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Sample records for amino acid content

  1. Effects of Exogenous Amino Acids on the Contents of Amino Acids in Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-ping; LIU Guo-shun; ZHU Kai; PENG Sa; GUO Qiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    The effect of three amino acids on the growth of flue-cured tobacco was studied with water culture. The results showed that the three amino acids improved the growth of flue-cured tobacco and increased the contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tobacco. At the same time, the activities of NR (nitrate reductase), INV(invertase) and root growth activity were also significantly enhanced. The exogenous glutamic, aspartate and phenylalanine all increased the amino acid contents of tobacco leaves. Of these three amino acids, glutamic had the greatest effect, the next was aspartate,and phenylalanine had the least effect. These three amino acids all had significantly increased the accumulation of amino acids in the leaves of individual plants of tobacco; and the magnitude of accumulation indicated aspartate > glutamic >phenylalanine.

  2. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoling Jiang; Peng Wu; Jichun Tian

    2014-08-01

    Complete diallel crosses with five parents of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted to analyse inheritance of 17 amino acid contents by using the genetic model including seed, cytoplasmic, maternal and environment interaction effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops. The results showed that inheritance of 17 amino acid contents, except tyrosine, was controlled by several genetic systems including seed, cytoplasmic, and maternal effects, and by significant gene × environment interaction effects. Seed-direct additive and maternal effects constituted a major part of genetic effects for lysine, tyrosine, arginine, methionine, and glutamic acid content. Seed-direct additive effect formed main part in inheritance of isoleucine and serine contents. Threonine content was mainly governed by maternal additive effect. The other nine amino acid contents were almost entirely controlled by dominance effects. High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine (45.8%), lysine (24.7%) and threonine (21.4%) contents, revealed that it could be effective to improve them by direct selection in progenies from appropriate crosses. Interaction heritability for phenylalanine, proline, and histidine content, which was 36.1%, 39.5% and 25.7%, respectively, was higher than for the other amino acids.

  3. Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhao; Eun-Jin Park; Jong-Wook Chung; Yong-Jin Park; III-Min Chung; Joung-Kuk Ahn; Gwang-Ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis In rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.

  4. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  5. Detecting relationships between amylose content and amino acid contents of indica rice with conditional approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun Hai Shi; Qiong Qiong Zhu; Ke Ming Wang; Guo Ke Ge; Jian Guo Wu; Zhen Ghao Xu

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between the genetic effects of endosperm, cytoplasm and maternal plant on amylose content (AC) and amino acid contents of indica rice was studied using unconditional and conditional analysis methods. The results indicated that the protein content (PC) and brown rice weight (WBR) could significantly affect the relationships between AC and amino acid contents of rice. The phenotypic and genotypic covariances between AC and amino acid contents were most significantly negative under the interference of PC or WBR, but most of the relationships for the paired traits were not significant after excluding the influence of PC or WBR on AC. For the conditional genetic relationship analysis of different genetic systems including endosperm, cytoplasm and maternal plant, visible changes were found in many genetic correlation components between AC and amino acid content after eliminating the influences of PC, especially, for the endosperm or maternal additive effects, endosperm additive or dominance interaction effects and maternal additive interaction effects. The relationships of the paired traits conditioned on WBR were mainly controlled by the endosperm dominance or additive interaction effects.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong Ho [Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyung Nationol University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation.

  7. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Kráčmar; Pavel Švec; Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI) was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All resu...

  8. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  9. Amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral contents of the edible garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Çağıltay; (1), Nuray Erkan; Deniz Tosun; Arif Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    The nutritive and market value of meat of edible garden snail from northern Turkey was deter¬mined. Protein, fat, ash, water and carbohydrate value of edible garden snail were found 9.87, 0.58, 1.07, 82.50 and 5.99 % wet weight, respectively. The results of this study have showed that garden snails are good sources of amino acid, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals. The ly¬sine, isoleucine and leucine content from essential amino acids were 721, 467.57 and 611.50 mg/100g, respectively. The m...

  10. Amino Acid Content of the Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf-Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on amino acid content of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis was studied.The identified amino acids in the total body tissue of male moths were Theronine, Serine, Glutamic, Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Cystine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Lysine, Histidine and Arginine. The irradiation of full grown male pupae with doses 100,200 and 300 Gy decreased the total quantity of amino acids and the amount of most individual amino acids in male moths of P1 or F1 generations with some exceptions for Threonine, Alanine, Glycine, Serine, Valine, Cystine and Methionine which were increased.The effect of irradiation on amino acid content of the reproductive system tissues for each male or female were also studied.The results indicated that irradiation decreased the total quantity of amino acid content of both sexes by increasing the dose and males were more radiosensitive than females. Also, irradiation decreased the amount of individual amino acids in both sexes with certain exceptions, e.g. Alanine, Methionine and Tyrosine which increased in the reproductive system of male, and Methionine which increased by more than four times as control.The amino acid content was determined as well in F1 egg progeny, which was produced from irradiated males Irradiation doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy) decreased the total quantity of amino acids, and all individual ones except Cystine.The greatest reduction (54.9% was observed with Lysine at 300 Gy as compared to control

  11. Amino Acid Content, Fatty Acid Profile and Radical Scavenging Capacities of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtisam G. Doka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan, the unripe (green fruits of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae are eaten raw as salads or cooked by either boiling or frying in oil. In this study the amino acid content, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging capacities of the raw and boiled fruits were determined. The total amino acids ranged from 7736 mg/100 g in raw fruits to 7766 mg/100 g in boiled fruits and with the exception of leucine, boiling did not cause significant difference in the essential amino acids content (32.5% of the fruits. Boiling caused significant (p<0.05 change in the amount of the total saturated (from 38.04% in raw fruits to 14.156% in boiled ones and unsaturated fatty acids (from 57.59% in raw fruits to 85.774% in boiled ones. Moreover, boiling caused significant (p<0.05 losses of vitamin C by 73% and polyphenols by 70.6 % contents. The high antioxidant activity of the raw fruits (IC50 22 mg/L, determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, was declined dramatically upon boiling. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that fruits of C. grandis could have health beneficial effect and their consumption in the raw state is preferable.

  12. Amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral contents of the edible garden snail (Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Çağıltay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive and market value of meat of edible garden snail from northern Turkey was deter¬mined. Protein, fat, ash, water and carbohydrate value of edible garden snail were found 9.87, 0.58, 1.07, 82.50 and 5.99 % wet weight, respectively. The results of this study have showed that garden snails are good sources of amino acid, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals. The ly¬sine, isoleucine and leucine content from essential amino acids were 721, 467.57 and 611.50 mg/100g, respectively. The major amino acids detected were aspartic acid (996.814 mg/100g, glutamic acid (1405.158 mg/100g, alanine (1063.877 mg/100g, serine (1039.248 mg/100g. Total saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid were de¬termined 28, 76, 20.66 and 34.38 %. The vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B6 of vitamins were 5.462, 0.887, 0.154, 0.065, 3.226 and 0.288 mg/100g wet wt, respectively. Min¬eral analysis of garden snails showed that they are rich in calcium and potassium (1357 and 1054 mg/kg and low in iron (5.21 mg/kg.

  13. Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition in Grains of Wheat-Related Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-ling; TIAN Ji-chun; HAO Zhi; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    The protein content and amino acid composition for 17 wheat-related species(WRS)and three common wheats(control) were determined and analyzed,and the essential amino acids(EAAs)in WRS were evaluated according to FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations.The results showed that the mean protein content for WRS was 16.67%,which was 23.21% higher than that for the control.The mean contents(g 100 g-1 protein)of most amino acids for WRS were lysine 2.74%,threonine 2.83%,phenylalanine 4.17%,isoleucine 3.42%,valine 3.90%,histidine 2.81%,glutamic acid 29.96%,proline 9.12%,glycine 3.59%,alanine 3.37%,and cysteine 1.57%,which were higher than those for the control.The contents of the other 6 amino acids for WRS were lower than those for the control.The materials(Triticum monococcum L.,Triticum carthlicum Nevski,and Triticum turgidum L.)contained relatively high concentration of the most deficient EAAs(lysine, threonine,and methionine).Comparing with FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations,the amino acid scores(AAS)of lysine(49.8%),threonine(70.7%),and sulfur-containing amino acids(74.8%)were the lowest,which were considered as the main limiting amino acids in WRS.It was observed that the materials with Triticum urartu Tum.(AA)and Aegilops speltoides Tausch.(SS)genomes had relatively high contents of protein and EAA.The contents of protein(16.91%), phenylalanine(4.78%),isoleucine(3.53%),leucine(6.16%),and valine(4.09%)for the diploid materials were higher than those for the other materials.These results will provide some information for selecting parents in breeding about nutrient quality and utilization of fine gene in wheat.

  14. Quantitative analysis of collagen content and amino acids in trabecular meshwork.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, I.; Trope, G. E.; Basu, P. K.; Hasany, S M; Hunter, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare collagen content in the TM of normal and glaucomatous eyes, and to establish whether collagen levels change with age. Collagen content was measured in 30 normal and 27 age matched glaucoma trabeculectomy specimens by the sirius red dye binding technique, and in 14 normal and 15 age matched glaucoma specimens by amino acid analysis. Both dye binding data and amino acid analysis showed no statistical difference between normal and glaucoma samples. Age ha...

  15. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing 15N-depleted (NH4)2SO4 (0.01 atom 15N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for 15N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on 15N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for 15N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour 15N-enriched N2 and the 15N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 μmol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation

  16. Investigation on protein content and amino acid composition in the kernels of some sunflower lines

    OpenAIRE

    Nenova N.; Drumeva M.

    2012-01-01

    This study took into account the protein content in the kernel of ten lines derived from interspecific hybrids Helianthus annuus (line 2607) × Helianthus resinosus and Helianthus annuus (line 2607) × Helianthus salicifolius. The amino acid composition of storage protein was also studied. The protein in the new lines exceeded the protein in the parental forms with up to 10.6%. The essential amino acids lysine, valine, threonine and phenylalanine had higher a...

  17. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  18. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  19. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on the free amino acid content of blood plasma of chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As has been shown by thin-layer chromatography irradiation (1000 rad) of chick embryos decreases the free amino acid content of blood plasma. The quantity of lysine and histidine was only decreased 24 hours after exposure. The contents of lysine, histidine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acids, threonine and alanine reduced 2, 3 and 10 days after irradiation. The amount of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine and tyrosine remained invariable throughout the entire perjod of observation

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on free amino acid content of chick embryo blood plasma. [. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, B.; Dryanovski, P.; Simeonovska, M.

    1979-06-01

    Using thin-layer chromatography on cellulose film, it was demonstrated that there is a decrease in blood plasma free amino acids after exposing chick embryos to radiation (1000 rad). Only lysine and histidine content decreases on the 1st day. On the 2d, 3d, and 10th days, there is a decrease in lysine, histidine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, serine, aspartic and glutamic acids, threonine, and alanine. There was no change in amounts of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine, and tyrosine throughout the observation period. It was demonstrated that there is a change in rate of migration of nonessential amino acids from egg albumin to embryo blood after exposure to radiation.

  2. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-01-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, or...

  3. Comparison of amino acid content in frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bernaś

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present work compares the content of basic chemical constituents as well as amino acids in frozen Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm. and Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. mushrooms. Material and methods. The material investigated comprised of frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms after 8 months’ storage, having been soaked and blanched in a solution 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% lactic acid and 0.1% L-ascorbic acid prior to freezing. Results. Compared with frozen A. bisporus, frozen P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of total carbohydrates (32% higher, raw fat (38% and most endogenous (6-163% and exogenous (10-200% amino acids, but lower levels of ash (45% lower, total nitrogen (50% and protein nitrogen (40%. In both species, asparagine and glutamine were the most abundant endogenous amino acids (respectively 10-12% and 12-19% of total amino acids, and leucine and lysine the most abundant exogenous amino acids (7-9% and 6-7%. The least abundant were glycine and proline (both 5%, and cysteine and methionine (1% and 2%. Conclusions. Frozen mushrooms of both species are potentially good sources of protein in the diet as no limiting amino acids were found when compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein pattern. However, it is important to determine the digestibility of protein in the mushrooms model studies using animals and people. The conversion coefficient from total nitrogen to protein was 5.23 in P. ostreatus and 2.46 in A. bisporus.

  4. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

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    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  5. Effect of a Routine Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography Scan on the Amino Acid Content of the Murchison CM Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J. M.; Glavin, D. P.; Rivers, M. L.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted experiments to examine if exposure to synchrotron radiation during a typical µCT scan causes detectable changes in the amino acid content of a carbonaceous chondrite. We found a µCT scan caused no change in the amino acid content.

  6. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

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    Xiaoli Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC, and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers.

  7. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  8. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Grown in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmane Laila; Zute Sanita; Straumīte Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Bre...

  9. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  10. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  11. Genetic and genotype × environment interaction effects for the content of seven essential amino acids in indica rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. G. Wu; C. H. Shi; X. M. Zhang; T. Katsura

    2004-08-01

    It is necessary for rice breeders to understand the genetic basis of nutrient quality traits of rice. Essential amino acids are most important in determining the nutrient quality of rice grain and can affect the health of people who depend on rice as a staple food. In view of the paucity of genetic information available on essential amino acids in indica rice, we estimated the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects on the content of essential amino acids. Nine cytoplasmic male sterile lines as females and five restorer lines as males were introduced in a North Carolina II design across environments. Estimates of the content of the essential amino acids valine, methionine, leucine and phenylalanine showed that they were mainly controlled by genetic main effects, while the contents of threonine, cysteine and isoleucine were mainly affected by G × E effects. In the case of genetic main effects, both cytoplasmic and maternal genetic effects were predominant for all essential amino acids, indicating that selection for improving essential amino acid content based on maternal performance would be more effective than that based on seeds. The total narrow-sense heritabilities were high and ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. Since general heritabilities for these essential amino acids (except for cysteine) were found to be much larger than G × E interaction heritability, the improvement of content of most essential amino acids under selection would be expected under various environments. Rice varieties such as Zhenan 3, Yinchao 1, T49, 26715, 102 and 1391 should be selected as optimal parents for increasing the content of most essential amino acids, while the total genetic effects from Zhexie 2, Xieqingzao, Gangchao 1, V20, Zuo 5 and Zhenshan 97 were mainly negative and these parents could decrease the contents of most essential amino acids.

  12. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  13. Across bacterial phyla, distantly-related genomes with similar genomic GC content have similar patterns of amino acid usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lightfield

    Full Text Available The GC content of bacterial genomes ranges from 16% to 75% and wide ranges of genomic GC content are observed within many bacterial phyla, including both gram negative and gram positive phyla. Thus, divergent genomic GC content has evolved repeatedly in widely separated bacterial taxa. Since genomic GC content influences codon usage, we examined codon usage patterns and predicted protein amino acid content as a function of genomic GC content within eight different phyla or classes of bacteria. We found that similar patterns of codon usage and protein amino acid content have evolved independently in all eight groups of bacteria. For example, in each group, use of amino acids encoded by GC-rich codons increased by approximately 1% for each 10% increase in genomic GC content, while the use of amino acids encoded by AT-rich codons decreased by a similar amount. This consistency within every phylum and class studied led us to conclude that GC content appears to be the primary determinant of the codon and amino acid usage patterns observed in bacterial genomes. These results also indicate that selection for translational efficiency of highly expressed genes is constrained by the genomic parameters associated with the GC content of the host genome.

  14. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. of red variety Rote Zonenkugel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. Material and methods. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. of red variety – Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. Results. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36% in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. Conclusions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones.  

  15. THE D-AMINO ACID CONTENT OF FOODSTUFFS SUBJECTED TO VARIOUS TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Csapó

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available D-amino acids occurring in dietary proteins originate as a consequence of technological intervention while basic materials are being prepared for consumption. Foodstuffs are the most significant sources of D-amino acids, as in the process of cooking or during the various processing procedures used in the food industry dietary proteins undergo racemisation to a greater or lesser degree. Food stores are now selling increasing quantities of foods (such as breakfast cereals, baked potatoes, liquid and powdered infant foods, meat substitutes and other supplements which in some cases contain substantial quantities of D-amino acids, which in turn possess characteristics harmful with respect to digestion and health. Alkali treatment catalyses the racemisation of optically active amino acids. The degree of racemisation undergone varies from protein to protein, but the relative order of the degree of racemisation of the individual amino acids within proteins shows a high level of similarity. The principal factors influencing racemisation are the pH of the medium, heat treatment, the duration of the application of alkaline treatment and the structure of the respective amino acids. D-amino acids formed in the course of treatment with alkalis or heat give rise to a deterioration in quality and reduce the extent to which food thus treated can be used safely. The presence of D-amino acids in proteins leads to a decrease in digestibility and the availability of the other amino acids. This results in a reduction in the quantities of the L-enantiomers of the essential amino acids, as the peptide bonds cannot split in the normal way. Some D-amino acids can exert an isomer-toxic effect and have the capacity to give rise to changes in the biological effect of lysinoalanine.

  16. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  17. On the state of jumus accumulation observed in soil profile and the contents of sugar, uronic acid and amino acid in fulvic acid fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous report, the author wrote on the form of volcanic soil in Onohara, Tarumi City, which consists of about fourty soil layers, and seventeen of which contain more than 0.69% total carbon. The present report is concerned with the result of determination of 1) carbon and nitrogen contents of the soil and its fulvic acid, humic acid and humine, 2) sugar, uronic acid and amino acid contents and amino acid composition of fulvic acid fraction, and 3) 14C age of some soil layers. Methods of sample preparation and content determination are briefly given, and the results are shown. 14C age ranged from some 5500 to 9300 yr. B. P. In general tendency, as the carbon content of a soil layer is higher, its C/N ratio is higher, and C/N ratio of fulvic acid Fraction is almost constant (10-13) in all samples. The total content of sugar, uronic acid and hydrolytic amino acid is 30-40% of that of fulvic acid and almost invariable for all layers, 19-25% of which being occupied by the first two. (Shibata, I.)

  18. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Portu; Rosa López; Isabel López-Alfaro; Lucía González-Arenzana; Pilar Santamaría; Teresa Garde-Cerdán

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatm...

  19. Content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts, both raw and prepared for consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Slupski, Jacek; Skoczen-Slupska, Radoslawa; Kmiecik, Waldemar [Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the content of amino acids and the quality of protein in Brussels sprouts. The investigation included the raw material, cooked sample and two types of frozen product stored at -20 C for 12 months and then prepared for consumption. The frozen products investigated were obtained using the traditional method (blanching before freezing) and the modified method (cooking before freezing, then defrosting and heating in microwave oven after refrigerated storage) of the ready-to-eat type. Brussels sprouts, both fresh and prepared for consumption, were a good source of protein and amino acids. Proline and glutamic acid were dominating; leucine and tyrosine with phenylalanine were limiting amino acids. The product obtained by modified method contained 16% less amino acids in 16 g N than the raw material and 14% less than the raw material after cooking, and also 10% lower than that of the traditionally obtained product. (author)

  20. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  1. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  2. Relationship Between Biogenic Amines and Free Amino Acid Contents of Winesand Musts from Alentejo (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Paulo; Cabrita, Maria Joao; Ratola, Nuno; Laureano, Olga; Alves, Arminda

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of biogenic amines and free amino acids was studied in 102 Portuguese wines and 18 musts from Alentejo demarcated (D.O.C.) regions. Most wines were commercial, except for 38 monovarietals obtained by micro vinification. Musts from the varieties used to produce the latter wines were also studied. Both biogenic amines and free amino acids were analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection for their o-phthalaldehyde/fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (OPA/FMOC) deriva...

  3. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  4. Effects of preparation methods on protein and amino acid contents of various eggs available in Malay- sian local markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of preparation methods (raw, half-boiled and hard-boiled on protein and amino acid contents, as well as the protein quality (amino acid score of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched Malaysian eggs was investigated. Methods. The protein content was determined using a semi-micro Kjeldahl method whereas the amino acid composition was determined using HPLC. Results. The protein content of raw regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs were 49.9 ±0.2%, 55.8 ±0.2% and 56.5 ±0.5%, respectively. The protein content of hard-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 56.8 ±0.1%, 54.7 ±0.1%, and 53.7 ±0.5%, while that for half-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 54.7 ±0.6%, 53.4 ±0.4%, and 55.1 ±0.7%, respectively. There were signifi cant differences (p < 0.05 in protein and amino acid contents of half-boiled, hard-boiled as compared with raw samples, and valine was found as the limiting amino acid. It was found that there were signifi cant differences (p < 0.05 of total amino score in regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs after heat treatments.Furthermore, hard-boiling (100°C for 10 minutes and half-boiling (100°C for 5 minutes affects the total amino score, which in turn alter the protein quality of the egg.

  5. Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaha, Khaled; Taralp, Alpay; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent

    2011-04-13

    The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops. PMID:21375298

  6. Analysis of free amino acids in green coffee beans. II. Changes of the amino acid content in arabica coffees in connection with post-harvest model treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, U; Ludwig, E

    1996-10-01

    To investigate amino acid changes in green coffee beans in the post-harvest period, amino acid concentrations were determined in green beans and after modelled drying, fermentation and storage. After the drying at alternating temperatures up to maximally 40 degrees C, considerable changes in the concentrations of individual amino acids were identified. At the beginning of the storage period, significant changes in concentration were found to a minor extent. Under the condition of drying, it was mainly the concentration of glutamic acid that changed considerably. There was an increase in all the samples by 500 mg/kg dry matter on average, which corresponds to an increase of about 50% of the original value. In contrast, the concentration of aspartic acid in most of the samples decreased clearly due to drying. For the predominant part of the coffee samples, there was a significant increase in the hydrophobic amino acids Val, Phe, Ile and Leu. Changes of the quantities of other amino acids were non-uniform and only insignificant. Constant drying at 80 degrees C for most of the amino acids brought about only minor concentration changes compared to those values obtained at 40 degrees C. Modelled fermentation had no significant effect on the concentrations of the individual amino acids. After a 4-week storage of dried beans, amino acid concentrations did not change further. It is very possible that different post-harvest treatment parameters may influence the amount of aroma precursor compounds in the coffee beans. PMID:9123976

  7. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  8. Changes in free amino acids content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, R I; Franco, J M; Aubourg, S; Gallardo, J M

    1988-11-01

    The effects of cooking and sterilization at several temperatures on the free amino acids (FAA) content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle were studied during the processing of canned tuna. FAAs were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde, separated on a C18 column by HPLC and detected by both fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors. After cooking the loss of FAAs was not significant. However, in the final product sterilized at 115 degrees C and 110 degrees C (throughout the whole process) there were significant losses with regard to the start material, but not at 118 degrees C (all temperatures leading to the same lethal F-value). The influence of the thermal process time at 115 degrees C was evaluated for 60 and 100 min. Significant losses were found between both canned products (approximately 25%) and between the raw fish and the final product (approximately 12% and approximately 34%, process time 60 and 100 min, respectively). The determination of the content of FAA present in canned albacore may be a useful indication of the severity of the thermal processing. PMID:3206942

  9. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  10. The Effects of Thermal Metamorphism on the Amino Acid Content of the CI-Like Chondrite Y-86029

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Grunsfeld, S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites con-tain a diverse suite of amino acids that varies in abundance and structural diversity depending on the degree of aqueous alteration and thermal histo-ry that the parent body experienced [1 - 3]. We recently determined the amino acid contents of several fragments of the Sutter's Mill CM2 chon-drite [4]. In contrast with most other CM2 chon-drites, the Sutter's Mill meteorites showed minimal evidence for the presence of indigenous amino acids. A notable difference between the Sutter's Mill meteorites and other CM2 chondrites are that the Sutter's Mill stones were heated to tempera-tures of 150 - 400 C [4], whereas most other CM2 chondrites do not show evidence for thermal met-amorphism [5]. Because empirical studies have shown that amino acids rapidly degrade in aqueous solutions above 150 C and the presence of miner-als accelerates this degradation [6], a plausible explanation for the lack of amino acids observed in the Sutter's Mill meteorites is that they were destroyed during metamorphic alteration. Fewer CI chondrites have been analyzed for amino acids because only a small number of these meteorites have been recovered. Nevertheless, indigenous amino acids have been reported in the CI chondrites Ivuna and Orgueil [7]. Here we report on the amino acid analysis of the CI-like chondrite, Yamato 86029 (Y-86029; sample size of 110 mg). Just as the Sutter's Mill meteorites were thermally metamporphosed CM2 chondrites, Y-86029 has experienced thermal metamorphism at higher temperatures than Orgueil and Ivuna (normal CI chondrites) experienced, possibly up to 600 C [8].

  11. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  12. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  13. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C...

  14. [Effect of phenibut on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat brain structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, L E; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut, which is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in brain structures have been studied on Wistar rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) produces a statistically significant increase in the content of dopamine metabolite (3,4-dioxyphenylacetic acid) and the retarding amino acid taurine in striatum. At the same time, phenibut did not significantly influence the levels of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine in various brain structures and produce a moderate decrease in the level of norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:19334514

  15. Improvement of protein and amino acid contents in seeds of food legumes. A case study in Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes are considered as the major source of dietary proteins among the plant species. Protein and amino acid contents were evaluated in a wide sample of both wild and cultivated genotypes of Phaseolus species, with a view to investigate possibilities of genetic improvement in seed nutritional quality. Results indicate a variation in relation with taxa, biological status within species (such as in P. lunatus, ecological conditions, seed parts (testa, cotyledons and embryonic axis, and major protein groups. However, the sulphur containing amino acids remain a limiting factor, which could be better overcome by mixing food legumes with other plant species such as cereals.

  16. Effect of pre-freezing and culinary treatment on the content of amino acids of green pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Lisiewska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Green pea is regarded as an important constituent of a human diet, especially for vegetarians. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the amino acids content in green pea and the quality of pea protein. The study covered raw seeds; fresh seeds cooked to consumption consistency; and two kinds of frozen products prepared for consumption: frozen seeds obtained using the traditional method and frozen seeds of the ready-to-eat type. Compared with the raw material, cooked fresh pea contained more isoleucine (15%, valine (14% and arginine (24% but less tyrosine (17%; cooked pea from the traditional frozen product contained less sulphur-containing amino acids (12% and alanine (13%; while pea from the frozen product of the ready-to-eat type contained a similar or higher amount (from 12% to 38% of amino acids, except for sulphur-containing amino acids (less 12%. The protein of green pea was of very good quality, both in raw seeds and in those prepared for consumption. In comparison with the FAO/WHO/1991 standard, the CS indexes exceeded 100. It was only for sulphuric amino acids that the CS for the ready-to-eat product was 98. The methods of culinary and technological processing applied affected the quality of protein in green pea seeds to a negligible degree.

  17. Eff ect of probiotics and thyme essential oil on the essential amino acid content of the broiler chicken meat

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Alfaig; Maria Angelovičova; Martin Kral; Ondrej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    Background. Differences in the types and percentages of essential amino acids (EAAs) in food could infl uence the value of protein consumed and proteins with a high content of EAAs are the most important components of poultry meat. The use of probiotics for meat and carcass quality improvement has been questioned, while feed supplementation with thyme essential oil (TEO) could be considered as useful natural supplement to be applied in the poultry industry to improve meat quality. Materia...

  18. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and amino acid composition of human metallothionein-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lieven Goossens

    2011-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a low-mass class of metalloproteins, are characterized by a high thiolate sulphur and metal content. MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis of untreated and metal-depleted human MT-1 was tested under multiple aerobic and anaerobic conditions at increasing irradiation doses. Under all conditions, a rapid increase of serine in the early stages of irradiation was observed. Irradiation for longer times led to cysteic acid formation, except under argon atmosphere. Several other amino acid concentrations gradually decreased. Formation of limited amounts of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine and ornithine as well as some less common derivatives such as cystathionine occurred as side-effects.

  19. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  20. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  1. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  2. Effect of steaming, blanching, and high temperature/high pressure processing on the amino Acid contents of commonly consumed korean vegetables and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-09-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids. PMID:25320720

  3. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries. - Highlights: ► Teas were investigated for the changes during storage on irradiation and fumigation. ► The effect on amino acid contents was more prominent on irradiation than fumigation. ► The sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents increased on gamma irradiation. ► Fumigation and storage did not affect the sugar contents in the teas. ► Irradiation could be an effective alternative for fumigants

  4. Eff ect of probiotics and thyme essential oil on the essential amino acid content of the broiler chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Alfaig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Differences in the types and percentages of essential amino acids (EAAs in food could infl uence the value of protein consumed and proteins with a high content of EAAs are the most important components of poultry meat. The use of probiotics for meat and carcass quality improvement has been questioned, while feed supplementation with thyme essential oil (TEO could be considered as useful natural supplement to be applied in the poultry industry to improve meat quality. Material and methods. Day-old broilers Ross 308 (n = 400 were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Six birds of both sexes from each group were selected as a sample, slaughtered and then stored (–18°C for 6 months till the analysis. The muscular homogeneous sample (50 g from the breast and thigh of each sample bird was analysed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy method using the device Nicolet 6700. The essential amino acids content was determined and the quality indicators include chemical score, amino acid score, EAA index and biological value were calculated. Results. The obtained results show that for all the tested EAAs of the breast and thigh muscles, the content numerically increased gradually and progressively within the groups as the control scored the minimum followed by the probiotics group, then the combination group and fi nally the TEO group which scored the highest results. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the TEO promoted the increase of all the EAAs and consequently the quality indicators with signifi cant different compared with the control group and signifi cantly different for some EAAs and quality indicators compared with the probiotics group and the combination group.

  5. Effect of Steaming, Blanching, and High Temperature/High Pressure Processing on the Amino Acid Contents of Commonly Consumed Korean Vegetables and Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Kim, Bo-Min; Kim, Jung-Bong; Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Heon-Woong; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Se-Na; Cho, Young-Sook; Choi, Han-Seok; Park, Ki-Moon

    2014-01-01

    In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant...

  6. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  7. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.;

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range...... for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels...

  8. effect of gamma radiation on the amino acid content and electrophoretic protein patterns of callosobruchus maculatus (Fab)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the amino acid content essay and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were performed on the whole body of newly emerged adults of the cowpea beetle, callosobruchus maculatus (Fab). treated as pupae (two days before emergence) with sterilizing and sub-sterilizing gamma irradiation doses . the results indicated that a total of 17 of amino acids were detected in the control and treated individuals (males and females). there was a gradual decrease in concentrations of aspartic acid in males by increasing dose. these were 29.6,26.8,24.8 and 23.6 mg/g at doses of 10,20,30, and 40 Gy, respectively, in comparison to 30.6 mg/g in control males. the same trend was observed in the rest of amino acids. the results of females indicated that there was a gradual increase in concentrations of aspartic acid in case of insects irradiated with increasing doses of gamma radiation 10 and 20 Gy, then a decrease at doses of 30 and 40 Gy. the number of protein bands detected in non-irradiated or irradiated males were 16. normal females and those irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy contained a total number of 16 bands. the number was reduced to 15 in females irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy. the major protein band detected in normal males was band number 24, with molecular weight 28 kDa. the major protein band detected in normal and irradiated females was band number 24, with molecular weight 27 kDa. the protein band with molecular weight 64 kDa completely disappeared from irradiated males, while protein band with molecular weight 73 kDa completely disappeared from irradiated females . the percentage of some bands was decreased by increasing radiation dose and some others were increased. the irradiation of the insects resulted in appearance and disappearance of certain protein bands depending on the dose delivered

  9. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  10. Changes in total protein and amino acids content of the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus loew (Diptera: Syrphidae) Sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out on the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus to study the changes which occurred in the components of the sterilized adults, especially the total protein content and amino acid composition. The total protein content in males was more than in females and decreased in sterilized males. An increase from 170.8 in the control to 177.5, 214.3 and 207.7 mg/g body weight was noted in sterilized females. The amino acid contents of the sterilized flies was greatly affected, the effect was obvious in alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. 2 tabs

  11. Determination of whey protein content in bovine milk-based infant formula finished products using amino acids calculation method: AOAC First Action 2012.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Baugh, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparaginelaspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4.75, 2.06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process. PMID:24000754

  12. Effect of Partial Replacement of Nitrate by Amino Acid and Urea on Nitrate Content of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce in Hydroponic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-lin; GAO Xiu-rui; ZHANG Xian-bin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors studied the effect of different mixtures of glyeine (Gly), isoleucine (Iso), proline (Pro), and urea solutions used as a partial (20%) replacment of nitrate in the nitrate content and quality of non-heading Chinese cabbage and lettuce in hydroponice. Five treatments were done 12 d before harvest. Compared to the control group, Gly had the best effect in reducing the nitrate content of both vegetable leaves and petioles; the mixture of Giy, Iso and Pro ranked second and urea the least. Treatments with amino acid could also increase soluble sugar and protein contents and enhance total-N in leaves significantly.In contrast, amino acid enhanced NRA in non-heading Chinese cabbage, while they decreased it slightly in lettuce. The results showed that amino acids and urea could reduce the nitrate content of both vegetables, but they had almost the same effect on non-heading Chinese cabbage. Moreover, amino acids were more effective than urea in lettuce. As a result, it was concluded that partial replacement of nitrate with amino acids not only reduced the nitrate content but also improved the quality of vegetables.

