Hubertus Franciscus Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids represent a class of versatile chiral building blocks for a whole range of fine chemicals, used in the pharmaceutical and agro-chemical industry. Considerable experience currently is available with a wide variety of chemo-enzymatic processes for the synthesis of amino acids, which is app

  5. Amino acid determination in some edible Mexican insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrón de Guevara, O; Padilla, P; García, L; Pino, J M; Ramos-Elorduy, J

    1995-06-01

    The amino acid contents of edible insects from different provinces of Mexico and reference proteins were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The insect amino acid contents were higher than the adult requirements indicated by the WHO/FAO pattern.

  6. A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in sili

  7. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  8. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  9. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  10. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  11. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  12. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    The recent years have witnessed growing interest in biochemistry, physiology and nutrition of amino acids (AA) in growth, health and disease of humans and other animals. This results from the discoveries of AA in cell signaling involving protein kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and gaseous molecules (i.e., NO, CO and H2S). In addition, nutritional studies have shown that dietary supplementation with several AA (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and proline) modulates gene expression, enhances growth of the small intestine and skeletal muscle, or reduces excessive body fat. These seminal findings led to the new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of the organisms. Functional AA hold great promise in prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), intrauterine growth restriction, infertility, intestinal and neurological dysfunction, and infectious disease (including viral infections).

  13. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov; Crowley, Michael F., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  14. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  15. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  16. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence...

  17. Interaction of metal ions and amino acids - Possible mechanisms for the adsorption of amino acids on homoionic smectite clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Loew, G. H.; Lawless, J.

    1983-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular orbital method is used to characterize the binding of amino acids to hexahydrated Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), a process presumed to occur when they are adsorbed in the interlamellar space of homoionic smectite clays. Five alpha-amino acids, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were used to investigate the metal ion and amino acid specificity in binding. It was assumed that the alpha, beta, and gamma-amino acids would bind as bidentate anionic ligands, forming either 1:1 or 1:2 six-coordinated five, six, and seven-membered-ring chelate complexes, respectively. Energies of complex formation, optimized geometries, and electron and spin distribution were determined; and steric constraints of binding of the amino acids to the ion-exchanged cations in the interlamellar spacing of a clay were examined. Results indicate that hexahydrated Cu(2+) forms more stable complexes than hexahydrated Ni(2+) with all the amino acids studied. However, among these amino acids, complex formation does not favor the adsorption of the biological subset. Calculated energetics of complex formation and steric constraints are shown to predict that 1:1 rather than 1:2 metal-amino acid complexes are generally favored in the clay.

  18. Adaptive amino acid composition in collagens of parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2015-04-01

    Amino acid composition was analyzed in the glycine-rich repeat region of 306 collagens belonging to three major families of collagens from both parasitic and free-living nematodes. The collagens of parasitic species showed a tendency toward decreased usage of the hydrophilic residues A, D, and Q and increased usage of the hydrophobic resides I, L, and M; and this trend was seen in parasitic species of both the order Rhabdita and the order Spirurida. The amino acid composition of collagens of parasitic Rhabdita thus tended to resemble those of Spirurida more than that of free-living Rhabdita, suggesting an association between amino acid composition and a parasitic lifestyle. Computer predictions suggested that the more hydrophobic amino acid composition was associated with a reduction of the propensity towards B-cell epitope formation, suggesting that evasion of host immune responses may be a major selective factor responsible for the parasite-specific trend in collagen amino acid composition.

  19. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...... carbon (%TAAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%TAAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid...... aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated...

  20. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  1. Independence divergence-generated binary trees of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusnády, G E; Tusnády, G; Simon, I

    1995-05-01

    The discovery of the relationship between amino acids is important in terms of the replacement ability, as used in protein engineering homology studies, and gaining a better understanding of the roles which various properties of the residues play in the creation of a unique, stable, 3-D protein structure. Amino acid sequences of proteins edited by evolution are anything but random. The measure of nonrandomness, i.e. the level of editing, can be characterized by an independence divergence value. This parameter is used to generate binary tree relationships between amino acids. The relationships of residues presented in this paper are based on protein building features and not on the physico-chemical characteristics of amino acids. This approach is not biased by the tautology present in all sequence similarity-based relationship studies. The roles which various physico-chemical characteristics play in the determination of the relationships between amino acids are also discussed.

  2. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  3. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  4. Supernovae, Neutrinos, and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, R N; Onaka, T

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids.

  5. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  6. Hydration of amino acids: FTIR spectra and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszko, Aneta; Adamczak, Beata; Czub, Jacek; Gojło, Emilia; Stangret, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    The hydration of selected amino acids, alanine, glycine, proline, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, has been studied in aqueous solutions by means of FTIR spectra of HDO isotopically diluted in H2O. The difference spectra procedure and the chemometric method have been applied to remove the contribution of bulk water and thus to separate the spectra of solute-affected HDO. To support interpretation of obtained spectral results, molecular dynamics simulations of amino acids were performed. The structural-energetic characteristic of these solute-affected water molecules shows that, on average, water affected by amino acids forms stronger and shorter H-bonds than those in pure water. Differences in the influence of amino acids on water structure have been noticed. The effect of the hydrophobic side chain of an amino acid on the solvent interactions seems to be enhanced because of the specific cooperative coupling of water strong H-bond chain, connecting the carboxyl and amino groups, with the clathrate-like H-bond network surrounding the hydrocarbon side chain. The parameter derived from the spectral data, which corresponds to the contributions of the population of weak hydrogen bonds of water molecules which have been substituted by the stronger ones in the hydration sphere of amino acids, correlated well with the amino acid hydrophobicity indexes.

  7. Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (pvaline on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

  8. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Aravinda; N Shamala; Rituparna S Roy; P Balaram

    2003-10-01

    An overview of the use of non-protein amino acids in the design of conformationally well-defined peptides, based on work from the author’s laboratory, is discussed. The crystal structures of several designed oligopeptides illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and -amino acid residues have been used to expand the range of designed polypeptide structures.

  9. D-Amino acids in the brain and mutant rodents lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ohide, Hiroko; Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    D-Amino acids are stereoisomers of L-amino acids. They are often called unnatural amino acids, but several D-amino acids have been found in mammalian brains. Among them, D-serine is abundant in the forebrain and functions as a co-agonist of NMDA receptors to enhance neurotransmission. D-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO), which degrades neutral and basic D-amino acids, is mainly present in the hindbrain. DAO catabolizes D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. In the brains of mutant mice and rats lacking DAO activity, the amounts of D-serine and other D-amino acids are markedly increased. Mutant mice manifested behavioral changes characteristic of altered NMDA receptor activity, likely due to increased levels of D-serine. D-Serine and DAO have been demonstrated to play important roles in cerebellar development and synaptic plasticity. They have also implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pain response. There have also been several lines of evidence correlating DAO with schizophrenia. Taken together, the experiments indicate that D-amino acids and DAO have pivotal functions in the central nervous system.

  10. Enantioseparation of Amino Acids by Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration : Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Copper(II) Amino Acid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as chiral selecto

  11. Amino acid signatures of salinity on an environmental scale with a focus on the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew E; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Oren, Aharon; House, Christopher H

    2010-09-01

    The increase of the acidic nature of proteins as an adaptation to hypersalinity has been well documented within halophile isolates. Here we explore the effect of salinity on amino acid preference on an environmental scale. Via pyrosequencing, we have obtained two distinct metagenomic data sets from the Dead Sea, one from a 1992 archaeal bloom and one from the modern Dead Sea. Our data, along with metagenomes from environments representing a range of salinities, show a strong linear correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between the salinity of an environment and the ratio of acidic to basic amino acids encoded by its inhabitants. Using the amino acid composition of putative protein-encoding reads and the results of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we differentiate recovered sequences representing microorganisms indigenous to the Dead Sea from lateral gene transfer events and foreign DNA. Our methods demonstrate lateral gene transfer events between a halophilic archaeon and relatives of the thermophilic bacterial genus Thermotoga and suggest the presence of indigenous Dead Sea representatives from 10 traditionally non-hyperhalophilic bacterial lineages. The work suggests the possibility that amino acid bias of hypersaline environments might be preservable in fossil DNA or fossil amino acids, serving as a proxy for the salinity of an ancient environment. Finally, both the amino acid profile of the 2007 Dead Sea metagenome and the V9 amplicon library support the conclusion that the dominant microorganism inhabiting the Dead Sea is most closely related to a thus far uncultured relative of an alkaliphilic haloarchaeon.

  12. Organometallic and Bioorganometallic Chemistry – Ferrocene Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barišić, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second part of a series dealing with organometallic and bioorganometallic chemistry. In the first part of this series a short review on the history and development of these disciplines was given, emphasizing the importance and scope of bioorganometallic chemistry as a new field dealing with conjugates of organometallics and biomolecules (DNA, PNA, amino acids, peptides.... From the variety of biorganometallics, syntheses and properties of simple conjugates of ferrocene with natural amino acids/peptides were elaborated inter alia. This material is the basis for the second part in which ferrocene amino acids are described. The introduction presents nonproteinogenic alicyclic and aromatic amino acids as the models for the title compounds. Naturally occurring amino acids labelled with ferrocene moiety mostly retain properties of the biomolecules included. Contrary to these ω-ferrocenylamino acids, one could imagine specific amino acids with inserted ferrocene core belonging to either homo- or heterodisubstituted type. The central part of this article is devoted to our investigations of the second type - H2N-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOH. The general rational procedure for synthesis of these compounds and of their N- and/or C-protected derivatives via the azide intermediates N3-CO-(CH2m- Fn-(CH2n-COOMe has been described. In the solid state derivatives of ferrocene amino acids contain intermolecular hydrogen bonds giving dimeric structures, three-dimensional networks or endless helical chains. The solutions of homologues Ac-NH-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOMe in nonpolar solvents are dominated by open form conformers. Compounds containing 2–3 ferrocene cores connected by amide, imide and oxalamide spacers were prepared by oligomerization of 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Fca or by its condensation with the appropriate reagents. Similar to natural amino acids, ferrocene amino acids are water-soluble substances with high melting points

  13. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  14. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Hoshino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1 system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source and keto acids (oxylic acid sources. In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

  15. Branched chain amino acids requirements and metabolism in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    according to the ideal protein profile that is compatible with the animal AA demand for normal body function. During the past decades, it has been tried to understand and characterize branched chain amino acids (BCAA) requirements, biological importance, and mode of actions. This is interesting for two...... reasons: first, BCAA share the same enzymes in their catabolic pathways, and there is an interaction among them in a way that excess Leu for example increases the catabolism of them all and changes the requirements. Second, BCAA are not only building blocks of protein biosynthesis, but are also involved...... in important regulatory mechanisms and biological functions, e.g. muscle protein synthesis, chronic diseases, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, and so on. Identifying biomarkers of the BCAA status may help to understand their biological effects. The objectives of the current study were first to estimate Ile, Val...

  16. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectroscopic techniques.

  17. Prolonged maternal amino acid infusion in late-gestation pregnant sheep increases fetal amino acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Crispo, Michelle M; Barry, James S; O'Meara, Meghan C; Frost, Mackenzie S; Hansen, Kent C; Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D

    2009-09-01

    Protein supplementation during human pregnancy does not improve fetal growth and may increase small-for-gestational-age birth rates and mortality. To define possible mechanisms, sheep with twin pregnancies were infused with amino acids (AA group, n = 7) or saline (C group, n = 4) for 4 days during late gestation. In the AA group, fetal plasma leucine, isoleucine, valine, and lysine concentrations were increased (P < 0.05), and threonine was decreased (P < 0.05). In the AA group, fetal arterial pH (7.365 +/- 0.007 day 0 vs. 7.336 +/- 0.012 day 4, P < 0.005), hemoglobin-oxygen saturation (46.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 37.8 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.005), and total oxygen content (3.17 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.49 +/- 0.20 mmol/l, P < 0.0001) were decreased on day 4 compared with day 0. Fetal leucine disposal did not change (9.22 +/- 0.73 vs. 8.09 +/- 0.63 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), AA vs. C), but the rate of leucine oxidation increased 43% in the AA group (2.63 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.24 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), P < 0.05). Fetal oxygen utilization tended to be increased in the AA group (327 +/- 23 vs. 250 +/- 29 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), P = 0.06). Rates of leucine incorporation into fetal protein (5.19 +/- 0.97 vs. 5.47 +/- 0.89 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), AA vs. C), release from protein breakdown (4.20 +/- 0.95 vs. 4.62 +/- 0.74 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1)), and protein accretion (1.00 +/- 0.30 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.25 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1)) did not change. Consistent with these data, there was no change in the fetal skeletal muscle ubiquitin ligases MaFBx1 or MuRF1 or in the protein synthesis regulators 4E-BP1, eEF2, eIF2alpha, and p70(S6K). Decreased concentrations of certain essential amino acids, increased amino acid oxidation, fetal acidosis, and fetal hypoxia are possible mechanisms to explain fetal toxicity during maternal amino acid supplementation.