  13. The effect of the fast neutron current on the amino acid contents and nucleic acid synthesis in maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the effects of external influences on the genetic structures of the plant cells and the transmission of the accepted signals to other cellular structures and then to the whole organism have actively been studied. According to the opinion of a number of authors the gene expression and repression are immediate responses to the environment changes. To affect the plant genetic apparatus it is quite enough to expose it to some factors such as gamma rays, X- rays, neutron currents, saline-, temperature- or osmotic stresses. At the current stage of the research of the molecular mechanisms of the plant adaptation to the environment changes the priority goal is to ascertain the nature of the influence of the above mentioned factors on the processes of DNA replication and transcription, as the nucleic acids are the targets for external effects. The fast neutron current is one of the factors that influence the plant growth and development. Unlike gamma rays, the mechanism of the neutron irradiation on the plant genetic apparatus is very poorly studied. The objective of our research was the study of the fast neutron current effects on the DNA replication and transcription processes and amino acid synthesis in the irradiated maize plants

  14. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jin-Ho; Shin Joon-Shik; Chi Eun-Hya; Lee In-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results:...

  15. Effect of Taurine Supplementation on the Alterations in Amino Acid Content in Skeletal Muscle with Exercise in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Ishikura; Teruo Miyazaki; Song-Gyu Ra; Shoji Endo; Yusuke Nakamura; Takashi Matsuzaka; Shumpei Miyakawa; Hajime Ohmori

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two port...

  16. Effect of taurine supplementation on the alterations in amino Acid content in skeletal muscle with exercise in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ra, Song-Gyu; Endo, Shoji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD) gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%), serine (-15~-16%), and glycine (-6~-16%) were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05), but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine. Key pointsTaurine ingestion significantly decreased certain amino acids in skeletal muscles accompanied with enhanced exercise performance.The decreased amino acids in common were threonine, serine, and glycine, but not alanine; pyruvate precursor for gluconeogenesis.The alteration of three amino acids in muscles was maintained after exhausted exercise.The muscular alterations of them might be one of taurine-induced roles on exercise

  17. Amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  18. Amino acid protein composition of grain of common wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative ratio of some amino acids changes in the grain of soft wheat morphological mutants with a high protein content. The soft wheat mutants developed, valuable for breeding, surpass the initial varieties in total protein content and the content of some amino acids in grain. The relative content of some amino acids in protein varies, and the stable sum of irreplaceable amino acids in it is retained

  19. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  20. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 origin or contribution from interstellar precursors. In summary, the soluble organic content of the primitive CM chondrite Paris possibly relates to late phases of condensed phase chemistry in molecular clouds. References: [1] Blanchard et al. (2011) Abstract #5322. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46:A21. [2] Caillet Komorowski et al. (2011) Abstract #5289. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46:A35. [3] Kimura et al. (2011) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46:431-442. [4] Bourot-Denise et al. (2010) Abstract #1533. 41st LPSC. CD-ROM. [5] Merouane et al. (2011) Proceedings, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting, pp.902. [6] Merouane et al. (2012) The Astrophysical Journal 756:154-160. [7] Remusat et al. (2010) The Astrophysical Journal 713:1048-1058. [8] Remusat et al. (2011) Abstract #5327. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46:A197. [9] Martins et al. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, under review. [10] Glavin et al. (2006) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 41:889-902. [11] Glavin et al. (2010) Abstract #5131. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 45:A64. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67:1589-1595. [13] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106:5487-5492. [14] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 69:1349-1357.

  1. EFFECT OF TAURINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE ALTERATIONS IN AMINO ACID CONTENT IN SKELETAL MUSCLE WITH EXERCISE IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishikura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%, serine (-15~-16%, and glycine (-6~-16% were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05, but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p <0.05. In contrast, the three amino acids (threonine and serine; p < 0.05, glycine; p < 0.01 and alanine (p < 0.01 in the liver were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following the exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine

  2. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. PMID:27283631

  3. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

    2008-01-01

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

  4. The changes of contents of selected free amino acids associated with cadmium stress in Noccaea caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2013), s. 417-422. ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : heavy metals * nitrogen-transport amino acids * Thlaspi caerulescens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2013 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/100270.pdf

  5. Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered 3 months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16 900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its 3 month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated fiom a different type of parent body than the CM and CI chondrites. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P- or D-type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived fiom these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be reevaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

  6. Salvaging effect of triacontanol on plant growth, thermotolerance, macro-nutrient content, amino acid concentration and modulation of defense hormonal levels under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Bilal, Saqib; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-02-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that application of triacontanol, a ubiquitous saturated primary alcohol, at different times-before (TBHS), mid (TMHS), and after (TAHS) heat stress-will extend heat stress (HS) protection in mungbean. The effect of triacontanol on the levels of defense hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was investigated along with the plant growth promotion, nutrient and amino acid content with and without heat stress. Heat stress caused a prominent reduction in plant growth attributes, nutrient and amino acid content, which were attributed to the decreased level of ABA and JA. However, application of triacontanol, particularly in the TBHS and TMHS treatments, reversed the deleterious effects of HS by showing increased ABA and JA levels that favored the significant increase in plant growth attributes, enhanced nutrient content, and high amount of amino acid. TAHS, a short-term application of triacontanol, also significantly increased ABA and JA levels and thus revealed important information of its association with hormonal modulation. The growth-promoting effect of triacontanol was also confirmed under normal growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the beneficial effects of triacontanol, with or without heat stress, on mungbean and its interaction with or regulation of the levels of defense hormones. PMID:26744997

  7. Analysis of the relationship between genomic GC Content and patterns of base usage, codon usage and amino acid usage in prokaryotes: similar GC content adopts similar compositional frequencies regardless of the phylogenetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qi Zhou

    Full Text Available The GC contents of 2670 prokaryotic genomes that belong to diverse phylogenetic lineages were analyzed in this paper. These genomes had GC contents that ranged from 13.5% to 74.9%. We analyzed the distance of base frequencies at the three codon positions, codon frequencies, and amino acid compositions across genomes with respect to the differences in the GC content of these prokaryotic species. We found that although the phylogenetic lineages were remote among some species, a similar genomic GC content forced them to adopt similar base usage patterns at the three codon positions, codon usage patterns, and amino acid usage patterns. Our work demonstrates that in prokaryotic genomes: a base usage, codon usage, and amino acid usage change with GC content with a linear correlation; b the distance of each usage has a linear correlation with the GC content difference; and c GC content is more essential than phylogenetic lineage in determining base usage, codon usage, and amino acid usage. This work is exceptional in that we adopted intuitively graphic methods for all analyses, and we used these analyses to examine as many as 2670 prokaryotes. We hope that this work is helpful for understanding common features in the organization of microbial genomes.

  8. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  9. Reduction of the crude protein content of diets supplemented with essential amino acids for piglets weighing 15 to 30 kilograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Beatriz Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the reduction of crude protein (CP in diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids for piglets of 15 to 30 kg. In the performance assay (Exp I, 60 piglets with initial weight of 15.34±0.87 kg and final weight of 30.08±1.59 kg were distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates, five treatments and two animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of five diets in which the CP was reduced by 1.5 percentage points, resulting in low-protein diets (19.24, 17.74, 16.24, 14.74 and 13.24%, meeting the requirements of amino acids with inclusion of L-lysine, DL-methionine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-valine and L-isoleucine. The average daily gain and feed conversion according to the Linear Response Plateau model (LRP were estimated at 14.23 and 14.79% of CP, respectively. As the CP levels were reduced, there was an increase in the essential:non-essential amino acids ratio. The plasma urea concentration decreased linearly, indicating that there was a better use for amino acids with the CP reduction. In the nitrogen balance (Exp II, 30 crossbred barrow piglets with average weight of 21.69±4.46 kg were housed in metabolic cages, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates, and the experimental unit consisted of a piglet. The biological protein value in the diets remained above the ideal (70%, in which the level of 13.24% CP corresponded to the highest value. There was no difference in levels of urea in blood and urine. Reduction of protein levels is efficient in decreasing the pollution effect in the excreta, with lower nitrogen excretion in feces and urine.

  10. Human Protein and Amino Acid Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, L John

    2016-05-01

    Human protein and amino acid nutrition encompasses a wide, complex, frequently misunderstood, and often contentious area of clinical research and practice. This tutorial explains the basic biochemical and physiologic principles that underlie our current understanding of protein and amino acid nutrition. The following topics are discussed: (1) the identity, measurement, and essentiality of nutritional proteins; (2) the definition and determination of minimum requirements; (3) nutrition adaptation; (4) obligatory nitrogen excretion and the minimum protein requirement; (5) minimum versus optimum protein intakes; (6) metabolic responses to surfeit and deficient protein intakes; (7) body composition and protein requirements; (8) labile protein; (9) N balance; (10) the principles of protein and amino acid turnover, including an analysis of the controversial indicator amino acid oxidation technique; (11) general guidelines for evaluating protein turnover articles; (12) amino acid turnover versus clearance; (13) the protein content of hydrated amino acid solutions; (14) protein requirements in special situations, including protein-catabolic critical illness; (15) amino acid supplements and additives, including monosodium glutamate and glutamine; and (16) a perspective on the future of protein and amino acid nutrition research. In addition to providing practical information, this tutorial aims to demonstrate the importance of rigorous physiologic reasoning, stimulate intellectual curiosity, and encourage fresh ideas in this dynamic area of human nutrition. In general, references are provided only for topics that are not well covered in modern textbooks. PMID:26796095

  11. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves; Maiza Vieira Leão de Castro; Aline Luiz de Mendonça; Grazielle Gebrim Santos; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2011-01-01

    The germ fraction with pericarp (bran) is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, ...

  12. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  13. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  14. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  15. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  16. Effect of sulfur and water regime on yield components, protein contents and amino acid composition of Faba bean using nuclear Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot and field experiments (sandy clay for and sandy loam for field) were carried out to study the influence of variable levels of sulfur (0, 20 30 and 40 kg/ fed. and 0, 20, and 30/kg fed. for pot and field experiments respectively) combined with three soil moisture suction levels i.e., (0.33-0.40, 0.40 - 0.60, and 0.60 - 0.80 bar) for pot exp. In the first season and 150, 300, and 450 mm bar moisture suction levels for the field exp. In the second season, (mercury tensiometers and neutron moisture meter were used for required water) on amino acids and yield components of faba bean Var. Giza-3. The obtained results indicated that sulfur rate of 20 ppm with 300 mm bar moisture suction level gave highest yield in pot exp. But in the field exp., seed yield was significantly inhanced as affected by 30 k sulfur/ fed. and 150 and 300 mm bar of soil moisture suction. Total protein content increased significantly with increasing soil moisture suction levels and was not affected by sulfur rates in both experiments. Sulfur at 40 kg/fed. Improved faba bean seeds amino acids at field capacity (0.33-0.40). Methionine by 40 kg sulfur fed. with (o.40 - 0.60 bar) in pot exp., while, 150 mm bar increased methionine content and sulfur rates did not affect on the acid content in field experiment. 8 tabs

  17. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis UniProt search ... blastx result Result of blastx search ... against UniProt protein ... database kome_uniprot_search _blastx_result.zip kome_uniprot_search _blastx_resul ...

  18. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis SwissProt search ... result Result of blastx search ... against SwissProt protein da ... tabase kome_swissprot_search _result.zip kome_swissprot_search _result ...

  19. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav

    Berlin : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, s. 129-162. ISBN 978-3-540-48595-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : amino acids * homologous reactions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão Maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content expression in common bean grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Medianeira Grigoletto Londero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A genética do teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em feijão não tem sido suficientemente avaliada, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados (metionina e cisteína em grãos de feijão. Para isso, foram realizados cruzamentos controlados entre as cultivares 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' e 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano', e as gerações F1, F1 recíproco, F2 e F2 recíproco foram obtidas para cada combinação híbrida. Os aminoácidos sulfurados foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC-UV. O teor de metionina variou de 0,79g por 16g de N da matéria seca - MS ('BRS Valente' a 1,09g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2, e o teor de cisteína variou de 0,76g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2 a 1,43g por 16g de N da MS ('Minuano'. Variabilidade genética foi observada entre os genitores, porém não ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de metionina e de cisteína em feijão. A seleção para maior teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão deve ser realizada em sementes F2, pois a geração do embrião é F2.The genetic of the sulfur amino acids content has not been sufficiently evaluated in common bean. The objective of this research was to investigate the existence of maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content (methionine and cystein of common bean grains. The controlled crossings were performed among the cultivars 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' and 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano'. The F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations were obtained for each hybrid combination. The amino acid content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV. The methione content varied from 0.79g for 16g N MS ('BRS Valente' to 1.09g for 16g N MS (F2 generation and the cystein content varied from 0.76g for 16g N MS (F2 generation to 1.43g for 16g N MS ('Minuano'. Genetic variability was observed between the parents, but was there

  1. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflo...

  2. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  3. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  4. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  5. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  6. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The germ fraction with pericarp (bran is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, germ with 15% lipids and casein with 15% lipids, two 6%-protein diets (whole corn and casein, and a protein-free diet were prepared. The germ showed higher contents of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber (27.8 g.100 g-1, ash, minerals (Fe and Zn- approximately 5 mg.100 g-1, and lysine (57.2 mg.g-1 protein than those of corn. The germ presented good quality protein (Relative Protein Efficiency Ratio-RPER = 80%; Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score-PDCAAS = 86%, higher than that of corn (RPER = 49%; PDCAAS = 60%. The corn germ fraction with pericarp is rich in dietary fiber, and it is a source of good quality protein as well as of iron and zinc, and its use as nutritive raw material is indicated in food products for human consumption.

  7. Predição do conteúdo de aminoácidos essenciais do grão de milho Prediction of essencial amino acid content of corn grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Piovesan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para determinar a relação entre aminoácidos e frações nitrogenadas do grão de milho (Zea mays L. e verificar a possibilidade de utilizar tais relações para estimar o conteúdo de alguns aminoácidos. Selecionaram-se 45 amostras de diferentes híbridos de milho cultivados na região oeste do Paraná que foram agrupadas em três categorias, de acordo com o teor de proteína bruta (baixo, médio e alto. Posteriormente, retirou-se uma sub amostra aleatória dentro de cada uma das categorias anteriores, que resultou em uma sub amostra de 15 milhos, os quais foram submetidos à análise de aminoácidos e teor de nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP. O conteúdo de proteína bruta corrigida (PBc foi obtida descontando-se a concentração de NNP dos valores de proteína bruta. A estrutura de relação entre as variáveis foi estudada por correlação de Pearson e os modelos de regressão linear ajustados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos. Os coeficientes angulares das retas dos primeiros aminoácidos limitantes para aves e suínos (lisina, metionina e treonina foram positivos e significativos (LIS=0,1080+0,0140PB, R²=0,39; MET=0,1015+0,0084PB, R²=0,43, TRE=0,1268+0,0184*PB, R²=0,51. Contudo, os coeficientes de determinação das equações foram abaixo de 0,51, indicando que a PB explica apenas uma parte da variação no conteúdo de aminoácidos do grão de milho. A predição dos aminoácidos essenciais não melhorou com a utilização da PBc como variável independente. Conclui-se que não é possível estimar, com a precisão adequada, o conteúdo de aminoácidos essenciais do grão de milho, utilizando-se como variáveis independentes a proteína bruta ou a proteína bruta corrigida.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relationship between amino acids and nitrogen fractions of corn grain (Zea mays L. and verify whether it is possible to use such relations to estimate amino acid contents. Forty five samples

  8. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks. PMID:21120449

  9. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods*

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R.; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samp...

  10. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  11. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  12. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-03-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  13. 人参总蛋白的酶解及氨基酸含量测定%Enzymolysis of Ginseng Total Proteins and Determination of Amino Acid Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红艳; 张江华; 张惠; 陶震宇; 杨静娴; 康廷国

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The final active substances of ginseng proteins functioning in vivo were explored by comparing the component changes in ginseng proteins before and after enzymolysis.Methods:The ginseng proteins were hydrolyzed by pepsin,trypsin and double enzymes (pepsin and trypsin ), the protein and peptide content was detected by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),and the amino acid composition was analyzed by HPLC.Results:The results of SDS-PAGE showed that ginseng proteins were hydrolyzed into high concentration and low molecular weight (around 5000)proteins by pepsin,lower concentration proteins by trypsin,and proteins by double enzymes similar to those of pepsin hydrolysis.The results of HPLC showed that the amino acids in ginseng proteins decreased significantly after pepsin,trypsin and double enzymes hydrolysis.Conclusion:Ginseng proteins were converted into low molecular weight proteins and a small amount of amino acids after enzymolysis.%目的:比较人参蛋白酶解前后成分的变化,以探讨人参蛋白在体内发挥作用的最终活性物质。方法:采用胃蛋白、胰蛋白酶及双酶(胃蛋白酶与胰蛋白酶联合)水解人参蛋白,采用 SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测蛋白及多肽含量,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析氨基酸组成。结果:SDS-PAGE 检测结果显示,人参蛋白经胃蛋白酶水解后,仅出现分子量5000左右的高浓度、低分子量蛋白条带;经胰蛋白酶水解后,出现多条蛋白带,但浓度较水解前低;经双酶水解后,蛋白条带显示与胃蛋白酶接近。HPLC 检测结果显示,人参蛋白经胃蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶及双酶水解后,氨基酸种类变化不大,含量明显减少。结论:人参蛋白酶解后转变为多肽及少量氨基酸。

  14. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  15. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  17. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  18. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  19. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  20. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  1. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  2. Energy content and amino acid digestibility in hulled and dehulled corn and the performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing hulled or dehulled corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dewen; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai

    2013-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content (Exp. 1), the apparent (AID) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2) in hulled and dehulled corn and the performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing hulled or dehulled corn (Exp. 3). In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows (19.8 ± 0.9 kg) were fed a rice-soybean meal basal diet or two experimental diets. The two experimental diets were formulated to contain 38.6% hulled or dehulled corn which replaced 40% of the energy supplied by rice, soybean meal and lysine to determine the energy content as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy of hulled and dehulled corn using the difference method. There were no differences in the DE (15.9 MJ/kg vs. 16.3 MJ/kg) and ME (15.6 MJ/kg vs. 15.6 MJ/kg) content in hulled and dehulled corn, respectively, but the ATTD of dry matter (DM; 92.5% vs. 88.9%) and organic matter (OM; 93.9% vs. 89.8%) were higher in dehulled corn than hulled corn (p improvement of the AID or SID of CP and AA in dehulled corn compared with hulled corn. In Exp. 3, 72 piglets weaned at the age of 35 d (8.3 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to two diets based on hulled or dehulled corn and formulated to contain equal quantities of ME and SID of AA. The ATTD of DM, OM and gross energy were higher (p improve pig performance. Therefore, there does not appear to be any justification for the routine inclusion of dehulled corn in diets fed to weaned pigs. PMID:23859419

  3. Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widely consumed Korean Boeun-deachu variety of jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed by HPLC, MS, and MS-MS for changes in the content of crude protein, free amino acids, and individual flavonoids at eight stages (S1-S8) of ripeness. They were also analyzed by colorimetry for total phenolics, to...

  4. 双孢蘑菇菇脚氨基酸含量的测定及营养评价%Determination of the Contents of Amino Acids and Nutritional Evaluation of Agaricus bisporus Stembase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 陈敏健; 刘明香; 周代顺

    2011-01-01

    测定了双孢蘑菇菇脚中蛋白质和氨基酸的含量,应用模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法,以鸡蛋蛋白为标准蛋白,以WHO/FAO的必需氨基酸参考模式为评价标准,对双孢蘑菇菇脚的蛋白质营养价值进行了全面评价,并与双孢蘑菇子实体的蛋白质进行比较.结果表明:双孢蘑菇菇脚蛋白质中总氨基酸含量为73.16%,氨基酸种类齐全,必需氨基酸含量占氨基酸总含量的42.70%,相对于鸡蛋蛋白的贴近度为0.8741,第一限制性氨基酸为蛋氨酸+胱氨酸,氨基酸比值系数分为83.74,虽然菇脚蛋白质含量比子实体低,但与子实体一样具有较高的蛋白质营养价值.%The contents of protein and anuno acids of Agaricus bisporus stembase were determined through using fuzzy identification mode and ratio coefficient mode of amino acid,and egg protein was sused as standard protein. The nutritive value of protein of Agaricus bisporus stembase was evaluated by the evaluation standard of essential amino acid reference mode of WHO/FAO and comparison to the protein of fruitbodies of Agaricus bisporus. The result showed that the total amino acid content of Agarcus bisporus stembase was 73. 16% with complete amino acid species. The essential amino acid was 42. 70% of total amino acid content. The closeness degree was 0. 8741 relative to egg protein. The first linuting amino acid was methionine +cystine,and the ratio coefficient score of amino acid was 83. 74. Although the protein content of Agaricus bisporus stembase was lower than the fruitbodies,but it had relatively high protein nutritional value as fruitbodies.

  5. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7 and...... 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  6. A Simple Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for the Determination of the Total Amino Acid Content in a Tea Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Chen, Zefeng

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was developed to demonstrate a microfluidic device in the analytical chemistry (instrumental analysis) laboratory. Students made the paper-based microfluidic device with a wax pen and a piece of filter paper and used it to determine the total quantity of amino acids in a green tea leaf

  7. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions. PMID:26732444

  8. α-Amino Acid-Isosteric α-Amino Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-02-24

    The synthesis of all 20 common natural proteinogenic and 4 otherα-amino acid-isosteric α-amino tetrazoles has been accomplished, whereby the carboxyl group is replaced by the isosteric 5-tetrazolyl group. The short process involves the use of the key Ugi tetrazole reaction followed by deprotection chemistries. The tetrazole group is bioisosteric to the carboxylic acid and is widely used in medicinal chemistry and drug design. Surprisingly, several of the common α-amino acid-isosteric α-amino tetrazoles are unknown up to now. Therefore a rapid synthetic access to this compound class and non-natural derivatives is of high interest to advance the field. PMID:26817531

  9. Relationship between amino acid usage and amino acid evolution in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoxuan; Xie, Zhengqing; Tan, Shengjun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Sihai

    2015-02-25

    Amino acid usage varies from species to species. A previous study has found a universal trend in amino acid gain and loss in many taxa and a one-way model of amino acid evolution in which the number of new amino acids increases as the number of old amino acids decreases was proposed. Later studies showed that this pattern of amino acid gain and loss is likely to be compatible with the neutral theory. The present work aimed to further study this problem by investigating the evolutionary patterns of amino acids in 8 primates (the nucleotide and protein alignments are available online http://gattaca.nju.edu.cn/pub_data.html). First, the number of amino acids gained and lost was calculated and the evolution trend of each amino acid was inferred. These values were found to be closely related to the usage of each amino acid. Then we analyzed the mutational trend of amino acid substitution in human using SNPs, this trend is highly correlated with fixation trend only with greater variance. Finally, the trends in the evolution of 20 amino acids were evaluated in human on different time scales, and the increasing rate of 5 significantly increasing amino acids was found to decrease as a function of time elapsed since divergence, and the dS/dN ratio also found to increase as a function of time elapsed since divergence. These results suggested that the observed amino acid substitution pattern is influenced by mutation and purifying selection. In conclusion, the present study shows that usage of amino acids is an important factor capable of influencing the observed pattern of amino acid evolution, and also presented evidences suggesting that the observed universal trend of amino acid gain and loss is compatible with neutral evolution. PMID:25527119

  10. Amino acid substitutions in malate dehydrogenases of piezophilic bacteria isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes retrieved from the abyssal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Rie; Kato, Chiaki; Nakayama, Akihiko

    2006-02-01

    To examine the occurrence in other deep-sea bacteria of two amino acid substitutions (Ala-180 and His-229) in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) found previously in the deep-sea piezophilic Moritella sp. strain 2D2, we cloned and sequenced MDH genes of deep-sea piezophilic Moritella and Shewanella strains isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes, as well as other Moritella species from deep-sea water and sediments: M. marina, M. japonica, and M. yayanosii. The piezophilic Moritella strains had a Val residue or an Ala residue at position 180 and all the Moritella strains except for one had a His residue at position 229. However, four piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 103, 111, 229, and 283 were found to be completely conserved in the MDH of the intestinal Moritella strains of deep-sea fishes, indicating the substitutions may be habitat-specific. The piezophilic Shewanella strains had a Val residue and a Gln residue at positions 180 and 229, respectively. However, the MDHs of the Shewanella strains had five piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 61, 65, 107, 161, and 202. Therefore, the enzymatic strategies for responding to deep-sea high pressure environments of the MDHs between the genera Moritella and Shewanella are potentially different. Moreover, homology modeling shows these substitutions found in the MDHs of both genera except for position 229 in the subunit interface are located on the exposed region of the MDH molecules, indicating the substitutions may be related to the hydration state of the molecules. PMID:16598154

  11. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-11-01

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  12. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly (P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  13. Synthesis of Chiral Amino Cyclic Phosphoric Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chirai amino cyclic phosphoric acids, 5-amino-2-hydroxy-4- (4-nitrophenyl)-l, 3,2-dioxaphospho- rinane 2-oxide and 2-hydroxy-4- (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-phthalimido-1,3,2-dioxaphos phorinane 2-oxide are synthesized in good over yields (64. 2% and 72. 8% respectively) from 2-amino-l-aryl-l,3-propanediols. The different reaction conditions are necessary in hydrolysis reactions of amino cyclic phosphonyl chlorides.

  14. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets. PMID:26101608

  15. Influence of variety and sulfur fertilization on the contents of crude protein, and selected amino acids in blue lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Herwart; Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are the most important nitrogen suppliers in organic farming, have positive effects in crop rotation and are important protein feedstuffs. In 100 % organic feeding, the amino acid (AA) supply of feedstuffs is of increasing interest. The first- and second-limiting AAs for swine and poultry are lysine (Lys) and the sulfur-containing AAs (SAAs), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), respectively. Since SAAs are limiting in the diet of monogastrics and, besides tryptophane, also in grain l...

  16. Microbial production of natural poly amino acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Feng; XU ZhiNan; CEN PeiLin

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of poly amino acids, poly-γ-glutamic acid, poly(ε-L-lysine) and multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid) can be synthesized by enzymatic process independently from ribosomal protein biosynthesis pathways in microorganism. These biosynthesized polymers have attracted more and more attentions because of their unique properties and various applications. In this review, the current knowledge on the biosynthesis, biodegradations and applications of these three poly amino acids are summarized.

  17. 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  19. The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D- and L-β-amino-n-butyric acid (β-ABA), DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, β-alanine, and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic β-ABA were present in some samples. We also examined seven samples from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 that had been previously allocated to a non-curation laboratory, as well as two samples of terrestrial dunite from studies of lunar module engine exhaust that had been stored in the same laboratory. The amino acid content of these samples suggested that contamination had occurred during non-curatorial storage. We measured the compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios of glycine, β-alanine, and L-alanine in Apollo regolith sample 70011 and found values of -21‰ to -33‰. These values are consistent with those seen in terrestrial biology and, together with the enantiomeric compositions of the proteinogenic amino acids, suggest that terrestrial biological contamination is a primary source of the

  20. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  1. Genetics of Amino Acid Taste and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Glendinning, John I; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Manita, Satoshi; McCaughey, Stuart A; Murata, Yuko; Reed, Danielle R; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness. Strain differences in the consumption of some other sweet-tasting amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, and l-threonine) do not depend on Tas1r3 polymorphisms and so must be due to allelic variation in other, as yet unknown, genes involved in sweet taste. Strain differences in the consumption of l-glutamate may depend on postingestive rather than taste mechanisms. Thus, genes and physiologic mechanisms responsible for strain differences in the consumption of each amino acid depend on the nature of its taste and postingestive properties. Overall, mouse strain differences in amino acid taste and appetite have a complex genetic architecture. In addition to the Tas1r3 gene, these differences depend on other genes likely involved in determining the taste and postingestive effects of amino acids. The identification of these genes may lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms that regulate amino acid taste and appetite. PMID:27422518

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  3. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  4. 紫苏籽蛋白质与氨基酸的含量测定及营养评价%The Content Determination and Nutritional Evaluation of Perilla Seed Protein and Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾青慧; 沈奇; 陈莉

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the nutritional value of perilla seed, the perilla seed protein and amino acid content of qisu 2 and qisu 3 which are high oil and high quality in our research institute was determined. Its nutritional value was evaluated and compared with other high protein food. The results showed that there was no difference in the protein between prilla seed, peanuts and walnut, but the protein content of perilla seed was higher than eggs and milk;the amino acid varieties were abundant, including 8 kinds of human essential amino acid. The essential amino acid content was equal to eggs, higher than milk, which is a high quality protein food. Accord-ing to amino acid nutritional evaluation , in addition to valine , amino acid scores and chemical scores of qisu 2 were higher than qisu 3, the essential amino acid index was also higher than qisu 3, in other words, qisu 2 nutritional value was higher than qisu 3. Except for methionine and cysteine, the other essential amino acids scores were higher than FAO recommended value, chemical scores were close to or exceed egg protein in qisu 2. Methionine+cysteine was the first limiting amino acid of qisu 2,which amino acid score and chemical score were the lowest, 13.68%and 8.40%respectively.%为了研究紫苏籽的营养价值,测定了本研究所选育的高油、优质紫苏品系奇苏2号和奇苏3号中紫苏籽的蛋白质与氨基酸含量,评价其营养价值,并与其他高蛋白食品进行比较。结果发现:紫苏籽蛋白质含量和花生、核桃相当,高于鸡蛋和牛乳;氨基酸种类齐全,包括8种人体必需氨基酸,各必需氨基酸含量与鸡蛋相当,高于牛奶,是优质的蛋白质食品。进行氨基酸营养价值评价可得,除缬氨酸外,奇苏2号氨基酸评分、化学评分均高于奇苏3号,必需氨基酸指数也高于奇苏3号,奇苏2号的营养价值高于奇苏3号。奇苏2号中除蛋氨酸+胱氨酸外,其

  5. Determination of amino acids in industrial effluents contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    38 samples of soil for 19 locations partially irrigated on the effluents of sugar mill and oil andghee mill, bottom sediments of evaporation ponds of sugar and fertilizer industries were collected and analyzed for amino acids after acid digestion by gas chromatography using pre column derivatization with trifluroacetyleacetone and ethyl chloroformate. The results obtained were compared with the soil samples irrigated with fresh water. The soil samples were also analyzed for pH, total nitrogen contents and organic carbon. Nine essential (leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), lysine (Lys), L-phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), histadine (His), L-valine (Val), methionine (Met) and isoleucine Ile) and ten non-essential ( alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), Glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp), tyrosine (Tyr)) amino acids were analyzed 13-15 amino acids were identified and determined quantitatively from soil samples. Amino acids Met, Asn, Gln and Trp were observed absent from all the samples. The variation in the amino acids contents in soil with the industrial effluents added and total nitrogen and organic carbon is discussed. (author)

  6. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  7. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  8. Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; vanderGaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Hoerz, F.; Barnes, G.; Chabin, A.; Brack, A.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most important prebiotic molecules as it is from these precursors that the building blocks of life were formed [1]. Although organic molecules were among the components of the planetesimals making up the terrestrial planets, large amounts of primitive organic precursor molecules are believed to be exogenous in origin and to have been imported to the Earth via micrometeorites, carbonaceous meteorites and comets, especially during the early stages of the formation of the Solar System [1,2]. Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions [3]. We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids [4-6]. Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites [7]. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite, used in our experiments. Two American teams have studied the effects of impact on various amino acids [8,9]. [8] investigated amino acids in saturated solution in water with pressure ranges between 5.1 and 21 GPa and temperature ranges between 412 and 870 K. [9] studied amino acids in solid form associated with and without minerals (Murchison and Allende meteorite extracts) and pressure ranges between 3 and 30 GPa. In these two experiments, the amino acids survived up to 15 GPa. At higher pressure, the quantity of preserved amino acids decreases quickly. Some secondary products such as dipeptides and diketopiperazins were identified in the [8] experiment.