  18. Solubility of xenon in amino-acid solutions. II. Nine less-soluble amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Pollack, Gerald L.

    1988-05-01

    Ostwald solubility (L) of xenon gas, as the radioisotope 133Xe, has been measured as a function of solute concentration, at 25.0 °C, in aqueous solutions of nine amino acids. The amino-acid concentrations investigated covered much of their solubility ranges in water, viz., asparagine monohydrate (0-0.19 M), cysteine (0-1.16 M), glutamine (0-0.22 M), histidine (0-0.26 M), isoleucine (0-0.19 M), methionine (0-0.22 M), serine (0-0.38 M), threonine (0-1.4 M), and valine (0-0.34 M). We have previously reported solubility results for aqueous solutions of six other, generally more soluble, amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, lysine, and proline), of sucrose and sodium chloride. In general, L decreases approximately linearly with increasing solute concentration in these solutions. If we postulate that the observed decreases in gas solubility are due to hydration, the results under some assumptions can be used to calculate hydration numbers (H), i.e., the number of H2O molecules associated with each amino-acid solute molecule. The average values of hydration number (H¯) obtained at 25.0 °C are 15.3±1.5 for asparagine, 6.8±0.3 for cysteine, 11.5±1.1 for glutamine, 7.3±0.7 for histidine, 5.9±0.4 for isoleucine, 10.6±0.8 for methionine, 11.2±1.3 for serine, 7.7± 1.0 for threonine, and 6.6±0.6 for valine. We have also measured the temperature dependence of solubility L(T) from 5-40 °C for arginine, glycine, and proline, and obtained hydration numbers H¯(T) in this range. Between 25-40 °C, arginine has an H¯ near zero. This may be evidence for an attractive interaction between xenon and arginine molecules in aqueous solution.

  19. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan phenylalanine amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Metabolism of amino acids, dipeptides and tetrapeptides by Lactobacillus sakei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinz, Quirin; Schwab, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    The microbial degradation of proteins, peptides and amino acids generates volatiles involved in the typical flavor of dry fermented sausage. The ability of three Lactobacillus sakei strains to form aroma compounds was investigated. Whole resting cells were fermented in phosphate buffer with equimolar amounts of substrates consisting of dipeptides, tetrapeptides and free amino acids, respectively. Dipeptides disappeared quickly from the solutions whereas tetrapeptides were only partially degraded. In both approaches the concentration of free amino acids increased in the reaction mixture but did not reach the equimolar amount of the initial substrates. When free amino acids were fed to the bacteria their levels decreased only slightly. Although peptides were more rapidly degraded and/or transported into the cells, free amino acids produced higher amounts of volatiles. It is suggested, that after transport into the cell peptides are only partially hydrolyzed to their amino acids, while the rest is metabolized via alternative metabolic pathways. The three L. sakei strains differed to some extend in their ability to metabolize the substrates to volatile compounds. In a few cases this was due to the position of the amino acids within the peptides. Compared to other starter cultures used for the production of dry fermented sausages, the metabolic impact of the L. sakei strains on the formation of volatiles was very low.

  1. Amino Acid Catabolism in Alzheimer's Disease Brain: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    There is a dire need to discover new targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. Decreased neuronal glucose metabolism that occurs in AD brain could play a central role in disease progression. Little is known about the compensatory neuronal changes that occur to attempt to maintain energy homeostasis. In this review using the PubMed literature database, we summarize evidence that amino acid oxidation can temporarily compensate for the decreased glucose metabolism, but eventually altered amino acid and amino acid catabolite levels likely lead to toxicities contributing to AD progression. Because amino acids are involved in so many cellular metabolic and signaling pathways, the effects of altered amino acid metabolism in AD brain are far-reaching. Possible pathological results from changes in the levels of several important amino acids are discussed. Urea cycle function may be induced in endothelial cells of AD patient brains, possibly to remove excess ammonia produced from increased amino acid catabolism. Studying AD from a metabolic perspective provides new insights into AD pathogenesis and may lead to the discovery of dietary metabolite supplements that can partially compensate for alterations of enzymatic function to delay AD or alleviate some of the suffering caused by the disease. PMID:28261376

  2. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, W; Huijmans, J G

    1992-02-01

    Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various etiology. To differentiate between primary and secondary aminoacido-pathies systematic laboratory investigation is necessary. Early diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport is very important, because most of them can be treated, leading to the prevention of (further) clinical abnormalities. In those disorders, which cannot be treated, early diagnosis in an index-patient may prevent the birth of other siblings by means of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.Primary aminoacidopathies can be due to genetically determined transport disorders and enzyme deficiencies in amino acid metabolism or degradation. Secondary aminoacidopathies are the result of abnormal or deficient nutrition, intestinal dysfunction, organ pathology or other metabolic diseases like organic acidurias.A survey of amino acid metabolism and transport abnormalities will be given, illustrated with metabolic pathways and characteristic abnormal amino acid chromatograms.

  3. Distribution of soluble amino acids in maize endosperm mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Alejandro Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For human nutrition the main source of vegetable proteins are cereal and legume seeds. The content of total soluble amino acids in mature endosperm of wild-type, opaque and floury maize (Zea mays L. mutants were determined by HPLC. The total absolute concentration of soluble amino acids among the mutants varied depending on the mutant. The o11 and o13 mutants exhibited the highest average content, whereas o10, fl3 and fl1 exhibited the lowest average content. In general, the mutants exhibited similar concentrations of total soluble amino acids when compared to the wild-type lines, with the clear exception of mutants o11 and fl1, with the o11 mutant exhibiting a higher concentration of total soluble amino acids when compared to its wild-type counterpart W22 and the fl1 mutant a lower concentration when compared to its wild-type counterpart Oh43. For methionine, the mutants o2 and o11 and wild-type Oh43 exhibited the highest concentrations of this amino acid. Significant differences were not observed between mutants for other amino acids such as lysine and threonine. The high lysine concentrations obtained originally for these mutants may be due to the amino acids incorporated into storage proteins, but not those present in the soluble form.

  4. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Massao Shimizu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino acids, although serine and glutamine were also significant. Except for tyrosine, which increased with germination, all other amino acids were reduced. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the total soluble protein showed glutamic acid/glutamine and glycine as the main amino acids. However, other amino acids such as leucine, aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, lysine, serine were also found in reasonable amounts.Endosperma é o principal tecido de reserva em sementes de café. Sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. foram germinadas por seis semanas e as alterações qualitativas e quantitativas de aminoácidos e proteínas foram investigadas. O conteúdo total de aminoácidos livres reduziu durante a germinação, no entanto, o conteúdo de proteínas permaneceu constante. Perfis eletroforéticos de proteínas em SDS-PAGE mostraram que proteínas do tipo legumina foram menos coradas nas últimas semanas. Asparagina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, alanina e lisina foram os principais aminoácidos, apesar de que serina e glutamina também estavam presentes em quantidades significativas. Exceto tirosina, a qual aumentou durante a germinação, todos os outros aminoácidos tiveram redução em sua concentração. A análise aminoacídica da fração de proteína solúvel total mostrou que ácido glutâmico/glutamina e glicina eram os principais aminoácidos presentes. No entanto, outros aminoácidos, tais como leucina, ácido asp

  5. The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D- and L-β-amino-n-butyric acid (β-ABA), DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, β-alanine, and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic β-ABA were present in some samples. We also examined seven samples from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 that had been previously allocated to a non-curation laboratory, as well as two samples of terrestrial dunite from studies of lunar module engine exhaust that had been stored in the same laboratory. The amino acid content of these samples suggested that contamination had occurred during non-curatorial storage. We measured the compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios of glycine, β-alanine, and L-alanine in Apollo regolith sample 70011 and found values of -21‰ to -33‰. These values are consistent with those seen in terrestrial biology and, together with the enantiomeric compositions of the proteinogenic amino acids, suggest that terrestrial biological contamination is a primary source of the

  6. Exhaustive Database Searching for Amino Acid Mutations in Proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid mutations in proteins can be found by searching tandem mass spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments against protein sequences predicted from genomes. Traditionally, unconstrained searches for amino acid mutations have been accomplished by using a sequence tagging approach that combines de novo sequencing with database searching. However, this approach is limited by the performance of de novo sequencing. The Sipros algorithm v2.0 was developed to perform unconstrained database searching using high-resolution tandem mass spectra by exhaustively enumerating all single non-isobaric mutations for every residue in a protein database. The performance of Sipros for amino acid mutation identification exceeded that of an established sequence tagging algorithm, Inspect, based on benchmarking results from a Rhodopseudomonas palustris proteomics dataset. To demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for meta-proteomics, Sipros was used to identify amino acid mutations in a natural microbial community in acid mine drainage.

  7. A common periodic table of codons and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, J C; Benyó, B; Sansom, C; Szlávecz, A; Fördös, G; Micsik, T; Benyó, Z

    2003-06-27

    A periodic table of codons has been designed where the codons are in regular locations. The table has four fields (16 places in each) one with each of the four nucleotides (A, U, G, C) in the central codon position. Thus, AAA (lysine), UUU (phenylalanine), GGG (glycine), and CCC (proline) were placed into the corners of the fields as the main codons (and amino acids) of the fields. They were connected to each other by six axes. The resulting nucleic acid periodic table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons. The corresponding amino acid table also displaced periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydropathy) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table emphasizes the importance of the central nucleotide in the codons and predicts that purines control the charge while pyrimidines determine the polarity of the amino acids. This prediction was experimentally tested.

  8. PROTEINS, PEPTIDES AND AMINO ACIDS AS MARKERS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Fyodorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of current literature on a content of proteins, peptides and amino acids in human exhaled breath. The results of proteomics and metabolomics applying for selective detection of individual proteins, peptides and amino acids are described. The study of exhaled breath condensate and exhaled endogenous particles contained lung proteins are considered. The peculiarities of protein, peptide and amino acid content in exhaled breath at various respiratory diseases are described. It is shown that the detectable substances may be specific markers of individual diseases.

  9. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  10. SIFT: Predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pauline C; Henikoff, Steven

    2003-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize substitutions for further study. We have shown that SIFT can distinguish between functionally neutral and deleterious amino acid changes in mutagenesis studies and on human polymorphisms. SIFT is available at http://blocks.fhcrc.org/sift/SIFT.html.

  11. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  12. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  13. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  14. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional characterization of candidate AAT genes in future studies.

  15. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  16. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  17. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  18. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  19. Covalently functionalized graphene sheets with biocompatible natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borandeh, Sedigheh [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets were covalently functionalized with aromatic–aliphatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) and aliphatic amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine) by simple and green procedure. For this aim, at first natural graphite was converted into graphene oxide (GO) through strong oxidation procedure; then, based on the surface-exposed epoxy and carboxylic acid groups in GO solid, its surface modification with naturally occurring amino acids, occurred easily throughout the corresponding nucleophilic substitution and condensation reactions. Amino acid functionalized graphene demonstrates stable dispersion in water and common organic solvents. Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the nanostructures and properties of prepared materials. Each amino acid has different considerable effects on the structure and morphology of the pure graphite, from increasing the layer spacing to layer scrolling, based on their structures, functional groups and chain length. In addition, therogravimetric analysis was used for demonstrating a successful grafting of amino acid molecules to the surface of graphene.

  20. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tushar Kanti Chakraborty; Pothukanuri Srinivasu; Subhasish Tapadar; Bajjuri Krishna Mohan

    2004-06-01

    To meet the growing demands for the development of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists have started working on many new concepts that can help to assimilate knowledge-based structural diversities more efficiently than ever before. Emulating the basic principles followed by Nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create `nature-like’ and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature’s molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of peptidomimetic studies. Advances made in the area of combinatorial chemistry can provide the necessary technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acidbased libraries exploiting the diversities of their carbohydrate frameworks and well-developed solidphase peptide synthesis methods. This perspective article chronicles some of the recent applications of various sugar amino acids, furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. and many other related building blocks in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies.