  9. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  10. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Susana; Viveros, Agustín; Centeno, Carmen; Romero, C.; Arija, I.; Brenes, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral...

  11. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However, these...

  12. Amino acid analysis for pharmacopoeial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Oliver; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    The impurity profile of amino acids depends strongly on the production process. Since there are many different production methods (e.g. fermentation, protein hydrolysis or chemical synthesis) universal, state of the art methods are required to determine the impurity profile of amino acids produced by all relevant competitors. At the moment TLC tests provided by the Ph. Eur. are being replaced by a very specific amino acid analysis procedure possibly missing out on currently unknown process related impurities. Production methods and possible impurities as well as separation and detection methods suitable for said impurities are subject to this review. PMID:27154660

  13. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Massao Shimizu; Paulo Mazzafera

    2000-01-01

    Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino...

  14. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  15. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  16. D-amino acids trigger biofilm disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Romero, Diego; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2010-04-30

    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. In our studies outlined here, we found that, before biofilm disassembly, Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan that could act at nanomolar concentrations. D-amino acid treatment caused the release of amyloid fibers that linked cells in the biofilm together. Mutants able to form biofilms in the presence of D-amino acids contained alterations in a protein (YqxM) required for the formation and anchoring of the fibers to the cell. D-amino acids also prevented biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-amino acids are produced by many bacteria and, thus, may be a widespread signal for biofilm disassembly. PMID:20431016

  17. Composição de aminoácidos de gerações precoces de feijão obtidas a partir de cruzamentos com parental de alto teor de metionina Amino acid composition in common bean of early generations developed from cross with high methionine content parental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de aminoácidos de gerações precoces de feijão, obtidas a partir de cruzamentos com parental de alto teor de metionina, e selecionar plantas F2 para o desenvolvimento de populações segregantes com alto teor de metionina. A partir do cruzamento entre BRS Valente e IAPAR 44 foram obtidas as gerações F1, F1 recíproco, F2, F2 recíproco, retrocruzamento 1 e retrocruzamento 2. Os aminoácidos foram quantificados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de variáveis canônicas. Os aminoácidos - ácido aspártico, ácido glutâmico, glicina, prolina, tirosina, cisteína, metionina e treonina - apresentaram variabilidade genética. Gerações precoces com alto teor de metionina foram obtidas sem que tenha havido limitação na disponibilidade dos demais aminoácidos essenciais. As duas primeiras variáveis canônicas explicaram 99,28% da variação total dos genótipos e três grupos foram formados. Plantas da geração F2 poderão ser selecionadas pelo programa de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de populações segregantes de feijão com alto teor de metionina.The objective of this research was to determine the amino acid composition in common bean early generations developed from controlled crossings with high methionine content parental, and to select F2 plants with high methionine content. BRS Valente and IAPAR 44 were crossed and the F1, F1 reciprocal, F2, F2 reciprocal, backcross 1 e backcross 2 generations were obtained. The amino acid contents were determinated by liquid chromatography of high performance (CLAE and the data were submitted to analysis of variance and cannonical variables. Aspartic acid, glutamatic acid, glycine, proline, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine and threonine contents showed variability among genotypes. Early generations were obtained with high methionine content and essential amino

  18. Neutron inelastic scattering from amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron incoherent inelastic scattering technique is used for studying the extensive hydrogen bonding that connects the molecules together and gives the structure cohesion in three dimension in amino acids. Results on five amino acids namely, α-glycine, DL-alanine, L-valine, L-tyrosine and L-phenyl-alanine having different side groups are reported and compared with those from other methods. The main emphasis is on the torsional motions of NH3+ and CH3 groups. (K.B.)

  19. Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Drury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins.

  20. D-Amino acid oxidase: new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilone, M S

    2000-11-01

    The most recent research on D-amino acid oxidases and D-amino acid metabolism has revealed new, intriguing properties of the flavoenzyme and enlighted novel biotechnological uses of this catalyst. Concerning the in vivo function of the enzyme, new findings on the physiological role of D-amino acid oxidase point to a detoxifying function of the enzyme in metabolizing exogenous D-amino acids in animals. A novel role in modulating the level of D-serine in brain has also been proposed for the enzyme. At the molecular level, site-directed mutagenesis studies on the pig kidney D-amino acid oxidase and, more recently, on the enzyme from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis indicated that the few conserved residues of the active site do not play a role in acid-base catalysis but rather are involved in substrate interactions. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was recently determined from two different sources: at 2.5-3.0 A resolution for DAAO from pig kidney and at 1.2-1.8 A resolution for R. gracilis. The active site can be clearly depicted: the striking absence of essential residues acting in acid-base catalysis and the mode of substrate orientation into the active site, taken together with the results of free-energy correlation studies, clearly support a hydrid transfer type of mechanism in which the orbital steering between the substrate and the isoalloxazine atoms plays a crucial role during catalysis. PMID:11130179

  1. Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2004-03-10

    Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

  2. Seasonal variation in amino acid and phenolic compound profiles of three Turkish white wine grapes

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNAL, MUSTAFA ÜMİT; ŞENER, AYSUN; ŞEN, KEMAL; YILMAZTEKİN, MURAT

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Changes in amino acids and phenolic compounds in Emir, Narince, and Sultaniye grapes were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography for two consecutive seasons. Seasonal and varietal variations in amino acid content were observed among the cultivars. Arginine, histidine, and alanine were the most prominent amino acids in all 3 cultivars in both years, with arginine being the highest found in the Sultaniye cultivar, varying between 910 and 955 mg/L. The phenolic contents al...

  3. Amino acid survival in large cometary impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Chyba, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    A significant fraction of the Earth's prebiotic volatile inventory may have been delivered by asteroidal and cometary impacts during the period of heavy bombardment. The realization that comets are particularly rich in organic material seemed to strengthen this suggestion. Previous modeling studies, however, indicated that most organics would be entirely destroyed in large comet and asteroid impacts. The availability of new kinetic parameters for the thermal degradation of amino acids in the solid phase made it possible to readdress this question. We present the results of new high-resolution hydrocode simulations of asteroid and comet impact coupled with recent experimental data for amino acid pyrolysis in the solid phase. Differences due to impact velocity as well as projectile material have been investigated. Effects of angle of impacts were also addressed. The results suggest that some amino acids would survive the shock heating of large (kilometer-radius) cometary impacts. At the time of the origins of life on Earth, the steady-state oceanic concentration of certain amino acids (like aspartic and glutamic acid) delivered by comets could have equaled or substantially exceeded that due to Miller-Urey synthesis in a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Furthermore, in the unlikely case of a grazing impact (impact angle around 5 degrees from the horizontal) an amount of some amino acids comparable to that due to the background steady-state production or delivery would be delivered to the early Earth.

  4. Silicone hydrogels grafted with natural amino acids for ophthalmological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; He, Ruiyu; Xie, Binbin; Ismail, Muhammad; Yao, Chen; Luan, Jie; Li, Xinsong

    2016-09-01

    In this report, protein repelling silicone hydrogels with improved hydrophilicity were prepared by photo-polymerization of silicone-containing monomer and glycidyl methacrylate followed by grafting zwitterionic amino acids. The grafted silicone hydrogels possessed excellent hydrophilic surfaces due to the enrichment of amino acids, which was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, and equilibrium water content measurements. Remarkable resistance to bovine serum albumin and lysozyme fouling was observed for the silicone hydrogels immobilized with neutrally charged amino acids because of the formation of zwitterionic surfaces with pairs of protonated secondary ammonium cations and deprotonated carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, the silicone hydrogels grafted with positively or negatively charged amino acids were able to repulse same charged protein with reduced deposition and attract oppositely charged protein with increased adsorption. Preliminary cytotoxicity test indicated that the zwitterionic silicone hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Similarly, three types of natural amino acids, including serine, aspartic acid and histidine, modified silicone hydrogel contact lenses exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and non-damage to the rabbit's eyes, but only serine modified zwitterionic contact lens showed superior protein fouling resistance compared with the current commercial hydrogel contact lens, which may have great potential application in ophthalmology. PMID:27297564

  5. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  6. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  7. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however, inco

  8. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B;

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2), on......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...

  9. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  10. Biosynthesis of the Aromatic Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, James; Yang, Ji

    2008-09-01

    This chapter describes in detail the genes and proteins of Escherichia coli involved in the biosynthesis and transport of the three aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It provides a historical perspective on the elaboration of the various reactions of the common pathway converting erythrose-4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate to chorismate and those of the three terminal pathways converting chorismate to phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The regulation of key reactions by feedback inhibition, attenuation, repression, and activation are also discussed. Two regulatory proteins, TrpR (108 amino acids) and TyrR (513 amino acids), play a major role in transcriptional regulation. The TrpR protein functions only as a dimer which, in the presence of tryptophan, represses the expression of trp operon plus four other genes (the TrpR regulon). The TyrR protein, which can function both as a dimer and as a hexamer, regulates the expression of nine genes constituting the TyrR regulon. TyrR can bind each of the three aromatic amino acids and ATP and under their influence can act as a repressor or activator of gene expression. The various domains of this protein involved in binding the aromatic amino acids and ATP, recognizing DNA binding sites, interacting with the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase, and changing from a monomer to a dimer or a hexamer are all described. There is also an analysis of the various strategies which allow TyrR in conjunction with particular amino acids to differentially affect the expression of individual genes of the TyrR regulon. PMID:26443741

  11. Mutagenic effect of incorporated tritium amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic effect of tritium labelled amino acids was studied. The experiments were carried out on white mongreal rats, genetic effects were evaluated by dominant lethal mutation frequency in male germ cells. It was shown that administration of tritium amino acids results in genetic violations in male germ cells manifested in progeny death. Assessment of integral temporal indices of induced post implantation embryos death showed that 3H-lysine effect exceeds tritium oxide effect by 1.5-2 fold in case of equal absorbed doses. The obtained results are used in alculation of radiation hygienic standards for biogenic tritium compounds. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Mariana Michelato; Ana Lúcia Salaro; Thais Pereira da Cruz; Valéria Rossetto Barriviera-Furuya

    2015-01-01

    Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g) was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine) x100), and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino a...

  13. Comparative functional genomics of amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pastink, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria used as starters in industrial fermentations has profound effects on the quality of the fermented foods. The work described in this PhD thesis was initiated to use genomics technologies and a comparative approach to link the gene content of some well-known lactic acid bacteria to flavor formation and to increase our general knowledge in the area of amino acid metabolism. The three well-known lactic acid bacteria that were used in these studies...

  14. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    OpenAIRE

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however, incorporated into body proteins part of these amino acids are oxidized, and can, thus, no longer be utilized to support protein metabolism in the body. The objective of this thesis was to increase the ...

  15. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  16. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  17. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  18. 水肥耦合对冬小麦籽粒蛋白质及氨基酸含量的影响%Effects of irrigation and fertilization coupling on protein and amino acids contents in grains of winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志松; 王晨阳; 牛俊义; 张美微; 张洁; 姚宇卿

    2011-01-01

    为了解不同水、肥条件下小麦籽粒氨基酸及蛋白质含量的变化,2009~2010年度在河南省洛阳市农业科学院以“洛旱2号”小麦为材料,采用防雨棚池栽种植方式,研究了不同灌水量、施氮和施磷量及其互作对小麦籽粒蛋白质及氨基酸含量的影响.结果表明:不同灌水量和施氮量对小麦籽粒蛋白质和氨基酸均有极显著影响(P≤0.01),且灌水×施氮互作效应显著(P≤0.05或P≤0.01);而施磷对其影响不显著.小麦籽粒蛋白质和氨基酸含量均随施氮量增加而增加,随灌水量增加而降低,但当灌水量超过282.0 mm、施氮量超过179.2kg·hm-2时,各指标的变化不再明显,蛋白质含量在高施氮量下略有下降.而必需氨基酸占总氨基酸含量的比例呈随灌水量增加而增加,随施氮量增加而降低的趋势.从不同水肥处理组合看,蛋白质和氨基酸含量以处理组合N 105P42W127[施氮量105 kg(N)·hm-2、施磷量42 kg(P2O5)·hm-2和全生育期灌水量127 mm,下同]最高,必需氨基酸/总氨基酸以处理组合N30.8P126W282最高.籽粒产量随灌水量的增加而增加,且产量高的处理其水分利用效率也较高.综合从蛋白质及氨基酸产量看,以处理组合N179.2P126W282表现最好,即施氮量为179.2kg·hm-2、施磷量为126 kg·hm-2、灌水量为282mm.%To evaluate effects of different water, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and their interactions on grain quality of winter wheat in semiarid region, the experiment was carried out in rain-sheltered condition in Luoyang, west part of Henan Province during crop season of 2009-2010. Grain protein content and contents of amino acid components were tested. The results indicated that irrigation, application of nitrogen had significant effects on grain protein and amino acids contents (P≤0.01) of winter wheat. The interaction of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization also presented significant effects (P≤0.05 or =£0.01). No

  19. A comparative proteomic analysis of the simple amino acid repeat distributions in Plasmodia reveals lineage specific amino acid selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsatellites have been used extensively in the field of comparative genomics. By studying microsatellites in coding regions we have a simple model of how genotypic changes undergo selection as they are directly expressed in the phenotype as altered proteins. The simplest of these tandem repeats in coding regions are the tri-nucleotide repeats which produce a repeat of a single amino acid when translated into proteins. Tri-nucleotide repeats are often disease associated, and are also known to be unstable to both expansion and contraction. This makes them sensitive markers for studying proteome evolution, in closely related species. RESULTS: The evolutionary history of the family of malarial causing parasites Plasmodia is complex because of the life-cycle of the organism, where it interacts with a number of different hosts and goes through a series of tissue specific stages. This study shows that the divergence between the primate and rodent malarial parasites has resulted in a lineage specific change in the simple amino acid repeat distribution that is correlated to A-T content. The paper also shows that this altered use of amino acids in SAARs is consistent with the repeat distributions being under selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that simple amino acid repeat distributions can be used to group related species and to examine their phylogenetic relationships. This study also shows that an outgroup species with a similar A-T content can be distinguished based only on the amino acid usage in repeats, and suggest that this might be a useful feature for proteome clustering. The lineage specific use of amino acids in repeat regions suggests that comparative studies of SAAR distributions between proteomes gives an insight into the mechanisms of expansion and the selective pressures acting on the organism.

  20. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  1. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Melvin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  2. Amino acid modifications on tRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yuan; Kelly Sheppard; Dieter S(o)ll

    2008-01-01

    The accurate formation of cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) is essential for the fidelity of translation.Most amino acids are esterified onto their cognate tRNA isoacceptors directly by aa.tRNA synthetases.However,in the case of four amino acids (Gin,Asn,Cys and Sec),aminoacyl-tRNAs are made through indirect pathways in many organisms across all three domains of life.The process begins with the charging ofnoncognate amino acids to tRNAs by a specialized synthetase in the case of Cys-tRNAcys formation or by synthetases with relaxed specificity,such as the non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA,non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases.The resulting misacylated tRNAs are then converted to cognate pairs through transformation of the amino acids on the tRNA,which is catalyzed by a group of tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes,such as tRNA-dependent amidotransferases,Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase,O-phosphoseryi-tRNA kinase and Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase.The majority of these indirect pathways are widely spread in all domains of life and thought to be part of the evolutionary process.

  3. Conformational Interconversions of Amino Acid Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2016), s. 694-705. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : amino acids * force fields * transition states Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.498, year: 2014

  4. Effect of chronic supplementation with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and hepatic and muscle glycogen content in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jonas A; Falavigna, Gina; Rogero, Marcelo M; Pires, Ivanir S O; Pedrosa, Rogerio G; Castro, Inar A; Donato, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio

    2006-08-29

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; 3.57% and 4.76%) on the performance and glycogen metabolism of trained rats. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats received the control diet (AIN-93M) (n=12) and two diets supplemented with BCAA (S1: AIN-93M+3.57% BCAA, n=12, and S2: AIN-93M+4.76% BCAA, n=12) for 6 weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (60 min day(-1)) for 6 weeks at intensities close to the lactate threshold. On the last day of the experiment, all groups were trained for 1 h (1H) or were submitted to the exhaustion test (EX). The time to exhaustion did not differ between groups. The groups submitted to the exhaustion test presented a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in plasma ammonia and blood lactate concentrations compared to the 1H condition. In the 1H condition, hepatic glycogen concentration was significantly higher in group S2 compared to the control diet and S1 groups (132% and 44%, respectively). Group S2 in the 1H condition presented a higher muscle glycogen concentration (45%) compared to the control diet group. In the EX condition, a significantly higher hepatic glycogen concentration was observed for group S2 compared to the control diet and S1 groups (262% and 222%, respectively). Chronic supplementation with BCAA promoted a higher hepatic and muscle glycogen concentration in trained animals, with this effect being dose dependent. PMID:16698042

  5. Effects of Basal Se Fertilizers on Nutrition Value and Amino Acid Contents of Naked Oats%硒肥对莜麦常规养分和氨基酸变化规律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 介晓磊; 李建平; 郭孝; 胡华锋; 黄安群; 石志芳

    2012-01-01

    The effects of basal Se fertilizers (570 ? 1143 g ?hm?2 for Na2SeO3 ?5H2O) on nutrition value and amino acid contents were studied in naked oat (Avena chinensis L. ) field at yellow river beach in order to consider new approaches of enhancing nutritional levels. Results showed that basal Se fertilizers had more apparent effects on the nutrition contents of naked oat hay in heading and flowering stages. Specifically, crude protein (CP) and non-nitrogen extract (NFE) showed a declining tendency, and the contents of crude ash (Ash) , ether extract (EE) , crude fiber (CF) showed a rising tendency with the increase of basal Se fertilizers. Basal Se fertilizers had more apparent effects on the nutrition contents of naked oat grain. When application rates of Se fertilizer were 570'? 765 g ?hm~2, CP contents were enhanced significantly, while CF contents were declined. When application rates of Se fertilizer was over 954 g ?hm?2, EE and CF contents were enhanced significantly. Applying basal Se fertilizers could also increase the contents of essential amino acids (EAA)and total animo-acids (TAA) to some extent, but had less apparent effects on EAA/TAA, NEAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA in any condition. Rational application of basal Se fertilizer could increase the contents of essential amino acids and total animo-acids and favor high quality production of naked oat forage and grain%通过在河南省黄河滩区莜麦(Avena chinensis L.)地上播前基施硒肥(Na2SeO3·5H2O)570~1143 g·hm-2,研究硒肥对莜麦扬花期青干草和籽粒的营养价值和氨基酸变化规律的影响,探索提高莜麦营养水平的新途径.结果表明:基施硒肥对抽穗-扬花期莜麦青干草的常规营养成分有一定的影响,且随着施硒量的增加,青干草中粗蛋白质和无氮浸出物含量呈下降趋势,粗灰分、粗脂肪和粗纤维的含量呈上升趋势;基施量为570~765 g·hm-2时能显著提高籽粒中的粗蛋白质含量,降低粗

  6. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile leaves. Methods: Dried leaves of C. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months, threonine for children (6 months to 3 years, while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions: These results indicated the leaves of C. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  7. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

  8. Composição de aminoácidos em gerações precoces de feijão obtidas a partir de cruzamentos controlados com parental de alto teor de cisteína Amino acid composition in common bean early generations developed from cross with high cysteine content parental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a composição de aminoácidos em gerações precoces de feijão, obtidas a partir de cruzamentos controlados com genitor de alto teor de cisteína, e identificar plantas com alto teor de cisteína nos grãos. A partir do cruzamento entre 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano', foram obtidas as gerações F1, F1 recíproco, F2, F2 recíproco, retrocruzamento 1 e retrocruzamento 2. Os aminoácidos foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta performance (HPLC e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de variáveis canônicas. Os aminoácidos - cisteína, prolina, tirosina, arginina, isoleucina e histidina - apresentaram variabilidade genética entre os genitores e as gerações obtidas. Os teores de aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais observados nos genitores e nas gerações F1 e F1 recíproco foram adequados para uso na alimentação. As demais gerações apresentaram deficiência em aminoácidos sulfurados. As duas primeiras variáveis canônicas explicaram 96,43% da variação total dos genótipos e dois grupos foram formados. Nenhuma planta da geração F2 é passível de seleção pelo programa de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de populações segregantes de feijão com alto teor de cisteína nos grãos.The objective of this research was to determine the amino acid composition of early generations in common bean developed from controlled crossings with high cysteine content parental and to identify plants with high cysteine content. 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano' were crossed and the F1, F1 reciprocal, F2, F2 reciprocal, backcross 1 e backcross 2 generations were obtained. The amino acid contents were determinated by liquid chromatography of high performance (HPLC and the data were submitted to analysis of variance and cannonical variables. The cysteine, proline, tyrosine, arginine, isoleucine and histidine contents showed genetic variability between the parents and the

  9. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Amino Acid and Secondary Metabolite Contents in Mentha piperita L.%UV-B辐射对薄荷药用成分质量分数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴能表; 罗红丽; 马红群; 吴督督; 张扬欢; 胡丽涛; 孙金春

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of UV-B radiation on amino acid and secondary metabolite contents in Mentha piperita L. , M. piperita plants were exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation at 0.15 and 0.35 W/m2 , and flavone, medicinal amino acids, and menthol, menthone, and P-menthone in the volatile oils were determined. Under 0. 15 W/m2 radiation stress, the content of flavone in the plants was significantly increased; the contents of Glu, Lys, Gly and menthol, menthone and P-menthone in the volatile oils were significantly decreased, while Leu and Phe first increased and then decreased, and the content of soluble proteins decreased significantly 20 and 30 days after the treatment. Under 0.15 W/m2 radiation stress, the content of flavone first increased and decreased later and reached the maximum after 30 days; the contents of Glu, Gly, Leu, Tyr, Phe and Arg and the sum of 9 medicinal amino acids were decreased significantly in 10--40 days, the content of soluble proteins was decreased 20 days after the treatment, and the contents of menthol, menthone, P-menthone in the volatile oils were increased significantly. It is concluded from the present work that low dosage UV-B radiation promoted the synthesis of the aromatic amino acid Phe and the branched-chain amino acid Leu while high dosage UV-B radiation decreased the contents of medicinal amino acids of M. piperita L, and that the M. piperita plants could increase the contents of the secondary metabolites such as flavone, menthol, menthone and P-menthone to enhance their adaptability to UV-B radiation.%目的:探讨增强UV-B辐射对胡椒薄荷氨基酸及药用次生代谢物质量分数的影响.方法:人工模拟生长环境中紫外辐射增强处理胡椒薄荷,用分光光度法测胡椒薄荷内黄酮质量分数,氨基酸采用日立L-8800型全自动氨基酸分析仪测定,薄荷挥发油中主要药用成分质量分数测定采用Agilent 6820气相色谱仪(配氢火焰检测器FID,美国安

  10. Roles of phytochemicals in amino acid nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yinlong

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is often used as dietary supplements to maintain good health in animals and humans. Here, we review the current knowledge about effects of CHM (including ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder, Acanthopanax senticosus extracts, Astragalus polysaccharide, and glycyrrhetinic acid) as dietary additives on physiological and biochemical parameters in pigs, chickens and rodents. Additionally, we propose possible mechanisms for the beneficial effects of CHM on the animals. These mechanisms include (a) increased digestion and absorption of dietary amino acids; (b) altered catabolism of amino acids in the small intestine and other tissues; (c) enhanced synthesis of functional amino acids (e.g., arginine, glutamine and proline) and polyamines; and (d) improved metabolic control of nutrient utilization through cell signaling. Notably, some phytochemicals and glucocorticoids share similarities in structure and physiological actions. New research findings provide a scientific and clinical basis for the use of CHM to improve well-being in livestock species and poultry, while enhancing the efficiency of protein accretion. Results obtained from animal studies also have important implications for human nutrition and health. PMID:21196382

  11. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.P.; Bistrian, B.R.; Moldawer, L.L.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1985-12-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(U-/sup 14/C)-tyrosine preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. This study suggests that an adequate nitrogen intake of a balanced amino acid mixture, as well as a solution enriched with branched-chain amino acids, maintains protein homeostasis and supports protein synthesis similarly in well-nourished patients following major abdominal surgery. A diet containing only branched-chain amino acids in isomolar ratios was as effective at maintaining protein retention and whole-body protein synthesis and albumin renewal postoperatively when compared with a standard amino acid formula.

  12. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(U-14C)-tyrosine preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. This study suggests that an adequate nitrogen intake of a balanced amino acid mixture, as well as a solution enriched with branched-chain amino acids, maintains protein homeostasis and supports protein synthesis similarly in well-nourished patients following major abdominal surgery. A diet containing only branched-chain amino acids in isomolar ratios was as effective at maintaining protein retention and whole-body protein synthesis and albumin renewal postoperatively when compared with a standard amino acid formula

  13. 八种野菜氨基酸及维生素的含量分析%Determination the contents of amino acids and vitamins in eight kinds of wild vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓慧; 郑奎玲; 廖莉玲; 卫钢

    2012-01-01

    The contents of Amino acids in eight kinds of wild vegetables collected in Guizhou had been determined by RP-HPLC with precolumn derivatization and the contents of Vitamins in these wild vegetables had been determined by using HPLC.The results showed that the contents of total and essential amino acids were richer in Nasturtium officinale R.Br,Chenopodium album,Mentha spicata Linn,the content of VA was the highest in Gnaphalium affine D.Don,the contents of VEwere richer in Mentha spicata Linn,Oenanthe javanica(B1ume.)DC,Aster sublatus Michx,the contents of VB1were richer in Geum japonicum Thunb.var.chinese F.Bolle,Nasturtium officinale R.Br,Gnaphalium affine D.Don,the content of VB2 was the highest in Nasturtium officinale R.Br.These wild vegetables had a general higher nutrition value.%采用柱前衍生反相高效液相色谱法测定贵州8种野菜(鸭儿芹、蓝布正、鱼香菜、灰菜、剪刀菜、豆瓣菜、清明菜、水芹)中17种氨基酸含量,并采用高效液相色谱法测定了其中的维生素A、维生素E、维生素B1、维生素B2的含量。结果表明,在所测定的野菜中,豆瓣菜,灰菜、鱼香菜氨基酸总量和必需氨基酸含量较高;清明菜维生素A含量最高,鱼香菜、水芹、剪刀菜富含维生素E,蓝布正、豆瓣菜、清明菜富含维生素B1,豆瓣菜维生素B2含量最高。这些野菜具有较高的营养价值。

  14. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, diazotized, (3-aminophenyl)phosphonic acid and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized,...

  15. Tuning hardness in calcite by incorporation of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Carloni, Joseph D.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Sparks, David; Reid, David G.; Kunitake, Miki E.; Tang, Chiu C.; Duer, Melinda J.; Freeman, Colin L.; Pokroy, Boaz; Penkman, Kirsty; Harding, John H.; Estroff, Lara A.; Baker, Shefford P.; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2016-08-01

    Structural biominerals are inorganic/organic composites that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. However, the structure-property relationships of even the simplest building unit--mineral single crystals containing embedded macromolecules--remain poorly understood. Here, by means of a model biomineral made from calcite single crystals containing glycine (0-7 mol%) or aspartic acid (0-4 mol%), we elucidate the origin of the superior hardness of biogenic calcite. We analysed lattice distortions in these model crystals by using X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, and by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance show that the amino acids are incorporated as individual molecules. We also demonstrate that nanoindentation hardness increased with amino acid content, reaching values equivalent to their biogenic counterparts. A dislocation pinning model reveals that the enhanced hardness is determined by the force required to cut covalent bonds in the molecules.

  16. Rotational Study of Natural Amino Acid Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marcelino; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Recent improvements in laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) have allowed the investigation of glutamine (COOH-CH(NH2)-CH2-CH2-CONH2), a natural amino acid with a long polar side chain. One dominant structure has been detected in the rotational spectrum. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of two 14N nuclei has been totally resolved allowing the conclusive identification of the observed species.

  17. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake). PMID:10702992

  18. Amino Acid Decarboxylase Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pelin ERTÜRKMEN; Turhan, İlkay; Öner, Zübeyde

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms which have decarboxylase activity can form biogenic amine by enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids in foods. Histamine poisoning results from consumption of foods typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Therefore, decarboxylase activity is an important problem at the selection of lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture in fermented products. In this study, decarboxylase activities of 161 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain...

  19. Effects of Amino Acid Content on Antioxidant Activity of Honey from Different Sources and Geographic Origins%蜂蜜中氨基酸含量对抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董蕊; 郑毅男

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences were found in 17 free amino acids among 14 honey samples from different regions of China and different flowers.The result showed that proline was the major free amino acid and constituted over 65.27% of total free amino acids,averaging at about 349.829 mg/kg in the honey samples.The antioxidant ability of honeys was evaluated by NO2-· radical scavenging assay.The results obtained showed that all the honey samples had antioxidant activity,with an EC50 ranging from(0.55±0.021) to(0.25±0.034) g/mL.Among these samples,longan honey from Guangxi had the highest antioxidant ability.Correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant ability of honeys was correlated with proline content and the contents of 17 total free amino acid,with R=0.7513 and R=0.8051 respectively.Conclusion: Free amino acids in honeys are positively correlated with NO2-· radical scavenging activity.As a known functional food,honey may have more health benefits than previously reported and more attention should be paid to it for its full utilization.%以14种中国单花蜜为原料,比较所含有的17种游离氨基酸含量差异,确定样品中主要以脯氨酸为主,占游离氨基酸总量65.27%,平均含游离氨基酸349.829mg/kg。评估14种单花蜜体外抗氧化活性,得到单花蜜对亚硝酸盐抑制能力的EC50值从(0.55±0.021)g/mL到(0.25±0.034)g/mL之间变化,广西的龙眼蜜抑制能力最强;14种单花蜜中脯氨酸、游离氨基酸含量差异分别与对亚硝酸盐抑制能力的相关系数R=0.7513和R=0.8051。说明蜂蜜中氨基酸类物质影响抗氧化活性,其含量与对亚硝酸盐的抑制能力呈现正相关关系,蜂蜜作为潜在的功能性食品更应值得关注。

  20. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L;

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  1. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2584 - Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. 721.2584... Substances § 721.2584 Dodecanoic acid, 12-amino-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dodecanoic acid, 12-amino- (PMN P-98-0823; CAS No....