  1. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  2. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  3. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual...

  4. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7...... and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  5. Synthesis and catalytic application of amino acid based dendritic macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Gossage, R.A.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Ameijde, J. van; Mulders, S.J.E.; Brouwer, Arwin J.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of amino acid based dendrimers as molecular scaffolds for the attachment of catalytically active organometallic Ni ''pincer'' complexes, via a urea functionality, is described; the dendrimer catalysts have comparable activity to their mononuclear (NCN)NiX analogues.

  6. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  7. Disturbed amino acid metabolism in HIV: association with neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Gostner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, as well as of the tryptophan breakdown product kynurenine, are found to be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected patients. Both essential amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine are important precursor molecules for neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Thus, dysregulated amino acid metabolism may be related to disease-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as development of depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment.Increased phenylalanine/tyrosine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios are associated with immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection and decrease upon effective antiretroviral therapy. Recent large-scale metabolic studies have confirmed the crucial involvement of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV-associated disease. Herein, we summarize the current status of the role of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV disease and discuss how inflammatory stress-associated dysregulation of amino acid metabolism may be part of the pathophysiology of common HIV-associated neuropsychiatric conditions.

  8. Amyloid Aggregates Arise from Amino Acid Condensations under Prebiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Jason; Friedmann, Michael P; Riek, Roland

    2016-09-12

    Current theories on the origin of life reveal significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that allowed simple chemical precursors to coalesce into the complex polymers that are needed to sustain life. The volcanic gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) is known to catalyze the condensation of amino acids under aqueous conditions, but the reported di-, tri-, and tetra-peptides are too short to support a regular tertiary structure. Here, we demonstrate that alanine and valine, two of the proteinogenic amino acids believed to have been among the most abundant on a prebiotic earth, can polymerize into peptides and subsequently assemble into ordered amyloid fibers comprising a cross-β-sheet quaternary structure following COS-activated continuous polymerization of as little as 1 mm amino acid. Furthermore, this spontaneous assembly is not limited to pure amino acids, since mixtures of glycine, alanine, aspartate, and valine yield similar structures.

  9. Comparison of amino acids interaction with gold nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Fatemeh; Amanlou, Massoud; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-04-01

    The study of nanomaterial/biomolecule interface is an important emerging field in bionanoscience, and additionally in many biological processes such as hard-tissue growth and cell-surface adhesion. To have a deeper understanding of the amino acids/gold nanoparticle assemblies, the adsorption of these amino acids on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. In these simulations, all the constituent atoms of the nanoparticles were considered to be dynamic. The geometries of amino acids, when adsorbed on the nanoparticle, were studied and their flexibilities were compared with one another. The interaction of each of 20 amino acids was considered with 3 and 8 nm gold GNPs.

  10. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  11. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  12. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  13. AMINO ACID BLOOD POOL OF CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid blood pool of children with atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, angioedema was investigated. The variability of blood plasma amino acid content (tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine was observed. The changes of histidine and tryptophan levels might be connected with the formation of biogenic amines, such as histamine, serotonine, with take part in the development of allergic reactions and inflammatory processes in organism.

  14. Expression of heteromeric amino acid transporters along the murine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Zecevic, Marija; Wagner, Carsten A; Verrey, Francois

    2004-07-15

    Members of the new heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are composed of two subunits, a catalytic multitransmembrane spanning protein (light chain) and a type II glycoprotein (heavy chain). These transporters function as exchangers and thereby extend the transmembrane amino acid transport selectivity to specific amino acids. The heavy chain rBAT associates with the light chain b degrees (,+)AT to form a cystine and cationic amino acid transporter. The other heavy chain, 4F2hc, can interact with seven different light chains to form various transporters corresponding to systems L, y(+)L, asc or x(-)(c). The importance of some of these transporters in intestinal and renal (re)absorption of amino acids is highlighted by the fact that mutations in either the rBAT or b degrees (,+)AT subunit result in cystinuria whereas a defect in the y(+)-LAT1 light chain causes lysinuric protein intolerance. Here we investigated the localization of these transporters in intestine since both diseases are also characterized by altered intestinal amino acid absorption. Real time PCR showed organ-specific expression patterns for all transporter subunit mRNAs along the intestine and Western blotting confirmed these findings on the protein level. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated basolateral coexpression of 4F2hc, LAT2 and y(+)-LAT1 in stomach and small intestine, whereas rBAT and b degrees (,+)AT were found colocalizing on the apical side of small intestine epithelium. In stomach, 4F2hc and LAT2 were localized in H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-expressing parietal cells. The abundant expression of several members of the heterodimeric transporter family along the murine small intestine suggests their involvement in amino acids absorption. Furthermore, strong expression of rBAT, b degrees (,+)AT and y(+)-LAT1 in the small intestine explains the reduced intestinal absorption of some amino acid in patients with cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance.

  15. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid.

  17. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.

  18. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  19. Computational protein design quantifies structural constraints on amino acid covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Ollikainen

    Full Text Available Amino acid covariation, where the identities of amino acids at different sequence positions are correlated, is a hallmark of naturally occurring proteins. This covariation can arise from multiple factors, including selective pressures for maintaining protein structure, requirements imposed by a specific function, or from phylogenetic sampling bias. Here we employed flexible backbone computational protein design to quantify the extent to which protein structure has constrained amino acid covariation for 40 diverse protein domains. We find significant similarities between the amino acid covariation in alignments of natural protein sequences and sequences optimized for their structures by computational protein design methods. These results indicate that the structural constraints imposed by protein architecture play a dominant role in shaping amino acid covariation and that computational protein design methods can capture these effects. We also find that the similarity between natural and designed covariation is sensitive to the magnitude and mechanism of backbone flexibility used in computational protein design. Our results thus highlight the necessity of including backbone flexibility to correctly model precise details of correlated amino acid changes and give insights into the pressures underlying these correlations.

  20. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  1. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane.

  2. The preferences of orientations between the Pairs of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Wang Jun; Wang Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this work,we make an investigation on the preferences of orientations between amino acids using the orientation defined based on the local geometry of the amino acids concerned.It is found that there are common preferences of orientations (70°,30°,140°) and (110°,340°,100°) for various pairs of amino acids.Different side chains may strengthen or weaken the common preferences,which is related to the effect of packing.Some amino acids having specific local flexibility may possess some preferences of orientations besides the common ones,such as (10°,280°,210°) .Another analysis on the pairs of the amino acids with different secondary-structure preferences shows that the directional interaction may affect the distribution of orientation more effectively than the packing or local flexibility.All these results provide us some insight of the organization of amino acids in protein,and their relation with some related interactions.

  3. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  4. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  5. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid...

  6. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research...

  7. Abiotic Racemization Kinetics of Amino Acids in Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, Andrew D.; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Bente Aa Lomstein

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth be...

  8. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  9. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  10. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Andrew D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aa

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth below seafloor. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3°C suggests racemization rate constants of 0.50×10(-5)-11×10(-5) yr(-1). These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of d:l amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial populations.

  11. The interaction of amino acids, peptides, and proteins with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Andrey Y; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana I; Chernova, Irina A; Shataeva, Larisa K; Skorik, Yury A

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids that carry charges on their side groups can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and change the strength of the double helix. Measurement of the DNA melting temperature (Tm) confirmed that acidic amino acids (Glu, Asp) weaken the H-bonds between DNA strands, whereas basic amino acids (Arg, Lys) strengthen the interaction between the strands. A rank correlation exists between the amino acid isoelectric points and the observed changes in Tm. A similar dependence of the hyperchromic effect on the isoelectric point of a protein (pepsin, insulin, cortexin, and protamine) was observed for DNA-protein complexes at room temperature. Short peptides (KE, AEDG, and KEDP) containing a mixture of acidic and basic amino acid residues also affect Tm and the stability of the double helix. A model for binding Glu and Lys to dsDNA was explored by a docking simulation. The model shows that Glu, in an untwisted shape, binds to dsDNA in its major groove and disrupts three H-bonds between the strands, thereby destabilizing the double helix. Lys, in an untwisted shape, binds to the external side of the dsDNA and forms two bonds with O atoms of neighboring phosphodiester groups, thereby strengthening the DNA helix.

  12. Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

    2011-03-01

    Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

  13. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  15. Amino acids in dew - origin and seasonal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Edwin

    At two sites in the Armenhof district, 10 km east of Fulda, Germany, dew samples were collected from June 1996 to June 1997 and investigated for free and protein-bound amino acids. On account of the high pollen content, at the beginning of June 1996 and in May 1997 total amino acid concentrations were 53-390 μmol l -1, in one sample 922 μmol l -1. At other times the concentration in dew was 8-164 μmol l -1. On 4 and 5 June 1996 the diluted free amino acid fraction (DFAA) of the total hydrolysed amino acids (THAA) at both sites amounted to 35-44% and was predominantly arginine, proline and glutamine/glutamate. Likewise on 11 March 1997 the fraction of DFAA was found to be 39.5% with extremely high arginine and proline fractions. At other times the DFAA-fraction was in the range 14-26%. From July 1996 to June 1997 the amino acid concentrations in the vapours rising from a meadow were also measured and it ranged from 8 to 51 μmol l -1. From July to October 1996 the amino acid composition in the hydrolysates of dew samples and meadow vapours collected overnight were almost identical. The DFAA fraction in the condensation water collected overnight from the meadow varied from 18 to 40%. From 4 to 6 June 1996, on 11 and 13 March 1997 and in the period 16-20 May 1997, the amino acid distribution in dew showed much variation. The percentage fraction of arginine and proline in the hydrolysate increased greatly, whereas that of glycine and serine decreased. The large increase in proline and arginine in hydrolysate is attributable solely to the large amounts of free arginine and proline. This effect occurred in both 1996 and 1997 over several days at both sites at any one time and therefore appears confirmed.

  16. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Carvalho

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml. A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 µM each also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml, and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 µM each inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml or any other amino acid (50 µM tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine. Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 µM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2 concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  17. A set of amino acids found to occur more frequently in human and fly than in plant and yeast proteomes consists of non-essential amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that essential amino acids are being replaced in proteins by non-essential amino acids.We compared the amino acid composition in human, worm and fly proteomes, organisms that cannot synthesize all amino acids, with the amino acids of the proteomes of plant, bakers yeast and budding yeast, which are capable of synthesizing them. The analysis covered 460,737 proteins (212,197,907 amino acids). The data suggest a bias towards the usage of non-essential ami...

  18. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P;

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation...

  19. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order...

  20. Valuable biomolecules from nine North Atlantic red macroalgae: Amino acids, fatty acids, carotenoids, minerals and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Bruhn, Annette; Eybye, Karin Loft

    2016-01-01

    , glutamic acid, and arginine, respectively. The amino acid score of the nine algae varied from 44% to 92%, the most commonly first limiting amino acid being histidine. Lutein, β-carotene, and zeaxanthin were the identified carotenoids. Contents of all macro and trace minerals, with the exception...

  1. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A

    1984-01-01

    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  2. RESEARCH ON THE POLYCONDENSATION KINETICS OF ω-AMINO-ACIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baoren; SHI Manli; QIAN Chunqing

    1983-01-01

    In our previous report, it was discovered that the polycondensation of 9-amino-nonanoic acid follows second order from the beginning up to the extent of reaction, p, around 99%, and after which the reaction changes rapidly to third order. In this paper, we wish to report that this change of the reaction order from second to third occurred also in the polycondensation of 6aminocaproic acid and 11-amino-undecanoic acid. The transition region lay again at p around 99%.It may be concluded that this is a general rule in the polycondensation of the ω-amino-acids (monomers of the A-B type), and the controversial results that appeared in the literature may be cleared up by our experiments.

  3. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  4. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...... for developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  5. Complete amino acid sequence of the Aspergillus cytotoxin mitogillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luna, J.L.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Soriano, F.; Mendez, E.