  3. Amino acid analysis and group function of camel insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. A. Baragob,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the claimed amino analysis and groups fraction of Sudanese camels’ insulin was obtained by hydrolysis using amino acid analyzer. The result obtained indicated the presence of all amino acids except cystine and tryptophan which were not detected by this method due to destruction during acid hydrolysis.

  4. Amino acid analysis and group function of camel insulin

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. A. Baragob,; O. Y. Mohammed,; A. F. Mustafa,; S. M. E. Khojali; H. A. Samia

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the claimed amino analysis and groups fraction of Sudanese camels’ insulin was obtained by hydrolysis using amino acid analyzer. The result obtained indicated the presence of all amino acids except cystine and tryptophan which were not detected by this method due to destruction during acid hydrolysis.

  5. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  6. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  7. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  8. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  9. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O

    2016-07-01

    Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy. The current Estimated Average Requirement and RDA recommendations of 0.88 and 1.1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively, are for all stages of pregnancy. The single recommendation does not take into account the changing needs during different stages of pregnancy. Recently, with the use of the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation method, we defined the requirements to be, on average, 1.2 and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) during early (∼16 wk) and late (∼36 wk) stages of pregnancy, respectively. Although the requirements are substantially higher than current recommendations, our values are ∼14-18% of total energy and fit within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Using swine as an animal model we showed that the requirements for several indispensable amino acids increase dramatically during late gestation compared with early gestation. Additional studies should be conducted during pregnancy to confirm the newly determined protein requirements and to determine the indispensable amino acid requirements during pregnancy in humans. PMID:27422521

  11. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  12. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea;

    2015-01-01

    also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac) was...... administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C...... after oral than after iv amino acid challenges (P = .006), whereas there was no significant difference in the glucagon response. Intact and total GIP rose after oral but not after iv amino acid administration, whereas intact and total GLP-1 levels did not change significantly in either test. CONCLUSION...

  13. Comparative Amino Acid Sequences of Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Haishi, Shozo; TANAKA Mariko; Igarashi, Akira

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) sequences of 4 serotype of dengue viruses deduced from their nucleotide (nt) sequences of genomic RNA were analyzed for each genome segment and each stretch of 10 AA residues. Precursor of membrane protein (pM), and 4 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS3, NS4B, NS5) were highly conserved, while another nonstructural protein (NS2A) was least conserved among 5 strains of dengue viruses. When homology was compared among heterotypic viruses, type 1 and type 3 dengue viruses showed clo...

  14. D-Amino Acids Trigger Biofilm Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodkin-Gal, Illana; Romero, Diego; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. Here we found that prior to biofilm disassembly Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine and D-tryptophan that could act at nanomolar concentrations. D-amino acid treatment caused the release of amyloid fibers that linked cells in the biofilm together. Mutants able to form biofi...

  15. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... maintaining this level of protein intake). Patients are therefore able to follow a more "normal" diet than those adhering to a PKU diet with AA supplementation (in which only 20% of the daily protein requirement is provided from the diet and 80% from AA supplementation). LNAAs have also been used to treat...

  16. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  17. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  18. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  19. Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

  20. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by fours different methods of preservation, and stored during five months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work studies the qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic aminoacids of the potato tubers stored during five months. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from tubers control without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the aminoacids from the tubers treated by different methods, but they do exist significant differences when compared with the non treated controls. (Author) 46 refs

  1. Conformational properties of oxazoline-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staś, Monika; Broda, Małgorzata A.; Siodłak, Dawid

    2016-04-01

    Oxazoline-amino acids (Xaa-Ozn) occur in natural peptides of potentially important bioactivity. The conformations of the model compounds: Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4R-Me), Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4S-Me), and (gauche+, gauche-, anti) Ac-(S)-Val-Ozn(4R-Me) were studied at meta-hybrid M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) method including solvent effect. Boc-L-Ala-L-Ozn-4-COOMe and Boc-L-Val-L-Ozn-4-COOMe were synthesized and studied by FT-IR and NMR-NOE methods. The conformations in crystal state were gathered from the Cambridge Structural Data Base. The main conformational feature of the oxazoline amino acids is the conformation β2 (ϕ,ψ ∼ -161°, -6°), which predominates in weakly polar environment and still is accessible in polar surrounding. The changes of the conformational preferences towards the conformations αR (ϕ,ψ ∼ -70°, -15°) and then β (ϕ,ψ ∼ -57°, -155°) are observed with increase of the environment polarity.

  2. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  3. The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids - interstellar vs. atmospheric mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Schutte, W. A.; Barbier, B.; Arcones Segovia, A.; Rosenbauer, H.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    Until very recently, prebiotic amino acids were believed to have been generated in the atmosphere of the early Earth, as successfully simulated by the Urey-Miller experiments. Two independent studies now identified ice photochemistry in the interstellar medium as a possible source of prebiotic amino acids. Ultraviolet irradiation of ice mixtures containing identified interstellar molecules (such as H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and NH3) in the conditions of vacuum and low temperature found in the interstellar medium generated amino acid structures including glycine, alanine, serine, valine, proline, and aspartic acid. After warmup, hydrolysis and derivatization, our team was able to identify 16 amino acids as well as furans and pyrroles. Enantioselective analyses of the amino acids showed racemic mixtures. A prebiotic interstellar origin of amino acid structures is now discussed to be a plausible alternative to the Urey-Miller mechanism.

  4. New 2-nitroimidazole analogues of amino acids with a free amino function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuation of an approach to utilize amino acid transport mechanism for preferential uptake of the 2-nitroimidazole derivatives by the solid tumors, the authors now report the synthesis of new amino acid analogues that have a free amino function. The carboxy group of the amino acid is attached through an amide bond to the 2-nitroimidazole moiety. These agents were synthesized by initially reacting a t-butyloxycaronyl amino acid with 2-nitroimidazole-1-ethylamine and then deblocking with trifluoroacetic acid. The newly synthesized amino acid analogues were nontoxic against Chinese hamster (V-79) cells up to a concentration of 5mM when exposed for a 2 hr period. These agents were significantly more active than the 2-nitroimidazole amino acid analogues with a free carboxylic acid function. The phenylalanine analogue was one of the most active sensitizer producing an enhancement ratio (ER) of 2.0 at 0.5 mM. The sensitizing ability increased as a function of concentration achieving an ER of 2.2 at 1.0 mM. These preliminary results suggest that the amino acid analogues with a free amino function, are effective sensitizers and because of their low partition coefficient, may be considered potentially less neurotoxic than misonidazole

  5. Determination of amino acids by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography laser induced fluorescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Liu, Wan-Ling; Tang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Chin-Ping; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Chin, Ting-Yu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, detection of 20 FITC-derivatized amino acids using an MEEKC-LIF was demonstrated. In order to achieve good separation for hydrophobic amino acids, the MEEKC method was employed and detection limits were obtained in the range of 0.32-2.2 nM, which is comparable to previous reports on amino acid analyses. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the reaction time from 1 h for conventional derivatization to 3 min for the microwave-assisted derivatization was observed and achieved, as opposed to the traditional pretreatment of real sample due to its complexity prior to the analysis of amino acid content. Finally, this microwave-assisted derivatization MEEKC-LIF method successfully determined amino acids in beverage, food, and biological samples (rat brain) with good recovery. PMID:24535662

  6. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  7. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of naturally occurring D-amino acids in sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogami, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kaori; Oikawa, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    We measured all of the D- and L-amino acids in 141 bottles of sakes using HPLC. We used two precolumn derivatization methods of amino acid enantiomer detection with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, as well as (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate/1-aminoadamantane and one postcolumn derivatization method with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. We found that the sakes contained the D-amino acids forms of Ala, Asn, Asp, Arg, Glu, Gln, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Ser, Tyr, Val, Phe, and Pro. We were not able to detect D-Met, D-Thr D-Trp in any of the sakes analyzed. The most abundant D-Ala, D-Asp, and D-Glu ranged from 66.9 to 524.3 μM corresponding to relative 34.4, 12.0, and 14.6% D-enantiomer. The basic parameters that generally determine the taste of sake such as the sake meter value (SMV; "Nihonshudo"), acidity ("Sando"), amino acid value ("Aminosando"), alcohol content by volume, and rice species of raw material show no significant relationship to the D-amino acid content of sake. The brewing water ("Shikomimizu") and brewing process had effects on the D-amino acid content of the sakes: the D-amino acid contents of the sakes brewed with deep-sea water "Kaiyoushinosousui", "Kimoto yeast starter", "Yamahaimoto", and the long aging process "Choukijukusei" are high compared with those of other sakes analyzed. Additionally, the D-amino acid content of sakes that were brewed with the adenine auxotroph of sake yeast ("Sekishoku seishu kobo", Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without pasteurization ("Hiire") increased after storage at 25 °C for three months. PMID:21555255

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Lodwig, S.N. [Centralia College, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  10. Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

  11. Urinary excretion of amino acids during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Course observations have helped to determine whether and in how far plasma and urine levels of amino acids and some other metabolites of the protein metabolism are changed by whole-body and partial irradiation. The author attempts to use combinations of these changes (e.g. increased taurine and decreased hydroxyproline levels), combined with blood plasma measurements, as indicators of radiation exposure. At the present state of the art, with deeper knowledge of the interfering influences of tumours or secondary diseases, local irradiation (radiotherapy) is a suitable test model for elaborating combinations of indicators on the basis of which even accidental radiation exposure can be detected and estimated by simple means as early as 24 to 36 h later. (orig.)

  12. A Novel Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Hui; LI Shuo; XU Pen-gFei

    2003-01-01

    @@ β-hydroxy-α-amino acids constitute an important class of compounds as naturally occurring amino acids and as components of many complex natural products possessing a wide range of biological activities. [1] As a consequence of the essential role played by these amino acids in the biological systems and their utility as synthetic building blocks, a number of useful strategies have been devised for their preparation. [2

  13. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SNAKE VENOM L- AMINO ACID OXIDASES

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Baby; Rajan Sheeja S; M.V Jeevitha; S.U Ajisha

    2011-01-01

    L-Amino acid oxidases are flavoenzymes which catalyze the stereospecific oxidative deamination of an L-amino acid substrate to a corresponding a-ketoacid with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia production. These enzymes, which are widely distributed in many different organisms, exhibit a marked affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, including phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and leucine. Snake venom LAAO induces platelet aggregation and cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. The enzyme has ...

  14. Amino acid analysis in biological fluids by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are intermediates in cellular metabolism and their quantitative analysis plays an important role in disease diagnostics. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate could be carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acid...

  15. A new synthetic protocol for coumarin amino acid

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyi Xu; Xiaosong Hu; Jiangyun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The hydrochloride of the racemic amino acid (2-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethyl)glycine, which can serve as a fluorescent probe in proteins, and two halogen derivatives of it, were synthesized by using a new synthetic protocol in five steps. It is less costly and relatively easy to prepare this kind of fluorescent amino acid with the new synthetic method. Furthermore, it can be applied to synthesize other derivatives of the coumarin amino acid with some specific properties.

  16. Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaci, Omar; Balev, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. We rely on a probability that two amino acids interact as a function of their physico-chemical properties coupled to an ant colony system to solve this problem.

  17. Analysis of amino acids network based on distance matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tazid; Akhtar, Adil; Gohain, Nisha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have constructed a distance matrix of the amino acids. The distance is defined based on the relative evolutionary importance of the base position of the corresponding codons. From this distance matrix a network of the amino acids is obtained. We have argued that this network depicts the evolutionary pattern of the amino acids. To examine the relative importance of the amino acids with respect to this network we have discussed different measures of centrality. We have also investigated the correlation coefficients between different measures of centrality. Further we have explored clustering coefficient as well as degree of distribution.

  18. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  19. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure. PMID:26832172

  20. Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Force, E; Benítez, T

    1995-01-01

    Variations of the yeast free amino acid pool under different culture conditions were studied in two Saccharomyces strains, the laboratory haploid strain S288C and the industrial fermentative yeast IFI256. The internal amino acid pool of both strains was measured when grown in laboratory (minimal and complete) versus semiindustrial (molasses with or without added biotin and/or diammonium phosphate) media, in fermentable (glucose, fructose, sucrose) versus respirable (glycerol) carbon sources, in different temperatures (22, 30, and 37 degrees C), pHs (2.0-4.75), and growth rates (0.018-0.24 h-1) in continuous culture, and at different phases of the growth curve in batch culture (lag, exponential, early and late stationary). Results indicated that environmental conditions, particularly the presence of amino acids in the media, enormously influenced the intracellular amino acid concentration. Higher values were detected in molasses than in laboratory media and in fermentable carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose) than in glycerol. Variations in the amino acid pool along the growth curve were greater at 37 degrees C than at other temperatures; in all cases, the highest values were measured at the beginning of the exponential phase. In continuous culture and at different growth rates, intracellular free amino acid concentrations increased by 3-10-fold when the growth rate was lower than 0.05 h-1, representing 20-35% of the total (free plus protein) amino acid content and indicating that amino acid yield was a partly growth-linked parameter. PMID:7654310

  1. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  2. Synthesis of novel fullerene α-amino acid conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Yan Xia Wang; Feng Kang; Ying Ya Shao; Zong Jie Li; Xin Lin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aspartie acid and glutamic acid with protected α-amino and α-carboxyl groups had been used to react with the activated hydroxyl group of N-substituted 3,4-fuUero pyrrolidine.The products were deprotected,affording two monofullerene α-amino acids,monofullerene aspartic acid(mFas)and monofullerene glutamic acid(mFgu).Then a bifullerene glutamic acid conjugate (bFguC)was synthesized by reaction of mFgu containing protected amino group with N-subsfimted 3,4-fullero pyrrolidine.

  3. Novel amino acids: synthesis of furoxan and sydnonimine containing amino acids and peptides as potential nitric oxide releasing motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortcliffe, Andrew; Botting, Nigel P; O'Hagan, David

    2013-07-28

    The incorporation of furoxan and sydnonimine ring systems into amino acid side chains is demonstrated with the preparation of four novel amino acids which carry these nitric oxide-releasing motifs. N-((4-Nitrophenoxy)carbonyl)-3-phenylsydnonimine 9 and bis(phenylsulfonyl)furoxan 10 are the key intermediates for introducing the heterocycle side chains onto appropriate amine and alcohol functionalities respectively. Furoxan 5 and 7 both displayed NO release based on determination of nitrite production. Orthogonal amino acid protecting group strategies were deployed to demonstrate that the amino acids could be incorporated into peptide frameworks. By way of demonstration the amino acids were placed centrally into several tripeptide motifs. Griess test assays showed that these amino acids released NO in the presence of γ-glutathione (GST). PMID:23753002

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of Chiral Amino Acids and Their Corresponding Amino Alcohols with Camphoric Backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-Fen; HUANG Wei; LI Hui-Hui; YAO Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Chiral amino acids and their corresponding amino alcohols bearing camphoric backbone were prepared from D-(+)-camphoric imide and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, ESI-MS, and NMR measurements. Among them, one intermediate (lS,3R)-3-amino-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid hydrochloride 3 was structurally elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. Versatile intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions observed in its packing structure result in a two-dimensional framework.

  5. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  6. Effects of essential amino acids on food and water intake of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, ETS; Luo, S; Trigazis, L; Kubis, G; Anderson, GH

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effects of selected groups of essential amino acids (EAAs), given by gavage, on short-term food and water intake. Amino acid groups were selected on the basis of their common physiologic functions in relation to current hypotheses on the role of amino acids in food intake control, and the quantities given were based on the proportions in 1.5 g of the EAA content of albumin. The complete EAA mixture (1.5 g) suppressed food intake by an average of 60 and 37% during the 1...

  7. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  8. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  9. Labelling of some amino acids with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some radioiodine labelled compounds which have application in nuclear medicine have been prepared. Two common techniques were employed. A comparative study on the radioiodination of the amino acids, L - tyrosine, L - a - methyl tyrosine and L-tyrosine methyl ester has been carried out by the electrophilic radioiodination technique. The blood flow reagent, antipyrine, also has been prepared by this technique using chloramine - T, iodogen and H2 O2 as oxidizing agents to generate electrophilic iodine. Radio chromatograms revealed side product impurities at long reaction times and high oxidizing agent concentrations. Comparison between the different oxidizing agents was done. Optimization of the radioiodination conditions, such as Ph of the medium, reaction time, oxidizing agent and substrate concentrations and carrier KI concentration was performed resulting in high radiochemical yields of 97% L - 3 -(131) iodotyrosine, 95% L -3-(131) iodo-a-methyl tyrosine, 88% L-3-(131) iodotyrosine methyl ester and 96% 4-(131) iodoantipyrine within short reaction times at room temperature when chloramine - T was used as oxidizing agent. Purification by high pressure liquid chromatography resulted in high radiochemically pure products suitable for medical application. Radioiodinated 3- iodotyrosine and 4- iodophenyl alanine have been prepared by the isotopic exchange technique using cuprous chloride as catalyst for the exchange reaction. The effect of solvents and the different parameters affecting the labelling yield were investigated to optimize the conditions for labelling of these compounds. Kinetic study indicated a second order reaction with an activation energy of 9.6 and 12.20 Kcal/mole for 3- iodotyrosine and 4-iodophenyl alanine respectively. Reducing agents were added to the Cu CI catalyzed reactions to improve the yield and decrease side products formation. Applying the results obtained to the radioiodination of the phenyl fatty acid 15(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid

  10. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

  11. Analysis of cyclic pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Seen; Ko, Ji-Eun

    2011-11-18

    Amino acid was mixed with silica and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to favor pyrolysis of amino acid monomer. The pyrolysis products formed from amino acid monomer were using GC/MS and GC. 20 amino acids of alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine were analyzed. The pyrolysis products were divided into cyclic and non-cyclic products. Among the 20 amino acids, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, and phenylalanine generated cyclic pyrolysis products of the monomer. New cyclic pyrolysis products were formed by isolation of amino acid monomers. They commonly had polar side functional groups to 5-, 6-, or 7-membered ring structure. Arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, and phenylalanine generated only 5- or 6-membered ring products. However, lysine generated both 6- and 7-membered ring compounds. Variations of the relative intensities of the cyclic pyrolysis products with the pyrolysis temperature and amino acid concentration were also investigated. PMID:21993510

  12. Estimates of methionine and sulfur amino acid requirements for laying hens using different models

    OpenAIRE

    AA Saki; R Naseri Harsini; MM Tabatabaei; Zamani, P.; M Haghight

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary methionine (Met) content on the performance of white commercial laying hens and to determine Met and total sulfur amino acids requirements (TSAA). These requirements were estimated using three statistical models (broken-line regression, exponential and second order equations) to evaluate their abilit to determine amino acid requirements. A total of 216 laying hens (23 wks of age) was used in a completely randomized design (CRD) ...

  13. Free amino acids in the xylem sap of pear trees during dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Carlos Marafon; Flavio Gilberto Herter; Fernando José Hawerroth; Adriana Neutzling Bierhals

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Storage and remobilization are considered key processes for the effective use of nitrogen in temperate fruit trees. As dormancy begins, storage proteins are synthesized, coinciding with a reduction in the levels of free amino acids. Consequently, as dormancy breaks, these storage proteins are degraded, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acids occurs, in order to support new growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate water content of different vegetative tissues ...

  14. Composition of amino acids and bioactive amines in common wines of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Carla Agustini; Daniel Braga de Lima; Tania Maria Bordin Bonfim

    2014-01-01

    Since most consumed wines in Brazil are common wines and since their representativeness is not accounted for in scientific research, current study quantifies bioactive amines and their precursors in Brazilian sweet and dry common wines, correlates the formation of amines with physical and chemical parameters and clusters studied areas by their amine and amino acid contents. Forty-seven wine samples varying in type, color and origin were analyzed simultaneously for seventeen amino acids, ammon...

  15. Plant Proteins and Synthetic Amino Acids in the Nutrition of Non-Ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is to be emphasized that in formulating diets for farm animals other than ruminants it is important to meet the requirements for individual essential amino acids and not merely to give regard to over-ail protein quality. The protein component serves to meet the needs for essential amino acids and also supplies material to synthesize those amino acids that are individually dispensable. In arranging for efficient formulation it is important to have available amino acid requirement standards to meet a particular production objective and data on the quantity of amino acids supplied by the various ingredients available. In considering the amino acid content of ingredients it is important to pay due regard to the problems of availability. Efforts to define amino acid requirements for the pig and chick have given somewhat variable results: it is possible to account for some of this variability. It is recognized that under certain circumstances non-amino nitrogen can be utilized by such species as the chick and the pig. The mechanisms involved are briefly considered. Some experimental work has shown that non-amino nitrogen can support growth, but it is difficult to establish a situation in which the non-essential amino acid levels are sufficiently low to take advantage of this fact. Extensive use of synthetic essential amino acids could change this situation. The case for the use of synthetic amino acids in the diets of farm animals is essentially an economic one. It is no longer necessary to demonstrate that free dietary amino acids can meet the needs of the animal. The only question is whether the needs of the animal are more effectively met by the addition of amino acids or more intact protein. The place of alternative protein sources to such attractive commodities as fish meal or soyabean meal must be considered in terms of amino acid supply. Whilst synthetic methionine and lysine are available there is a developing case for the use of such products as sunflower

  16. Polymerization of beta-amino acids in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged alpha- and beta-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. alpha-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. beta-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an alpha- and beta-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently by both reagents. These results are explained in terms of the mechanisms of the reactions, and their relevance to prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  17. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

  18. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Daneault; Saïd Barazzouk

    2012-01-01

    In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC) was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, th...

  19. Utilization of alimentary protein and amino acids in satisfying the nitrogen requirements of monogastric mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogenous matter in the food of monogastric animals consists mainly of proteins, which are rapidly hydrolized in the intestinal tract when they have left the gastric reservoir. The digestive tube has several roles: it provides for hydrolysis of the food proteins and for a supply of endogenous nitrogen; it enables a certain digestive function to be performed by the intestinal flora and permits the transport of amino acids into the blood, selecting those which are needed for protein synthesis. The digestion products appear mainly in the form of free amino acids in the portal blood. A large proportion of these amino acids is taken up by the liver, so that intense protein synthesis takes place in the latter, coupled with a decrease in catabolism leading to a rhythmic increase in the liver content of proteins and RNA. The labile proteins retained are mainly enzymes, which catabolize the amino acids, and the liver is the site of the catabolism of most of the excess amino acids except those with chain branching. Alimentary deficiencies do not markedly reduce protein synthesis in this organ, since the rate of re-utilization of the amino acids is increased and the liver thus plays a regulatory role. The utilization of amino acids in muscle also follows a certain rhythm, partly connected with feeding, and under hormonal control. The muscle is the seat of catabolism of a large part of the branched chain amino acids, and like the liver it contributes to the energy utilization of amino acids. The rate of utilization of certain essential amino acids can be measured by metabolic criteria, including determination of blood and muscle concentrations and excretion of 14CO2 labels in the exhaled air or of 35S labels in urine. (author)

  20. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  1. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  2. Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaci, Omar; Balev, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. An ant colony approach is used to solve this problem.

  3. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves, H. James, II

    2015-03-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or ``chemistry space.'' Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set.

  4. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

  5. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  6. Recommended ingestion of indispensable amino acids to young men . A study using stable isotopes, plasmatic amino acids and nitrogen balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously stated that the minimum physiological recommendations for the indispensable amino acids in health adults, as proposed by FAO/WHO/UNU in 1985, are far too low, except for the methionine. An amino acid stable isotopic kinetic study was conducted to seek further experimental support to this hypothesis. Twenty healthy young men received an l-amino acid based diet, supplying 140 mg N.kg-1.d-1, patterned on egg protein for 1 week, then for 3 weeks either i) a pattern based on current international recommendations (FAO diet, n=7), ii) a the tentative Laboratory of Human Nutrition of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, new amino acid recommendation pattern (MIT diet, n=7) or iii) again the egg hen pattern (EGG diet, n=6). All subjects were again studied for one final, consecutive week of the egg diet. At the end of the initial week, at the first and third week with the three experimental diets,and after three days following the return of the egg diet, an 8 h primed continuous intravenous infusion with l-13 C-leucine was conducted (3 h, fast, 5 h fed - while subjects received hourly meals supplying the equivalent of 5/12 total daily intake). Estimation of leucine balance were carried out with measurements plasma free amino acids changes. Daily nitrogen balances were obtained through the study. Interpretation of plasma amino acids profile, and changes of leucine kinetics balances, indicated that the FAO diet was not able to maintain amino acids homeostasis whereas the MIT and the egg diets sustained body amino acids equilibrium with a positive amino acid balance. nitrogen balances tended to be more negative with the FAO diet but failed to show statistically significant differences among the three diets. The finding point out that it would be prudent to use the new, tentative recommended amino acid pattern (MIT diet 0 as the minimum physiological amino acid needs of healthy human adults (author)

  7. Microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter elucidated by amino acid and amino sugar analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases

  8. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design

  9. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov; Crowley, Michael F., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  10. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2015-12-01

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green's function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  11. Amino Acid Carbamates As Prodrugs Of Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarei, Andrea; Azzolini, Michele; La Spina, Martina; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a plant polyphenol, has important drug-like properties, but its pharmacological exploitation in vivo is hindered by its rapid transformation via phase II conjugative metabolism. One approach to bypass this problem relies on prodrugs. We report here the synthesis, characterization, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviour of prodrugs of resveratrol in which the OH groups are engaged in an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester (-OC(O)NHR) linkage with a natural amino acid (Leu, Ile, Phe, Thr) to prevent conjugation and modulate the physicochemical properties of the molecule. We also report a convenient, high-yield protocol to obtain derivatives of this type. The new carbamate ester derivatives are stable at pH 1, while they undergo slow hydrolysis at physiological pH and hydrolyse with kinetics suitable for use in prodrugs in whole blood. After administration to rats by oral gavage the isoleucine-containing prodrug was significantly absorbed, and was present in the bloodstream as non-metabolized unaltered or partially deprotected species, demonstrating effective shielding from first-pass metabolism. We conclude that prodrugs based on the N-monosubstituted carbamate ester bond have the appropriate stability profile for the systemic delivery of phenolic compounds. PMID:26463125

  12. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  13. Supernovae, Neutrinos, and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, R N; Onaka, T

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids.

  14. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  15. Effects of different sources of dietary chromium on meat quality and amino acid content of broilers%不同铬源对肉鸡肌肉品质及氨基酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利华; 方热军; 周汝顺; 张凯; 胡龙昌

    2013-01-01

    Chromium as a beneficial element was occasionally indicated by more and more investigations reported.Trivalent chromium Cr( Ⅲ ) has been accepted as an essential element for 30 years which can affect the growth performance,carcass characteristics,pork quality,reproduction and tissue deposition of domestic animals that were fed with Cr( Ⅲ ) supplementation in diet through changes protein,nucleic acid and lipid metabolism.Chromium is found in GTF-like forms in the livers of mammals given inorganic chromium,but this could reflect the manifold effects of insulin rather than further biochemical roles for chromium.Moreover some other reports indicated Cr( Ⅲ ) appeared not to be an essential element,and its potential effects on domestic animals might be considered pharmacological.Limited research is available for addressing the effect of Cr on meat quality of broiler elucidated by determining the fiber muscle density,total antioxidant capacity and amino acid content.Thus,the purpose of present experiment was to evaluate the effects of three different sources of chromium (yeast chromium,chromium picolinate and methionine chromium) on meat quality and amino acid content of Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Seven hundred and ninety-two one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments.Each treatment had four replicates (cages) with thirty three broilers per cage,respectively.The dietary treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal basal (B: according to NRC,1994),2) B + 0.2 mg/kg of Cr (as yeast chromium),3) B + 0.2 mg/kg of Cr (as chromium picolinate) ,4) B + 0.1 mg/kg (as methionine chromium; I ),5) B + 0.2 mg/kg (as methionine chromium; Ⅱ ),6) B + 0.6 mg/kg of Cr (as methionine chromium; Ⅲ)- The fiber density,fiber areas and its antioxidant index of leg muscle,as well as amino acids content of muscle were determined. The results showed that the fiber density of breast muscle and fiber areas of leg muscle were reduced (P 0.05) by treatments

  16. Evaluation of amino acid conversion method for calculating whey protein content in infant formula powder%氨基酸折算法计算婴幼儿配方粉中乳清蛋白含量方法的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 张婷; 蔡明明; 黄百芬; 任一平

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价以氨基酸折算法计算婴幼儿配方粉中乳清蛋白含量的方法。方法本实验使用自配的流动相,采用酸水解氨基酸自动分析仪测定婴幼儿配方粉中氨基酸含量,再根据乳清蛋白中天冬氨酸/天冬酰胺、丙氨酸、苯丙氨酸和脯氨酸4种特征氨基酸含量的经验公式折算出婴幼儿配方粉中乳清蛋白占总蛋白的百分比。结果对我国市售多种品牌的婴幼儿配方粉中的水解氨基酸进行了检测,再计算出乳清蛋白含量,发现仅1阶段乳基婴儿配方粉基本符合大于60%的国标规定。结论该氨基酸折算法对婴幼儿配方粉中乳清蛋白含量的定量研究具有参考价值,但对掺有大豆蛋白的产品无法进行准确测定。%Objective To evaluate amino acid conversion method for calculating the whey protein content in infant formula powder. Methods Using the self-made mobile phase, amino acid content in infant formula powder was determined by automatic amino acid analyzer of acid hydrolysis. The percentage of whey protein in total protein in infant formula powder was converted according to the empirical formula of the content of four characteristic amino acids, including asparagine/aspartic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, and proline in whey protein. Results Hydrolyzed amino acids in infant formula powder from a variety of commercially available brands were detected, and then the whey protein content was calculated. It was found that only one stage of milk-based infant formula powder reached the national standard of above 60%. Conclusion The amino acid conversion method provided reference values for the quantitative research of whey protein content in infant formula powder, but it could not provide accurate detection for products mixed with soybean protein.

  17. Role of CCN2 in Amino Acid Metabolism of Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yurika; Hattori, Takako; Aoyama, Eriko; Nishida, Takashi; Maeda-Uematsu, Aya; Kawaki, Harumi; Lyons, Karen M; Sasaki, Akira; Takigawa, Masaharu; Kubota, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multi-functional molecule that promotes harmonized development and regeneration of cartilage through its matricellular interaction with a variety of extracellular biomolecules. Thus, deficiency in CCN2 supply profoundly affects a variety of cellular activities including basic metabolism. A previous study showed that the expression of a number of ribosomal protein genes was markedly enhanced in Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the impact of CCN2 on amino acid and protein metabolism in chondrocytes. Comparative metabolome analysis of the amino acids in Ccn2-null and wild-type mouse chondrocytes revealed stable decreases in the cellular levels of all of the essential amino acids. Unexpectedly, uptake of such amino acids was rather enhanced in Ccn2-null chondrocytes, and the addition of exogenous CCN2 to human chondrocytic cells resulted in decreased amino acid uptake. However, as expected, amino acid consumption by protein synthesis was also accelerated in Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Furthermore, we newly found that expression of two genes encoding two glycolytic enzymes, as well as the previously reported Eno1 gene, was repressed in those cells. Considering the impaired glycolysis and retained mitochondrial membrane potential in Ccn2-null chondrocytes, these findings suggest that Ccn2 deficiency induces amino acid shortage in chondrocytes by accelerated amino acid consumption through protein synthesis and acquisition of aerobic energy. Interestingly, CCN2 was found to capture such free amino acids in vitro. Under physiological conditions, CCN2 may be regulating the levels of free amino acids in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 927-937, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26364758

  18. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  19. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Aravinda; N Shamala; Rituparna S Roy; P Balaram

    2003-10-01

    An overview of the use of non-protein amino acids in the design of conformationally well-defined peptides, based on work from the author’s laboratory, is discussed. The crystal structures of several designed oligopeptides illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and -amino acid residues have been used to expand the range of designed polypeptide structures.

  20. Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, D. N.; Karakasidis, T.E.; Nieto, J J; Torres, A.

    2009-01-01

    Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +302421074163. (Karakasidis, T.E.) (Karakasidis, T.E.) University of Patras, Department of Mathematics - 265 00 Patras--> - GREECE (Georgiou, D.N.) University of Thessaly, Department of Civil Engineering - 383 34 Volos--> - GREECE (Karakas...

  1. The putative Cationic Amino acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu eYang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9 was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the major soluble amino acid leaf pools decreased. This decrease was lower in cat9-1 and augmented in the over-expressor. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis.

  2. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  3. Organometallic and Bioorganometallic Chemistry – Ferrocene Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barišić, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second part of a series dealing with organometallic and bioorganometallic chemistry. In the first part of this series a short review on the history and development of these disciplines was given, emphasizing the importance and scope of bioorganometallic chemistry as a new field dealing with conjugates of organometallics and biomolecules (DNA, PNA, amino acids, peptides.... From the variety of biorganometallics, syntheses and properties of simple conjugates of ferrocene with natural amino acids/peptides were elaborated inter alia. This material is the basis for the second part in which ferrocene amino acids are described. The introduction presents nonproteinogenic alicyclic and aromatic amino acids as the models for the title compounds. Naturally occurring amino acids labelled with ferrocene moiety mostly retain properties of the biomolecules included. Contrary to these ω-ferrocenylamino acids, one could imagine specific amino acids with inserted ferrocene core belonging to either homo- or heterodisubstituted type. The central part of this article is devoted to our investigations of the second type - H2N-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOH. The general rational procedure for synthesis of these compounds and of their N- and/or C-protected derivatives via the azide intermediates N3-CO-(CH2m- Fn-(CH2n-COOMe has been described. In the solid state derivatives of ferrocene amino acids contain intermolecular hydrogen bonds giving dimeric structures, three-dimensional networks or endless helical chains. The solutions of homologues Ac-NH-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOMe in nonpolar solvents are dominated by open form conformers. Compounds containing 2–3 ferrocene cores connected by amide, imide and oxalamide spacers were prepared by oligomerization of 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Fca or by its condensation with the appropriate reagents. Similar to natural amino acids, ferrocene amino acids are water-soluble substances with high melting points

  4. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labudde, D.; Leitner, D.; Krueger, M.; Oschkinat, H. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany)], E-mail: oschkinat@fmp-berlin.de

    2003-01-15

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely {alpha}-helix, {beta}-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time.

  5. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the α-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely α-helix, β-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time

  6. Graphdiyne as a promising material for detecting amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Pengfei; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of glycine, glutamic acid, histidine and phenylalanine on single-layer graphdiyne/ graphene is investigated by ab initio calculations. The results show that for each amino acid molecule, the adsorption energy on graphdiyne is larger than the adsorption energy on graphene and dispersion interactions predominate in the adsorption. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that at room temperature the amino acid molecules keep migrating and rotating on graphdiyne surface and induce fluctuation in graphdiyne bandgap. Additionally, the photon absorption spectra of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are investigated. We uncover that the presence of amino acid molecules makes the photon absorption peaks of graphdiyne significantly depressed and shifted. Finally, quantum electronic transport properties of graphdiyne-amino-acid systems are compared with the transport properties of pure graphdiyne. We reveal that the amino acid molecules induce distinct changes in the electronic conductivity of graphdiyne. The results in this paper reveal that graphdiyne is a promising two-dimensional material for sensitively detecting amino acids and may potentially be used in biosensors.

  7. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  8. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Hoshino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1 system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source and keto acids (oxylic acid sources. In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

  9. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Conformational Interconversions of Amino Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Exhaustive conformational interconversions including transition structure analyses of N-acetyl-l-glycine-N-methylamide as well as its alanine, serine, and cysteine analogues have been investigated at the MP2/6-31G** level, yielding a total of 142 transition states. Improved estimates of relative energies were obtained by separately extrapolating the Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies to the basis set limit and adding the difference between CCSD(T) and MP2 results with the cc-pVDZ basis set to the extrapolated MP2 results. The performance of eight empirical force fields (AMBER94, AMBER14SB, MM2, MM3, MMFFs, CHARMM22_CMAP, OPLS_2005, and AMOEBAPRO13) in reproducing ab initio energies of transition states was tested. Our results indicate that commonly used class I force fields employing a fixed partial charge model for the electrostatic interaction provide mean errors in the ∼10 kJ/mol range for energies of conformational transition states for amino acid conformers. Modern reparametrized versions, such as CHARMM22_CMAP, and polarizable force fields, such as AMOEBAPRO13, have slightly lower mean errors, but maximal errors are still in the 35 kJ/mol range. There are differences between the force fields in their ability for reproducing conformational transitions classified according to backbone/side-chain or regions in the Ramachandran angles, but the data set is likely too small to draw any general conclusions. Errors in conformational interconversion barriers by ∼10 kJ/mol suggest that the commonly used force field may bias certain types of transitions by several orders of magnitude in rate and thus lead to incorrect dynamics in simulations. It is therefore suggested that information for conformational transition states should be included in parametrizations of new force fields. PMID:26691979

  11. Sugar and Amino Acid Contents of Fruit and Foliar Tissues from Two Cultivars of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Susceptible and Resistant to Cigar-end Rot Disease Caused by Verticillium theobromae

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Igeleke; D.K.G. Ayanru

    2006-01-01

    Floral and fruit tissues of two cultivars of plantain (Musa paradisiacal L.), P100-F (susceptible) and P200-1 (resistant to cigar-end rot disease), grown side by side in a field plot in Benin City, Nigeria, were analysed for soluble and tissue-bound amino acids, total carbohydrate and crude protein using paper chromatography and micro Kjeldahl methods. Diminished carbohydrate and protein concentrations and intensity spotting of alanine and leucine were found in fruit tissue digest of the susc...

  12. Intercorrelation of amino acid quality between raw, steeped and germinated pearl millet (pennisetum typhoides) grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of amino acids in the pearl millet grains, Pennisetum typhoides, steeped sample was best in Arg, Glu, Ser and protein contents, germinated sample was best in His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys (shared with raw sample), Pro and Tyr whereas raw sample was best in Ile, Leu and Gly. Total amino acid contents in steeped grains were 432 mg/g crude protein (c.p.), in germinated grain 464 mg/g c.p. and in raw grain 439 mg/g c.p. with respective essential amino acids of 210 mg/g c.p., 233 mg/g c.p. and 224 mg/g c.p. Percentage Cys/TSAA trend was 53.1 (raw) > 52.1 (germinated) > 51.2 (steeped). Predicted protein efficiency ratio (P-PER) levels were 1.32 (steeped), 1.66 (raw) and 1.57 (germinated). The Leu/Ile ratio levels were 2.22 (raw) and 2.46 (both steeped and germinated). Amino acid scores based on whole hen's egg had Met as the limiting amino acid for the three samples. The two treatments enhanced the quality of the pearl millet amino acid levels thereby providing high potentials for use in weaning foods and formulations. However, no significant difference was seen between raw/steeped, raw/germinated and steeped/germinated samples at p < 0.05. (author)

  13. Radiation-induced increase in the release of amino acids by isolated, perfused skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local exposure of the hindquarter of the rat to 15Gy of gamma-radiation resulted, 4-6h after irradiation, in increased release of amino acids by the isolated, perfused hindquarter preparation, 70% of which is skeletal muscle. This increase in release involves not only alanine and glutamine, but also those amino acids not metabolized by muscle and, therefore, released in proportion to their occurrence in muscle proteins. Because metabolic parameters and content of energy-rich phosphate compounds in muscle remain unchanged, it is unlikely that general cellular damage is the underlying cause of the radiation-induced increase in amino acid release. The findings strongly favour the hypothesis that increased availability of amino acids results from enhanced protein break-down in skeletal muscle which has its onset shortly after irradiation. This radiation-induced disturbance in protein metabolism might be one of the pathogenetic factors in the aetiology of radiation myopathy. (author)

  14. Nature’s Starships. II. Simulating the Synthesis of Amino Acids in Meteorite Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Pearce, Ben K. D.

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known for having high water and organic material contents, including amino acids. Here we address the origin of amino acids in the warm interiors of their parent bodies (planetesimals) within a few million years of their formation, and we connect this with the astrochemistry of their natal protostellar disks. We compute both the total amino acid abundance pattern and the relative frequencies of amino acids within the CM2 (e.g., Murchison) and CR2 chondrite subclasses based on Strecker reactions within these bodies. We match the relative frequencies to well within an order of magnitude among both CM2 and CR2 meteorites for parent body temperatures natal protostellar disks.

  15. Microbial Products Trigger Amino Acid Exudation from Plant Roots1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald A.; Fox, Tama C.; King, Maria D.; Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Teuber, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 μm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 μm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from 15N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant. PMID:15347793

  16. Formation mechanism of coamorphous drug−amino acid mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Cornett, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Two coamorphous drug−amino acid systems, indomethacin−tryptophan (Ind−Trp) and furosemide−tryptophan Fur−Trp), were analyzed toward their ease of amorphization and mechanism of coamorphization during ball milling. The two mixtures were compared to the corresponding amorphization of the pure drug...... without amino acid. Powder blends at a 1:1 molar ratio were milled for varying times, and their physicochemical properties were investigated using XRPD, 13C solid state NMR (ssNMR), and DSC. Comilling the drug with the amino acid reduced the milling time required to obtain an amorphous powder from more...... acid being dissolved in the amorphous drug, whereas coamorphous Fur−Trp was formed by the drug being dissolved in the amorphous amino acid....

  17. EFFECT OF TETRACYCLINES ON THE INTRACELLULAR AMINO ACIDS OF MOLDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEMAN, B A; CIRCO, R

    1963-07-01

    Freeman, Bob A. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.) and Richard Circo. Effect of tetracyclines on the intracellular amino acids of molds. J. Bacteriol. 86:38-44. 1963.-The tetracycline antibiotics were shown to alter the amino acid metabolism of molds whose growth is not markedly affected. Eight molds were grown in the presence of these antiobiotics; four exhibited a general reduction in the concentration of the intracellular amino acids, except for glutamic acid and alanine. In most of these four cultures, the tetracyclines also caused the complete disappearance of arginine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine from the intracellular amino acid pool. The significance of these observations and the usefulness of the method in the study of the mechanisms of antibiotic action are discussed. PMID:14051820

  18. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  19. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements

  20. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  1. Uptake of Branched-Chain Amino Acids by Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Akpemado, K. M.; Bracquart, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The transport of branched-chain amino acids in Streptococcus thermophilus was energy dependent. The metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis and ATPase enzymes were active, but the proton-conducting uncouplers were not. Transport was optimal at temperatures of between 30 and 45°C and at pH 7.0 for the three amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine; a second peak existed at pH 5.0 with valine and isoleucine. By competition and kinetics studies, the branched-chain amino acids were found to share a...

  2. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  3. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  4. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  5. Development of new chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis system with amino acid ionic liquids ligands and its application in studying the kinetics of L-amino acid oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bingbing [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Food Sciences and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong 271018 (China); Mu, Xiaoyu [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Li, E-mail: qili@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Novel amino acid ionic liquids with pyridinium as cations and L-lysine as anion were synthesized. • These synthesized AAILs have been explored as the ligands coordinated with Zn(II) in CLE-CE system. • The developed CLE-CE method could be used for the enantioseparation of Dns-D, L-amino acids. • The kinetic contents of L-amino acid oxidase were investigated with the proposed CLE-CE system. - Abstract: New kinds of amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) with pyridinium as cations and L-lysine (L-Lys) as anion have been developed as the available chiral ligands coordinated with Zn(II) in chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE). Four kinds of AAILs, including [1-ethylpyridinium][L-lysine], 1-butylpyridinium][L-lysine], [1-hexylpyridinium][L-lysine] and 1-[octylpyridinium][L-lysine], were successfully synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Compared with other AAILs, the best chiral separation of Dns-D, L-amino acids could be achieved when [1-ethylpyridinium][L-lysine] was chosen as the chiral ligand. It has been found that after investigating the influence of key factors on the separation efficiency, such as pH of buffer solution, the ratio of Zn(II) to ligand and complex concentration, eight pairs of Dns-D, L-AAs enantiomers could be baseline separated and three pairs were partly separated under the optimum conditions. The proposed CLE-CE method also exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of Dns-D, L-Met with good linearity (r{sup 2} = 0.998) and favorable repeatability (RSD ≤ 1.5%). Furthermore, the CLE-CE system was applied in investigating the kinetic contents of L-amino acid oxidase, which implied that the proposed system has the potential in studying the enzymatic reaction mechanism.

  6. Responses of Growth Performance, Body Composition and Tissue Free Amino Acid Contents of Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) to Dietary Taurine Content%斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分和组织游离氨基酸含量对饲料中牛磺酸含量的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周铭文; 王和伟; 叶继丹

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中牛磺酸含量对斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分及组织游离氨基酸含量的影响。以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白质源配制低牛磺酸含量的基础饲料,在基础饲料中分别添加0(对照)、0.4%、0.8%、1.2%、1.6%的牛磺酸,配制成5种试验饲料。将300尾平均体重为(19.14±0.06) g斜带石斑鱼幼鱼随机分为5组(每组3个重复,每个重复20尾),每组投喂1种试验饲料,饲养周期为56 d。结果表明:与对照组相比,各牛磺酸添加组试验鱼的增重率、摄食率和饲料效率均显著增加(P0.05)。与对照组相比,各牛磺酸添加组试验鱼全鱼粗蛋白质含量显著升高( P0.05)。各牛磺酸添加组试验鱼肝脏和肌肉中总非必需氨基酸、总氨基酸、游离丝氨酸含量以及肝脏游离蛋氨酸含量均显著低于对照组( P0.907,P0.05). Compared with control group, the whole-body crude protein content was significantly increased ( P0.05) . The contents of total non-es-sential amino acids, total amino acids, free serine in liver and muscle, and free methionine content in liver in taurine supplementation groups were significantly lower than those in control group ( P0.907, P<0.05) . With the dietary taurine content increasing, the taurine retention in liver was increased and that in muscle was firstly incresed and then decreased; moreover, the taurine retention in muscle was higher than that in liver in all groups. In conclusion, a certain content of taurine in diet can improve the growth and feeding, decrease whole-body lipid deposition, increase whole-body protein deposition, and decrease tissue free amino acid contents of grouper. Regression analysis based on weight gain rate indicates that the optimal di-etary taurine content of grouper is 1.04%.

  7. N-13 labeled amino acids: biodistribution, metabolism and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing interest in metabolic imaging and with the increasing number of cyclotron/PET facilities, more studies are being performed in animal and humans using short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides. Amino acids labeled either with N-13 or C-11 are one group of compounds being used to study in vivo regional organ (i.e., brain and heart) or tumor metabolism. Of the studies previously reported using C-11 or N-13 labeled amino acids (methionine, alanine, valine, glutamate, glutamine and tryptophan), imaging was restricted mainly to the organ or tissue of interest with little information obtained about the whole-bode distribution of the label. Such data are important for studying interorgan transport of amino acids and for determining accurate dosimetric measurements after intravenous injection of labeled amino acids. The goals of the authors study were to compare the distribution of several N-13 L-amino acids and N-13 ammonia in tumor-bearing mice and to determine the metabolic fate of the label in vivo. The following amino acids were enzymatically labeled using N-13 ammonia: glutamine, glutamate, methionine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine. 30 references, 2 figures, 14 tables

  8. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  9. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:27116971

  10. Covalently functionalized graphene sheets with biocompatible natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borandeh, Sedigheh [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets were covalently functionalized with aromatic–aliphatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) and aliphatic amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine) by simple and green procedure. For this aim, at first natural graphite was converted into graphene oxide (GO) through strong oxidation procedure; then, based on the surface-exposed epoxy and carboxylic acid groups in GO solid, its surface modification with naturally occurring amino acids, occurred easily throughout the corresponding nucleophilic substitution and condensation reactions. Amino acid functionalized graphene demonstrates stable dispersion in water and common organic solvents. Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the nanostructures and properties of prepared materials. Each amino acid has different considerable effects on the structure and morphology of the pure graphite, from increasing the layer spacing to layer scrolling, based on their structures, functional groups and chain length. In addition, therogravimetric analysis was used for demonstrating a successful grafting of amino acid molecules to the surface of graphene.

  11. Stable isotope studies reveal pathways for the incorporation of non-essential amino acids in Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribal, Meena; Jander, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. Given the preponderance of these four amino acids, phloem sap is a nutritionally unbalanced diet for phloem-feeding insects. Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. To investigate the metabolism of the four main transport amino acids by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), and its Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts, aphids were fed defined diets with stable isotope-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid (U-(13)C, U-(15)N; U-(15)N; α-(15)N; or γ-(15)N). The metabolic fate of the dietary (15)N and (13)C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of (13)C atoms into essential amino acids. GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo, most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes. PMID:26632455

  12. Nitrogen and amino acids in nectar modify food selection of nectarivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; Stoner, Kathryn E; Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Flores-Ortiz, Cesar M; Duran, Angel; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-09-01

    1. Chiropterophilic flowers secrete sugar nectar with low-Nitrogen (N hereafter) content and small amounts of amino acids, which may function to attract animals; nevertheless, the role that micronutrients have on the foraging decisions of Neotropical nectarivorous bats is unknown. 2. We offered the nectar specialist Leptonycteris yerbabueanae and the omnivore Glossophaga soricina pairs of experimental diets mimicking either the N content or the relative abundance of 17 amino acids found in the floral nectar from the main plant species visited by these bats in a tropical dry forest. We addressed the following research questions: (i) Do bats select N-containing or sugar-only nectar differently based on bats' N nutritional status? (ii) Does the presence of N in nectar affect the capacity of bats to discriminate and select other nectar traits such as sugar concentration? and (iii) Are bats able to distinguish among the flavours generated by the amino acid relative abundance present in the nectar from plants they typically encounter in nature? 3. Our results showed that: (i) bats did not consider nectar N content regardless of their N nutritional condition, (ii) the nectar specialist L. yerbabuenae showed a preference for the most concentrated sugar-only nectar but changed to be indifferent when nectar contained N, and (iii) L. yerbabuenae preferred diets without amino acids and preferred the taste of the amino acids present in the nectar of Pachycereus pecten (Cactaceae) over those present in the nectar of Ceiba aesculifolia (Bombacaceae). 4. Our results suggest that regardless of the low concentrations at which N and amino acids are present in floral nectar, their presence affects bats' food selection by interfering with the bats' ability to detect differences in sugar concentrations, and by offering particular flavours that can be perceived and selected by nectarivorous bats. We discuss the ecological implications of the presence of N and amino acids in nectar on

  13. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tushar Kanti Chakraborty; Pothukanuri Srinivasu; Subhasish Tapadar; Bajjuri Krishna Mohan

    2004-06-01

    To meet the growing demands for the development of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists have started working on many new concepts that can help to assimilate knowledge-based structural diversities more efficiently than ever before. Emulating the basic principles followed by Nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create `nature-like’ and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature’s molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of peptidomimetic studies. Advances made in the area of combinatorial chemistry can provide the necessary technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acidbased libraries exploiting the diversities of their carbohydrate frameworks and well-developed solidphase peptide synthesis methods. This perspective article chronicles some of the recent applications of various sugar amino acids, furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. and many other related building blocks in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies.

  14. Interconversions of amino acids in maturing wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the protein amino acids (U-14C labelled) were supplied directly to the developing spikes of spring wheat, mainly through a split stem. At maturity the proteins were fractionated into two or four Osborne fractions and the total activity was measured. The activity recovered in proteins varied from a few per cent to more than 75%. The highest recovery was found when 14C was supplied in histidine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine or tryptophan. When sugars were supplied only 3-5% of their activity was recovered in proteins, while aspartic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, proline and cysteine gave 10-20% recovery in proteins, and great respiratory losses must have occurred. The label could be transferred to every protein amino acid. Groups of amino acids showed a very similar distribution of the recovered 14C. The activity from glutamic acid, glutamine, alanine, aspartic acid and proline was mainly recovered in glutamic acid, proline and arginine, with a similar distribution for 14C transferred from lysine, isoleucine, arginine, threonine, asparagine and cysteine; however, 40-70% was recovered in the label source. Histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine and tryptophan showed very little conversion. Activity from sugars was more spread than for amino acids. Unlabelled arginine or ornithine inhibited the conversion of glutamic acid to arginine, while lysine inhibited the conversion of aspartic acid to lysine. The results clearly indicate metabolic sites in the grain where the received amino acids are converted to amino acids that fit in with the genetic codes for specific protein synthesis. Different conversion patterns seemed to be linked to different fractions, indicating different metabolic activity in different parts of the grain and probably also in different parts of the cells in the starchy endosperm

  15. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK)

  16. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Pedersen, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of the copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition the use of azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids has found widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. Despite a growing interest in these building blocks researchers are struggling to identify the best way for their...... synthesis. In this review we have compiled available methods for synthesising optically active azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids that can be prepared from readily available α-amino acids. We highlight a number of commonly overlooked problems associated with existing methods and direct attention to...... unexplored possibilities. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids are finding widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. However, it is far from clear what the best way for the synthesis of these useful building blocks is. Herein we show the available methods for synthesis of optically active...

  17. Detecting coevolving amino acid sites using Bayesian mutational mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimmic, Matthew W.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Bustamente, Carlos D.;

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: The evolution of protein sequences is constrained by complex interactions between amino acid residues. Because harmful substitutions may be compensated for by other substitutions at neighboring sites, residues can coevolve. We describe a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to the detection...

  18. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  19. Reconstructing a Flavodoxin Oxidoreductase with Early Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Primitive proteins are proposed to have utilized organic cofactors more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions. Thus, an experimental validation on whether a protein constituted solely by early amino acids and an organic cofactor can perform electron transfer activity is an urgent challenge. In this paper, by substituting “late amino acids (C, F, M, T, W, and Y” with “early amino acids (A, L, and V” in a flavodoxin, we constructed a flavodoxin mutant and evaluated its characteristic properties. The major results showed that: (1 The flavodoxin mutant has structural characteristics similar to wild-type protein; (2 Although the semiquinone and hydroquinone flavodoxin mutants possess lower stability than the corresponding form of wild-type flavodoxin, the redox potential of double electron reduction Em,7 (fld reached −360 mV, indicating that the flavodoxin mutant constituted solely by early amino acids can exert effective electron transfer activity.

  20. Microbes Promote Amino Acid Harvest to Rescue Undernutrition in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Yamada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of nutritional disorders such as protein-specific malnutrition. However, the precise contribution of microbes to host energy balance during undernutrition is unclear. Here, we show that Issatchenkia orientalis, a fungal microbe isolated from field-caught Drosophila melanogaster, promotes amino acid harvest to rescue the lifespan of undernourished flies. Using radioisotope-labeled dietary components (amino acids, nucleotides, and sucrose to quantify nutrient transfer from food to microbe to fly, we demonstrate that I. orientalis extracts amino acids directly from nutrient-poor diets and increases protein flux to the fly. This microbial association restores body mass, protein, glycerol, and ATP levels and phenocopies the metabolic profile of adequately fed flies. Our study uncovers amino acid harvest as a fundamental mechanism linking microbial and host metabolism, and highlights Drosophila as a platform for quantitative studies of host-microbe relationships.

  1. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order to...... undergo initial diazotization and successive hydroxylation, since neither β-amino acids nor acid derivatives such as esters and amides undergo hydroxylations. The method is successfully applied for the synthesis of 18 proteinogenic amino acids. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Representation of protein-sequence information by amino acid subalphabets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.A.F.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    -sequence information, using machine learning strategies, where the primary goal is the discovery of novel powerful representations for use in AI techniques. In the case of proteins and the 20 different amino acids they typically contain, it is also a secondary goal to discover how the current selection of amino acids......-which now are common in proteins-might have emerged from simpler selections, or alphabets, in use earlier during the evolution of living organisms....

  3. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  4. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cyto...

  5. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gascuel Olivier; Le Quang; Dang Cuong; Le Vinh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We p...

  6. Importance of amino acids on vasopressin-stimulated water flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvounis, C P; Carvounis, G; Wilk, B J

    1985-01-01

    The presence of several naturally occurring amino acids in the serosal bath of toad urinary bladder significantly alters the hydrosmotic response of this tissue to vasopressin. We found that histidine, glutamate, and lysine increase vasopressin-stimulated water flow by 75%, 60%, and 43%, respectively. In contrast, alanine did not alter vasopressin-stimulated water flow, whereas glutamine decreased it by 25%. The effect of each amino acid represents intracellular events because their effects o...

  7. Amino Acid Interaction Network Prediction Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shiplu Hawlader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein can be represented by amino acid interaction network. This network is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. This interaction network is the first step of proteins three-dimensional structure prediction. In this paper we present a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for interaction prediction and ant colony probabilistic optimization algorithm is used to confirm the interaction.

  8. Pharmacological screening of glycine amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Parashar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop an amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen with comparable therapeutic profile and less hepatotoxicity than acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen prodrug was synthesized by esterification between the carboxyl group of amino acid glycine and hydroxyl group of acetaminophen. Analgesic, antipyretic, ulcer healing, and hepatotoxic activities were performed on Wistar rats in this study. Results: Prodrug showed a 44% inhibition in writhings as compared to 53....

  9. Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Harnly, James M

    2005-11-16

    Two garlic subspecies (n = 11), Allium sativum L. var. opioscorodon (hardneck) and Allium sativum L. var. sativum (softneck), were evaluated for their free amino acid composition. The free amino acid content of garlic samples analyzed ranged from 1121.7 to 3106.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight (mean = 2130.7 +/- 681.5 mg/100 g). Hardneck garlic had greater methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids contents compared to softneck garlic. The major free amino acid present in all but one subspecies was glutamine (cv. Mother of Pearl had aspartic acid as the major free amino acid). Cv. Music Pink garlic (a rocambole hardneck variety) contained the most methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids. The solid-phase extraction, alkylchloroformate derivatization, GC-FID, and GC-MS methods used in this study were simple and rapid, allowing 18 free amino acids in garlic to be separated within 10 min. PMID:16277408

  10. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  11. The preferences of orientations between the Pairs of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Wang Jun; Wang Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this work,we make an investigation on the preferences of orientations between amino acids using the orientation defined based on the local geometry of the amino acids concerned.It is found that there are common preferences of orientations (70°,30°,140°) and (110°,340°,100°) for various pairs of amino acids.Different side chains may strengthen or weaken the common preferences,which is related to the effect of packing.Some amino acids having specific local flexibility may possess some preferences of orientations besides the common ones,such as (10°,280°,210°) .Another analysis on the pairs of the amino acids with different secondary-structure preferences shows that the directional interaction may affect the distribution of orientation more effectively than the packing or local flexibility.All these results provide us some insight of the organization of amino acids in protein,and their relation with some related interactions.

  12. Alterations in Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavara Narasimhamurthy Girish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Dietary proteins and amino acids can modulate pancreatic function. Objective Our aim was to estimate the levels of plasma amino acids in chronic pancreatitis patients and study their relationship with disease characteristics as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Patients One hundred and seventy-five consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis: 84 patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and 91 patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis. One hundred and thirteen healthy controls were also studied. Design Prospective study. Main outcome measures Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Plasma-free amino acid levels were estimated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Polyclonal antibody ELISA was used to assess pancreatic fecal elastase-1. Results The majority of the plasma free amino acid levels decreased in chronic pancreatitis patients whereas glutamate, glycine, proline and lysine were elevated as compared to the controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the decrease in branched chain amino acid concentration was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes and low fecal elastase-1. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between branched chain amino acids and pancreatic elastase-1 (rs=0.724, P

  13. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids.

  14. Release of selected amino acids from zinc carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja, Renata; Dolińska, Barbara; Ryszka, Florian

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the results of an investigation of the release of selected amino acids (histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine) from model suspensions prepared by co-precipitation with zinc chloride. It has been proven that the influence of the Zn(II)/amino acid molar ratio on dissolution profiles of the tested amino acids and dissolution half-life (t1/2) of histidine or tryptophan is significant. The amount of amino acid in the dispersed phase (supporting dose) is a determinant of the amino acid release profile. There is a minimal supporting dose (30.0 μmol of histidine or 17.4 μmol of tryptophan) that provides release of similar amounts of amino acid (4.1-4.6 μmol of histidine or 8.7-9.9 μmol of tryptophan) after the same time intervals. The tyrosine release profiles follow first order kinetics since the supporting dose (0.9-11.2 μmol) is limited by the tyrosine low solubility in water. PMID:27279069

  15. Did Evolution Select a Nonrandom "Alphabet" of Amino Acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Gayle K.; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties - a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  16. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid...

  17. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the "nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the "ideal protein" concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University's optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  18. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Cysteine L-Cystine L-Glutamic acid L-Glutamine Aminoacetic acid (glycine) L-Histidine L-Isoleucine L... following: L-Asparagine L-Aspartic acid L-Glutamine L-Histidine (c) The additive(s) is used or intended for....4 Aminoacetic acid (glycine) 3.5 L-Histidine 2.4 L-Isoleucine 6.6 L-Leucine 8.8 L-Lysine 6.4 L-...

  19. Amino acid profile during exercise and training in Standardbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; Wijnberg, I D; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; van Breda, E; Barneveld, A; de Graaf-Roelfsema, E; Keizer, H A; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the influence of acute exercise, training and intensified training on the plasma amino acid profile. In a 32-week longitudinal study using 10 Standardbred horses, training was divided into four phases, including a phase of intensified training for five horses. At the end of each phase, a standardized exercise test, SET, was performed. Plasma amino acid concentrations before and after each SET were measured. Training significantly reduced mean plasma aspartic acid concentration, whereas exercise significantly increased the plasma concentrations of alanine, taurine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine and reduced the plasma concentrations of glycine, ornithine, glutamine, citrulline and serine. Normally and intensified trained horses differed not significantly. It is concluded that amino acids should not be regarded as limiting training performance in Standardbreds except for aspartic acid which is the most likely candidate for supplementation. PMID:20863542

  20. Urinary Amino Acid Analysis: A Comparison of iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and Amino Acid Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Hannelore; Dettmer, Katja; Chan, Queenie; Daniels, Scott; Nimkar, Subodh; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul; Peter J Oefner

    2009-01-01

    Urinary amino acid analysis is typically done by cation-exchange chromatography followed by post-column derivatization with ninhydrin and UV detection. This method lacks throughput and specificity. Two recently introduced stable isotope ratio mass spectrometric methods promise to overcome those shortcomings. Using two blinded sets of urine replicates and a certified amino acid standard, we compared the precision and accuracy of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatog...