    1985-02-12

    The complete amino acid sequence of the cytotoxin mitogillin has been determined by sequencing the intact chain and peptide fragments produced by cleavage at methionyl, arginyl, lysyl, and tryptophanyl residues and at one aspartic acid-proline bond. The protein consists of 149 amino acid residues with alanine at the NH/sub 2/ terminus and histidine at the COOH terminus. The calculated Mr of the native mitogillin was 16,867. The native molecule presents two disulfide bridges, one between cysteine residues at positions 5 and 147 and another one between cysteine residues at positions 75 and 131. The amino acid sequence of mitogillin shows 86% homology with another cytotoxic protein called alpha-sarcin.

  6. Amino acid analogs IV:4-fluoroisoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Clarke, D D

    1978-05-01

    4-Fluoroisoleucine was produced by ammonolysis of 2-bromo-4-fluoro-3-methylpentanoic acid, which resulted from the bromofluorination of 4-methyl-2-pentenoic acid. It did not inhibit Plasmodium berghei in mice at 640 mg/kg and was not toxic to the animals. The fluoroamino acid inhibited Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Mucor mucedo in Czapek solution agar at a concentration between 10(4) and 10(3) microgram/ml. Growth of Escherichia coli was inhibited 25% at 900 microgram/ml in a defined medium.

  7. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T.S. van der Gulik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed.

  8. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  9. The Role of Amino Acid Permeases and Tryptophan Biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Santos Fernandes

    Full Text Available Metabolic diversity is an important factor during microbial adaptation to different environments. Among metabolic processes, amino acid biosynthesis has been demonstrated to be relevant for survival for many microbial pathogens, whereas the association between pathogenesis and amino acid uptake and recycling are less well-established. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with many habitats. As a result, it faces frequent metabolic shifts and challenges during its life cycle. Here we studied the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and found that the pathway is essential. RNAi indicated that interruptions in the biosynthetic pathway render strains inviable. However, auxotroph complementation can be partially achieved by tryptophan uptake when a non preferred nitrogen source and lower growth temperature are applied, suggesting that amino acid permeases may be the target of nitrogen catabolism repression (NCR. We used bioinformatics to search for amino acid permeases in the C. neoformans and found eight potential global permeases (AAP1 to AAP8. The transcriptional profile of them revealed that they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms which are known to respond to nutritional status in other fungi, such as (i quality of nitrogen (Nitrogen Catabolism Repression, NCR and carbon sources (Carbon Catabolism Repression, CCR, (ii amino acid availability in the extracellular environment (SPS-sensing and (iii nutritional deprivation (Global Amino Acid Control, GAAC. This study shows that C. neoformans has fewer amino acid permeases than other model yeasts, and that these proteins may be subjected to complex regulatory mechanisms. Our data suggest that the C. neoformans tryptophan biosynthetic pathway is an excellent pharmacological target. Furthermore, inhibitors of this pathway cause Cryptococcus growth arrest in vitro.

  10. Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

  11. Impact of dietary aromatic amino acids on osteoclastic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaey, Mona El; Zhong, Qing; Ding, Ke-Hong; Shi, Xing-Ming; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Wendy B; Hill, William D; Chutkan, Norman; Robbins, Richard; Nadeau, Hugh; Johnson, Maribeth; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M

    2014-08-01

    We had shown that aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) supplementation prevented bone loss in an aging C57BL/6 mice model. In vivo results from the markers of bone breakdown suggested an inhibition of osteoclastic activity or differentiation. To assess osteoclastic differentiation, we examined the effects of aromatic amino acids on early /structural markers as vitronectin receptor, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II as well as, late/functional differentiation markers; cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Our data demonstrate that the aromatic amino acids down-regulated early and late osteoclastic differentiation markers as measured by real time PCR. Our data also suggest a link between the vitronectin receptor and the secreted cathepsin K that both showed consistent effects to the aromatic amino acid treatment. However, the non-attachment related proteins, calcitonin receptor, and carbonic anhydrase II, demonstrated less consistent effects in response to treatment. Our data are consistent with aromatic amino acids down-regulating osteoclastic differentiation by suppressing remodeling gene expression thus contributing initially to the net increase in bone mass seen in vivo.

  12. Detection of COL III in parchment by amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Dorte V P; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences, we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7 and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL III content and the degree of deterioration, our results show that this question must be taken into consideration in future studies of the chemical and physical deterioration of parchment measured by amino acid analysis and other analytical methods.

  13. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies.

  14. Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Thomas

    2003-09-04

    In the 1950s Corynebacterium glutamicum was found to be a very efficient producer of L-glutamic acid. Since this time biotechnological processes with bacteria of the species Corynebacterium developed to be among the most important in terms of tonnage and economical value. L-Glutamic acid and L-lysine are bulk products nowadays. L-Valine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid and L-alanine are among other amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Applications range from feed to food and pharmaceutical products. The growing market for amino acids produced with Corynebacteria led to significant improvements in bioprocess and downstream technology as well as in molecular biology. During the last decade big efforts were made to increase the productivity and to decrease the production costs. This review gives an overview of the world market for amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Significant improvements in bioprocess technology, i.e. repeated fed batch or continuous production are summarised. Bioprocess technology itself was improved furthermore by application of more sophisticated feeding and automatisation strategies. Even though several amino acids developed towards commodities in the last decade, side aspects of the production process like sterility or detection of contaminants still have increasing relevance. Finally one focus of this review is on recent developments in downstream technology.

  15. Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S; Holtug, K; Mortensen, P B

    1988-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) originate mainly in the colon through bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis that SCFA may originate from polypeptides as well, the production of these acids from albumin and specific amino acids was examined in a faecal incubation system....... Albumin was converted to all C2-C5-fatty acids, whereas amino acids generally were converted to specific SCFA, most often through the combination of a deamination and decarboxylation of the amino acids, although more complex processes also took place. This study indicates that a part of the intestinal...

  16. Analysis of amino acids by HPLC/electrospray negative ion tandem mass spectrometry using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jörg; Abel, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    A new method for the determination of amino acids is presented. It combines established methods for the derivatization of primary and secondary amino groups with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) with the subsequent amino acid specific detection of the derivatives by LC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The derivatization proceeds within 5 min, and the resulting amino acid derivatives can be rapidly purified from matrix by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on HR-X resin and separated by reversed-phase HPLC. The Fmoc derivatives yield several amino acid specific fragment ions which opened the possibility to select amino acid specific MRM transitions. The method was applied to all 20 proteinogenic amino acids, and the quantification was performed using L-norvaline as standard. A limit of detection as low as 1 fmol/µl with a linear range of up to 125 pmol/µl could be obtained. Intraday and interday precisions were lower than 10 % relative standard deviations for most of the amino acids. Quantification using L-norvaline as internal standard gave very similar results compared to the quantification using deuterated amino acid as internal standards. Using this protocol, it was possible to record the amino acid profiles of only a single root from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and to compare it with the amino acid profiles of 20 dissected root meristems (200 μm).

  17. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  18. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  19. Regulation of uterine and umbilical amino acid uptakes by maternal amino acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureen, P J; Anderson, S M; Hay, W W

    2000-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that decreased fetal amino acid (AA) supply, produced by maternal hypoaminoacidemia (low AA) during hyperglycemia (HG), is reversible with maternal AA infusion and regulates fetal insulin concentration ([I]). We measured net uterine and umbilical AA uptakes during maternal HG/low AA concentration ([AA]) and after maternal intravenous infusion of a mixed AA solution. After 5 days HG, all maternal [AA] except glycine were decreased >50%, particularly essential [AA] (P infusion increased net uterine uptakes of Val, Leu, Ile, Met, and Ser and net umbilical uptakes of Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Arg but did not change net uteroplacental uptake of any AA. Fetal [I] increased 55 +/- 14%, P < 0.001, with correction of fetal [AA], despite the lack of change in fetal glucose concentration. Thus generalized maternal hypoaminoacidemia decreases uterine and umbilical uptakes of primarily the essential AA and decreases fetal branched-chain [AA]. These changes are reversed with correction of maternal [AA], which also increases fetal [I].

  20. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  1. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  2. Hidden thermodynamic information in protein amino acid mutation tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    We combine the standard 1992 20 × 20 substitution matrix based on block alignment, BLOSUM62, with the standard 1982 amino acid hydropathicity scale KD as well as the modern 2007 hydropathicity scale MZ, and compare the results. The 20-parameter KD and MZ hydropathicity scales have different thermodynamic character, corresponding to first- and second-order transitions. The KD and MZ comparisons show that the mutation rates reflect quantitative iteration of qualitative amino acid-phobic and -philic binary 2 × 10 properties that define quaternary 4 × 5 subgroups (but not quinary 5 × 4 subgroups), with the modern MZ bioinformatic scale giving much better results. The quaternary 5-mer MZ 4 × 5 subgroups are called mutons (Mu5). Among all hydropathicity scales, the MZ scale uniquely exhibits a smooth, deep mutational minimum at its center associated with alanine, glycine, the smallest amino acid, and histidine.

  3. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Selmo F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  4. Thermochemical study of amino acid imprinted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ziyi; BelBruno, Joseph J

    2015-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers provide an alternative to traditional methods of amino acid analysis. The imprinted polymers are more robust and significantly less expensive than, for example, ELISA analysis. Amino acid imprinted nylon-6 thin films were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Endothermic peaks were observed for imprinted films at temperatures higher than that for pure nylon, indicating the formation of a more-ordered, hydrogen bonded polymer. Removal of the amino acid from the imprinted film resulted in reversion to the peak observed for pure nylon-6. Additives, β-cyclodextrin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, were added to the imprinted polymer solutions as a means to increase the porosity of the films. These studies resulted in alternative morphologies and calorimetric results that provide additional functionalities and applications for imprinted polymers.

  5. THz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weining; YUE Weiwei; YAN Haitao; ZHANG Cunlin; ZHAO Guozhong

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of four kinds of amino acids (tyrosine, arginine, histidine and glutamine) filled with nitrogen at room temperature were studied by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Well-resolved absorption and refractive spectrums between 0.1 and 2.8 THz were obtained based on the physical model for extracting the optical parameters of materials in THz range. The results not only fill up the spectra gap of amino acids in far-infrared range, supply data for amino acid molecular identification and conformation analysis, but also demonstrate significantly potential to promote the research and application of biological materials in bio-chemical and medical fields by THz-TDS.

  6. Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, R N; Onaka, T

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for creating amino acid enantiomerism that always selects the same global chirality is identified, and subsequent chemical replication and galactic mixing that would populate the galaxy with the predominant species is described. This involves: (1) the spin of the 14N in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules from which amino acids might be formed, coupling to the chirality of the molecules; 2) the neutrinos emitted from the supernova, together with magnetic field from the nascent neutron star or black hole formed from the supernova selectively destroying one orientation of the 14N, and thus selecting the chirality associated with the other 14N orientation; (3) chemical evolution, by which the molecules replicate and evolve to more complex forms of a single chirality on a relatively short timescale; and (4) galactic mixing on a longer timescale mixing the selected molecules throughout the galaxy.

  7. The Studies of the Reactions of 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate with Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shrong Shi LIN; Xian Jing KONG; Jing Yuan LIU; Cheng Yong LI

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of triphenylpyrylium salt 1 with various amino acids were explored andcompared. The reactions with most α-amino acids yielded decarboxylation products 2 viadecarboxylation. The reactions with glutamic acid, lysine and ACC (1-aminocyclopropyl-carboxylic acid) gave triphenylpyridine 8, dimer 9 and acid 5a-acc, respectively. The reactionswith β and γ-amino acids yielded triphenylpyridine by intramolecular elimination.

  8. Electroanalysis of amino acid substitutions in bioengineered acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somji, Mehdi; Dounin, Vladimir; Muench, Susanne B; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Kerman, Kagan

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the electrochemical profiling of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) wild-type and mutant proteins. An irreversible oxidation signal of electro-active tyrosine (Y), tryptophan (W) and cysteine (C) residues in five mutant proteins along with the wild-type AChE were detected using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Significant differences were observed in the W303L, T65Y and M301W substituted proteins showing a 25-35% higher peak current intensity compared to the Y349Y and F345Y mutants. It was predicted that AChE substituted with electrochemically active residues would produce the greatest signals and this trend was observed in the T65Y, M301W and Y349L mutants. However, conformational changes in the proteins structure as a result of the substitutions appeared to be most influential on peak current intensities. This was demonstrated by the W303L and F345Y mutant enzymes. The current intensity of W303L was greatest despite the removal of its electro-active W residue whereas the F345Y mutant had the lowest peak value despite the addition of an electro-active Y residue. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that SWV provides a promising tool to probe the presence of electro-active amino acid residues on the surface of a protein produced through bioengineering.