  1. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N2O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N2O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N2O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N2O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  2. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  3. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour. PMID:26782554

  4. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  5. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  6. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  7. Biodegradable water-absorbent synthesized from bacterial poly (amino acid)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation from microbial poly (amino acid)s have been studied. pH-Sensitive hydrogels were prepared by means of γ-irradiation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) produced by Bacillus subtilis and poly(ε-lysine) (PL) produced by Streptomyces albulus in aqueous solutions. When a dosage of γ-irradiation was 19 kGy or more and a concentration of PGA in water was 2 wt% or more, transparent hydrogels could be produced. In the case of 19 kGy, the produced hydrogel was very weak, however, the specific water content (wt. of absorbed water/wt. of dry hydrogel) of this PGA hydrogel was approximately 3,500. The specific water content was decreased to 200 increasing in the γ-irradiation dose over 100 kGy. Under acid conditions or on addition of electrolytes, PGA hydrogels shrinked. PGA hydrogel was pH-sensitive and changed the volume of the hydrogel depend on the value of pH outside hydrogel in the swelling medium. This PGA hydrogel was hydrodegradable and biodegradable. New novel purifier reagent (coagulant), made from PGA hydrogels, for contaminated turbid water was found and developed by Japanese venture company. Very small amount of this coagulant (only 1 ppm in turbid water) can work for purification of turbid water. PL aqueous solution also can change to hydrogel by γ-irradiation. The specific water content of PL hydrogel was range from 20 to 160 depend on the preparation conditions. Under acid conditions, the PL hydrogel swelled due to the ionic repulsion of the protonated amino groups in the PL molecules. The rate of enzymatic degradation of the respective PL hydrogels by a neutral protease was much faster than the rate of simple hydrolytic degradation. (author)

  8. Behavior of 15N-labelled amino acids in germinated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By investigating the rise and fall of 15N-labelled amino acids in germinated corns, the behavior of amino radicals in free amino acids, the influence of the hydrolysis products of stored proteins on free amino acids and the change from heterotrophy to autotrophy of seeds were clarified. The amount of amino acid production depending on external nitrogen was very small in the early period of germination. 15N incorporation into proline was not observed in the early period of germination, which suggested that the proline may be nitrogen-storing source. Most of the amino-state nitrogen of asparagine accumulated at the time of germination was internal nitrogen, and this fact suggested that aspartic acid serve as the acceptor of ammonia produced in the early stage of germination. 15N content increased significantly on 9 th day after germination, and decreased on 12 th day. These facts prove that there are always active decomposition and production of protein in plant body. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Carvalho

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml. A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 µM each also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml, and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 µM each inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml or any other amino acid (50 µM tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine. Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 µM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2 concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  10. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight. T...

  11. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed

  12. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    OpenAIRE

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas streams. Initially, a group of promising amino acid salts (taurine, sarcosine, L-proline, -alanine, 6-aminohexanoic acid and DL-methionine) was screened for their CO2 absorption kinetics, pKa value...

  13. Amino acids as corrosion inhibitors for copper in acidic medium: Experimental and theoretical study

    OpenAIRE

    Milošev Ingrid; Pavlinac Jasminka; Hodošček Milan; Lesar Antonija

    2013-01-01

    Experimental electrochemical methods combined with quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the possibility of use various amino acids as “green” corrosion inhibitors for copper in 0.5 M HCl solution. Among eleven amino acids studied, cysteine achieved the highest inhibitor effectiveness reaching 52% at 10 mM concentration. Other amino acids reached achieved effectiveness less than 25%, some of them even acte...

  14. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE POLYCONDENSATION KINETICS OF ω-AMINO-ACIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baoren; SHI Manli; QIAN Chunqing

    1983-01-01

    In our previous report, it was discovered that the polycondensation of 9-amino-nonanoic acid follows second order from the beginning up to the extent of reaction, p, around 99%, and after which the reaction changes rapidly to third order. In this paper, we wish to report that this change of the reaction order from second to third occurred also in the polycondensation of 6aminocaproic acid and 11-amino-undecanoic acid. The transition region lay again at p around 99%.It may be concluded that this is a general rule in the polycondensation of the ω-amino-acids (monomers of the A-B type), and the controversial results that appeared in the literature may be cleared up by our experiments.

  16. Macroporous Biodegradable Cryogels of Synthetic Poly(α-amino acids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačík, Tomáš; Proks, Vladimír; Šlouf, Miroslav; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Studenovská, Hana; Rypáček, František

    2015-11-01

    We present an investigation of the preparation of highly porous hydrogels based on biodegradable synthetic poly(α-amino acid) as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Covalently cross-linked gels with permanent pores were formed under cryogenic conditions by free-radical copolymerization of poly[N(5)-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-glutamine-stat-N(5)-(2-methacryloyl-oxy-ethyl)-L-glutamine] (PHEG-MA) with 2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and, optionally, N-propargyl acrylamide (PrAAm) as minor comonomers. The morphology of the cryogels showed interconnected polyhedral or laminar pores. The volume content of communicating water-filled pores was >90%. The storage moduli of the swollen cryogels were in the range of 1-6 kPa, even when the water content was >95%. The enzymatic degradation of a cryogel corresponded to the decrease in its storage modulus during incubation with papain, a model enzyme with specificity analogous to wound-healing enzymes. It was shown that cryogels with incorporated alkyne groups can easily be modified with short synthetic peptides using azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click" chemistry, thus providing porous hydrogel scaffolds with biomimetic features. PMID:26474357

  17. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jørgensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol% and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol%. DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%, followed by glucose (22 mol% and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol%. The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  18. Protective effect of squalene on certain lysosomal hydrolases and free amino acids in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Surendraraj, A.; Anandan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of squalene on free amino acids and lysosomal alterations in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. The levels of lysosomal enzymes (beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and cathepsin D) in...... plasma and lysosomal fractions, hydroxyproline content and free amino acids in heart tissue were determined. Isoprenaline administration to rats resulted in decreased stability of the membranes which was reflected by significantly (p...

  19. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  20. Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

  1. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  2. Postnatal changes of plasma amino acids in suckling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, N E; Knabe, D A; Mallick, B K; Wu, G

    2000-09-01

    Amino acids, ammonia, urea, orotate, and nitrate plus nitrite (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide) were determined in plasma of 1- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained from pigs at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of age for analysis of plasma amino acids and metabolites by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (citrulline and ornithine) decreased (P Plasma concentrations of glutamine declined (P Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, threonine, and alanine decreased (P changes (P > 0.05) in plasma concentrations of other amino acids. Plasma concentrations of ammonia increased (P nitric oxide synthesis, our results of the decreased plasma concentrations of arginine and nitrate plus nitrite, as well as the increased plasma ammonia concentration, indicate a hitherto unrecognized deficiency of arginine in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Arginine is an essential amino acid for piglets and has a great potential to enhance neonatal growth; therefore, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism responsible for arginine deficiency in sow-reared piglets and to identify hormonal and metabolic means for improving neonatal arginine nutrition and growth. PMID:10985412

  3. Search for conserved amino acid residues of the [Formula: see text]-crystallin proteins of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiliaev, Nikita G; Selivanova, Olga M; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2016-04-01

    [Formula: see text]-crystallin is the major eye lens protein and a member of the small heat-shock protein (sHsp) family. [Formula: see text]-crystallins have been shown to support lens clarity by preventing the aggregation of lens proteins. We performed the bioinformatics analysis of [Formula: see text]-crystallin sequences from vertebrates to find conserved amino acid residues as the three-dimensional (3D) structure of [Formula: see text]-crystallin is not identified yet. We are the first who demonstrated that the N-terminal region is conservative along with the central domain for vertebrate organisms. We have found that there is correlation between the conserved and structured regions. Moreover, amyloidogenic regions also correspond to the structured regions. We analyzed the amino acid composition of [Formula: see text]-crystallin A and B chains. Analyzing the occurrence of each individual amino acid residue, we have found that such amino acid residues as leucine, serine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, histidine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, and valine change their content simultaneously in A and B chains in different classes of vertebrates. Aromatic amino acids occur more often in [Formula: see text]-crystallins from vertebrates than on the average in proteins among 17 animal proteomes. We obtained that the identity between A and B chains in the mammalian group is 0.35, which is lower than the published 0.60. PMID:26972563

  4. The Studies of the Reactions of 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate with Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shrong Shi LIN; Xian Jing KONG; Jing Yuan LIU; Cheng Yong LI

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of triphenylpyrylium salt 1 with various amino acids were explored andcompared. The reactions with most α-amino acids yielded decarboxylation products 2 viadecarboxylation. The reactions with glutamic acid, lysine and ACC (1-aminocyclopropyl-carboxylic acid) gave triphenylpyridine 8, dimer 9 and acid 5a-acc, respectively. The reactionswith β and γ-amino acids yielded triphenylpyridine by intramolecular elimination.

  5. THz time-domain spectroscopy of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weining; YUE Weiwei; YAN Haitao; ZHANG Cunlin; ZHAO Guozhong

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of four kinds of amino acids (tyrosine, arginine, histidine and glutamine) filled with nitrogen at room temperature were studied by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Well-resolved absorption and refractive spectrums between 0.1 and 2.8 THz were obtained based on the physical model for extracting the optical parameters of materials in THz range. The results not only fill up the spectra gap of amino acids in far-infrared range, supply data for amino acid molecular identification and conformation analysis, but also demonstrate significantly potential to promote the research and application of biological materials in bio-chemical and medical fields by THz-TDS.

  6. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat;

    2010-01-01

    a common buried residue, Phe, from the green fluorescent protein (GFP), while retaining activity. A GFP variant containing 11 Phe residues was used as starting scaffold to generate 10 separate variants in which each Phe was replaced individually (in one construct two adjacent Phe residues were changed......BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...

  7. tRNAs: cellular barcodes for amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Rajat; Chen, Shawn; Dare, Kiley;

    2010-01-01

    The role of tRNA in translating the genetic code has received considerable attention over the last 50 years, and we now know in great detail how particular amino acids are specifically selected and brought to the ribosome in response to the corresponding mRNA codon. Over the same period, it has...... also become increasingly clear that the ribosome is not the only destination to which tRNAs deliver amino acids, with processes ranging from lipid modification to antibiotic biosynthesis all using aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates. Here we review examples of alternative functions for tRNA beyond...... translation, which together suggest that the role of tRNA is to deliver amino acids for a variety of processes that includes, but is not limited to, protein synthesis....

  8. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Selmo F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  9. Probing the Sophisticated Synergistic Allosteric Regulation of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using ᴅ-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichau, Sebastian; Blackmore, Nicola J.; Jiao, Wanting; Parker, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Chirality plays a major role in recognition and interaction of biologically important molecules. The enzyme 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) is the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants, and a potential target for the development of antibiotics and herbicides. DAH7PS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtuDAH7PS) displays an unprecedented complexity of allosteric regulation, with three interdependent allosteric binding sites and a ternary allosteric response to combinations of the aromatic amino acids l-Trp, l-Phe and l-Tyr. In order to further investigate the intricacies of this system and identify key residues in the allosteric network of MtuDAH7PS, we studied the interaction of MtuDAH7PS with aromatic amino acids that bear the non-natural d-configuration, and showed that the d-amino acids do not elicit an allosteric response. We investigated the binding mode of d-amino acids using X-ray crystallography, site directed mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry. Key differences in the binding mode were identified: in the Phe site, a hydrogen bond between the amino group of the allosteric ligands to the side chain of Asn175 is not established due to the inverted configuration of the ligands. In the Trp site, d-Trp forms no interaction with the main chain carbonyl group of Thr240 and less favourable interactions with Asn237 when compared to the l-Trp binding mode. Investigation of the MtuDAH7PSN175A variant further supports the hypothesis that the lack of key interactions in the binding mode of the aromatic d-amino acids are responsible for the absence of an allosteric response, which gives further insight into which residues of MtuDAH7PS play a key role in the transduction of the allosteric signal. PMID:27128682

  10. Studies on the biochemical composition, energetics and essential amino acids of three mudskippers in Xiamen Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Su, Yong-Quan

    1995-12-01

    Measurements were made on the contents of protein, lipid, glycogen (PLG) and water, and on caloric values and amino acids, in muscle of three mudskippers Periophthalmus cantonensis, Scarteiaos viridis and Boleophthalmus pectinirostris collected from Haicang, Xiamen. The essential amino acids (EAA) for these fishes were also studied with radioisotopic trace method. The results showed: (1) The content of each component in tested fish muscles differed slightly, and protein was the most important component making up from 6.685% to 9.891% of the wet weight (about 44.21% 50.45% of dry weight); (2) Energy calculated from the sum of protein, lipid and glycogen in wet muscle was low (human beings and animals were relatively high, accounting for 47.35% 48.06% of the total amino acid content. (4) Leucine, isoleucine, arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, threonine, and valine, are essential in the diet of the three mudskippers as the radioisotopic trace method using D-[U-14C]-glucose showed little or no radioactivity was incorporated into these ten amino acids.

  11. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astrofisica di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Angelini, Giancarlo [Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy); Iglesias-Groth, Susana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Manchado, Arturo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain) and CSIC (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T{sub 1/2} for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6x10{sup 9} years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6x10{sup 9} years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant k{sub rac}.

  12. Amino acid and protein changes in tilapia and spanish mackerel after irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some amino acids in tilapia decreased while some others increased when subjected to doses up to 10.0 kGy. However, 10 kGy contributed to a significant reduction in all amino acids of Spanish mackerel. Variations in amino acid contents continued during post-irradiation storage with no consistent trend of increase or decrease. SDS-PAGE of protein from both fish showed 27 bands of subunits with MW < 14.0-94.0 KD. Isoelectric focusing patterns of sarcoplasmic protein of unirradiated and irradiated fish showed no charge in the number of bands, while some changes were observed in the intensities of the anodic and cathodic bands depending on isoelectric points (pIs)

  13. Detection of Elevated Signaling Amino Acids in Human Diabetic Vitreous by Rapid Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Jen Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated glutamate is implicated in the pathology of PDR. The ability to rapidly assess the glutamate and amino acid content of vitreous provides a more complete picture of the chemical changes occurring at the diabetic retina and may lead to a better understanding of the pathology of PDR. Vitreous humor was collected following vitrectomies of patients with PDR and control conditions of macular hole or epiretinal membrane. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify glutamate and arginine. The analysis is relatively fast (<6 minutes and utilizes a poly(ethyleneoxide and sodium dodecylsulfate run buffer. Both amino acid levels show significant increases in PDR patients versus controls and are comparable to other reports. The levels of vitreal glutamate vary inversely with the degree of observed hemorrhage. The results demonstrate a rapid method for assessment of a number of amino acids to characterize the chemical changes at the diabetic retina to better understand tissue changes and potentially identify new treatments.

  14. Free Amino Acids in the Blood Plasma of Pigs during Total Starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the nutritional point of view it is interesting to establish whether the level of free amino acids in the blood plasma can be used as an indicator of protein anabolism and catabolism. Investigations to date have given no answer to this question. It is known that numerous exogenous and endogenous factors affect protein metabolism. These effects also vary with the level of protein intake and make the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative composition of the free amino acids pool and the total protein metabolism even more complicated. To reduce some of these factors, these investigations were done under the conditions of complete exclusion of exogenous nutrition. Piglets, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to total starvation in the course of 28 d. During this period, the body weight, serum protein content, plasma amino acid concentration and plasma urea concentration were followed. During the whole experimental period the body weight decreased, rapidly at the beginning and more slowly towards the end. The mean total body weight loss was 44.6 % of the first day's weight. The serum protein content increased slightly at the beginning of starvation and then, towards the end of the experiment, decreased, reaching a value that was only a little lower than the protein content determined before the onset of starvation. Changes of the quantitative composition.of the free amino acid pool did not follow the changes of the serum protein content. At the beginning of starvation, concentrations of a great number of amino acids increased in accordance with some earlier results. After long periods of starvation, however, differences between individual amino acids become more clear. Concentrations of some amino acids, e.g. lysine, increased continually during the whole period, while concentrations of most of the other amino acids remained for some time at high levels and only in the last week of starvation decreased to the values similar to those observed at the

  15. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2016-03-22

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid involves reacting diethyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding ethyl cyanoacetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  16. Transport of aromatic amino acids by Brevibacterium linens.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, P; Moreira, E; Desmazeaud, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Whole metabolizing Brevibacterium linens cells were used to study the transport of aromatic amino acids. Kinetic results followed the Michaelis-Menten equation with apparent Km values for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan of 24, 3.5, and 1.8 microM. Transport of these amino acids was optimum at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C for phenylalanine and pH 8.0 and 35 degrees C for tyrosine and tryptophan. Crossed inhibitions were all noncompetitive. The only marked stereospecificity was for the L for...

  17. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level. PMID:18568754

  18. Free amino acids in the xylem sap of pear trees during dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Storage and remobilization are considered key processes for the effective use of nitrogen in temperate fruit trees. As dormancy begins, storage proteins are synthesized, coinciding with a reduction in the levels of free amino acids. Consequently, as dormancy breaks, these storage proteins are degraded, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acids occurs, in order to support new growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate water content of different vegetative tissues (buds, bark, and bole wood, volume of xylem sap, and free amino acid concentrations of xylem sap, during winter dormancy of Hosui Japanese pear trees (VL. Plant material was obtained from the Embrapa Temperate Climate experimental orchard at Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Xylem sap was extracted from the branches with the aid of a vacuum pump, and the free amino acids were determined by gas chromatography, using the EZ kit: Faast GC/FID (Phenomenex. Water content of buds, as well as the volume of sap and concentrations of both aspartic acid and asparagine, substantially increased over time, reaching maximum values in the phase preceding sprouting.

  19. Study of the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ning XIAO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins on rats after exhaustive exercise. In addition, the current research might provide a theoretical foundation for the future development of new anti-fatigue nutritional supplements. Methods  Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups after adaptive swimming. Each group consisted of 12 rats, namely amino acids and vitamins capsule group (capsule group, control with bland water group (control group, and amino acid and fructose beverage group (granules group. Exhaustion was produced by non-load swimming. After 14 days of feeding with different beverages, the exhaustion time of swimming was recorded, and then all rats were killed to measure concentrations of muscle and hepatic glycogen, and contents of serum β-endorphin (β-EP, lactic acid (LA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK. Results  The swimming time and the levels of the muscle and hepatic glycogen in the capsule and granules groups were longer or higher than those in the control group (PPP>0.05. Conclusion  Compound amino acids and vitamins can delay the occurrence of exhaustion after swimming in rats, increase hepatic and muscle glycogen contents, and decrease the generation of various metabolites during fatigue exercises, and hence giving anti-fatigue effects.

  20. Influence of an intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the pancreatic exocrine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Bo-guang 范博广; (A。)ke Andrén-Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    Background A number of reports based on both animal experiments and clinical investigations have pointed out that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) suppresses the function of the exocrine pancreas. Even though pancreatic hypotrophy and dysfunction resulting from TPN may be explained by several mechanisms, the clinically most important cause is that nutrients in circulation affect pancreatic secretion. The effect of nutrients on the exocrine pancreas is still controversial. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to clarify the influence of intravenous amino acids and hypertonic glucose in TPN solution on the exocrine pancreas. Methods Three mixed TPN solutions, consisting of 30% or 50% glucose or of 14% amino acids, were employed. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, six rats in each group, including a control group and one group receiving each of the three TPN solutions. All animals were killed after 10 days of TPN. Body weight, pancreatic content, and enzyme levels in the pancreas were measured. Results Compared with the control group, pancreatic wet weight was lower in all TPN groups. Glucose significantly decreased the content and concentration of pancreatic protein, but amino acids did not alter the concentration of protein. The level of amylase was lower in all parenterally fed groups, with a greater decrease in the groups treated with amino acids and 30% glucose than with 50% glucose. Trypsin levels in all groups receiving TPN were markedly higher than in the control group. Conclusion TPN results in atrophy of the pancreas, but trypsin levels increase with TPN treatment. Glucose elevates the amylase level in the pancreas, while amino acids suppress pancreatic amylase. Amino acids used as a source of protein maintain normal pancreatic protein levels.

  1. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.

  2. Transport and signaling via the amino acid binding site of the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Bonini, Beatriz Monge; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M

    2009-01-01

    Transporter-related nutrient sensors, called transceptors, mediate nutrient activation of signaling pathways through the plasma membrane. The mechanism of action of transporting and nontransporting transceptors is unknown. We have screened 319 amino acid analogs to identify compounds that act on Gap1, a transporting amino acid transceptor in yeast that triggers activation of the protein kinase A pathway. We identified competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors of transport, either with or without agonist action for signaling, including nontransported agonists. Using substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analysis, we identified Ser388 and Val389 as being exposed into the amino acid binding site, and we show that agonist action for signaling uses the same binding site as used for transport. Our results provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the mechanism of action of transceptors. They indicate that signaling requires a ligand-induced specific conformational change that may be part of but does not require the complete transport cycle. PMID:19060912

  3. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2016-03-22

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate involves reacting a dialkyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding an alkyl cyano acetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate. The 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate may be acidified into 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  4. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of labdeneamides with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Valderrama, Jaime A

    2011-03-01

    Semisynthetic aromatic amides from ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA diterpene acids have been shown to display a relevant gastroprotective effect with low cytotoxicity. The aim of this work was to assess the gastroprotective effect of amino acid amides from imbricatolic acid and its 8(9)-en isomer in the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as to determine the cytotoxicity of the obtained compounds on the following human cell lines: normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). The diterpenes 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, its 8(9)-en isomer, 15-hydroxyimbricatolic acid, and the 8(9)-en derivative, bearing a COOH function at C-19, were used as starting compounds. New amides with C-protected amino acids were prepared. The study reports the effect of a single oral administration of either compound 50 min before the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol/HCl. Some 20 amino acid monoamides were obtained. Dose-response experiments on the glycyl derivatives showed that at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg, the compounds presented an effect comparable to the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg reduced gastric lesions by about 50%. All derivatives obtained in amounts > 30 mg were compared at a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. The best gastroprotective effect was observed for the exomethylene derivatives bearing a valine residue at C-19 either with an acetoxy or free hydroxy group at C-15. The tryptophanyl derivative from the acetate belonging to the 8,9-en series presented selective cytotoxicity against hepatocytes. The glycyl amide of 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid was the most cytotoxic and less selective compound with IC₅₀ values between 47 and 103 µM for the studied cell lines. This is the first report on the obtention of semisynthetic amino acid amides from labdane diterpenes. PMID:20862639

  5. Antioxidant effects of sulfur-containing amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Gulizar

    2004-10-31

    Sulfur is an essential element for the entire biological kingdom because of its incorporation into amino acids, proteins and other biomolecules. Sulfur atoms are also important in the iron-containing flavoenzymes. Unlike humans, plants can use inorganic sulfur to synthesize sulfur-containing amino acids. Therefore, plants are an important source of sulfur for humans. Sulfur-containing compounds are found in all body cells and are indispensable for life. Some of sulfur-containing antioxidant compounds are, cysteine, methionine, taurine, glutathione, lipoic acid, mercaptopropionylglycine, N-acetylcysteine, and the three major organosulfur compounds of garlic oil, diallylsulfide, diallyldisulfide and diallyltrisulfide. In a comparison of the structure-function relationship among these sulfur-containing antioxidant compounds, dihydrolipoic acid (the reduced form of LA) is the most effective antioxidant. Dihydrolipoic acid contains two sulfhydryl groups and can undergo further oxidation reaction to form lipoic acid. The antioxidative activities of sulfur-containing compounds follow a general trend, the more highly reduced forms are stronger antioxidants and the number of sulfur atoms determine, at least in part, their modulatory activites on the glutathione related antioxidant enzymes. In this article, the antioxidant effects and the antioxidative activities, of sulfur-containing amino acids, are reviewed. In addition, the general antioxidant effects and the structure-function relationship of some sulfur-containing compounds are also reviewed. PMID:15515186

  6. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients' environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are key parameters in food quality assessment. We re-evaluated here the environmental footprint (expressed both as land use for production and as Green House Gas Emission (GHGE), of some animal and vegetal foods, titrated to provide EAAs amounts in respect to human requirements. Production of high-quality animal proteins, in amounts sufficient to match the Recommended Daily Allowances of all the EAAs, would require a land use and a GHGE approximately equal, greater o smaller (by only ±1-fold), than that necessary to produce vegetal proteins, except for soybeans, that exhibited the smallest footprint. This new analysis downsizes the common concept of a large advantage, in respect to environmental footprint, of crops vs. animal foods production, when human requirements of EAAs are used for reference. PMID:27221394

  7. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients’ environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are key parameters in food quality assessment. We re-evaluated here the environmental footprint (expressed both as land use for production and as Green House Gas Emission (GHGE), of some animal and vegetal foods, titrated to provide EAAs amounts in respect to human requirements. Production of high-quality animal proteins, in amounts sufficient to match the Recommended Daily Allowances of all the EAAs, would require a land use and a GHGE approximately equal, greater o smaller (by only ±1-fold), than that necessary to produce vegetal proteins, except for soybeans, that exhibited the smallest footprint. This new analysis downsizes the common concept of a large advantage, in respect to environmental footprint, of crops vs. animal foods production, when human requirements of EAAs are used for reference. PMID:27221394

  8. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes in the c...... and glutamate extracted in increased amounts from the blood during exercise, are used for the synthesis of glutamine and for tricarboxylic-acid cycle anaplerosis.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes in the...... concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  9. Analysis of Peptides and Conjugates by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is a highly accurate method for characterization of the composition of synthetic peptides. Together with mass spectrometry, it gives a reliable control of peptide quality and quantity before conjugation and immunization.Peptides are hydrolyzed, preferably in gas phase, with 6 M...... HCl at 110 °C for 20-24 h and the resulting amino acids analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization. Depending on the hydrolysis conditions, tryptophan is destroyed, and cysteine also, unless derivatized, and the amides, glutamine and asparagine, are deamidated to...... glutamic acid and aspartic acid, respectively. Three different ways of calculating results are suggested, and taking the above limitations into account, a quantitation better than 5 % can usually be obtained....

  10. Polymerization on the rocks: beta-amino acids and arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the accumulation of long oligomers of beta-amino acids on the surface of minerals using the 'polymerization on the rocks' protocol. We find that long oligopeptides of beta-glutamic acid which cannot be formed in homogeneous aqueous solution are accumulated efficiently on the surface of hydroxylapatite using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as condensing agent. The EDAC-induced oligomerization of aspartic acid on hydroxylapatite proceeds even more efficiently. Hydroxylapatite can also facilitate the ligation of the tripeptide (glu)3. The 'polymerization on the rocks' scenario is not restricted to negatively-charged amino acids. Oligoarginines are accumulated on the surface of illite using carbonyldiimidizole (CDI) as condensing agent. We find that FeS2 catalyzes the CDI-induced oligomerization of arginine, although it does not adsorb oligoarginines. These results are relevant to the formation of polypeptides on the primitive earth.

  11. Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an α-keto acid such as α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced α-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces α-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without α-KG addition. In the presence of α-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced α-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from α-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an α-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the α-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an α-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

  12. Yeast colony development and ammonia signalling: Role of amino acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begany, Markéta; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Z.

    Vienna : Springer, 2006, A109-A109. [International Symposium on Microbial Ecology – ISME-11 /11./. Vienna (AT), 20.08.2006-25.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0294; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yeast colony * amino acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo;

    2015-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through...

  14. Analysis of Saccharides by the Addition of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J.; Gulfen, Mustafa; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the detection sensitivity improvement of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry of neutral saccharides in a positive ion mode by the addition of various amino acids. Saccharides of a broad molecular weight range were chosen as the model compounds in the present study. Saccharides provide strong noncovalent interactions with amino acids, and the complex formation enhances the signal intensity and simplifies the mass spectra of saccharides. Polysaccharides provide a polymer-like ESI spectrum with a basic subunit difference between multiply charged chains. The protonated spectra of saccharides are not well identified because of different charge state distributions produced by the same molecules. Depending on the solvent used and other ions or molecules present in the solution, noncovalent interactions with saccharides may occur. These interactions are affected by the addition of amino acids. Amino acids with polar side groups show a strong tendency to interact with saccharides. In particular, serine shows a high tendency to interact with saccharides and significantly improves the detection sensitivity of saccharide compounds.

  15. Chlorine dioxide reaction with selected amino acids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine dioxide is a hypochlorite alternative disinfectant agent. In this context, we have determined the products formed in the reaction of ClO2 with selected amino acids as model compounds that can be present in natural waters. The reaction of tryptophane, histidine and tyrosine (10 ppm each) with ClO2 were studied at molar ratios ranging from 0.25 to 4 in the presence or absence of oxygen. It was found that in the absence of oxygen adding substoichiometric amounts of ClO2 creates products that are structurally similar to the starting amino acids. Through a series of cascade reactions the initial product distribution gradually evolves toward simple, small carbon chain products that are far from the starting amino acid. The reaction product distribution revealed that chlorine dioxide can attack the electron-rich aromatic moieties as well as the nitrogen atom lone electron pair. Our study is relevant to gain knowledge on the reaction mechanism of ClO2 with ubiquitous amino acids present in natural waters.

  16. Gas-Phase IR Spectroscopy of Deprotonated Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.; Redlich, B.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra have been recorded for the conjugate bases of a series of amino acids (Asp, Cys, Glu, Phe, Set, Trp, Tyr). The spectra are dominated by strong symmetric and antisymmetric carboxylate stretching modes around 1300 and 1600 cm(-1), respect

  17. Force field modeling of amino acid conformational energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 5 (2007), s. 1774-1788. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : amino acids * modeling * MP2 * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.308, year: 2007

  18. Amino acids in root exudates of Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Moravcová, Dana; Figala, J.; Lvončík, S.; Lojková, Lea; Formánek, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2015), s. 1691-1691. ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins /14./. 03.08.2015-07.08.2015, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * GC-MS * SDS-PAGE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Engineering Dehydrated Amino Acid Residues in the Antimicrobial Peptide Nisin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Rollema, Harry S.; Yap, Wyanda M.G.J.; Boot, Hein J.; Siezen, Roland J.; Vos, Willem M. de

    1992-01-01

    The small antimicrobial peptide nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, contains the uncommon amino acid residues dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine and five thio ether bridges. Since these structures are posttranslationally formed from Ser, Thr, and Cys residues, it is feasible to study their role i

  20. On the evolution of the standard amino-acid alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi; Freeland, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Although one standard amino-acid 'alphabet' is used by most organisms on Earth, the evolutionary cause(s) and significance of this alphabet remain elusive. Fresh insights into the origin of the alphabet are now emerging from disciplines as diverse as astrobiology, biochemical engineering and bioinformatics.

  1. One-Pot Synthesis of N-Phosphoryl Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xin; FU Hua; LIN Chang-Xue; ZHAO Yu-Fen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Phosphoramidates have been considered as an important class of rationally designed therapeutics especially asoligonucleotide analogs employed as antisene and antigene agents. [1] N-Phosphoryl amino acids are of biological andpharmaceutical interest, [2] and can be used as the building blocks in synthesis of polypeptides. [3

  2. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic.

  3. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet; de Groot, Martijn J.; MacDonald, Anita; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with

  4. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  5. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  6. Identification of essential amino acids in the Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, H; Minami, T; Kuramitsu, H K

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the amino acid sequences of the glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of mutans streptococci with those from the alpha-amylase family of enzymes revealed a number of conserved amino acid positions which have been implicated as essential in catalysis. Utilizing a site-directed mutagenesis approach with the GTF-I enzyme of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, we identified three of these conserved amino acid positions, Asp413, Trp491, and His561, as being important in enzymatic activity. Mutagenesis of Asp413 to Thr resulted in a GTF which expressed only about 12% of the wild-type activity. In contrast, mutagenesis of Asp411 did not inhibit enzyme activity. In addition, the D413T mutant was less stable than was the parental enzyme when expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, conversion of Trp491 or His561 to either Gly or Ala resulted in enzymes devoid of GTF activity, indicating the essential nature of these two amino acids for activity. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the four Tyr residues present at positions 169 to 172 which are part of a subdomain with homology to the direct repeating sequences present in the glucan-binding domain of the GTFs had little overall effect on enzymatic activity, although the glucan products appeared to be less adhesive. These results are discussed relative to the mechanisms of catalysis proposed for the GTFs and related enzymes. PMID:9171379

  7. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Neurology. 2010 Jul 6;75(1):64-71. doi: ... WNL.0b013e3181e620ae. Epub 2010 May 26. Erratum in: Neurology. 2010 Aug 10;75(6):576. Dosage error ...