  9. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Derler, Karin

    2006-11-30

    The analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in green coffee is of the utmost importance since these two classes of compounds act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. During the course of the Maillard reaction potentially harmful substances like acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural accrue as well. The carbohydrates were analysed by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and the amino acids by reversed phase chromatography after derivatization with 6-amino-quinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate and fluorescence detection. Both methods had to be optimized to obtain a sufficient resolution of the analytes for identification and quantification. Sucrose is the dominant carbohydrate in green coffee with a concentration of up to 90 mg/g (mean = 73 mg/g) in arabica beans and significantly lower amounts in robusta beans (mean=45 mg/g). Alanine is the amino acid with the highest concentration (mean = 1200 microg/g) followed by asparagine (mean = 680 microg/g) in robusta and 800 microg/g and 360 microg/g in arabica respectively. In general, the concentration of amino acids is higher in robusta than in arabica.

  10. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  11. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astrofisica di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Angelini, Giancarlo [Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy); Iglesias-Groth, Susana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Manchado, Arturo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain) and CSIC (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T{sub 1/2} for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6x10{sup 9} years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6x10{sup 9} years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant k{sub rac}.

  12. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6×109 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6×109 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant krac.

  13. [Spectrophotometric determination of aromatic amino compounds with J-acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-hang; Shi, Wen-jian; Shen, Xin; Ma, Jun-tao; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The problems such as chromogenic reaction selectivity, reaction rate, sensitivity and water-solubility of azo compounds were considered. The molecular structures of coupling components were theoretically designed and screened in the present research The reaction conditions and methods of chromogenic reaction were investigated. J-Acid (2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid) as a coupling reagent to determine aromatic amino compounds was established. In the presence of potassium bromide, at room temperature, nitrite reacted with aromatic amino compounds in the medium of thin hydrochloric acid. Then diazonium salt reacted with J-Acid in the aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, forming coloured azo dye, which had a maximum adsorption at 480 nm. The molar adsorption coeffcients of aniline, 4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid and 1-naphthylamine were 3. 95 X 10(4), 3. 24 X 10(4) and 3. 91 X 10(4) L . mol-1 . cm-1 , respectively. Experimental results showed that common coexisting ions on the surface water did not affect the results of determination. J-Acid of spectrophotometry was used to determine the samples of Shanghai Fu Xing Dao canal. Meanwhile, recovery experiments by standard addition method were done. Experiment results showed that the recoveries of aniline were in the range of 98. 5%-102. 1%, and RSD was 2. 08%. J-Acid is a common organic reagent. It is soluble in water and low volatile, and its toxicity is much lower than N-ethylenediamine. spectrophotometric determination of aromatic amino compounds by J-Acid has the advantage of high sensitivity, good selectivity, simple rapid operation and accurate results, and thus it can be used for the determination of trace aromatic amino compounds in the environmental water.

  14. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall;

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find...

  15. Control of immune response by amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Ursula; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts is regulated by reciprocal survival strategies, including competition for essential nutrients. Though paradoxical, mammalian hosts have learned to take advantage of amino acid catabolism for controlling pathogen invasion and, at the same time, regulating their own immune responses. In this way, ancient catabolic enzymes have acquired novel functions and evolved into new structures with highly specialized functions, which go beyond the struggle for survival. In this review, we analyze the evidence supporting a critical role for the metabolism of various amino acids in regulating different steps of both innate and adaptive immunity.

  16. Regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids, especially glutamine (GLN) have been known for many years to stimulate the growth of small intestinal mucosa. Polyamines are also required for optimal mucosal growth, and the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, blocks growth. Certain amino acids, primarily asparagine (ASN) and GLN stimulate ODC activity in a solution of physiological salts. More importantly, their presence is also required before growth factors and hormones such as epidermal growth factor and insulin are able to increase ODC activity. ODC activity is inhibited by antizyme-1 (AZ) whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines, thus, providing a negative feedback regulation of the enzyme. In the absence of amino acids mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is inhibited, whereas, mTORC2 is stimulated leading to the inhibition of global protein synthesis but increasing the synthesis of AZ via a cap-independent mechanism. These data, therefore, explain why ASN or GLN is essential for the activation of ODC. Interestingly, in a number of papers, AZ has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, stimulate apoptosis, or increase autophagy. Each of these activities results in decreased cellular growth. AZ binds to and accelerates the degradation of ODC and other proteins shown to regulate proliferation and cell death, such as Aurora-A, Cyclin D1, and Smad1. The correlation between the stimulation of ODC activity and the absence of AZ as influenced by amino acids is high. Not only do amino acids such as ASN and GLN stimulate ODC while inhibiting AZ synthesis, but also amino acids such as lysine, valine, and ornithine, which inhibit ODC activity, increase the synthesis of AZ. The question remaining to be answered is whether AZ inhibits growth directly or whether it acts by decreasing the availability of polyamines to the dividing cells. In either case, evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of AZ synthesis is the

  17. Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sam H.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the roots of the common names of organic compounds most likely to be encountered by undergraduate organic chemistry students. Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (WRM)

  18. Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Piña, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets.

  19. Chiral MEKC-LIF of amino acids in foods: analysis of vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlavilla, Davinia; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Fanali, Salvatore; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2006-07-01

    The formation of D-amino acids (D-aa's) in many fermented foods depends, among other factors, on the particular fermentation conditions, the action and autolysis of the microorganisms involved. In this sense, the analysis of chiral amino acids is an interesting analytical strategy for food scientists, since these compounds can be used as bacterial markers and can help, e.g., to detect adulterations, microbiological contaminations, etc. In this work, a fast and sensitive method based on MEKC-LIF has been developed to analyze and quantitate L-amino acid (L-aa) and D-aa in vinegars. The chiral MEKC-LIF procedure uses 100 mM sodium tetraborate, 30 mM SDS, and 20 mM beta-CD at pH 9.7 as running buffer, obtaining a good separation of the main vinegar L-/D-aa previously derivatized with fluorescein isothiocianate. Namely, L/D proline, alanine, arginine, glutamic, and aspartic acid, plus the nonchiral amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid are separated in less than 20 min with high efficiency (up to 720,000 plates/m) and good sensitivity (LODs lower than 16.6 nM were achieved). Several D-aa's were detected and quantified in balsamic, sherry, white wine, and cider vinegars using this MEKC-LIF procedure, observing interesting differences in their L-aa and D-aa profiles and contents.

  20. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoling Jiang; Peng Wu; Jichun Tian

    2014-08-01

    Complete diallel crosses with five parents of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted to analyse inheritance of 17 amino acid contents by using the genetic model including seed, cytoplasmic, maternal and environment interaction effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops. The results showed that inheritance of 17 amino acid contents, except tyrosine, was controlled by several genetic systems including seed, cytoplasmic, and maternal effects, and by significant gene × environment interaction effects. Seed-direct additive and maternal effects constituted a major part of genetic effects for lysine, tyrosine, arginine, methionine, and glutamic acid content. Seed-direct additive effect formed main part in inheritance of isoleucine and serine contents. Threonine content was mainly governed by maternal additive effect. The other nine amino acid contents were almost entirely controlled by dominance effects. High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine (45.8%), lysine (24.7%) and threonine (21.4%) contents, revealed that it could be effective to improve them by direct selection in progenies from appropriate crosses. Interaction heritability for phenylalanine, proline, and histidine content, which was 36.1%, 39.5% and 25.7%, respectively, was higher than for the other amino acids.

  1. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and C-13- and N-15 content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholip...

  2. 3-{[(Benzyloxycarbonyl]amino}butanoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Fujii

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H15NO4, the butyric acid group has a stretched trans conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the oxycarboxyamino N—(C=O—O—C plane is 56.6 (2°. In the crystal, an inversion dimer is formed by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are further linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds between amide groups, forming a tape along the b axis.

  3. Unique roles of acidic amino acids in phase transformation of calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaobin; Jiang, Wenge; Zhang, Zhisen; Yan, Yang; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2011-02-10

    Although phase transformation is suggested as a key step in biomineralization, the chemical scenario about how organic molecules mediate inorganic phase transformations is still unclear. The inhibitory effect of amino acids on hydroxyapatite (HAP, the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bone and enamel) formation was concluded by the previous biomimetic modeling based upon direct solution crystallization. Here we demonstrate that acidic amino acids, Asp and Glu, could promote HAP crystallization from its precursor crystal, brushite (DCPD). However, such a promotion effect could not be observed when the nonacidic amino acids were applied in the transformation-based HAP formation. We found that the specific modification of acidic amino acid on crystal-solution interfaces played a key role in the phase transition. The distinct properties between DCPD and HAP in the solution resulted in an interfacial energy barrier to suppress the spontaneous formation of HAP phase on DCPD phase. Different from the other amino acids, the carboxylate-rich amino acids, Asp and Glu, could modify the interfacial characteristics of these two calcium phosphate crystals to make them similar to each other. The experiments confirmed that the involvement of Asp or Glu reduced the interfacial energy barrier between DCPD and HAP, leading to a trigger effect on the phase transformation. An in-depth understanding about the unique roles of acidic amino acids may contribute to understanding phase transformation controls druing biomineralization.

  4. Finding coevolving amino acid residues using row and column weighting of mutual information and multi-dimensional amino acid representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Some amino acid residues functionally interact with each other. This interaction will result in an evolutionary co-variation between these residues - coevolution. Our goal is to find these coevolving residues. RESULTS: We present six new methods for detecting coevolving...... residues. Among other things, we suggest measures that are variants of Mutual Information, and measures that use a multidimensional representation of each residue in order to capture the physico-chemical similarities between amino acids. We created a benchmarking system, in silico, able to evaluate...

  5. Analysis of Peptides and Conjugates by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is a highly accurate method for characterization of the composition of synthetic peptides. Together with mass spectrometry, it gives a reliable control of peptide quality and quantity before conjugation and immunization.Peptides are hydrolyzed, preferably in gas phase, with 6 M...... HCl at 110 °C for 20-24 h and the resulting amino acids analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization. Depending on the hydrolysis conditions, tryptophan is destroyed, and cysteine also, unless derivatized, and the amides, glutamine and asparagine, are deamidated...... to glutamic acid and aspartic acid, respectively. Three different ways of calculating results are suggested, and taking the above limitations into account, a quantitation better than 5 % can usually be obtained....

  6. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Chiral Recognition of Amino Acids by Magnetoelectrodeposited Cu Film Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwao Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral behavior of magnetoelectrodeposited (MED Cu film electrodes was investigated for the electrochemical reactions of amino acids. The Cu films were electrodeposited under a magnetic field of 5 T perpendicular to the electrode surface. Such MED Cu films were employed as an electrode, and cyclic voltammograms were measured for the electrochemical reactions of several kinds of amino acids. Chiral behavior was clearly observed as oxidation current difference between the enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The MED film electrodes with the thickness of 50~500 nm exhibited such chiral behavior, and their surface morphologies had network structures, which could be induced by the micro-MHD effect.

  8. Metabolomics reveals amino acids contribute to variation in response to simvastatin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Trupp

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Statins are widely prescribed for reducing LDL-cholesterol (C and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, but there is considerable variation in therapeutic response. We used a gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics platform to evaluate global effects of simvastatin on intermediary metabolism. Analyses were conducted in 148 participants in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics study who were profiled pre and six weeks post treatment with 40 mg/day simvastatin: 100 randomly selected from the full range of the LDL-C response distribution and 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of this distribution ("good" and "poor" responders, respectively. The metabolic signature of drug exposure in the full range of responders included essential amino acids, lauric acid (p<0.0055, q<0.055, and alpha-tocopherol (p<0.0003, q<0.017. Using the HumanCyc database and pathway enrichment analysis, we observed that the metabolites of drug exposure were enriched for the pathway class amino acid degradation (p<0.0032. Metabolites whose change correlated with LDL-C lowering response to simvastatin in the full range responders included cystine, urea cycle intermediates, and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, citrulline and lysine. These dibasic amino acids share plasma membrane transporters with arginine, the rate-limiting substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS, a critical mediator of cardiovascular health. Baseline metabolic profiles of the good and poor responders were analyzed by orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis so as to determine the metabolites that best separated the two response groups and could be predictive of LDL-C response. Among these were xanthine, 2-hydroxyvaleric acid, succinic acid, stearic acid, and fructose. Together, the findings from this study indicate that clusters of metabolites involved in multiple pathways not directly connected with cholesterol metabolism may play a role in modulating

  9. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, E; Pate, J L

    1985-10-01

    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  10. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  11. Distribution of D-amino acids in vinegars and involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the production of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Akano, Hirofumi; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Levels of free D-amino acids were compared in 11 vinegars produced from different sources or through different manufacturing processes. To analyze the D- and L-amino acids, the enantiomers were initially converted into diastereomers using pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde plus N-acethyl-L-cysteine or N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-cysteine. This was followed by separation of the resultant fluorescent isoindol derivatives on an octadecylsilyl stationary phase using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The analyses showed that the total D-amino acid level in lactic fermented tomato vinegar was very high. Furthermore, analysis of the amino acids in tomato juice samples collected after alcoholic, lactic and acetic fermentation during the production of lactic fermented tomato vinegar showed clearly that lactic fermentation is responsible for the D-amino acids production; marked increases in D-amino acids were seen during lactic fermentation, but not during alcoholic or acetic fermentation. This suggests lactic acid bacteria have a greater ability to produce D-amino acids than yeast or acetic acid bacteria.

  12. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Arctigenin Amino Acid Ester Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, En-Bo; Yang, Li-Min; Jia, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wei; Song, Xing-Zhuo; Zheng, Man-Ling

    2016-10-01

    The use of arctigenin (ARG), a traditional medicine with many pharmacological activities, has been restricted due to its poor solubility in water. Five amino acid derivatives of ARG have been synthesized using glycine, o-alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, which have t-butyloxy carbonyl (BOC) as a protective group. In this study, we examined the effects of removing these protective groups. The results showed that the amino acid derivatives have better solubility and nitrite-clearing ability than ARG. Among the compounds tested, the amino acid derivatives without protective group were the best. Based on these results, ARG and its two amino acid derivatives without protective group (ARG8, ARG10) were selected to evaluate their anti-tumor activity in vivo at a dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results indicated that ARG8 and ARG10 both exhibit more anti-tumor activity than ARG in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The tumor inhibition rates of ARG8 and ARG10 were 69.27 and 43.58%, which was much higher than ARG. Furthermore, the mice treated with these compounds exhibited less damage to the liver, kidney and immune organs compared with the positive group. Furthermore, ARG8 and ARG10 improved the serum cytokine levels significantly compared to ARG. In brief, this study provides a method to improve the water solubility of drugs, and we also provide a reference basis for new drug development.

  13. One-Pot Synthesis of N-Phosphoryl Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xin; FU Hua; LIN Chang-Xue; ZHAO Yu-Fen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Phosphoramidates have been considered as an important class of rationally designed therapeutics especially asoligonucleotide analogs employed as antisene and antigene agents. [1] N-Phosphoryl amino acids are of biological andpharmaceutical interest, [2] and can be used as the building blocks in synthesis of polypeptides. [3

  14. tRNAs: cellular barcodes for amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Rajat; Chen, Shawn; Dare, Kiley

    2010-01-01

    The role of tRNA in translating the genetic code has received considerable attention over the last 50 years, and we now know in great detail how particular amino acids are specifically selected and brought to the ribosome in response to the corresponding mRNA codon. Over the same period, it has a...

  15. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  16. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of amino acid derivatives using carbohydrates as templates

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Horst; Sager, Wilfried; Pfrengle, Waldemar; Laschat, Sabine; Schanzenbach, Dirk

    1993-01-01

    Glycosylamines contain the easily cleavable semi-aminal-type N-glycosidic bond. O-Protected glycosylamines, therefore, can advantageously be used as a form of "asymmetric ammonia", for instance, in Strecker syntheses and in Ugi reactions to give amino acid amides as well as in modifications of the Mannich reaction.

  18. Syntrophic degradation of amino acids by thermophilic methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Waste water usually contains large amounts of different organic compounds. A variety of microbial processes are involved in the anaerobic methanogenic treatment of waste water, such as hydrolysis of lipids, polysaccharides and proteins, fermentation of sugars and amino acids, acetogenic conversion o

  19. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Copper and Cobalt Amino Acids Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA STĂNILĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial properties of differently copper and cobalt amino acids complexes on agar plates was investigated in the present study. The antibacterial activity of amino acid complexes was evaluated against on three bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus. Generally, the amino acids complexes were mainly active against gram-positive organisms, species like Micrococcus luteus being the most susceptible strain tested. It was registered a moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. The microorganisms Escherichia coli, which are already known to be multi-resistant to drugs, were also resistant to the amino acids complexes but also to the free salts tested. Escherichia coli were susceptible only to the CoCl2 and copper complex with phenylalanine. The complexes with leucine and histidine seem to be more active than the parent free ligand against one or more bacterial species. Moderate activity was registered in the case of complexes with methionine and phenylalanine. From the complexes tested less efficient antibacterial activity was noted in the case of complexes with lysine and valine. These results show that cobalt and copper complexes have an antibacterial activity and suggest their potential application as antibacterial agents.

  1. Photostability of amino acids: photodissociation dynamics of phenylalanine chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Ming; Lin, Ming-Fu; Yang, Yi Lin; Ho, Yu Chieh; Ni, Chi-Kung; Chang, Jia-Lin

    2010-05-21

    The theoretical prediction of H atom elimination on the excited state of phenol, imidazole and indole, the respective chromophores for the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan, and the confirmation of theoretical prediction by experimental observations have a great impact on the explanation of photostability of amino acids upon irradiation with UV photons. On the other hand, no theoretical prediction of the excited state photodissociation dynamics has been made on the other aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine. In this work, photodissociation dynamics for various phenylalanine chromophores, including, phenylethylamine, N-methyl-phenylethylamine, and N-acetyl phenylalanine methyl ester was investigated in a molecular beam at 248 and 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. The major dissociation channel for these compounds is the C-C bond cleavage. However, the photofragment translational energy distribution of phenylethylamine contains two components. The slow component corresponds to the dissociation on the ground state surface after internal conversion, and the fast component represents the dissociation from an excited state with a large exit barrier. The competition between the dissociation on the ground state and on the excited state changes as the size of chromophores increases. Internal conversion to the ground state prior to dissociation becomes the major nonradiative process for large chromophores. This study reveals the size-dependent photostability for these amino acid chromophores.

  2. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall;

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable ...

  3. Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhao; Eun-Jin Park; Jong-Wook Chung; Yong-Jin Park; III-Min Chung; Joung-Kuk Ahn; Gwang-Ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis In rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.

  4. Chlorine dioxide reaction with selected amino acids in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia, Hermenegildo, E-mail: hgarcia@qim.upv.es [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-05-30

    Chlorine dioxide is a hypochlorite alternative disinfectant agent. In this context, we have determined the products formed in the reaction of ClO{sub 2} with selected amino acids as model compounds that can be present in natural waters. The reaction of tryptophane, histidine and tyrosine (10 ppm each) with ClO{sub 2} were studied at molar ratios ranging from 0.25 to 4 in the presence or absence of oxygen. It was found that in the absence of oxygen adding substoichiometric amounts of ClO{sub 2} creates products that are structurally similar to the starting amino acids. Through a series of cascade reactions the initial product distribution gradually evolves toward simple, small carbon chain products that are far from the starting amino acid. The reaction product distribution revealed that chlorine dioxide can attack the electron-rich aromatic moieties as well as the nitrogen atom lone electron pair. Our study is relevant to gain knowledge on the reaction mechanism of ClO{sub 2} with ubiquitous amino acids present in natural waters.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of central amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the functional characterisation of the transcriptional regulators GlnR, ArgR and AhrC of Lactococcus lactis, which are responsible for the control of genes involved in the metabolism of the amino acids glutamine, glutamate and arginine. A chromosomal glnR deletion mutant was ma

  6. Third generation capture system: precipitating amino acid solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Misiak, K.; Ham, L. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This work summarises the results of the design of novel separation processes for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating amino acid solvents. The processes here described (DECAB, DECAB Plus and pH-swing) use a combination of enhanced CO2 absorption (based on the Le Chatelier’s principle) an

  7. Progress Toward an Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler Astrobiology Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. P.; Willis, P. A.; Blacksberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a new astrobiolgoy instrument for exploring the trace chemical composition of the Enceladus jets and plume, and the e-ring of Saturn is presented. The Enceladus amino acid sampler (EAAS) allows for detection of amino acids using optical Raman spectroscopy integrated with a sample pre-concentration system. The pre-concentration process facilitates the delivery of a sample to a mass spectrometer for detection of specific amino acids. The initial EAAS design utilizes lab-on-a-breadboard components where a sample inlet, sample outlet, reagents, controllers, pumps, valves and pre-concentration column for the EAAS prototype are all assembled on a 5" x 7" breadboard. The pre-concentration process is controlled using automation scripts and software. An optical window allows a Raman spectrometer to directly monitor the pre-concentration of amino acids in a filter/column loaded with of a strong cation exchange resin. Initial samples to demonstrate EAAS simulate the conditions of Don Juan Pond, one of the coldest and saltiest bodies of liquid water on Earth, located in the Wright Valley of Antarctica. This EAAS development is an important step toward a new type of astrobiology science instrument that is capable of operating on a spacecraft in flight or in orbit.

  8. Formation mechanism of coamorphous drug−amino acid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Cornett, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Two coamorphous drug−amino acid systems, indomethacin−tryptophan (Ind−Trp) and furosemide−tryptophan Fur−Trp), were analyzed toward their ease of amorphization and mechanism of coamorphization during ball milling. The two mixtures were compared to the corresponding amorphization of the pure drug...

  9. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo;

    2015-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through...

  10. Chiroptical Properties of Amino Acids: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Adrian-Scotto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are involved in many scientific theories elucidating possible origins of life on Earth. One of the challenges when discussing the evolutionary origin of biopolymers such as proteins and oligonucleotides in living organisms is the phenomenon that these polymers implement monomers of exclusively one handedness, a feature called biomolecular homochirality. Many attempts have been made to understand this process of racemic symmetry breaking. Assuming an extraterrestrial origin of the molecular building blocks of living organisms, their susceptibility to asymmetric photolysis by the absorption of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation in interstellar space was proposed. In order to predict whether the interaction of circularly polarized light with various racemic amino acids can induce an enantiomeric excess, we investigated the electronic and chiroptical properties of the amino acids valine and isovaline by a molecular modelling approach based on quantum chemistry (Density Functional Theory. The average spectra of both L-valine and L-isovaline have been produced on the basis of Boltzmann population analysis using computed spectra for the various conformations of each amino acid.

  11. Adsorption of aromatic amino acids in a fixed bed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr are two of the twenty amino acids in proteins; they are classified as aromatic amino acids, because both have a benzene ring in their structures. These amino acids are important in the synthesis of several biologically active amines, such as beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter. Amino acids can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. In this case, it is important that fixed-bed adsorber design adequately predict the breakthrough curve. This work presents a mathematical model for both fluid and porous phases. In the solution proposed for this model the liquid-phase concentration inside the particles is solved analytically and is related to the liquid-phase concentration in the bed using Duhamel's theorem. The solution for liquid-phase concentration in the bed is then solved numerically instead of analytically. The basic mass transfer parameters are from the literature. The results from the model are compared with those obtained experimentally using Phe and Tyr diluted in aqueous solutions in a fixed bed of PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin.

  12. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet; de Groot, Martijn J.; MacDonald, Anita; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with

  13. Induction of DNA damage by oxidised amino acids and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, Catherine; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of amino acids, peptides and proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 generates hydroperoxides in a dose-dependent manner. These hydroperoxides are stable in the absence of exogenous catalysts (e.g. heat, light, redox-active transition metal ions), but decompose rapidly in the presence...

  14. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  15. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic.