  8. Amino acid peroxyl radicals. Formation and reaction with ascorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Proteins are significant targets for partly reduced oxygen species in vivo. This results in random formation of radicals on the amino acid residues (AA·) of the protein, which in turn, in the presence of oxygen, can yield the corresponding peroxyl radicals (AAOO·). Both radical types can cause further biological damage. We studied the N-acetylamide derivatives of the amino acids glycine, alanine and proline as models of these residues in proteins. We generated the amino acid radicals specifically by reaction with hydroxyl radicals produced in solutions irradiated with 2 MeV electrons in the presence of N2O. In the absence of oxygen the amino acid radicals decayed with rate constants in the narrow range (0.9-1.3) x 109 M-1s-1, while in the presence of oxygen they were converted very rapidly to the corresponding peroxyl radicals with rate constants that vary between 6.3 x 108 and 5.5 x 109 M-1s-1, depending on the amino acid. The corresponding N-acetylated amino acids were also studied and showed similar behaviour but with slightly smaller rate constants. Antioxidants are able to repair tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radicals in various proteins in vitro. For ascorbate, the principal endogenous biological antioxidant, we have measured rate constants in the range 105-108 M-1s-1. The peroxyl radicals of all amino acids studied here were reduced by oxidizing ascorbate to the ascorbyl radical. The reaction was followed at 360 nm, where ascorbyl radical has an absorption coefficient of 3300 M-1cm-1, and the derived rate constants were all close to 107 M-1s-1. However, the spontaneous decay of peroxyl radicals is also fast and competes with the reaction with ascorbate. It is to be stressed that reaction of AAOO· and ascorbate gives rise to hydroperoxides (AAOOH) that are also reactive molecules. Our study suggests that reaction with protein radicals may be responsible for the ascorbate loss reported in organisms exposed to oxidative

  9. DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS IN TWO POLYSIPHONIA SPECIES AND STUDY OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立新; 范晓; 魏玉西

    2002-01-01

    The total content of the rich amino acids in two common red algae, Polysiphoni a urceolata and Polysiphonia japonica growing in the Qingdao seashore were d etermi ned. The algae powder was hydrolyzed by 6 mol/L HCl at 110℃ for 48 h and determ ined by amino acid analyzer. The content was 25.35% and 24.16%, respectively, mu ch higher than that of some other species. In addition, a nutritive liquid with abundant amino acids was prepared (by the enzymatic hydrolysis method using Po lys iphonia urceolata) as raw material for a kind of health beverage. The dried se aweed was decolored by 0.25% KMnO4 and 0.5% active carbon, then enzymalized. In the selection of enzymalizing condition, the orthogonal experimental design w as used. Four factors including kinds of enzyme, quantity of enzyme, temperature and time were studied at 3 leve ls. According to the orthogonal design results, we can choose an optimal condition: hydrolyzing at 45℃ by neutr al proteinase (0.25%, w/w) for 2 h, adjusting pH to 8.5, then adding trypsin (0.25%, w/w) and hydrolyzing for 2 h. F inally the above solution was alkalized by NaOH and neutralized by casein. After the hydrolyzed liquid was fil tered and concentrated, suitable additives were added. The final products contain rich amino acids.

  10. DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS IN TWO POLYSIPHONIA SPECIES AND STUDY OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立新; 范晓; 魏玉西

    2002-01-01

    The total content ot the nch amino acids in two common red algae, Potystpnoma urceolata and Polysiphonia japonica growing in the Qingdao seashore were determined. The algae powder was hydrolyzed by 6 mol/L HC1 at 110℃ for 48 h and determined by amino acid analyzer. The content was 25.35% and 24.16% , respectively, much higher than that of some other species. In addition, a nutritive liquid with abundant amino acids was prepared (by the enzymatic hydrolysis method using Polysiphonia urceolata ) as raw material for a kind of health beverage. The dried seaweed was decolored by 0.25% KMnO4 and 0.5% active carbon, then enzymalized. In the selection of enzymalizing condition, the orthogonal experimental design was used. Four factors including kinds of enzyme, quantity of enzyme, temperature and time were studied at 3 levels. According to the orthogonal design results, we can choose an optimal condition: hydrolyzing at 45℃ by neutral proteinase (0.25% , w/w) for 2 h, adjusting pH to 8.5, then adding trypsin (0.25% , w/w) and hydrolyzing for 2 h. Finally the above solution was alkalized by NaOH and neutralized by casein. After the hydrolyzed liquid was filtered and concentrated, suitable additives were added. The final products contain rich amino acids.

  11. Determination of amino acids in two Polysiphonia species and study of enzymatic hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xin; Fan, Xiao; Wei, Yu-Xi

    2002-09-01

    The total content of the rich amino acids in two common red algae, Polysiphonia urceolata and Polysiphonia japonica growing in the Qingdao seashore were determined. The algae powder was hydrolyzed by 6 mol/L HCl at 110°C for 48 h and determined by amino acid analyzer. The content was 25.35% and 24.16%, respectively, much higher than that of some other species. In addition, a nutritive liquid with abundant amino acids was prepared (by the enzymatic hydrolysis method using Polysiphonia urceolata) as raw material for a kind of health beverage. The dried seaweed was decolored by 0.25% KMnO4 and 0.5% active carbon, then enzymalized. In the selection of enzymalizing condition, the orthogonal experimental design was used. Four factors including kinds of enzyme, quantity of enzyme, temperature and time were studied at 3 levels. According to the orthogonal design results, we can choose an optimal condition: hydrolyzing at 45°C by neutral proteinase (0.25%, w/w) for 2h, adjusting pH to 8.5, then adding trypsin (0.25%, w/w) and hydrolyzing for 2 h. Finally the above solution was alkalized by NaOH and neutralized by casein. After the hydrolyzed liquid was filtered and concentrated, suitable additives were added. The final products contain rich amino acids.

  12. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-04-01

    Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

  13. The Vary of Amino Acid,Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid of Nibea. albiflora Larvae during Ontogeny%黄姑鱼仔稚鱼发育过程中氨基酸和脂肪酸的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金煜华; 谢中国; 楼宝; 史会来

    2014-01-01

    The amino acid, free amino acid and fatty acid of the Nibea albiflora larvae during ontogeny were illustrated. The amino acid and free amino acid content of the larvae was varied during ontogenesis. The amount of arginine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine was accounted for about 70% of total essential amino acids. The amount of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine was accounted for about 60% non-essential amino acids. The amount of free amino acids showed a significant decrease during ontogenesis. Fatty acid com-position of the feed affected the fatty acid composition and content of the larvae. Docosahexaenoic acid DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, arachidonic acid ARA, the essential fatty acid of the larvae, was in high level dur-ing ontogency.%分别测定1、5、10、20、45日龄黄姑鱼仔稚鱼中的氨基酸、游离氨基酸、脂肪酸组成。结果表明黄姑鱼仔稚鱼的氨基酸组型和游离氨基酸组型是不断变化的。必需氨基酸中的精氨酸、缬氨酸、亮氨酸、异亮氨酸、赖氨酸5种氨基酸占必需氨基酸总量的70%左右。非必需氨基酸中的天冬氨酸、谷氨酸和丙氨酸占非必需氨基酸总量的60%左右。随着仔稚鱼的生长,游离氨基酸含量呈显著降低的趋势。1日龄仔鱼的游离氨基酸含量最高,为12.134 g/100 g;45日龄稚鱼的游离氨基酸含量最低,为1.497 g/100 g。黄姑鱼仔稚鱼的主要脂肪酸为:16:0、18:0、16:1、18:1和DHA。各日龄黄姑鱼仔稚鱼体脂肪酸含量差异较大,但仔稚鱼的必需脂肪酸DHA、EPA和ARA始终保持较高的含量。

  14. Separation and identification of amino acids from lignite humic acids by thin layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, L.; Marutoiu, C.; Niac, G.

    1985-07-01

    Thin layer chromatography with and without temperature gradient was used to identify ten amino acids in the humic acid hydrolysate of Rovinari lignite, using cellulose and volcanic tuff as stationary phases. The acids found were L-leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, L-valine, tyrosine, proline, L-alanine, glutamic acid, threonine and L-lysine. 8 references.

  15. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, Colin

    2014-01-01

    production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial...... acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced...

  16. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, F. K.; Dahl, S.; Carballo, F. J.; Malcata, F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180- d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts...

  17. Amino-containing magnetic nanoemulsions: elaboration and nucleic acid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amino-containing magnetic colloids were prepared from highly magnetic oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The functionalization was performed by controlling the adsorption of polyethyleneimine onto negatively charged magnetic emulsions. The cationic magnetic nanodroplets were characterized in terms of chemical composition, particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and colloidal stability as a function of storage time. These amino-containing magnetic emulsions were assessed as a new tool for nucleic acid extraction and amplification. The adsorption of nucleic acids was mostly controlled by attractive electrostatic interactions. The adsorption efficiency of a model RNA was found to be encouraging and the captured nucleic acid molecules were directly enzymatically amplified in the presence of the magnetic particles without any elution step

  18. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  19. Influence of various nitrogen applications on protein and amino acid profiles of amaranth and quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapornpoonpong, Sa-nguansak; Vearasilp, Suchada; Pawelzik, Elke; Gorinstein, Shela

    2008-12-10

    The effect of nitrogen application levels (0.16 and 0.24 g N kg(-1) soil) on seed proteins and their amino acid compositions of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) was studied. Total proteins of amaranth and quinoa had high contents of lysine (6.3-8.2 g 100 g(-1) protein) but low contents of methionine (1.2-1.8 g 100 g(-1) protein). Seed proteins were fractionated on the basis of different solubility in water, saline, and buffer as albumin-1 (Albu-1), albumin-2 (Albu-2), globulin (Glob), and glutelin (Glu) and were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Albu-1 was high in lysine (5.4-8.6 g 100 g(-1) protein), while Albu-2, which is a part of storage proteins, had a high leucine content (7.2-8.9 g 100 g(-1) protein) as an effect of different nitrogen application levels. Glu fractions were well-balanced in their essential amino acids with the exception of methionine. In conclusion, nitrogen application can be used for the nutritional improvement in human diet by increasing and maintaining protein and essential amino acid contents. PMID:19006392

  20. Reactions of Hot Tritiúm Atoms with Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the existing literature there is a lack of systematic data on the interaction of tritium recoil atoms with amino acids, yet such data, in conjunction with results already obtained for organic acids and amines, could help in determining the mechanism of hot reactions in relation to the structure of compounds (chain length, functional substitutes). A study was made of the yields from the reaction of hot tritium atoms: (1) with amino acids having lengthened chains, and (2) with amino acids having a carbon chain of constant length, but with various functional substitutes. For this purpose mixtures of lithium carbonate and the acids under study were irradiated for 15 min with a slow neutron flux of 0.87 x 1013 cm2/s. Analysis was carried out on a gas chromatography unit with interchangeable columns (molecular sieves, and liquid petrolatum on kieselguhr) and with paper chromatography. Although the data obtained for the radiation survival capacity of amino acids as a function of carbon chain length were at variance with a basic tenet of radiation chemistry according to which the conservation of molecules increases in proportion to the length of their chains, the data can be explained in terms of an intramolecular transfer of energy along the carbon chain from the collision site of the hot atom to the hydroxyl group, and subsequent ''de-excitation''; on the other hand, although the energy, of tritium recoil atoms is greater than that of the chemical bond, the latter nevertheless exerts an influence on the radiation conservation of molecules with a carbon chain of constant length but with various substitutes. (author)

  1. Studies of 3-amino-4-hydroxyl benzoic acid phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-amino-4-hydroxyl benzoic acid phosphate was synthesized from 4-chloro benzoic acid through three steps, the whole process was cost-effective in which the materials in each step were reused. More importantly, phosphoric acid medium did no harm to Pd-C catalyst in the hydrogenation and the Pd-C catalyst could be recycled for ten times at least without decrease in catalytic activity. In addition, product could meet the requirement of polymerization reaction of producing poly(2,5-benzoxazole) without dehydrochlorogenation. In this process, good conversion, high overall yield (79.28%) and high purity (99.30% by HPLC) were achieved. (author)

  2. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  3. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishova, E.; Di Costanzo, L; Emig, F; Ash, D; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of arginase I. Specifically, we focus on (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis.

  4. Effect of exercise and obesity on skeletal muscle amino acid uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if amino acid uptake by muscle of the obese Zucker rat is impaired, epitrochlearis (EPI) and soleus strip (SOL) muscles from 32 pairs of female lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were incubated using [14C]α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). Because contractile activity also influences amino acid uptake, the effect of acute endurance exercise on amino acid uptake by skeletal muscle from lean and obese rats was also studied. Muscle wet and dry weights were similar in lean and obese rats. However, both muscle protein content and concentration from obese rats were significantly reduced. In preliminary studies, pinning EPI at resting length during incubation significantly increased AIB uptake and reduced muscle water accumulation. AIB uptake was similar in stripped and intact SOL. Lean and obese rats were studied at rest or following a 1 hr treadmill run at 8% grade Muscles were pinned, and preincubated for 30 min at 37 degree C in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer (KRB) containing 5mM glucose under 95:5 O2/CO2, followed by 30, 60, 120, or 180 min of incubation in KRB with 0.5 mM AIB, [14C]-AIB to measure amino acid, and [3H]-inulin to determine extracellular water

  5. Amino acids attached to 2'-amino-LNA: Synthesis of DNA mixmer oligonucleotides with increased duplex stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Marie Willaing; Wengel, Jesper; Wamberg, Michael Chr.;

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of 2'-amino-LNA (locked nucleic acid) opens up exciting possibilities for modification of nucleic acids by conjugation to the 2'-nitrogen. Incorporation of unmodified and N-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA nucleotides improve duplex stability compared to unmodified DNA. 2'-Amino......-LNA nucleosides derivatized with amino acids have been synthesized and incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides. Following oligonucleotide synthesis, peptides have been added using solid phase peptide coupling chem. Modification of oligonucleotides with pos. charged residues greatly improves thermal stability....

  6. The cysteine, total sulfur amino acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, and non-essential amino acid maintenance requirements of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Mei, S J; Sakomura, N K; Coon, C N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty Cobb-Vantress broiler breeders were used to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Cys, Tyr, and non-essential amino acids (AA) in a 21-day experiment. The breeders were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing graded levels of Cys or Tyr representing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of their suggested requirement level with all other amino acids maintained at 40% of their suggested requirement level. To determine the non-essential AA maintenance requirement, graded levels of non-essential AA were provided by glutamic acid to represent 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40% of the ideal level of glutamic acid with all other amino acids maintained at their maintenance requirement level. The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and Phe + Tyr requirements were calculated by combining Cys and Tyr results, respectively, with previously determined Met and Phe, respectively. The slope of Cys, Tyr, and non-essential AA accretion regression line indicated that 29% Cys, 24% TSAA, 21% Tyr, 20% Phe + Tyr, and 9% non-essential AA of crystalline amino acids were retained. The Cys requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 30.48 mg/d or 17.006 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 75.426 mg/kgCP/d. The TSAA requirement for zero accretion was calculated to be 132.25 mg/b/d, 71.48 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 307.55 mg/kgCP/d. The Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 65.907 mg/d or 37.233 mg/ kgBW(0.75)/d or 175.566 mg/kgCP/d. The Phe + Tyr requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 352.18 mg/b/d, 190.37 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d, and 749.33 mg/kgCP/d. The non-essential AA requirement for zero protein accretion was calculated to be 3715.194 mg/d or 2003.155 mg/kgBW(0.75)/d or 9452.954 mg/kgCP/d. PMID:26994191

  7. LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids and mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Yoshinori; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    We report the method of LC/ESI-MS analysis of underivatized amino acids with corresponding mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. Diagnostic product ions determined by mass spectrometry can support the qualitative identification and quantitative estimation of individual amino acids. Therefore, the optimization of chromatographic separation using the ion-pairing reagent (i.e., Nonafluoropentanoic acid, NFPA) is useful for the evaluation of target amino acid and for further compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acids.

  8. Photo-CIDNP studies of amino acids and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate aim of the research described in this thesis is the development of methods with which ope may study the structure and function of proteins on a molecular level. This is done with the help of a combination of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and flash photolysis, in which light initiated reactions between a chromophore and an amino acid induce abnormal NMR intensities. Chapters 1, 2 and 3: In the first chapter, a brief introduction of CIDNP and its application to proteins is given, followed by a short description of each chapter. The second chapter is an introductory review, covering the basics of the NMR experiment in the first part, and the theory behind the CIDNP phenomenon in the second. Chapter three describes the experimental apparatus and methods. Chapter 4: Photosensitization The light initiated chemical reaction between photosensitizer and amino acid residue is studied in detail for the case of FMN (flavinmononucleotide) and the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine. An introduction is given of further sensitizers which have been found to generate CIDNP on amino acids, and which are used in later chapters. Chapter 5: CIDNP of Amino Acids and Proteins The typical CIDNP spectra of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine are introduced and elucidated in the first half of this chapter. Photo-CIDNP on the proteins ribonuclease A and Hen Egg White Lysozyme with the photosensitizers FMN, thionin and eosin Y are described in the second half. Chapter 6: CIDNP in Micellar Solutions The presence of detergent, below and above the critical micelle concentration, is shown to affect CIDNP intensities, due to electrostatic interactions between charged dye and detergent molecules. In the last part of this chapter, photo-CIDNP experiments with the membrane protein gramicidin A, incorporated in detergent and lipid micelles, are described. Chapter 7: CIDNP Study of the Tryptophan Radical CIDNP spectra are characteristic of the transient radical

  9. Photo-CIDNP studies of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.J

    2001-07-01

    The ultimate aim of the research described in this thesis is the development of methods with which ope may study the structure and function of proteins on a molecular level. This is done with the help of a combination of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and flash photolysis, in which light initiated reactions between a chromophore and an amino acid induce abnormal NMR intensities. Chapters 1, 2 and 3: In the first chapter, a brief introduction of CIDNP and its application to proteins is given, followed by a short description of each chapter. The second chapter is an introductory review, covering the basics of the NMR experiment in the first part, and the theory behind the CIDNP phenomenon in the second. Chapter three describes the experimental apparatus and methods. Chapter 4: Photosensitization The light initiated chemical reaction between photosensitizer and amino acid residue is studied in detail for the case of FMN (flavinmononucleotide) and the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine. An introduction is given of further sensitizers which have been found to generate CIDNP on amino acids, and which are used in later chapters. Chapter 5: CIDNP of Amino Acids and Proteins The typical CIDNP spectra of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine are introduced and elucidated in the first half of this chapter. Photo-CIDNP on the proteins ribonuclease A and Hen Egg White Lysozyme with the photosensitizers FMN, thionin and eosin Y are described in the second half. Chapter 6: CIDNP in Micellar Solutions The presence of detergent, below and above the critical micelle concentration, is shown to affect CIDNP intensities, due to electrostatic interactions between charged dye and detergent molecules. In the last part of this chapter, photo-CIDNP experiments with the membrane protein gramicidin A, incorporated in detergent and lipid micelles, are described. Chapter 7: CIDNP Study of the Tryptophan Radical CIDNP spectra are characteristic of the transient radical

  10. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-04-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with 13C-enriched glucose and 15N-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and 13C- and 15N content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) allowed us to trace the fate of microbial biomass and -detritus and the major biochemical groups therein (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) over intermediate time scales (weeks-months). Moreover, the unidentified fraction of the labeled material (i.e. not analyzed as HAA, FA, or carbohydrate) provided information on the formation and fate of molecularly uncharacterizable organic matter. Loss of 13C and 15N from the sediment was slow (half live of 433 days) which may have been due to the permanently anoxic conditions in the experiment. Loss rates for the different biochemical groups were also low with the following order of loss rate constants: PLFA > TFA > HAA > monosaccharides. The unidentified 13C-pool was rapidly formed (within days) and then decreased relatively slowly, resulting in a gradual relative accumulation of this pool over time. Degradation and microbial reworking of the labeled material resulted in subtle, yet consistent, diagenetic changes within the different biochemical groups. In the HAA pool, glycine, lysine, and proline were lost relatively slowly (i.e. best preserved) while there was no accumulation of D-alanine relative to L-alanine, indicating no relative accumulation of bacterial macromolecules rich in D-alanine. In the fatty acid pool, there was very little difference between PLFAs and TFAs, indicating a very similar lability of these pools. Differences between individual fatty acids included a relatively slow loss of i15

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of...

  12. Amino acids – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein catabolism should be reduced and protein synthesis promoted with parenteral nutrion (PN. Amino acid (AA solutions should always be infused with PN. Standard AA solutions are generally used, whereas specially adapted AA solutions may be required in certain conditions such as severe disorders of AA utilisation or in inborn errors of AA metabolism. An AA intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is generally recommended for adult patients with a normal metabolism, which may be increased to 1.2–1.5 g/kg/day, or to 2.0 or 2.5 g/kg/day in exceptional cases. Sufficient non-nitrogen energy sources should be added in order to assure adequate utilisation of AA. A nitrogen calorie ratio of 1:130 to 1:170 (g N/kcal or 1:21 to 1:27 (g AA/kcal is recommended under normal metabolic conditions. In critically ill patients glutamine should be administered parenterally if indicated in the form of peptides, for example 0.3–0.4 g glutamine dipeptide/kg body weight/day (=0.2–0.26 g glutamine/kg body weight/day. No recommendation can be made for glutamine supplementation in PN for patients with acute pancreatitis or after bone marrow transplantation (BMT, and in newborns. The application of arginine is currently not warranted as a supplement in PN in adults. N-acetyl AA are only of limited use as alternative AA sources. There is currently no indication for use of AA solutions with an increased content of glycine, branched-chain AAs (BCAA and ornithine-α-ketoglutarate (OKG in all patients receiving PN. AA solutions with an increased proportion of BCAA are recommended in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (III–IV.

  13. Free amino acids in the panicles of Dactylis glomerata in the course of their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dąbrowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of free amino acids and proline content in various parts of Dactylis glomerata panicles at different stages of their development were determined by paper chromatography and electrophoresis. The proline level in the spikelets was found to change widely in the course of their development. The results are discussed with reference to the role of proline in the nitrogen metabolism of plants.

  14. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  15. INTERACTION OF AMINO ACID WITH ION EXCHANGE RESIN Ⅲ.FURTHER INVESTIGA TION OF SUPEREQUIVALENT ADSORPTION MECHANISM OF AMINO ACID ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui; SHAOTong; 等

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of glycine,alanine and oxidized glutathion on strong acid cation and strong base anion exchange resins from aqueous solutions were measured and the superequivalent adsorptions of glycine and alanine observed.The infrared spectra of glycine adsorbed on the cation and the anion exchange resins,001×7 and 201×7,were measured.From these results,it is concluded that the amino acid adsorption on the ion exchange resin proceeds not only through ion exchange and proton transfer mechanisms,but also through aminecarboxylate interaction between the adsorbed amino acid molecules,and the formation of second layer of amino acid molecules is the mechanism of superequivalent adsorption of amino acid,the carboxylate or amine groups of the first layer of amino acid molecules on the ion exchange resin act as the exchange sites for the second layer of amino acid molecules.

  16. Sensitive determination of D-amino acids in mammals and the effect of D-amino-acid oxidase activity on their amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi; Morikawa, Akiko; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    The determination of small amounts of D-amino acids in mammalian tissues is still a challenging theme in the separation sciences. In this review, various gas-chromatographic and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are discussed including highly selective and sensitive column-switching procedures. Based on these methods, the distributions of D-aspartic acid, D-serine, D-alanine, D-leucine and D-proline have been clarified in the mouse brain. As the regulation mechanisms of D-amino acid amounts in mammals, we focused on the D-amino-acid oxidase, which catalyzes the degradation of D-amino acids. Using the mutant mouse strain lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity, the effects of the enzymatic activity on the amounts and distributions of various D-amino acids have been investigated. PMID:16141519

  17. (Amino acid + silica) adsorption thermodynamics: Effects of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High resolution, low concentration Gly, Lys and Glu solution adsorption isotherms. • All isotherms fitted with Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model. • Gly, Lys and Glu show exothermic adsorption processes. • Isosteric heat analyses reveal changes in interaction strength with surface coverage. - Abstract: A thorough understanding of amino acid adsorption by mineral and oxide surfaces has a major impact on a variety of industrial and biomedical applications. Little information currently exists regarding temperature effects on most of these adsorption processes. Deeper thermodynamic analyses of their multiple temperature adsorption isotherms would aid the interpretation of the interfacial interactions. Low solution concentration adsorption isotherms for glycine, lysine and glutamic acid on a silica adsorbent were generated for T = (291, 298 and 310) K. Data analysis via the Clausius–Clapeyron method yielded the isosteric heat of adsorption as a function of fractional monolayer coverage for each adsorptive. Each amino acid showed an exothermic adsorption response. Glycine and lysine experienced a greater negative effect of increased temperature compared with glutamic acid, indicating a greater number of adsorbed molecules than glutamic acid, with the former undergoing intermolecular clustering within the adsorbed phase. Isosteric heat analyses suggest ionic interactions for lysine and hydrogen bonding for glutamic acid, both weakening with increased coverage. In contrast, initial hydrogen bonding led to ionic bonding for glycine with increasing coverage

  18. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Tareq Irshaidat

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293) illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing) the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+), AlF2+, and Al3+) were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation ana...

  19. Monthly Changes of Glycogen, Lipid and Free Amino Acid of Oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhicui; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin; LI Zhaojie; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed.The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA).The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100 g)- 1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100 g)- 1 on average).The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g) -1 on average).The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid(16:0),oleic acid(18:1),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,20:5w-3) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA,22:6w-3).The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine,Glutamicacid,Glycin,Alanine, Arginine and Proline.Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg(100 g)- 1 to 1139 mg(100 g) -1.The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  20. Monthly changes of glycogen, lipid and free amino acid of oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhicui, Zhang; Changhu, Xue; Xin, Gao; Zhaojie, Li; Qi, Wang

    2006-07-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed. The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA). The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100g)-1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100g)-1 on avarage). The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g)-1 on average). The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20: 5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3). The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine, Glutamicacid, Glycin, Alanine, Arginine and Proline. Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg (100g)-1 to 1139 mg(100g)-1. The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  1. Informational Way to Protein Alphabet: Entropic Classification of Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, A N; Popova, T

    2007-01-01

    What are proteins made from, as the working parts of the living cells protein machines? To answer this question, we need a technology to disassemble proteins onto elementary func-tional details and to prepare lumped description of such details. This lumped description might have a multiple material realization (in amino acids). Our hypothesis is that informational approach to this problem is possible. We propose a way of hierarchical classification that makes the primary structure of protein maximally non-random. The first steps of the suggested research program are realized: the method and the analysis of optimal informational protein binary alphabet. The general method is used to answer several specific questions, for example: (i) Is there a syntactic difference between Globular and Membrane proteins? (ii) Are proteins random sequences of amino acids (a long discussion)? For these questions, the answers are as follows: (i) There exists significant syntactic difference between Globular and Membrane proteins,...

  2. Topological features of proteins from amino acid residue networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, N A; Alves, Nelson Augusto; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2006-01-01

    Topological properties of native folds are obtained from statistical analysis of 160 low homology proteins covering the four structural classes. This is done analysing one, two and three-vertex joint distribution of quantities related to the corresponding network of amino acid residues. Emphasis on the amino acid residue hydrophobicity leads to the definition of their center of mass as vertices in this contact network model with interactions represented by edges. The network analysis helps us to interpret experimental results such as hydrophobic scales and fraction of buried accessible surface area in terms of the network connectivity. To explore the vertex type dependent correlations, we build a network of hydrophobic and polar vertices. This procedure presents the wiring diagram of the topological structure of globular proteins leading to the following attachment probabilities between hydrophobic-hydrophobic 0.424(5), hydrophobic-polar 0.419(2) and polar-polar 0.157(3) residues.

  3. Amino Acids Catalyzed Direct Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yi-Yuan; WANG Qi; DING Qiu-Ping; HE Jia-Qi; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Since the discovery of its roles as a good small-organic-molecule catalyst in intramolecular aldol reactions, pro line has drawn considerable attention in synthetic chemistry due to its similarity to the type-Ⅰ aldolases. Recently,List and others have reported some new direct asymmetric intermolecular reactions catalyzed by proline, including aldol, Mannich, Michael, and other analogous reactions. Except for two recent examples, [1,2] proline catalyzed aldol reactions in aqueous micelles have not been reported, nor have other amino acids as organocatalysts in directly catalyzing aldol reaction been reported. Herein we wish to present our recent results regarding environmentally be nign direct aldol reactions catalyzed by amino acids including proline, histidine and arginine in aqueous media.

  4. Direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids : applications in dipeptide synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S.; Yang, Y.; Liu, X.; Ferdousi, F. K.; Batsanov, A.S.; Whiting, A

    2013-01-01

    The direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids has been examined. The reaction was generally slow relative to simple amine-carboxylic acid combinations though proceeded at 65–68 °C generally avoiding racemization. 3,4,5-Trifluorophenylboronic and o-nitrophenylboronic acids were found to be the best catalysts, though for slower dipeptide formations, high catalyst loadings were required and an interesting synergistic catalytic effect between two arylboronic acids ...

  5. Wx Gene Molecular Detection and Statistical Analysis on Part of the Amino Acid Content of Blue or Purple Grain Wheat%蓝、紫粒小麦Wx基因分子检测及部分氨基酸含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文斌; 谢三刚; 吴翠翠; 杨慧勇; 李素娟; 杨娜; 高明; 宋昱; 谢飒英

    2014-01-01

    Three primer pairs of Wx gene were used in molecular detection from forty-seven wheat strains. Three white wheats were wild type material,twenty-two Blue grain and twenty-two purple grain of wheats were Wx gene mutation type materials,named the full waxy wheats. Multiple comparative analysis on part of the amino acid con-tent. The results showed that amino acid content of the blue waxy wheats was higher than the purple waxy wheats, the purple waxy wheats was higher than white wheats;Arg, Cys, Lys, Met, Thr, Val content of the three types of wheat were extremely significant different,Ile,Trp content were significantly different.%利用3对引物对47份品系进行Wx基因分子检测,其中3份白粒小麦为野生型材料,22份蓝粒小麦和22份紫粒小麦为Wx基因全突变型材料,即全糯小麦。对其部分氨基酸含量进行多重比较,结果表明,总体上蓝粒糯小麦氨基酸含量高于紫粒糯小麦,紫粒糯小麦高于白粒小麦;3种类型小麦精氨酸、半胱氨酸、赖氨酸、蛋氨酸、苏氨酸、缬氨酸含量差异极显著;异亮氨酸、色氨酸含量差异达显著水平。

  6. Growth Rate of Bumblebee Larvae is Related to Pollen Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Romain; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Roger, Nathalie; Declèves, Sylvain; Wathelet, Bernard; Rasmont, Pierre; Fournier, Denis; Michez, Denis

    2016-02-01

    The use of Bombus terrestris L. commercial colonies for outdoor and greenhouse crop pollination is currently widespread. Colony breeding includes bumblebee feeding, mostly by using the honeybee pollen loads of diverse palynological composition. Because the chemical content of pollen is highly variable, the choice of commercial blend should not be random but has to be carefully selected to ensure the optimal development of workers and then pollination efficacy. In this work, we compared the impact of three common commercial blends on the development of bumblebee microcolonies, namely, Actinidia deliciosa L., Cistus sp., and Salix sp. We focus on amino acids (i.e., composition and amount), as they are currently used as an indicator of diet performance. Five parameters were used to determine microcolonies growth rate: 1) number of eggs, 2) number of alive larvae, 3) number of ejected larvae, 4) number of pupae, and 5) total number of offspring. Syrup collection was also monitored to estimate energetic requirement for colony growth. Results revealed that the three commercial blends chemically differed in their amino acid contents, with those displaying higher concentrations (i.e., Salix sp. and A. deliciosa) accelerating microcolony development along with an increase of syrup collection. The advantages of rearing bumblebee commercial colonies using a pollen diet with an optimal amino acid content are discussed. PMID:26385047

  7. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  8. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  9. Nature's Starships II: Simulating the Synthesis of Amino Acids in Meteorite Parent Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cobb, Alyssa K; Pearce, Ben K D

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known for having high water and organic material contents, including amino acids. Here we address the origin of amino acids in the warm interiors of their parent bodies (planetesimals) within a few million years of their formation, and connect this with the astrochemistry of their natal protostellar disks. We compute both the total amino acid abundance pattern as well as the relative frequencies of amino acids within the CM2 (e.g. Murchison) and CR2 chondrite subclasses based on Strecker reactions within these bodies. We match the relative frequencies to well within an order of magnitude among both CM2 and CR2 meteorites for parent body temperatures $<$ 200$^{\\circ}$C. These temperatures agree with 3D models of young planetesimal interiors. We find theoretical abundances of approximately 7x10$^5$ parts-per-billion (ppb), which is in agreement with the average observed abundance in CR2 meteorites of 4$\\pm$7x10$^5$, but an order of magnitude higher than the average obser...