  16. Novel cinchona carbamate selectors with complementary enantioseparation characteristics for N-acylated amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkler, Karl Heinz; Maier, Norbert M; Ungaro, Rocco; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and chromatographic evaluation of the enantiomer separation capabilities of covalently immobilized calix[4]arene-cinchona carbamate hybrid type receptors derived from quinine (QN) and its corresponding C9-epimer (eQN) in different solvents are reported. The receptors display complementary enantiomer separation profiles in terms of elution order, chiral substrate specificity, and mobile phase characteristics, indicating the existence of two distinct chiral recognition mechanisms. The QN-derived receptor binds the (S)-enantiomers of N-acylated amino acids more strongly, shows preferential recognition of open-chained amino acids, and superior enantioselectivity in polar media such as methanol/acetic acid. In contrast, the eQN congener preferentially recognizes the corresponding (R)-enantiomers, displays good enantioselectivity (alpha up to 1.74) for cyclic amino acids, and enhanced stereodiscriminating properties in apolar mobile phases, e.g., chloroform/acetic acid. A comparison of the enantiomer separation profiles with those of the corresponding QN and eQN tert-butyl carbamate congeners indicates no significant level of cooperativity between the calix[4]arene module and the cinchona units in terms of overall chiral recognition, most probably as a consequence of residual conformational flexibility of the calixarene module and the carbamate linkage.

  17. Predictable conformational diversity in foldamers of sugar amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyhard, Dora K; Hudaky, Ilona; Jákli, Imre; Juhász, György; Perczel, András

    2017-03-27

    Systematic conformational search was carried out for monomers and homohexamers of furanoid β-amino acids: cis-(S,R) and trans-(S,S) stereoisomers of aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), two different aminofuranuronic-acids (AFU(α) and AFU(β)), their isopropylidene derivatives (AFU(ip)) as well as the key intermediate β-aminotetrahydrofurancarboxylic acid (ATFC). Stereochemistry of the building blocks was chosen to match with that of natural sugar amino acid (xylose and ribose) precursors. Results show that hexamers of cis furanoid β-amino acids show great variability: while hydrophobic cyclopentane (cis(ACPC)6), and hydrophilic (cisXylAFU(α/β))6 foldamers favor two different zigzagged conformation as hexamers, the backbone fold turns into a helix in case of (cisATFC)6 (10-helix) and (cisAFU(ip))6 (14-helix). Trans stereochemistry resulted in hexamers exclusively of right-handed helix conformation, (H12(P))6, regardless of their polarity. We found that the preferred oligomeric structure of cis/(S,R)AFU(α/β) is conformationally compatible with β-pleated sheets, while that of the trans/(S,S) units match with α-helices of α-proteins.

  18. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  19. In situ rumen degradation of amino acids from different feeds corrected for microbial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Centeno, Carmen; Lamrani, Farida; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Variations of the amino acid profile produced by rumen actions were established for fish meal (FM), corn grain (CG), corn gluten feed (GF), dehydrated beet pulp (DBP), and lucerne hay (LH), using the nylon bag technique. The effects of degradation of soluble or insoluble proteins were measured by rumen incubations at 0 h (washout value) and 16 h, respectively. Rumen incubations were performed on four cannulated wethers and the microbial contamination of incubated resid...

  20. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Irshaidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293 illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+, AlF2+, and Al3+ were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation analysis of intra-molecular charge delocalization and the natural population analysis atomic charges; molecular geometries; selected infrared stretching frequencies (C-N, C-O, and N-H, and selected ¹H-NMR chemical shifts. The data illustrate that this interaction can weaken the H-O bond and goes beyond strengthening the intra-molecular hydrogen bond (N...H-O to cause a spontaneous transfer of the proton to the nitrogen atom in five cases generating zwitterion structures. Many new features are observed. Most importantly, the zwitterion structures include a stabilizing hydrogen bond (N-H...O that varies in relative strength according to the Lewis acid. These findings explain the experimental observations of α-amino acids (for example: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3577 and are the first reported fundamental electronic structure characterization of β-amino acids in zwitterion form.

  1. Quantitative measurement of endogenous amino acid absorption in unanaesthetized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerat, A; Vaissade, P; Vaugelade, P

    1988-06-01

    The present experiment was carried out with 11 pigs (mean body weight: 53.9 +/- 1.3 kg) fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein and carotid artery and with an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein. They were each subjected to 2 or 3 trials at 3 to 4-day intervals. During each trial the animals received after a previous fasting of 20 h a given amount of a protein-free diet (200 to 1200 g). The blood was collected either continuously for a quantitative determination of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars, urea and ammonia (number of meals 12, mean intake: 727 +/- 60 g) or discontinuously every 30 min between 0 and 8 h after the meal for amino acid analysis (number of meals 8; mean intake 709 +/- 105 g). A rather constant appearance (2 g/h) of amino acids in the portal blood was observed throughout the postprandial period. The intestinal absorption of each amino acid was however variable and represented between 10 and 50% of the daily requirements of the animal during the measuring period (8 h). Glutamine and to a less extent glutamic acid were exceptions as they were taken up by the gut wall from the arterial blood. There was also a marked synthesis of ornithine and citrulline by the latter. Because of the low blood level of urea, there were no apparent exchanges of urea between the blood and the intestine; in contrast, the ammonia absorption represented about 70% of that observed after ingestion of normal protein diets. Most amino acids are largely taken up by the liver and peripheral tissues, but in the case of alanine the syntheses exceed the uptake.

  2. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E;

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  3. A toy model of prebiotic peptide evolution: the possible role of relative amino acid abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical-computational toy model based on the assumed dynamic principles of prebiotic peptide evolution. Starting from a pool of amino acid monomers, the model describes in a generalized manner the generation of peptides and their sequential information. The model integrates the intrinsic and dynamic key elements of the initiation of biopolymerization, such as the relative amino acid abundances and polarities, as well as the oligomer reversibility, i.e. fragmentation and recombination, and peptide self-replication. Our modeling results suggest that the relative amino acid abundances, as indicated by Miller-Urey type electric discharge experiments, played a principal role in the early sequential information of peptide profiles. Moreover, the computed profiles display an astonishing similarity to peptide profiles observed in so-called biological common ancestors found in the following three microorganisms; E. coli, M. jannaschii, and S. cereviasiae. The prebiotic peptide fingerprint was obtained by the so-called polarity index method that was earlier reported as a tool for the identification of cationic amphipathic antibacterial short peptides.

  4. Nutritional value of protein hydrolysis products (oligopeptides and free amino acids) as a consequence of absorption and metabolism kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerat, A.

    1995-01-01

    When pigs were submitted to duodenal infusion of solutions containing a large percentage of small peptides (PEP) or free amino acids with the same pattern (AAL) amino acids appear in the portal blood more rapidly and more uniformly after infusion of PEP then after infusion of AAL, with the notable exception of methionine for which the opposite was true. These differences were lowered when a carbohydrate (maltose dextrin) was present in the solution, but nevertheless remained significant for the first hour after the infusion. The long-term (8-hour) uptake of free amino acids into the liver and the peripheral tissues differed in profile according to the nature of the duodenal infusion. Peripheral uptake was appreciably less well balanced after infusion of free amino acids (deficiency of threonine and phenylalanine) than after infusion of small peptides (deficiency of methionine). Accordingly, in the rat, under conditions of discontinuous enteral nutrition the mixture of small peptides was of greater nutritive value than the mixture of free amino acids. It thus appears that the absorption kinetics which results in important variations in the temporal distribution of free amino acids in the tissues may be at the origin of transitory imbalances in tissue amino acid uptake, and as a result of a lower nutritive value.

  5. Study of sample preparation for quantitative analysis of amino acids in human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-01

    The determination of physiological levels of amino acids is important to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases and nutritional status of individuals. Amino acids are frequently determined in biofluids such as blood (serum or plasma) and urine; however, there are less common biofluids with different concentration profiles of amino acids that could be of interest. One of these biofluids is sweat that can be obtained in a non-invasive manner and is characterized by low complex composition. The analysis of amino acids in human sweat requires the development of sample preparation strategies according to the sample matrix and small collected volume. The influence of sample preparation on the quantitative analysis of amino acids in sweat by LC-MS/MS has been assessed through a comparison between two strategies: dilution of sweat and centrifugal microsolid-phase extraction (c-μSPE). In both cases, several dilution factors were assayed for in-depth knowledge of the matrix effects, and the use of c-μSPE provided the best results in terms of accuracy. The behavior of the target analytes was a function of the dilution factor, thus providing a pattern for sample preparation that depended on the amino acid to be determined. The concentration of amino acids in sweat ranges between 6.20 ng mL(-1) (for homocysteine) and 259.77 µg mL(-1) (for serine) with precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, within 1.1-21.4%.

  6. The antimicrobial activities of the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing-Yi; Xiong, Jia-Jun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Chao; Wen Ye

    2011-11-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a well-established natural antimicrobial compound. It is probable for cinnamaldehyde to react with amino acid forming Schiff base adduct in real food system. In this paper, 9 such kind of adducts were prepared by the direct reaction of amino acids with cinnamaldehyde at room temperature. Their antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated with benzoic acid as a reference. The adducts showed a dose-dependent activities against the three microbial strains. Both cinnamaldehyde and their adducts were more active against B. subtilis than on E. coli, and their antimicrobial activities were higher at lower pH. Both cinnamaldehyde and its adducts were more active than benzoic acid at the same conditions. The adduct compound A was non-toxic by primary oral acute toxicity study in mice. However, in situ effect of the adduct compound A against E. coli was a little lower than cinnamaldehyde in fish meat. This paper for the first time showed that the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids had similar strong antimicrobial activities as cinnamaldehyde, which may provide alternatives to cinnamaldehyde in food to avoid the strong unacceptable odor of cinnamaldehyde.

  7. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Steen

    Full Text Available The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth below seafloor. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3°C suggests racemization rate constants of 0.50×10(-5-11×10(-5 yr(-1. These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of d:l amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial populations.

  8. Regulation of adipose branched chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated blood branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. One possibility is that under these conditions there is a reduced cellular utilization and/or lower complete oxidation of BCAAs. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a...

  9. Tuning hardness in calcite by incorporation of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Carloni, Joseph D.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Sparks, David; Reid, David G.; Kunitake, Miki E.; Tang, Chiu C.; Duer, Melinda J.; Freeman, Colin L.; Pokroy, Boaz; Penkman, Kirsty; Harding, John H.; Estroff, Lara A.; Baker, Shefford P.; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2016-08-01

    Structural biominerals are inorganic/organic composites that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. However, the structure-property relationships of even the simplest building unit--mineral single crystals containing embedded macromolecules--remain poorly understood. Here, by means of a model biomineral made from calcite single crystals containing glycine (0-7 mol%) or aspartic acid (0-4 mol%), we elucidate the origin of the superior hardness of biogenic calcite. We analysed lattice distortions in these model crystals by using X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, and by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance show that the amino acids are incorporated as individual molecules. We also demonstrate that nanoindentation hardness increased with amino acid content, reaching values equivalent to their biogenic counterparts. A dislocation pinning model reveals that the enhanced hardness is determined by the force required to cut covalent bonds in the molecules.

  10. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishova, E.; Di Costanzo, L; Emig, F; Ash, D; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of arginase I. Specifically, we focus on (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis.

  11. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  12. Comparison of the amino acid and peptide composition and postprandial response of beef, hydrolyzed chicken, and whey protein nutritional preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Detzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing dietary protein intake synergistically improves the effect of exercise to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma amino acid response of two novel protein nutritional preparations, beef protein isolate (BeefISO™ and hydrolyzed chicken protein isolate (MyoCHX™. Methods: The postprandial plasma amino acid response over 3 hours was monitored in young adults (n=6 following consumption of 23 grams of WPC, BeefISO™, or MyoCHX™. Amino acid compositional analysis and molecular weight distributions of each protein were performed by HPLC. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way or two-way ANOVA where appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons to account for the cross-over design. Results: Compositional evaluations revealed similar levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids for WPC and MyoCHX™. While the results of this study predictably demonstrated plasma amino acids levels increased following consumption of the different proteins, the kinetics of the postprandial response was unique to each protein source. WPC and MyoCHX™ were rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma amino acid concentrations observed at 30 and 15 min, respectively. The slightly faster absorption of MyoCHX™ was associated with the increased peptide content of MyoCHX™ (greater than 76% of protein is <2kDa. BeefISO™ exhibited sustained release characteristics as evidenced by increased post prandial amino acid concentrations after 3 hours. Conclusions: The protein preparations studied each had different amino acid profiles and absorption kinetics. WPC and MyoCHX™ contained a higher essential amino acid content and were rapidly absorbed with plasma amino acid concentrations peaking within 30 minutes following consumption. BeefISO™ contained a higher proportion of conditionally essential amino acids that steadily increased in plasma over 3 hours, indicating a sustained release

  13. Amino acids attached to 2'-amino-LNA: Synthesis of DNA mixmer oligonucleotides with increased duplex stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Marie Willaing; Wengel, Jesper; Wamberg, Michael Chr.;

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA (locked nucleic acid) opens up exciting possibilities for modification of nucleic acids by conjugation to the 2'-nitrogen. Incorporation of unmodified and N-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA nucleotides improve duplex stability compared to unmodified DNA. 2'-Amino......-LNA nucleosides derivatized with amino acids have been synthesized and incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides. Following oligonucleotide synthesis, peptides have been added using solid phase peptide coupling chem. Modification of oligonucleotides with pos. charged residues greatly improves thermal stability....