  10. Correlation between fibroin amino acid sequence and physical silk properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedic, Robert; Zurovec, Michal; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2003-09-12

    The fiber properties of lepidopteran silk depend on the amino acid repeats that interact during H-fibroin polymerization. The aim of our research was to relate repeat composition to insect biology and fiber strength. Representative regions of the H-fibroin genes were sequenced and analyzed in three pyralid species: wax moth (Galleria mellonella), European flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). The amino acid repeats are species-specific, evidently a diversification of an ancestral region of 43 residues, and include three types of regularly dispersed motifs: modifications of GSSAASAA sequence, stretches of tripeptides GXZ where X and Z represent bulky residues, and sequences similar to PVIVIEE. No concatenations of GX dipeptide or alanine, which are typical for Bombyx silkworms and Antheraea silk moths, respectively, were found. Despite different repeat structure, the silks of G. mellonella and E. kuehniella exhibit similar tensile strength as the Bombyx and Antheraea silks. We suggest that in these latter two species, variations in the repeat length obstruct repeat alignment, but sufficiently long stretches of iterated residues get superposed to interact. In the pyralid H-fibroins, interactions of the widely separated and diverse motifs depend on the precision of repeat matching; silk is strong in G. mellonella and E. kuehniella, with 2-3 types of long homogeneous repeats, and nearly 10 times weaker in P. interpunctella, with seven types of shorter erratic repeats. The high proportion of large amino acids in the H-fibroin of pyralids has probably evolved in connection with the spinning habit of caterpillars that live in protective silk tubes and spin continuously, enlarging the tubes on one end and partly devouring the other one. The silk serves as a depot of energetically rich and essential amino acids that may be scarce in the diet. PMID:12816957

  11. Addicting diverse bacteria to a noncanonical amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Drew S; Ellefson, Jared W; Thyer, Ross; Wang, Bo; Gollihar, Jimmy; Forster, Matthew T; Ellington, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Engineered orthogonal translation systems have greatly enabled the expansion of the genetic code using noncanonical amino acids (NCAAs). However, the impact of NCAAs on organismal evolution remains unclear, in part because it is difficult to force the adoption of new genetic codes in organisms. By reengineering TEM-1 β-lactamase to be dependent on a NCAA, we maintained bacterial NCAA dependence for hundreds of generations without escape. PMID:26780407

  12. Quantitative detection of single amino acid polyrnorphisms by targeted proteornics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Duan Su; Jia-Rui Wu; Liang Sun; Dan-Xia Yu; Rong-Xia Li; Huai-Xing Li; Zhi-Jie Yu; Quan-Hu Sheng; Xu Lin; RongZeng

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are recognized as one kind of major genetic variants in population scale. However, polymorphisms at the proteome level in population scale remain elusive. In the present study, we named amino acid variances derived from SNPs within coding regions as single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) at the proteome level, and developed a pipeline of non-targeted and targeted proteomics to identify and quantify SAP peptides in human plasma. The absolute concentrations of three selected SAP-peptide pairs among 290 Asian individuals were measured by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) approach, and their associations with both obesity and diabetes were further analyzed. This work revealed that heterozygotes and homozygotes with various SAPs in a population could have different associations with particular traits. In addition, the SRM approach allows us for the first time to separately measure the absolute concentration of each SAP peptide in the heterozygotes, which also shows different associations with particular traits.%Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are recognized as one kind of major genetic variants in population scale.However,polymorphisms at the proteome level in population scale remain elusive.In the present study,we named amino acid variances derived from SNPs within coding regions as single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) at the proteome level,and developed a pipeline of non-targeted and targeted proteomics to identify and quantify SAP peptides in human plasma.The absolute concentrations of three selected SAP-peptide pairs among 290 Asian individuals were measured by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) approach,and their associations with both obesity and diabetes were further analyzed.This work revealed that heterozygotes and homozygotes with various SAPs in a population could have different associations with particular traits.In addition,the SRM approach allows us for the first time to separately measure the absolute

  13. Hypothalamic signaling in anorexia induced by indispensable amino acid deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xinxia; Krasnow, Stephanie M.; Roth-Carter, Quinn R.; Levasseur, Peter R.; Braun, Theodore P.; Grossberg, Aaron J.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals exhibit a rapid and sustained anorexia when fed a diet that is deficient in a single indispensable amino acid (IAA). The chemosensor for IAA deficiency resides within the anterior piriform cortex (APC). Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the APC detects IAA deficiency are well established, the efferent neural pathways that reduce feeding in response to an IAA-deficient diet remain to be fully characterized. In the present work, we investigated whether 1) central m...

  14. Chiroptical Properties of Amino Acids: A Density Functional Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martine Adrian-Scotto; Serge Antonczak; Jan Hendrik Bredehöft; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acids are involved in many scientific theories elucidating possible origins of life on Earth. One of the challenges when discussing the evolutionary origin of biopolymers such as proteins and oligonucleotides in living organisms is the phenomenon that these polymers implement monomers of exclusively one handedness, a feature called biomolecular homochirality. Many attempts have been made to understand this process of racemic symmetry breaking. Assuming an extraterrestrial origin of the ...

  15. Evaluation of Physiological Amino Acids Profiling by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Filee, Romain; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, François

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the most conventional method to quantify physiological amino acids consists in ion exchange chromatography (IEC) followed by post-column ninhydrin derivatization and UV detection at two wavelengths. Unfortunately, the technique presents some drawbacks such as long run time, large sample volume, and specific costs associated to the maintenance of a dedicated instrument. Therefore, we aimed to switch towards a mass spectrometry approach.

  16. Dynamics of human whole body amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of regulation of the nitrogen metabolism in humans under various nutritional and physiological states was examined using stable isotopes. In the simultaneous continuous infusion of 1- [13] - leucine and α- [15N]- lysine, their fluxed decreased when individuals received lower protein intake. The rates of oxidation and incorporation into body proteins of leucine changed in parallel with the protein intake. Such effects of diet on whole body leucine kinetics were modified by the energy state and dietary energy level. The nitrogen balance was also improved by an excess level of dietary energy. When the intake of dietary protein was lowered below the maintenance level, the whole body flux and de novo synthesis of glycine were lowered, but alanine synthesis was clearly increased. The intravenous infusion of glucose at 4 mg/kg.min, which causes increase in excess blood sugar and plasma insulin, increased the alanine flux, but had no effect on the glycine flux. The rate of albumin synthesis, determined by giving 15N-glycine orally every 3 hr, decreased with the lowered intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. This explains why the serum albumin synthesis increases with the increase in the intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. The rate of whole body protein synthesis in young men receiving the L-amino acid diets providing with the required intake of specific amino acid was much lower than that in the men receiving the diets providing with generous intake of specific amino acid. Thus the control mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of body nitrogen and amino acids is related in some unknown way to the nutritional requirement of the hosts. (Kaihara, S.)

  17. SSE: a nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis platform

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an increasing need to develop bioinformatic tools to organise and analyse the rapidly growing amount of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data in organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Finding A simple sequence editor (SSE) was developed to create an integrated environment where sequences can be aligned, annotated, classified and directly analysed by a number of built-in bioinformatic programs. SSE incorporates a sequence editor for the creation of sequenc...

  18. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Edgar P.

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  19. Correlated Mutations: A Hallmark of Phenotypic Amino Acid Substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kowarsch, Andreas; Fuchs, Angelika; Frishman, Dmitrij; Pagel, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Point mutations resulting in the substitution of a single amino acid can cause severe functional consequences, but can also be completely harmless. Understanding what determines the phenotypical impact is important both for planning targeted mutation experiments in the laboratory and for analyzing naturally occurring mutations found in patients. Common wisdom suggests using the extent of evolutionary conservation of a residue or a sequence motif as an indicator of its functional importance an...

  20. Fluoroalkyl chloroformates in treating amino acids for gas chromatographic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Šimek, Petr; Hartvich, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1186, 1/2 (2008), s. 391-400. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0192; GA ČR GA303/06/1674 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : amino acids * derivatization * pentafluoropropyl- and heptafluorobutyl chloroformates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2008

  1. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual ...... and detailed understanding of EAATs be obtained. Thus we encourage collaboration between organic chemists and molecular pharmacologists, who, together, may pave the way for new EAAT ligands of importance....

  2. Computational Design of Multinuclear Metalloproteins Using Unnatural Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, William A; Mills, Jeremy H; Khare, Sagar D

    2016-01-01

    Multinuclear metal ion clusters, coordinated by proteins, catalyze various critical biological redox reactions, including water oxidation in photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Designed metalloproteins featuring synthetic metal clusters would aid in the design of bio-inspired catalysts for various applications in synthetic biology. The design of metal ion-binding sites in a protein chain requires geometrically constrained and accurate placement of several (between three and six) polar and/or charged amino acid side chains for every metal ion, making the design problem very challenging to address. Here, we describe a general computational method to redesign oligomeric interfaces of symmetric proteins for the purpose of creating novel multinuclear metalloproteins with tunable geometries, electrochemical environments, and metal cofactor stability via first and second-shell interactions.The method requires a target symmetric organometallic cofactor whose coordinating ligands resemble the side chains of a natural or unnatural amino acid and a library of oligomeric protein structures featuring the same symmetry as the target cofactor. Geometric interface matches between target cofactor and scaffold are determined using a program that we call symmetric protein recursive ion-cofactor sampler (SyPRIS). First, the amino acid-bound organometallic cofactor model is built and symmetrically aligned to the axes of symmetry of each scaffold. Depending on the symmetry, rigid body and inverse rotameric degrees of freedom of the cofactor model are then simultaneously sampled to locate scaffold backbone constellations that are geometrically poised to incorporate the cofactor. Optionally, backbone remodeling of loops can be performed if no perfect matches are identified. Finally, the identities of spatially proximal neighbor residues of the cofactor are optimized using Rosetta Design. Selected designs can then be produced in the laboratory using genetically incorporated unnatural

  3. The Influence of Clay on the Rate of Decay of Amino Acid Metabolites Synthesized in Soils during Decomposition of Cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1975-01-01

    amounts of labelled amino acid C in the soils were proportional to their content of silt + clay. After 30 days of incubation labelled amino acid C remaining in the soil with the lowest content of silt + clay constituted 6 per cent of the carbon added in cellulose, as compared with 18 per cent in the soil...... increase in the CO2 evolution caused by the treatments in the different soils was, however, not related to the amount of silt + clay, and a high content of this material did not protect organic material against the effect of the treatments. is concluded that the silt + clay fraction ensures stabilization......14C-labelled cellulose was added to seven different soils containing silt + clay (particles <0.02 mm) in amounts which varied from 8 to 75 per cent. The cellulose was allowed to decompose, and the amounts of labelled C transformed into metabolites hydrolyzable into amino acids were determined. The...

  4. Seasonal variations in the amino acid profile and protein nutritional value of Saccharina latissima cultivated in a commercial IMTA system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds have potential for the provision of biomass for food and feed supplements. The demand is increasing especially for proteins as ingredients; however, the amino acid profile is essential for evaluation of the nutritional value of proteins. The year-round protein concentration and amino acid...... Denmark in 2013–2014. Overall, there was no significant difference for the tested parameters between the two sampling sites; however, seasonal variations were found. The protein concentration varied markedly reaching a maximum of 10.8 % dry weight (DW) in November and a minimum of 1.3 % DW in May 2013.......9 % (based on WHO/FAO/UNU requirements) was achieved in November 2013. The presence of epiphytes in July to November changed neither the amino acid content nor the EAA score. S. latissima is comparable with wheat as a protein ingredient for fish feed and appears to be a suitable protein/amino acid source for...

  5. The Synthesis of Some Novel N-[a-(Isoflavone-7-O-)Acetyl ] Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of novel N-[(α)-(isoflavone-7-O-)acetyl] amino acid methyl esters were prepared from the efficient and regioselective alkylation of isoflavones with chloroacetyl amino acid derivatives under mild condition.

  6. In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

  7. Amino acid distance matrices and classifications for different protein secondary structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Guan, S; Zheng, W M; Zhang, Li-mei; Liu, Xin; Guan, Shan; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    2003-01-01

    The property of an amino acid is different according to the variation of protein secondary structure. Each central amino acid corresponds to a position specific amino acid distribution around it. Based on the probability distribution for the central amino acid, we get amino acid distance matrices and classifications for helix, sheet, coil and turn. It is observed that evident discrepancy exists in amino acid distance for different protein secondary structure. Some obvious difference between the distance matrices and blocks substitution matrix(BLOSUM) is found which can tell the difference of amino acid property between in certain protein secondary structure and the whole protein database. The classification of amino acid alphabets for specific protein secondary structure provide a clue for observing these difference.

  8. Synthesis of alkynes and alkynyl iodides bearing a protected amino alcohol moiety as functionalized amino acids precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AYED; Charfedinne; PICARD; Julien; LUBIN-GERMAIN; Nadège; UZIEL; Jacques; AUGE; Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid precursors in protected amino alcohol form are important synthons that can be used as building-blocks for the hemisynthesis of non-natural amino acids.Serine can be used as a common starting material for the synthesis of such compounds differently protected.Particularly,protected amino alcohols bearing an ethynyl and/or an iodoethynyl group can be used in cross-couplings,in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions and/or in Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi type reactions.We thus demonstrated that the efficiently protected amino alcohols derived from serine can be coupled to a sugar derivative by an indium mediated alkynylation reaction.The conditions of this coupling are compatible with such functionalized derivatives and allow envisaging an access to C-glycosylated amino acids.

  9. Effect of amino acids on the interaction between cobalamin(II) and dehydroascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Thi, Thu Thuy Bui; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between one-electron-reduced cobalamin (cobalamin(II), Cb(II)) and the two-electron-oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) with amino acids in an acidic medium is studied by conventional UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the oxidation of Cbl(II) by dehydroascorbic acid proceeds only in the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, acetylcysteine). A proposed reaction mechanism includes the step of amino acid coordination on the Co(II)-center through the sulfur atom, along with that of the interaction between this complex and DHA molecules, which results in the formation of ascorbyl radical and the corresponding Co(III) thiolate complex.

  10. Phase Chemistry of the Complexes of RE Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Forty-three phase diagrams of ternary system concerning rare earth salts, α-amino acids and water, which were constructed by phase equilibrium methods, were expounded. The influences of the factors such as cations, anions, the structure of amino acids, temperature on the phase diagrams were discussed. Under the guidance of phase equilibrium results, over 150 new solid complexes were prepared. IR, reflecting, UV, FS, and Raman spectra for these complexes were investigated and the regularity of “tripartite effect”, “tetrad effect”, “Nephelanxetic effect”, “Oddo-Harkins” was observed. Thermal decomposition processes of the complexes were confirmed. Based on the comparison with the known crystal structures of rare earth-amino acid-complexes, an estimation method for predicting the crystal structure data of series complexes was founded. The constant volume combustion energies of the complexes were determined by RBC-1 type rotating bomb calorimeter. The standard enthalpies of combustion and standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for these complexes.

  11. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  12. Metabolic regulation of amino acid uptake in marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, D.L.; Hodson, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    To determine the relationships among the processes of uptake, intracellular pool formation, and incorporation of amino acids into protein, the authors measured the uptake of dipeptides and free amino acids by bacterial assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of the southeast US. The dipeptide phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (phe-phe) lowered V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake when the turnover rate of phenylalanine was relatively high. When the turnover rate was relatively low, phe-phe either had no effect or increased V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake. An analytical model was developed and tested to measure the turnover time of the intracellular pool of phenylalanine. The results suggested that the size of the intracellular pool is regulated, which precludes high assimilation rates of both phenylalanine and phe-phe. In waters with relatively low phenylalanine turnover rates, bacterial assemblages appear to have a greater capacity to assimilate phenylalanine and phe-phe simultaneously. Marine bacterial assemblages do not substantially increase the apparent respiration of amino acids when concentrations increase. The authors conclude that sustained increases in uptake rates and mineralization by marine bacterial assemblages in response to an increase in the concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen is determined by the rate of protein synthesis.

  13. On the Maillard reaction of meteoritic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Bajagic, Milica; Liesch, Patrick J.; Philip, Ajish; Cody, George D.

    2006-08-01

    We have performed the Maillard reaction of a series of meteoritic amino acids with sugar ribose under simulated prebiotic conditions, in the solid state at 65°C and at the room temperature. Many meteoritic amino acids are highly reactive with ribose, even at the room temperature. We have isolated high molecular weight products that are insoluble in water, and have studied their structure by the IR (infrared) and solid-state C-13 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic methods. The functional groups and their distribution were similar among these products, and were comparable to the previously isolated insoluble organic materials from the Maillard reaction of the common amino acids with ribose. In addition, there were some similarities with the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. Our results suggest that the Maillard products may contribute to the composition of the part of the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. We have also studied the reaction of sodium silicate solution with the Maillard mixtures, to elucidate the process by which the organic compounds are preserved under prebiotic conditions.

  14. Intravenous amino acids in third trimester isolated oligohydramnios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the efficacy of maternal administration of intravenous amino acid solution in improving amniotic fluid volume in cases of isolated oligohydramnios and to observe its impact on mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Study Design: A prospective case series. Methodology: Forty two women with singleton pregnancy, well established gestational age and clinically and sonographically proven isolated oligohydramnios in the third trimester before 36 weeks were administered amino acid solution intravenously after excluding cases of premature rupture of membranes, congenital anomaly of fetus, maternal pulmonary, cardiovascular and hypertensive disorders, and severe placental insufficiency (raised S/D ratio). Pre-infusion and postinfusion Amniotic fluid Index (AFI) was measured and repeated weekly. Women were followed till delivery. Results: According to repeated measurement analysis of variance, mean pre-infusion AFI was 4.7 cm, mean one week postinfusion AFI was 5.8 cm, mean two week post-infusion AFI was 6.2 cm and mean three week AFI was 6.3 cm (p-value 0.029, significant). Cesarean section became a predominant mode of delivery in this group without a firm evidence of associated fetal compromise. Conclusion: Amino acid infusion is an effective therapy for raising AFI in isolated oligohydramnios in this case series. Liberal use of cesarean section in this selected group should be carefully re-evaluated. (author)

  15. Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.

  16. Creatinyl amino acids: new hybrid compounds with neuroprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Sergey; Leko, Maria; Dorosh, Marina; Dobrodumov, Anatoliy; Veselkina, Olga

    2011-09-01

    Prolonged oral creatine administration resulted in remarkable neuroprotection in experimental models of brain stroke. However, because of its polar nature creatine has poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without specific creatine transporter (CRT). Thus, synthesis of hydrophobic derivatives capable of crossing the BBB by alternative pathway is of great importance for the treatment of acute and chronic neurological diseases including stroke, traumatic brain injury and hereditary CRT deficiency. Here we describe synthesis of new hybrid compounds-creatinyl amino acids, their neuroprotective activity in vivo and stability to degradation in different media. The title compounds were synthesized by guanidinylation of corresponding sarcosyl peptides or direct creatine attachment using isobutyl chloroformate method. Addition of lipophilic counterion (p-toluenesulfonate) ensures efficient creatine dissolution in DMF with simultaneous protection of guanidino group towards intramolecular cyclization. It excludes the application of expensive guanidinylating reagents, permits to simplify synthetic procedure and adapt it to large-scale production. The biological activity of creatinyl amino acids was tested in vivo on ischemic stroke and NaNO(2) -induced hypoxia models. One of the most effective compounds-creatinyl-glycine ethyl ester increases life span of experimental animals more than two times in hypoxia model and has neuroprotective action in brain stroke model when applied both before and after ischemia. These data evidenced that creatinyl amino acids can represent promising candidates for the development of new drugs useful in stroke treatment. PMID:21644247

  17. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis amino acid chirality analyzer for extraterrestrial exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, L. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Chiral separations of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amino acids have been performed on a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip to explore the feasibility of using such devices to analyze for extinct or extant life signs in extraterrestrial environments. The test system consists of a folded electrophoresis channel (19.0 cm long x 150 microns wide x 20 microns deep) that was photolithographically fabricated in a 10-cm-diameter glass wafer sandwich, coupled to a laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection apparatus providing subattomole sensitivity. Using a sodium dodecyl sulfate/gamma-cyclodextrin pH 10.0 carbonate electrophoresis buffer and a separation voltage of 550 V/cm at 10 degrees C, baseline resolution was observed for Val, Ala, Glu, and Asp enantiomers and Gly in only 4 min. Enantiomeric ratios were determined for amino acids extracted from the Murchison meteorite, and these values closely matched values determined by HPLC. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems to analyze extraterrestrial samples for amino acids.

  18. A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Minako, E-mail: hirano37@gpi.ac.jp [Bio Photonics Laboratory, The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu Nishi-ku Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Okuno, Daichi, E-mail: dokuno@riken.jp [Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Onishi, Yukiko, E-mail: yonishi@riken.jp [Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Ide, Toru, E-mail: ide@okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka Kita-ku Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • pH-dependent gating of the KcsA channel is regulated by the CPD. • E146 is the most essential amino acid for pH sensing by the KcsA. • The protonated-mimicking mutant, E146Q, is constitutively open independent of pH. • Minimal rearrangement of the CPD is sufficient for opening of the KcsA. - Abstract: The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel.

  19. Amino acid sequences of predicted proteins and their annotation for 95 organism species. - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gclust Server Amino acid sequences of predicted proteins and their annotation for 95 organism species. Data ...detail Data name Amino acid sequences of predicted proteins and their annotation for 95 organism species. De...scription of data contents Amino acid sequences of predicted proteins and their a...nnotation for 95 organism species. The data are given in a CSV format text file. Data file File name: gclust...tation in original database Annotation at the original website Species Species name Length Amino acid sequen

  20. A Facile Method for Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Shuo; LI,Lei; ZHANG,Zhi-Hui; XU,Peng-Fei

    2004-01-01

    @@ β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids are an important class of amino acids due to their inherent biological investigations[1] and as structural components of more complex biomolecules.[2] β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids have been used as intermediates in the asymmetric synthesis of other compounds.[3] An efficient and convenient concise method for the preparation of optically pure enantiomers of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids would be of general interest.

  1. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  2. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G.

    2015-08-18

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  3. AMINO ACIDS PROFILE OF THE LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEED TREATED WITH CELLULASE-FREE LIGNOLYTIC MUTANTS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Lakshmi Chalamcherla

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining and quantifying amino acid requirements will become an important consideration in the next generation of feeding schemes for dairy cattle beyond the current emphasis on identification of limiting amino acids. In this context different amino acid profiles of untreated, urea treated, fungal treated, and urea plus fungal treated lignocellulosic feed by both P. ostreatus wild and its two cellulase-minus/ less lignolytic mutants were analyzed. Cellulase-free mutant strains were obtained after 20 minutes of exposure to UV light and 0.4 seconds to X-rays. A UV mutant of P. ostreatus (POM1 exhibited better performance than the X-ray mutant (POM2 in terms of production of less cellulolytic and more lignolytic enzymes. Urea treatment of straw enhanced the total amino acid content by less than a factor of two, while the fungal treatment improved it by 13-14 times. Fungal treatment of urea-treated straw improved the total amino acid content by a factor of 15, indicating the importance of urea in the straw. Further, the fungal treatment of urea-treated straw enhanced the quantity of amino acids such as glutamine, glycine, aspergine, etc. by 15-20 times. The quantity of limiting amino acids such as methionine, lysine, and histidine was also enhanced by 8 to 10 times through the fungal treatment. Maximum amounts of all the amino acids were found in urea plus fungal (POM1 treated paddy straw than in only fungal treated and only urea treated paddy straws.

  4. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  5. Finding coevolving amino acid residues using row and column weighting of mutual information and multi-dimensional amino acid representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Anders G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some amino acid residues functionally interact with each other. This interaction will result in an evolutionary co-variation between these residues – coevolution. Our goal is to find these coevolving residues. Results We present six new methods for detecting coevolving residues. Among other things, we suggest measures that are variants of Mutual Information, and measures that use a multidimensional representation of each residue in order to capture the physico-chemical similarities between amino acids. We created a benchmarking system, in silico, able to evaluate these methods through a wide range of realistic conditions. Finally, we use the combination of different methods as a way of improving performance. Conclusion Our best method (Row and Column Weighed Mutual Information has an estimated accuracy increase of 63% over Mutual Information. Furthermore, we show that the combination of different methods is efficient, and that the methods are quite sensitive to the different conditions tested.

  6. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  7. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: cobbak@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Origins Institute, McMaster University, ABB 241, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  8. Patterns of amino acid metabolism by proliferating human mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera, G.A.; Schop, D.; Spitters, T.W.; Dijkhuizen, R.; Bracke, M.; Bruijn, J.D.; Martens, D.E.; Karperien, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of stem cells have not been determined; in particular, the amino acid metabolism of stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the amino acid metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), with focus on two questions: Which amino acids are consume

  9. Transition Metal–α-Amino Acid Complexes with Antibiotic Activity against Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Karpin, George W.; Merola, Joseph S.; Joseph O. Falkinham

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic iridium-, rhodium-, and ruthenium-amino acid complexes with hydrophobic l-amino acids have antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium spp., including Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the rapidly growing species Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae. Concentrations of transition metal-amino acid complexes demonstrating hemolysis or cytotoxicity were 10- to 25-fold higher than were the MICs.

  10. Identification of amino acids in Securigera securidaca, a popular medicinal herb in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Sadat-Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dorfl grows in different parts of Iran. The seeds of the species are used in Iranian folk medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. Many studies have established hypoglycemic effects of amino acids and in the present investigation, amino acids of Securigera securidaca seeds have been evaluated. The ground seeds were extracted using petroleum ether, hot ethanol and ethanol 50%, respectively. ethanol 50% extract was chromatographed over cation exchanging resin and the resulting amino acid fraction was subjected to HPLC after OPA derivatization and the amino acids were identified by comparing to standards. The results evidenced the presence of 19 amino acids in the plant extract including alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, citrulline, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Considering the role of some amino acids in diabetes the above amino acids could be noted as hypoglycemic agents of the plant seeds but further studies are necessary.

  11. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids. PMID:27033536

  12. Amino acid sequences used for clusterintg (Multi FASTA format) - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gclust Server Amino acid sequences used for clusterintg (Multi FASTA format) Data detail Data name Amino acid sequences use... Site Policy | Contact Us Amino acid sequences used for clusterintg (Multi FASTA format) - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  14. Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Höynck, F.; Roberts, J M

    2008-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasi...

  15. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  16. Determination of 13C and 18O isotopic abundances of carboxyl substances; application to amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash pyrolysis of organic acids or of their salts gives off carbon dioxide which can be analysed by mass spectrometry for 13C and 18O abundance. This principle has been applied to Cd13C18O3 using an induction furnace, and used to determine the 13C and 18O content of the carboxylic group of some amino acids. The technique described has many advantages over the classical pyrolysis methods using sealed tubes. It is rapid and simple and especially effective in determining the isotopic composition of hygroscopic carboxyl substances. (U.K.)

  17. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2016-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C(18) column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)-acetonitrile-methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3-100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32-9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  18. Measuring and modeling aqueous electrolyte/amino-acid solutions with ePC-SAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Amino-acid solubilities and osmotic coefficients in ternary solutions containing one amino acids and one salt measured. • Weak salt influence on amino-acid solubilities except for salts containing Mg[2+] or NO3[−] (salting-in behavior). • Osmotic coefficients dominated by the solute with the highest molality. • Amino-acid solubilities and osmotic coefficients predicted reasonably with ePC-SAFT with deviations of 3.7% and 9.3%. • Predictions based on pure-component parameters for ions and amino acids using no ion/amino-acid fitting parameters. -- Abstract: In this work thermodynamic properties of electrolyte/amino acid/water solutions were measured and modeled. Osmotic coefficients at 298.15 K were measured by means of vapor-pressure osmometry. Amino-acid solubility at 298.15 K was determined gravimetrically. Considered aqueous systems contained one of the four amino acids: glycine, L-/DL-alanine, L-/DL-valine, and L-proline up to the respective amino-acid solubility limit and one of 13 salts composed of the ions Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3−, and SO42− at salt molalities of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mol · kg−1, respectively. The data show that the salt influence is more pronounced on osmotic coefficients than on amino-acid solubility. The electrolyte Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Theory (ePC-SAFT) was applied to model thermodynamic properties in aqueous electrolyte/amino-acid solutions. In previous works, this model had been applied to binary salt/water and binary amino acid/water systems. Without fitting any additional parameters, osmotic coefficients and amino-acid solubility in the ternary electrolyte/amino acid/water systems could be predicted with overall deviations of 3.7% and 9.3%, respectively, compared to the experimental data

  19. [Effect of proteolysis inhibitors on the incorporation of labelled amino acids into proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikova, A S; Korotkina, R N

    1975-01-01

    Role of peptide bond breaks in the incorporation of amino acids into proteins in a "protein--amino acid" system is investigated. For this purpose the incorporation of labelled amino acids into trypsin under the inhibition of its autolysis by a specific inhibitor from soybean and epsilon-amino-caproic acid is studied. The trypsin inhibitor from soybean is found to suppress considerably the incorporation of 14C-glycine, 14C-lysine and 14C-methionine into crystal trypsin and not to affect the incorporation of labelled amino acids into chomotrypsin, papain and carboxypeptidase. Epsilon-Aminocaproic acid inhibited 14C-glycine incorporation into crystal trypsin by 40% and did not change its incorporation level into serum albumin. The dependency of amino acid incorporation level into trypsin on the activity of autolysis in the "protein--amino acid" system is demonstrated. PMID:1212456

  20. ANALYSIS OF FREE AMINO ACIDS AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN THE BULL MUSCULUS THORACIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, changes of pH, free amino acids and biogenic amines during aging of beef Musculus thoracis during maturation were analysed. The parameters were analysed 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after slaughtering. The value of pH was 24 hours after slaughtering 5.6 and 48 hours similar 5.57, following the first week increased (pH 5.89 and decreased after the second week and in the third week reached 6.20 pH. During the 3 weeks ripening of meat, we found statistically significant (P ≤0.01 differences only in spermidine content. Spermine content was significantly increased (P ≤0.05 from 20.05 mg.kg-1 to 48.27 mg.kg-1. Free amino acids histamine not significant increased from 0.04 to 0.86 mg.kg-1, also content of free amino acids ornithine increased from 0.02 to 0.37 mg.kg-1 at the end of ripening. The putrescine content was 24 hours after slaughter 1.11 mg.kg-1 and at 21th day of the experiment was non significantly higher of 9.28 mg.kg-1. Spermidine content significantly (P ≤0.01 increased from 2.04 to 9.91 mg.kg-1 and spermine significantly increased (P ≤0.05 from 20.05 to 48.27 mg.kg-1 on the 21th day of the experiment.