  14. The cysteine, total sulfur amino acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, and non-essential amino acid maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Sakomura, N K; Coon, C N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Cys, Tyr, and non-essential amino acids (AA) in a 21-day experiment. The breeders were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Cys or Tyr representing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of their suggested requirement level with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. To determine the non-essential AA maintenance requirement, graded levels of non-essential AA were provided by glutamic acid to represent 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40% of the ideal level of glutamic acid with all other amino acids maintained at their maintenance requirement level. The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and Phe + Tyr requirements were calculated by combining Cys and Tyr results, respectively, with previously determined Met and Phe, respectively. The slope of Cys, Tyr, and non-essential AA accretion regression line indicated that 29% Cys, 24% TSAA, 21% Tyr, 20% Phe + Tyr, and 9% non-essential AA of crystalline amino acids were retained. The Cys requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 30.48 mg/d or 17.006 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 75.426 mg/kgCP/d. The TSAA requirement for zero accretion was calculated to be 132.25 mg/b/d, 71.48 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 307.55 mg/kgCP/d. The Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 65.907 mg/d or 37.233 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 175.566 mg/kgCP/d. The Phe + Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 352.18 mg/b/d, 190.37 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 749.33 mg/kgCP/d. The non-essential AA requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 3715.194 mg/d or 2003.155 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d or 9452.954 mg/kgCP/d.

  15. LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids and mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    We report the method of LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids with corresponding mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. Diagnostic product ions determined by mass spectrometry can support the qualitative identification and quantitative estimation of individual amino acids. Therefore, the optimization of chromatographic separation using the ion-pairing reagent (i.e., Nonafluoropentanoic acid, NFPA) is useful for the evaluation of target amino acid and for further compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acids.

  16. Glucagon and Amino Acids Are Linked in a Mutual Feedback Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Pedersen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    acid administration. In patients with receptor mutations (and in knockout mice), pancreatic swelling is due to α-cell hyperplasia with gross hypersecretion of glucagon, which according to recent groundbreaking research may result from elevated amino acid levels. Additionally, solid evidence indicates...... that ureagenesis, and thereby amino acid levels, is critically controlled by glucagon. Together, this constitutes a complete endocrine system; feedback regulation involving amino acids regulates α-cell function and secretion, while glucagon, in turn, regulates amino acid turnover....

  17. Amino acid rejection behaviour as a function of concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jason; Mandale, Stephen; Williams, Paul M

    2011-05-11

    The solute rejection versus concentration behaviour of five different amino acids has been investigated using a Nitto Denko NTR7450 nanofiltration membrane. The experimental data for amino acid rejection was also compared against a combined steric and charge rejection model. At its isoelectric point, lysine was effectively neutral and its behaviour was well described by the model incorporating a steric function only. For phenylalanine, the combined model was found to fit the data well. In contrast there was poor agreement between the model and rejection data for glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine whose rejection values at first increased with concentration. This result implied that another governing process was in operation. Dimerisation as an explanation for the observed phenomena was also investigated. Size analysis of amino acid molecules as a function of the prevailing concentration using dynamic light scattering was limited but showed no evidence of dimerisation. This data was supported by osmotic pressure measurements which demonstrated no evidence of non-linearity in the relation between osmotic pressure and concentration.

  18. FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS, MINERAL CONTENTS, AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF SOME BROWN SEAWEEDS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Robert Waaland, J; Rabiei, Reza

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to create a nutritional database on brown seaweeds and to popularize their consumption and utilization in Iran. The fatty acid contents, amino acids profiles, and certain mineral elements composition of some brown seaweeds, Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) J. V. Lamour., and Colpomenia sinuosa (Mert. ex Roth) Derbés et Solier were determined. Total lipid content ranged from 1.46 ± 0.38 to 2.94 ± 0.94 g · 100 g(-1) dry weight (dwt), and the most abundant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1, C20:4 ω6, and C20:5 ω3. The unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all species and had balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 acids. Highest total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels occurred in C. sinuosa. The protein content of D. dichotoma was 17.73 ± 0.29 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, significantly higher than the other seaweeds examined. Among amino acids essential to human nutrition, methionine (Met; in D. dichotoma and P. pavonica) and lysine (Lys; in C. sinuosa) were present in high concentrations. The crude fiber content varied by 9.5 ± 11.6 g · 100 g(-1) dwt in all species. Chemical analysis indicated that ash content was between 27.02 ± 0.6 and 39.28 ± 0.7 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, and that these seaweeds contained higher amounts of both macrominerals (7,308-9,160 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Na, K, Ca) and trace elements (263-1,594 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co) than have been reported for edible land plants. C. sinuosa had the highest amount of Ca, Fe, and a considerable content of Na was measured in P. pavonica.

  19. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations in amino acid metabolism caused by E. acervulina infection extended beyond reduced amino acid digestibility.

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  1. Label-free amino acid detection based on nanocomposites of graphene oxide hybridized with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Xu, Gang; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (GO/GNPs) were synthesized for label-free detections of amino acids. Interactions between the composites and amino acids were investigated by both naked-eye observation and optical absorption spectroscopy. The GO/GNPs composites displayed apparent color changes and absorption spectra changes in presences of amino acids including glutamate, aspartate, and cysteine. The interaction mechanisms of the composites and amino acids were discussed and explored with sulfhydryl groups and non-α-carboxylic groups on the amino acids. Sensing properties of the composites were tested, while pure gold particles were used as the control. The results suggested that the GO/GNPs composites had better linearity and stability in dose-dependent responses to the amino acids than those of the particles, especially in detections for acidic amino acids. Therefore, the nanocomposites platform can provide a convenient and efficient approach for label-free optical detections of important molecules such as amino acids.

  2. INTERACTION OF AMINO ACID WITH ION EXCHANGE RESIN Ⅲ.FURTHER INVESTIGA TION OF SUPEREQUIVALENT ADSORPTION MECHANISM OF AMINO ACID ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui; SHAOTong; 等

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of glycine,alanine and oxidized glutathion on strong acid cation and strong base anion exchange resins from aqueous solutions were measured and the superequivalent adsorptions of glycine and alanine observed.The infrared spectra of glycine adsorbed on the cation and the anion exchange resins,001×7 and 201×7,were measured.From these results,it is concluded that the amino acid adsorption on the ion exchange resin proceeds not only through ion exchange and proton transfer mechanisms,but also through aminecarboxylate interaction between the adsorbed amino acid molecules,and the formation of second layer of amino acid molecules is the mechanism of superequivalent adsorption of amino acid,the carboxylate or amine groups of the first layer of amino acid molecules on the ion exchange resin act as the exchange sites for the second layer of amino acid molecules.

  3. Chiral morphology of calcite through selective binding of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Christine

    2002-03-01

    Many living organisms contain biominerals and composites with finely tuned properties, reflecting a remarkable level of control over the nucleation, growth and shape of the constituent crystals. Peptides and proteins play an important role in achieving this control. Using in situ AFM we find that site-specific binding of amino acid residues to surface steps changes the step-edge free energies, giving rise to direction-specific binding energies unique to individual amino acid enantiomers and leading to chiral modifications that propagate from atomic length scales to macroscopic length scales. Molecular modeling studies support an energetic basis for the differences in binding. Our results emphasize that the mechanism under-lying crystal modification through organic molecules is best understood by considering both stereochemical recognition as well as the effects of binding on the interfacial energies of the growing crystal.

  4. [Amino acid exchange in paeci lomycosis-complicated echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streliaeva, A V; Akhmedov, Iu M; Gasparian, É R; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Chebyshev, N V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Zuev, S S; Shcheglova, T A; Gabchenko, A K; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors have detected atypical paecilomycosis-associated myocarditis with impaired amino acid exchange and pain syndrome for the first time. At first, pain occurs in the chest and radiates into the axilla, to the left arm to the finger tips, by paralyzing the arm. In some patients, pain manifests itself in both arms with radiation to the belly, by accompanying by fainting. The skin is wet, cold; the pulse is frequent and of poor volume and difficult-to-count. Heart pain spreads into the armpit and down the arm, by making the fingers numb. Attempts to use current analgesics (movalis, sirdalud, nimesil, morphine) in combination with fungicides (diflucan, mycosist, orungal) have failed to yield positive results. The homeopathic drug Latrodectus mactans, prepared from caracurt venom, in combination with the authors' designed diet and other homeopathic agents have relieved pain syndrome and normalized amino acid exchange, which offered possibilities for successful surgical treatment for echinococcosis with later recovery.

  5. Recent advances in amino acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsot, Véréna; Carpéné, Marie-Anne; Bouajila, Jalloul; Gavard, Pierre; Feurer, Bernard; Couderc, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the most important articles that have been published on amino acid analysis using CE during the period from June 2009 to May 2011 and follows the format of the previous articles of Smith (Electrophoresis 1999, 20, 3078-3083), Prata et al. (Electrophoresis 2001, 22, 4129-4138) and Poinsot et al. (Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 4047-4062; Electrophoresis 2006, 27, 176-194; Electrophoresis 2008, 29, 207-223; Electrophoresis 2010, 31, 105-121). We present new developments in amino acid analysis with CE, which are reported describing the use of lasers or light emitting diodes for fluorescence detection, conductimetry electrochemiluminescence detectors, mass spectrometry applications, and lab-on-a-chip applications using CE. In addition, we describe articles concerning clinical studies and neurochemical applications of these techniques.

  6. Energy Absorption and Exposure Buildup Factors of Essential Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Bursalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective atomic number and effective electron density in amino acids are of significant interest due to their use in various applications. The energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities of essential amino acids such as Leucine (C6H13NO2, Lysine (C6H14N2O2, Methionine (C5H11NO2S, Phenylalanine (C9H11NO2, Threonine (C4H9NO3, Tryptophan (C11H12N2O2, Valine (C5H11NO2, Arginine (C6H14N4O2, and Histidine (C6H9N3O2 were determined theoretically in the energy range 0.015–15 MeV.

  7. Amino acids conferring herbicide resistance in tobacco acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Choi, Jung-Do; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2010-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) (EC 4.1.3.18) is a target of commercially available herbicides such as sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and triazolopyrimidine. In plants and microorganisms, AHAS catalyzes the first common reaction in the biosynthesis pathways leading to leucine, isoleucine and valine. Intensive studies using different approaches - including site-directed mutagenesis, molecular modeling and structural analysis - on plant AHAS-s have contributed to the understanding of the herbicide-AHAS interaction. Knowledge of the critical roles of amino acid residues of plant AHAS in conferring herbicide resistance will enable the creation of new herbicide-tolerant AHAS which could be used to develop herbicide-resistant transgenic plants. Moreover, such information will also elucidate design strategies for more efficient herbicides that could also kill weeds resistant to previously used AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. In this review, we summarize the results of intensive searches for amino acid residues and their substitutions that confer herbicide resistance in tobacco AHAS.

  8. Free amino acids in fibromyalgia syndrome: relationship with clinical picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Valeria; Mura, Massimiliano; Cacace, Enrico; Era, Benedetta; Peri, Marcella; Sanna, Giuseppina; Fais, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in the serum of patients affected by fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to determine the relationships between FAA levels and FMS clinical parameters. Thus, serum amino acid concentrations were quantified (HPLC analysis) in 23 females with fibromyalgia (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) and 20 healthy females. The results showed significantly higher serum concentrations of aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, sarcosine, serine, taurine, tyrosine and valine in FMS patients vs. healthy controls. Patients with higher Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores showed increased levels of alanine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline and valine. In conclusion, our results indicate an imbalance in some FAAs in FMS patients. Increased Glu is particularly interesting, as it could explain the deficit in monoaminergic transmission involved in pain.

  9. Informational Way to Protein Alphabet: Entropic Classi